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Sample records for vibrational combination level

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  2. Overtone vibrational spectroscopy in H2-H2O complexes: a combined high level theoretical ab initio, dynamical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, Michael P; Pluetzer, Christian; Nesbitt, David J; Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; van der Avoird, Ad

    2012-08-28

    First results are reported on overtone (v(OH) = 2 ← 0) spectroscopy of weakly bound H(2)-H(2)O complexes in a slit supersonic jet, based on a novel combination of (i) vibrationally mediated predissociation of H(2)-H(2)O, followed by (ii) UV photodissociation of the resulting H(2)O, and (iii) UV laser induced fluorescence on the nascent OH radical. In addition, intermolecular dynamical calculations are performed in full 5D on the recent ab initio intermolecular potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)] in order to further elucidate the identity of the infrared transitions detected. Excellent agreement is achieved between experimental and theoretical spectral predictions for the most strongly bound van der Waals complex consisting of ortho (I = 1) H(2) and ortho (I = 1) H(2)O (oH(2)-oH(2)O). Specifically, two distinct bands are seen in the oH(2)-oH(2)O spectrum, corresponding to internal rotor states in the upper vibrational manifold of Σ and Π rotational character. However, none of the three other possible nuclear spin modifications (pH(2)-oH(2)O, pH(2)-pH(2)O, or oH(2)-pH(2)O) are observed above current signal to noise level, which for the pH(2) complexes is argued to arise from displacement by oH(2) in the expansion mixture to preferentially form the more strongly bound species. Direct measurement of oH(2)-oH(2)O vibrational predissociation in the time domain reveals lifetimes of 15(2) ns and <5(2) ns for the Σ and Π states, respectively. Theoretical calculations permit the results to be interpreted in terms of near resonant energy levels and intermolecular alignment of the H(2) and H(2)O wavefunctions, providing insight into predissociation dynamical pathways from these metastable levels.

  3. Psychophysical assessment of sinusoidal whole-body vibration in z-axis between 0.6 and 5 Hz combined with different noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, H; Richter, J; Kurerov, N N; Schajpak, E J; Blüthner, R; Erdmann, U; Hinz, B

    1989-01-01

    Nine healthy sitting males evaluated the intensity of vertical whole-body vibration (WBV) in z-axis at four frequencies (F1 = 0.63 Hz, F2 = 1.25 Hz, F3 = 2.5 Hz, F4 = 5 Hz) and two intensities (I1 = 1 ms-2 rms, I2 = 2 ms-2 rms) by cross-modality matching (CMM). The subjects were simultaneously exposed to low-frequency noise at two levels (L1 = 65 dBA, L2 = 86 dBA). L1 and L2 were context conditions which did not have to be evaluated by CMM. The results indicate a flat response between F2 and F3; the sensitivity increases towards F1. Different exponents of Stevens' power law for the frequencies of WBV contradict the frequency range tested to be a sensory continuum. L2 caused practically significantly stronger sensations of the WBV-intensity from F1 to F3 (I1) and at F2 (I2). No synergistic effect of noise and WBV was shown at F3I2. Weighting factors were calculated for all exposure conditions using Stevens' power law. The weighting of F2 and F3 contradicts that of the International Standard ISO 2631-1985 (E). The results enable recommendations for the frequency weighting of WBV between 0.63 and 1 Hz, as well as for the equivalence of noise and WBV with combined exposure.

  4. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  5. Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.

    2017-05-01

    A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.

  6. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of façade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration.

  7. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  8. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  9. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  10. Acceleration/vibration combined environment activities. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The combining of two environments, i.e., linear acceleration and vibration, for use in laboratory testing to determine the damage to some mechanical devices when simultaneously subjected to these two environments, is discussed. The use of a Genisco centrifuge with an Unholtz-Dickie vibration machine mounted on it is described. Initial efforts at operating a shaker on the centrifuge have not been completely successful, so modifications to the system are being made

  11. Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Morihara, Takashi; Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi

    2017-07-27

    The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway.

  12. Effect of vibrational states on nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2007-01-01

    Simple methods to calculate a vibrational enhancement factor of a nuclear level density with allowance for damping of collective state are considered. The results of the phenomenological approach and the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model are compared. The practical method of calculation of a vibrational enhancement factor and level density parameters is recommended

  13. Experimental vibration level analysis of a Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucur, D M; Dunca, G; Calinoiu, C

    2012-01-01

    In this study the vibration level of a Francis turbine is investigated by experimental work in site. Measurements are carried out for different power output values, in order to highlight the influence of the operation regimes on the turbine behavior. The study focuses on the turbine shaft to identify the mechanical vibration sources and on the draft tube in order to identify the hydraulic vibration sources. Analyzing the vibration results, recommendations regarding the operation of the turbine, at partial load close to minimum values, in the middle of the operating domain or close to maximum values of electric power, can be made in order to keep relatively low levels of vibration. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the real sources of the vibrations.

  14. Influence of Drive Level on the Fundamental Vibrator Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Faber, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this abstract we show the influence of vibrator drive level on the signal it produces. For that purpose a field survey was carried out using an INOVA's AHV-IV vehicle with a modified 266kN (60.000 lbf) vibrator. A single linear sweep was repeated at 10 different drive levels ranging from 5 to 90% at two locations. Each drive level was repeated 10 times and each run was repeated twice per location. In total 400 sweeps were carried out. From this data set we conclude that; the vibrator signa...

  15. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  16. EFFECT OF VIBRATION AND HEAT COMBINATION ON PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hoseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dysmenorrhoea is a common, idiopathic, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with unknown aetiology which ‎about 50% of women with regular menstrual period suffer. This study was designed to determine the effect of vibration and heat on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 75 female students aged 18-22 years old were evaluated for two menstrual cycles. At the first cycle the participants received the routine pain-relief method (synthetic or herbal medicine and traditional remedies. At the second cycle for each participant combined vibration-heat device was applied for ten minutes during ‎menstrual pain. The average of perceived leg pain, lumbar pain and abdominal pain scores at two cycles were determined. The data were analyzed based on Wilcoxon and T tests by using SPSS (v 16.0 for Windows. Results: The average of all perceived pain scores at two cycles were significantly different before pain relief and after both routine methods and using the device (p<0.001. Those were more significantly reduced after using the device in comparison of using routine methods (p<0.001. Conclusion: Since “vibration-heat” is an effective pain relief method, it can be used as a complementary alternative medicine in primary dysmenorrhea reduction.

  17. A new vibrational level of the H2+ molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, J.; Lazauskas, R.; Delande, D.; Hilico, L.; Kilic, S.; Hilico, L.; Kilic, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new vibrational level of the molecular ion H 2 + with binding energy of 1.09 x 10 -9 a.u. ∼ 30 neV below the first dissociation limit is predicted, using highly accurate numerical non-relativistic quantum calculations, which go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is the first-excited vibrational level v=1 of the 2pσ u electronic state, antisymmetric with respect to the exchange of the two protons, with orbital angular momentum L=0. It manifests itself as a huge p - H scattering length of a = 750 ± 5 Bohr radii. (authors)

  18. Coherent excitation of vibrational levels using ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, LE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available population in a specific vibrational level. We used two approaches to do this, in the one model we used Von Neumann’s equations and the other the Optical Bloch equations (OBE’s). In this poster presentation the Optical Bloch model was used to do...

  19. Simultaneous rotational and vibrational CARS generation through a multiple-frequency combination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, M.; Bengtsson, P.E.; Edner, H.

    1987-01-01

    One most promising laser technique for probing combustion processes is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), which due to its coherent nature and signal strength is applied in several real-world applications. Until today almost all CARS experiments are based on probing the population of molecular vibrational energy levels. However, there are several reasons rotational CARS, i.e. probing of rotational energy levels, may provide a complement to or even a better choice than vibrational CARS. Recently an alternative way to produce rotational CARS spectra is proposed, which is based on a multiple-frequency combination technique. The energy-level diagram for this process is presented. Two dye laser beams at ω/sub r/, and one fix frequency laser beam at ω/sub g/ are employed. ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ are two frequencies of many possible pairs with a frequency difference matching a rotational transition in a molecule. The excitation induced by ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ is then scattered by the narrowband ω/sub g/ beam resulting in a CARS beam ω/sub g/ at ω/sub g/ + ω/sub r,1/ - ω/sub r,2/. An interesting feature with this technique is that it is possible to generate simultaneously a rotational and vibrational CARS spectrum by using a double-folded boxcars phase matching approach. The authors believe that the proposed technique for producing rotational and vibration CARS spectra could be of interest, e.g., when measuring in highly turbulent flows. In this case the rotational CARS spectra could use for temperature measurements in the cooler parts, whereas vibrational CARS are to be preferred when measuring in the hotter parts

  20. The performance of a piezoelectric-sensor-based SHM system under a combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing, Xinlin P; Beard, Shawn J; Kumar, Amrita; Sullivan, Kevin; Aguilar, Robert; Merchant, Munir; Taniguchi, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests have been conducted to determine the survivability and functionality of a piezoelectric-sensor-based active structural health monitoring (SHM) SMART Tape system under the operating conditions of typical liquid rocket engines such as cryogenic temperature and vibration loads. The performance of different piezoelectric sensors and a low temperature adhesive under cryogenic temperature was first investigated. The active SHM system for liquid rocket engines was exposed to flight vibration and shock environments on a simulated large booster LOX-H 2 engine propellant duct conditioned to cryogenic temperatures to evaluate the physical robustness of the built-in sensor network as well as operational survivability and functionality. Test results demonstrated that the developed SMART Tape system can withstand operational levels of vibration and shock energy on a representative rocket engine duct assembly, and is functional under the combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environment

  1. Combined effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Shoja, Esmaeil; Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Shoja, Mohsen; Gharaee, Masoumeh; Asgari, Amin

    2018-03-12

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting, as well as their combined effect on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time in laboratory conditions. 44 men were recruited with an average age of 25.4 ± 1.9 years. Each participant was subjected to 12 experimental steps, each step lasting five minutes for four different vibration accelerations in X, Y, and Z axes at a fixed frequency; three different lighting intensities of 50, 500, and 1000 lx were also considered. At each step, a visual computerized reaction test was taken from subjects and their heart rate recorded by pulse oximeter. In addition, the discomfort rate of subjects was measured using Borg scale. Increasing vibration acceleration significantly increased the discomfort rate and heart beat but not the reaction time. Lack of lighting caused more discomfort in the subjects, but there was no significant correlation between lighting intensity with heart rate and reaction time. The results also showed that the combined effect of vibration and lighting had no significant effect on any of the discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time variables. Whole-body vibration is an important factor in the development of human subjective and physiological reactions compared to lighting. Therefore, consideration of the level of vibration to which an individual is exposed in workplaces subject to vibration plays an important role in reducing the level of human discomfort, but its interaction with ambient lighting does not have a significant effect on human subjective and physiological responses.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of a Combined Stress-Vibration Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Lin, Qijing; Jiang, Zhuangde; Zhao, Na; Tian, Bian; Shi, Peng; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2018-03-01

    A combined stress-vibration sensor was developed to measure stress and vibration simultaneously based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. The sensor is composed of two FBGs and a stainless steel plate with a special design. The two FBGs sense vibration and stress and the sensor can realize temperature compensation by itself. The stainless steel plate can significantly increase sensitivity of vibration measurement. Theoretical analysis and Finite Element Method (FEM) were used to analyze the sensor's working mechanism. As demonstrated with analysis, the obtained sensor has working range of 0-6000 Hz for vibration sensing and 0-100 MPa for stress sensing, respectively. The corresponding sensitivity for vibration is 0.46 pm/g and the resulted stress sensitivity is 5.94 pm/MPa, while the nonlinearity error for vibration and stress measurement is 0.77% and 1.02%, respectively. Compared to general FBGs, the vibration sensitivity of this sensor is 26.2 times higher. Therefore, the developed sensor can be used to concurrently detect vibration and stress. As this sensor has height of 1 mm and weight of 1.15 g, it is beneficial for minimization and integration.

  3. Combined isometric and vibration training does not enhance strength beyond that of isometric training alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Van-Dongen, M; Sutherland, R

    2015-09-01

    Research considering combined vibration and strength training is extensive yet results are equivocal. However, to date there appears no research which has considered the combination of both direct vibration and whole-body vibration when used in an isometric deadlift position. The aim of this study was to compare groups performing isometric training with and without direct and whole-body vibration. Twenty four participants (19-24 years) were randomly divided into: isometric training with vibration (ST+VT: N.=8), isometric training without vibration (ST: N.=8), and control (CON: N.=8). Within the training groups participants trained twice per week, for 6 weeks, performing 6-sets of maximal isometric deadlift contractions, increasing in duration from 30 seconds to 40 seconds (weeks 1-6). Hip and knee angle was maintained at 60° and 110°, respectively for both testing and training. Training sessions for ST+VT were identical to ST with the addition of a direct vibratory stimulus through hand-held straps and whole-body vibration via standing on vibration a platform. The amplitude remained constant (2 mm) throughout the intervention whilst the frequency increased from 35Hz to 50Hz. Pre- and post-test isometric strength was measured using an isometric deadlift dynamometer. Results revealed significant increases in isometric strength for both ST+VT (Pstrength training.

  4. Orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes from combined experimental and theoretical sum frequency spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Hilary M.; Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Upshur, Mary Alice; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan J.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Batista, Victor S.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2017-09-01

    Inferring molecular orientations from vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra is challenging in polarization combinations that result in low signal intensities, or when the local point group symmetry approximation fails. While combining experiments with density functional theory (DFT) could overcome this problem, the scope of the combined method has yet to be established. Here, we assess its feasibility of determining the distributions of molecular orientations for one monobasic ester, two epoxides and three alcohols at the vapor/fused silica interface. We find that molecular orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes cannot be determined using polarization-resolved SFG measurements alone.

  5. Combined effects of noise, vibration, and low temperature on the physiological parameters of labor employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Chiang Chao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise, vibration, and low temperature render specific occupational hazards to labor employees. The purpose of this research was to investigate the combined effects of these three physical hazards on employees' physiological parameters. The Taguchi experimental method was used to simulate different exposure conditions caused by noise, vibration, and low temperature, and their effects on the physiological parameters of the test takers were measured. The data were then analyzed using statistical methods to evaluate the combined effects of these three factors on human health. Results showed that the factor that influenced the finger skin temperature, manual dexterity, and mean artery pressure (MAP most was air temperature, and exposure time was the second most influential factor. Noise was found to be the major factor responsible for hearing loss; in this case, hand–arm vibration and temperature had no effect at all. During the study, the temperature was confined in the 5–25°C range (which was not sufficient to study the effects at extremely high- and low-temperature working conditions because the combined effects of even two factors were very complicated. For example, the combined effects of hand–arm vibration and low temperature might lead to occupational hazards such as vibration-induced white finger syndrome in working labors. Further studies concerning the occupational damage caused by the combined effects of hazardous factors need to be conducted in the future.

  6. Prediction of blast vibration level considered propagation characteristics; Denpa tokusei to koryoshita happa shindo level no yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunimatsu, S; Jinguji, M [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamada, M; Hirai, T [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan); Durucan, S; Farsangi, M

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to assess environmental influence induced by blast vibration, a study has been carried out on a method to predict vibration levels. The study has discussed a method to calculate vibration levels, in which vibration propagating characteristics are sought on blast vibration generated from an open-cut limestone mine from acceleration waveforms in the vicinity of the blast source and residential housings by using an octave analysis, and waveforms are predicted. The shortest straight line distance from the blast position to a housing is about 150 m, and the height difference is about 30 to 40 meters. The measuring instruments include a vibration level meter used for pollution measurement and a data recorder, with signals lower than 1 Hz and higher than 90 Hz being interrupted. The environmental influence assessment discusses not only the maximum value of the vibration level, but also sizes of values of each band by using a frequency analysis. The result of the discussions revealed that the prediction of the vibration levels is little affected by phase characteristics, and that no problems are caused in the measurement accuracy even if the vibration levels are predicted by using relative decay amount according to a one-third octave analysis for the propagation characteristics. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Bony vibration stimulation test combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Can discography be replaced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Kurunlahti, M; Vanharanta, H

    1997-04-01

    The results of two noninvasive methods, magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration test, were compared with discographic pain provocation findings. To evaluate whether the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and vibration pain provocation tests could be used to replace discography in low back pain diagnostics. Magnetic resonance imaging gives a wealth of visual information on anatomic changes of the spine with often unknown clinical significance. Discographic examination of the spine is still the only widely accepted diagnostic method that can relate the pathoanatomic changes to the patient's clinical pain. Internal anular rupture has been shown to be one of the sources of back pain. The bony vibration test of the spinal processes has been shown correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular rupture. The three lowest lumbar discs of 33 patients with back pain were examined by means of magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration stimulation test, and the results were compared with those from computed tomography-discography. In cases of intradiscal magnetic resonance imaging findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.50 compared with the discographic pain provocation test. If the patients with previous back surgery were excluded, the specificity was 0.75. In the cases of total anular rupture, the sensitivity was 0.50, and the specificity was 0.33. The combination of the two noninvasive methods, vibration stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging, gives more information on the origin of the back pain than magnetic resonance imaging alone. The pathoanatomic changes seen in magnetic resonance imaging can be correlated with the patient's disorder more reliably using the vibration provocation test in the cases of partial anular ruptures. The use of discography can be limited mostly to cases with total anular ruptures detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  9. A combined dynamic analysis method for geometrically nonlinear vibration isolators with elastic rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie

    2016-08-01

    A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.

  10. Combined Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration and Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Monocrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Defu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic elliptical vibration assisted chemical mechanical polishing(UEV-CMP is employed to achieve high material removal rate and high surface quality in the finishing of hard and brittle materials such as monocrystalline silicon, which combines the functions of conventional CMP and ultrasonic machining. In theultrasonic elliptical vibration aided chemical mechanical polishingexperimental setup developed by ourselves, the workpiece attached at the end of horn can vibrate simultaneously in both horizontal and vertical directions. Polishing experiments are carried out involving monocrystalline silicon to confirm the performance of the proposed UEV-CMP. The experimental results reveal that the ultrasonic elliptical vibration can increase significantly the material removal rate and reduce dramatically the surface roughness of monocrystalline silicon. It is found that the removal rate of monocrystalline silicon polished by UEV-CMP is increased by approximately 110% relative to that of conventional CMP because a passive layer on the monocrystalline silicon surface, formed by the chemical action of the polishing slurry, will be removed not only by the mechanical action of CMP but also by ultrasonic vibration action. It indicates that the high efficiency and high quality CMP of monocrystalline silicon can be performed with the proposed UEV-CMP technique.

  11. Noise-induced hearing loss and combined noise and vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, A; Girard, S A; Courteau, M; Baril, J; Larocque, R

    2015-04-01

    While there is a wide body of literature addressing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) independently, relatively few studies have considered the combined effects of noise and vibration. These studies have suggested an increased risk of NIHL in workers with vibration white finger (VWF), though the relationship remains poorly understood. To determine whether hearing impairment is worse in noise-exposed workers with VWF than in workers with similar noise exposures but without VWF. The Quebec National Institute of Public Health audiometric database was used in conjunction with work-related accident and occupational diseases data from the Quebec workers' compensation board to analyse differences in audiometry results between vibration-exposed workers in the mining and forestry industries and the overall source population, and between mining and forestry workers with documented VWF and those without VWF. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7029 standards were used to calculate hearing loss not attributable to age. 15751 vibration-exposed workers were identified in an overall source population of 59339. Workers with VWF (n = 96) had significantly worse hearing at every frequency studied (500, 1000, 2000 4000 Hz) compared with other mining and forestry workers without VWF. This study confirms previous findings of greater hearing loss at higher frequencies in workers with VWF, but also found a significant difference in hearing loss at low frequencies. It therefore supports the association between combined noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure and NIHL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove

    2011-01-01

    In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...

  13. [The influence of vibration training in combination with general magnetotherapy on dynamics of performance efficiency in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, A A; Volchkova, O A; Voronitskiĭ, N E

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of a combined treatment including vibrostimulation and magnetotherapy on the working capacity of athletes. Participants of the study were 8 male judo wrestlers. It was shown that implementation of a specialized training program comprising seances of vibration loading and general magnetotherapy 40 and 60 min in duration respectively during 3 consecutive days produced marked beneficial effect on the hormonal status of the athletes. Specifically, the three-day long treatment resulted in a significant increase of blood cortisol and testosterone levels considered to be an objective sign of improved performance parameters in athletes engaged in strength and speed sports. The optimal length of vibration training during 3 days of specialized training is estimated at 20 to 40 minutes supplemented by general magnetotherapy for 60 minutes.

  14. STUDY OF THE VIBRATION LEVEL IN CASE OF MANUFACTURING ON A CNC MACHINE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Călin ROȘCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed on a CNC machine tool type ISEL-GFV considering the vibration level developed during the manufacturing of different pieces of particleboard at six processing regimes. There were recorded signals on both time and frequency domains on the three main directions. Based on recorded data there are presented the main conclusions referring to the level of vibrations and the frequencies associated to the highest levels.

  15. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bryan A.; Wilkerson, Delisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data fiom two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMC-IRA design has completed all engineering and deliverable unit testing. P

  16. Enhancing Bone Accretion Using Short Duration, Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judex, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    .... In this second annual report, data are presented that indicate that the efficacy of extremely low-level whole-body mechanical vibrations can be enhanced by altering the number of daily loading...

  17. Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry; Pachuilo, Michael; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-01-01

    The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron

  18. Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-09-08

    The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron-neutral collisions as well as the super-elastic collisions between electrons and excited species. We observe an efficient population of only the first two levels of the symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of CO2 by means of a fast ionization wave. The excitation of other higher vibrational modes by the fast ionization wave is inefficient. Additionally, we observe a strong influence of the secondary electron emission on the population of vibrational states of CO2. This effect is associated with the kinetics of high energy electrons generated in the cathode sheath.

  19. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  20. Surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations

  1. Prediction of vibration level in tunnel blasting; Tonneru kusshin happa ni yotte reiki sareru shindo no reberu yosoku ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, A. [Kumamoto Industries Univ, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, C. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, K. [Hokkaido Univ (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    For avoiding the generation of public hazard due to ground vibration causes by blasting in tunneling, it is important to devise a blasting method for ensuring the level of the ground vibration caused thereby under a limit, and an exact predication of ground vibration before blasting is desirable. In this study, the characteristics of the ground vibration caused by tunnel blasting are analyzed, and a summary of amplitude spectra calculating method is described. A theoretical analysis method for predicting the vibration level is proposed based on spectrum-multiplicative method. Vibration caused by multistage blasting in tunneling is most strong and deemed as important. When observing the process of elastic wave motion caused by multistage blasting being measured, the process can be divided into three element processes in frequency area as vibration source spectrum, transmission attenuation spectrum and frequency response function vibrating test, and, with the multiplication of them, the amplitude spectra at an observation portion can be estimated. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Characterization of Friction Joints Subjected to High Levels of Random Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSantos, Omar; MacNeal, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the test program in detail including test sample description, test procedures, and vibration test results of multiple test samples. The material pairs used in the experiment were Aluminum-Aluminum, Aluminum- Dicronite coated Aluminum, and Aluminum-Plasmadize coated Aluminum. Levels of vibration for each set of twelve samples of each material pairing were gradually increased until all samples experienced substantial displacement. Data was collected on 1) acceleration in all three axes, 2) relative static displacement between vibration runs utilizing photogrammetry techniques, and 3) surface galling and contaminant generation. This data was used to estimate the values of static friction during random vibratory motion when "stick-slip" occurs and compare these to static friction coefficients measured before and after vibration testing.

  3. Effects of music in combination with vibration in acupuncture points on the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Augusto; Werneck, Lineu; Paiva, Eduardo; Gans, Paulo

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disease that causes widespread pain and increased sensitivity to pain because of a dysfunction in the central nervous system. This study investigated the effect of music combined with vibration on acupuncture points for the treatment of FM. A total of 120 patients with FM were allocated randomly to four groups (30 patients each). One group listened to a sequence of Bach's compositions. The second group was subjected to vibratory stimuli on a combination of acupuncture points on the skin. The third group (complete) underwent both procedures in a simultaneous and synchronized manner, with inclusion of binaural beats. The fourth group (control) received no stimulation. The participants underwent the experimental procedure during five sessions performed on alternate days. They were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) before the first session and after the last session (20 days). All groups showed a significant improvement in FIQ and HAQ scores at the evaluation after the intervention. The complete group exhibited the best result on both the FIQ and HAQ (p<0.001), and the improvement in HAQ score was significant (p<0.004). The results suggest that the placebo effect in FM may be substantial. However, comparison between groups revealed that the complete group had the greatest reduction in both FIQ and HAQ, with a significant improvement in HAQ, suggesting that the combined use of music and vibration exerts a greater effect on FM symptoms.

  4. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  5. Does combined strength training and local vibration improve isometric maximum force? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Ruben; Haddad, Monoem; Kleinöder, Heinz; Yue, Zengyuan; Heinen, Thomas; Mester, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a combination of strength training (ST) and local vibration (LV) improved the isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. ST was applied to the left arm of the subjects; LV was applied to the right arm of the same subjects. The main aim was to examine the effect of LV during a dumbbell biceps curl (Scott Curl) on isometric maximum force of the opposite muscle among the same subjects. It is hypothesized, that the intervention with LV produces a greater gain in isometric force of the arm flexors than ST. Twenty-seven collegiate students participated in the study. The training load was 70% of the individual 1 RM. Four sets with 12 repetitions were performed three times per week during four weeks. The right arm of all subjects represented the vibration trained body side (VS) and the left arm served as the traditional trained body side (TTS). A significant increase of isometric maximum force in both body sides (Arms) occurred. VS, however, significantly increased isometric maximum force about 43% in contrast to 22% of the TTS. The combined intervention of ST and LC improves isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. III.

  6. Assements of Level of Comfort on a Vibrating Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    on the floor are asked to rate the level of discomfort on a scale from 1 to 10, and to assess the size of floor displacement (the initial amplitude of the decay). Tests are carried out with different numbers of people present on the test floor, and with different initial amplitudes of the decay. The paper...

  7. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  8. Efficient cooling of quantized vibrations using a four-level configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Feng, Mang

    2016-12-01

    Cooling vibrational degrees of freedom down to ground states is essential to observation of quantum properties of systems with mechanical vibration. We propose two cooling schemes employing four internal levels of the systems, which achieve the ground-state cooling in an efficient fashion by completely deleting the carrier and first-order blue-sideband transitions. The schemes, based on quantum interference and Stark-shift gates, are robust to fluctuations of laser intensity and frequency. The feasibility of the schemes is justified using current laboratory technology. In practice, our proposal readily applies to a nanodiamond nitrogen-vacancy center levitated in an optical trap or attached to a cantilever.

  9. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  10. Combined IR-Raman vs vibrational sum-frequency heterospectral correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Beutier, Clémentine; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is a valuable probe of surface structure, particularly when the same molecules are present in one of the adjacent bulk solid or solution phases. As a result of the non-centrosymmetric requirement of SFG, the signal generated is a marker of the extent to which the molecules are ordered in an arrangement that breaks the up-down symmetry at the surface. In cases where the accompanying changes in the bulk are of interest in understanding and interpreting the surface structure, simultaneous analysis of the bulk IR absorption or bulk Raman scattering is helpful, and may be used in heterospectral surface-bulk two-dimensional correlation. We demonstrate that, in such cases, generating a new type of bulk spectrum that combines the IR and Raman amplitudes is a better candidate than the individual IR and Raman spectra for the purpose of correlation with the SFG signal.

  11. Combination of Ultrasonic Vibration and Cryogenic Cooling for Cutting Performance Improvement of Inconel 718 Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. Y.; Chung, C. T.; Cheng, Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a thermo-elastic-plastic coupling model, based on a combination skill of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling, under large deformation for Inconel 718 alloy machining process. The improvement extent on cutting performance and tool life promotion may be examined from this investigation. The critical value of the strain energy density of the workpiece will be utilized as the chip separation and the discontinuous chip segmentation criteria. The forced convection cooling and a hydrodynamic lubrication model will be considered and formulated in the model. Finite element method will be applied to create a complete numerical solution for this ultrasonic vibration cutting model. During the analysis, the cutting tool is incrementally advanced forward with superimposed ultrasonic vibration in a back and forth step-by-step manner, from an incipient stage of tool-workpiece engagement to a steady state of chip formation, a whole simulation of orthogonal cutting process under plane strain deformation is thus undertaken. High shear strength induces a fluctuation phenomenon of shear angle, high shear strain rate, variation of chip types and chip morphology, tool-chip contact length variation, the temperature distributions within the workpiece, chip and tool, periodic fluctuation in cutting forces can be determined from the developed model. A complete comparison of machining characteristics between some different combinations of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling with conventional cutting operation can be acquired. Finally, the high-speed turning experiment for Inconel 718 alloy will be taken in the laboratory to validate the accuracy of the model, and the progressive flank wear, crater wear, notching and chipping of the tool edge can also be measured in the experiments.

  12. Contributions of the Higher Vibrational Levels of Nitric Oxide to the Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.; Yonker, J. D.; Bailey, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 5.3μm emission from the vibrational levels of nitric oxide (NO) and the 15μm emission from CO2 are known to be the dominant sources of cooling in the thermosphere above 100 km. The 5.3μm emission is primarily produced by the radiative de-excitation of NO from its first vibrational level, which in turn is mainly populated by the collisions of NO with atomic oxygen. However, the reaction of atomic nitrogen (N(4S) and N(2D)) with O2 yields vibrationally excited NO with v>1, resulting in a radiative cascade which produces more than one 5.3μm photon per vibrationally excited NO molecule. This chemiluminescence is approximately 20% in magnitude of the emission produced by thermal collisions. These additional sources of the 5.3μm emission are introduced into a one dimensional photochemical model and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) to assess their variability with latitude and solar activity, and to also understand their effect on the thermospheric energy budget. The results from the models are compared with data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment on-board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, which has been making measurements of the infrared radiative response of the mesosphere and thermosphere to solar inputs since 2002.

  13. [Farmacological effect of retabolil on aldosterone level and arterial pressure in rats under the action of vibrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obut, T A; Ovsiukova, M V; Egorova, S A; Érdynieva, T A; Dement'eva, T Iu; Obut, E T

    2014-01-01

    The experiments were performed on male rats, which were subjected to single and multiply repeated vibrations (low-frequency, horizontal, high-amplitude) analogous to the action of motor transport vibrations. It is established that the administration of retabolil produces a hypotensive effect and blocks the vibration-induced increase in the level of hypertensive hormone aldosterone. Under conditions of the multiply repeated action of vibrations, both effects were realized via micro-opioid receptors. In the case of a single action, these receptors were only involved in a hypotensive effect but not mediated in aldosterone suppression. Both these effects were absent in the control group of animals (not subjected to vibrations). Therefore, retabolil can be used as a hypotensive and aldosterone-blocking drug for vibration-induced hypertension in animals and, probably, in humans.

  14. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible...

  15. Using monomer vibrational wavefunctions to compute numerically exact (12D) rovibrational levels of water dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2018-02-01

    We compute numerically exact rovibrational levels of water dimer, with 12 vibrational coordinates, on the accurate CCpol-8sf ab initio flexible monomer potential energy surface [C. Leforestier et al., J. Chem. Phys. 137, 014305 (2012)]. It does not have a sum-of-products or multimode form and therefore quadrature in some form must be used. To do the calculation, it is necessary to use an efficient basis set and to develop computational tools, for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to calculate the spectrum, that obviate the need to store the potential on a 12D quadrature grid. The basis functions we use are products of monomer vibrational wavefunctions and standard rigid-monomer basis functions (which involve products of three Wigner functions). Potential matrix-vector products are evaluated using the F matrix idea previously used to compute rovibrational levels of 5-atom and 6-atom molecules. When the coupling between inter- and intra-monomer coordinates is weak, this crude adiabatic type basis is efficient (only a few monomer vibrational wavefunctions are necessary), although the calculation of matrix elements is straightforward. It is much easier to use than an adiabatic basis. The product structure of the basis is compatible with the product structure of the kinetic energy operator and this facilitates computation of matrix-vector products. Compared with the results obtained using a [6 + 6]D adiabatic approach, we find good agreement for the inter-molecular levels and larger differences for the intra-molecular water bend levels.

  16. Vibration-based fixation assessment of tibial knee implants: A combined in vitro and in silico feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, Steven; Goossens, Quentin; Vander Sloten, Tom; De Landsheer, Koen; Delport, Hendrik; Pastrav, Leonard; Denis, Kathleen; Desmet, Wim; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2017-11-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of loosening of cemented tibial knee implants is challenging. This feasibility study explored the basic potential of a vibration-based method as an alternative diagnostic technique to assess the fixation state of a cemented tibia implant and establish the method's sensitivity limits. A combined in vitro and in silico approach was pursued. Several loosening cases were simulated. The largest changes in the vibrational behavior were obtained in the frequency range above 1500 Hz. The vibrational behavior was described with two features; the frequency response function and the power spectral density band power. Using both features, all experimentally simulated loosening cases could clearly be distinguished from the fully cemented cases. By complementing the experimental work with an in silico study, it was shown that loosening of approximately 14% of the implant surface on the lateral and medial side was detectable with a vibration-based method. Proximal lateral and medial locations on the tibia or locations toward the edge of the implant surface measured in the longitudinal direction were the most sensitive measurement and excitation locations to assess implant fixation. These results contribute to the development of vibration-based methods as an alternative follow-up method to detect loosened tibia implants. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonlinear vibration of an electrically actuated microresonator tuned by combined DC piezoelectric and electric actuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamanian, M; Khadem, S E

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the nonlinear vibration of a clamped–clamped microresonator under combined electric and piezoelectric actuations. The electric actuation is induced by applying an AC–DC voltage between the microbeam and the electrode plate that lies on opposite sides of the microbeam, and the piezoelectric actuation is induced by applying the DC voltage between upper and lower sides of the piezoelectric layer deposited on the microbeam length. It is assumed that the neutral axis of bending is stretched when the microbeam is deflected. The equations of motion are derived using Newton's second law, and are solved using the multiple-scale perturbation method. It is shown that, depending on the value of DC electric and piezoelectric actuations, geometry and the bending stiffness of the system. A softening or hardening behavior may be realized. It demonstrates that nonlinear behavior of an electrically actuated microresonator may be tuned to a linear behavior by applying a convenient DC electric voltage to the piezoelectric layer, and so an undesirable shift of resonance frequency may be removed. If one lets the applied voltage to the piezoelectric layer be equal to zero, this paper would be an effort to tailor the linear and nonlinear stiffness coefficients of two layered electrically actuated microresonators without the assumption that the lengths of the two layers are equal

  18. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn; Yan, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China); Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  19. Molecular-level mechanisms of vibrational frequency shifts in a polar liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christine M; Thompson, Ward H

    2011-06-16

    A molecular-level analysis of the origins of the vibrational frequency shifts of the CN stretching mode in neat liquid acetonitrile is presented. The frequency shifts and infrared spectrum are calculated using a perturbation theory approach within a molecular dynamics simulation and are in good agreement with measured values reported in the literature. The resulting instantaneous frequency of each nitrile group is decomposed into the contributions from each molecule in the liquid and by interaction type. This provides a detailed picture of the mechanisms of frequency shifts, including the number of surrounding molecules that contribute to the shift, the relationship between their position and relative contribution, and the roles of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. These results provide insight into what information is contained in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra about the environment of the probed vibrational mode. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiaojun; Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  1. On the dependence of the OH* Meinel emission altitude on vibrational level: SCIAMACHY observations and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the OH Meinel emissions in the terrestrial nightglow are one of the standard ground-based techniques to retrieve upper mesospheric temperatures. It is often assumed that the emission peak altitudes are not strongly dependent on the vibrational level, although this assumption is not based on convincing experimental evidence. In this study we use Envisat/SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY observations in the near-IR spectral range to retrieve vertical volume emission rate profiles of the OH(3-1, OH(6-2 and OH(8-3 Meinel bands in order to investigate whether systematic differences in emission peak altitudes can be observed between the different OH Meinel bands. The results indicate that the emission peak altitudes are different for the different vibrational levels, with bands originating from higher vibrational levels having higher emission peak altitudes. It is shown that this finding is consistent with the majority of the previously published results. The SCIAMACHY observations yield differences in emission peak altitudes of up to about 4 km between the OH(3-1 and the OH(8-3 band. The observations are complemented by model simulations of the fractional population of the different vibrational levels and of the vibrational level dependence of the emission peak altitude. The model simulations reproduce the observed vibrational level dependence of the emission peak altitude well – both qualitatively and quantitatively – if quenching by atomic oxygen as well as multi-quantum collisional relaxation by O2 is considered. If a linear relationship between emission peak altitude and vibrational level is assumed, then a peak altitude difference of roughly 0.5 km per vibrational level is inferred from both the SCIAMACHY observations and the model simulations.

  2. Numerical analysis of non-linear vibrations of a fractionally damped cylindrical shell under the conditions of combinational internal resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossikhin Yury A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.

  3. Wind turbine blades condition assessment based on vibration measurements and the level of an empirically decomposed feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouhnik, Abdelnasser; Albarbar, Alhussein

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We used finite element method to model wind turbine induced vibration characteristics. ► We developed a technique for eliminating wind turbine’s vibration modulation problems. ► We use empirical mode decomposition to decompose the vibration into its fundamental elements. ► We show the area under shaft speed is a good indicator for assessing wind blades condition. ► We validate the technique under different wind turbine speeds and blade (cracks) conditions. - Abstract: Vibration based monitoring techniques are well understood and widely adopted for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery. However, in the case of wind turbines the measured vibration is complex due to the high number of vibration sources and modulation phenomenon. Therefore, extracting condition related information of a specific element e.g. blade condition is very difficult. In the work presented in this paper wind turbine vibration sources are outlined and then a three bladed wind turbine vibration was simulated by building its model in the ANSYS finite element program. Dynamic analysis was performed and the fundamental vibration characteristics were extracted under two healthy blades and one blade with one of four cracks introduced. The cracks were of length (10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm), all had a consistent 3 mm width and 2 mm depth. The tests were carried out for three rotation speeds; 150, 250 and 360 r/min. The effects of the seeded faults were revealed by using a novel approach called empirically decomposed feature intensity level (EDFIL). The developed EDFIL algorithm is based on decomposing the measured vibration into its fundamental components and then determines the shaft rotational speed amplitude. A real model of the simulated wind turbine was constructed and the simulation outcomes were compared with real-time vibration measurements. The cracks were seeded sequentially in one of the blades and their presence and severity were determined by decomposing

  4. Nearest neighbor spacing distributions of low-lying levels of vibrational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Simbel, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy-level statistics are considered for nuclei whose Hamiltonian is divided into intrinsic and collective-vibrational terms. The levels are described as a random superposition of independent sequences, each corresponding to a given number of phonons. The intrinsic motion is assumed chaotic. The level spacing distribution is found to be intermediate between the Wigner and Poisson distributions and similar in form to the spacing distribution of a system with classical phase space divided into separate regular and chaotic domains. We have obtained approximate expressions for the nearest neighbor spacing and cumulative spacing distribution valid when the level density is described by a constant-temperature formula and not involving additional free parameters. These expressions have been able to achieve good agreement with the experimental spacing distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Active Lubrication for Reducing Wear and Vibration: A combination of Fluid Power Control and Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  6. A combined Raman spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of fundamental vibrational bands of furfuryl alcohol (2-furanmethanol)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, S.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    . study of FA in weakly interacting environments. It is the first study of FA vibrational properties based on d. functional theory (DFT/B3LYP), and a recently proposed hybrid approach to the calcn. of fundamental frequencies, which also includes an anharmonic contribution. FA occupies five different...

  7. Muscular responses appear to be associated with existence of kinesthetic perception during combination of tendon co-vibration and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eriko; Kaneko, Fuminari; Katayose, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    The afferent inputs from peripheral sensory receptors and efferent signals from the central nervous system that underlie intentional movement can contribute to kinesthetic perception. Previous studies have revealed that tendon vibration to wrist muscles elicits an excitatory response-known as the antagonist vibratory response-in muscles antagonistic to the vibrated muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to further investigate the effect of tendon vibration combined with motor imagery on kinesthetic perception and muscular activation. Two vibrators were applied to the tendons of the left flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis. When the vibration frequency was the same between flexors and extensors, no participant perceived movement and no muscle activity was induced. When participants imagined flexing their wrists during tendon vibration, the velocity of perceptual flexion movement increased. Furthermore, muscle activity of the flexor increased only during motor imagery. These results demonstrate that kinesthetic perception can be induced during the combination of motor imagery and co-vibration, even with no experience of kinesthetic perception from an afferent input with co-vibration at the same frequency. Although motor responses were observed during combined co-vibration and motor imagery, no such motor responses were recorded during either co-vibration alone or motor imagery alone, suggesting that muscular responses during the combined condition are associated with kinesthetic perception. Thus, the present findings indicate that kinesthetic perception is influenced by the interaction between afferent input from muscle spindles and the efferent signals that underlie intentional movement. We propose that the physiological behavior resulting from kinesthetic perception affects the process of modifying agonist muscle activity, which will be investigated in a future study.

  8. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S.

    1993-08-01

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner's rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the ΔK methodology (Paris law), ΔJ concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided

  9. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Whalley, Laura E.; Claydon, Andrew; Carter, Joseph H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The S_{1} electronic state and ground state of the cation of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Here we focus on the low wavenumber region where a number of "pure" torsional, fundamental vibrational and vibration-torsional levels are expected; assignments of observed transitions are discussed, which are compared to results of published work on toluene (methylbenzene) from the Lawrance group. The similarity in the activity observed in the excitation spectrum of the two molecules is striking. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015).

  10. Vibration Attenuation by a Combination of a Piezoelectric Stack and a Permanent Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a non-contact vibration attenuator made up of a permanent magnet mounted on a piezoelectric stack. Two such actuators are made to work simultaneously in a 'twin-actuator' configuration. It is conceived that a controlled change in the gap between the actuator and the structure is capable of attenuation of vibration of the structure. This appropriate change in gap is achieved by controlled motion of the piezoelectric stacks. It is shown that the actuator works as an active damper when the extension and contraction of the actuators are made proportional to the velocity of the beam. The resolution of extension of a piezoelectric stack is in the order of nanometers. Thus in the proposed actuator the force of actuation can be applied with great precision. This actuator is also attractive for its simple constructional feature.

  11. A method of noise reduction in heterodyne interferometric vibration metrology by combining auto-correlation analysis and spectral filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongliang; Xiao, Wen; Chen, Zonghui; Ma, Lan; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometric vibration metrology is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity measurement as it can provide a synchronous full-field output signal. With the advent of cost effective, high-speed real-time signal processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. However, due to the coherent nature of the laser sources, the sequence of heterodyne interferogram are corrupted by a mixture of coherent speckle and incoherent additive noise, which can severely degrade the accuracy of the demodulated signal and the optical display. In this paper, a new heterodyne interferometric demodulation method by combining auto-correlation analysis and spectral filtering is described leading to an expression for the dynamic displacement and velocity of the object under test that is significantly more accurate in both the amplitude and frequency of the vibrating waveform. We present a mathematical model of the signals obtained from interferograms that contain both vibration information of the measured objects and the noise. A simulation of the signal demodulation process is presented and used to investigate the noise from the system and external factors. The experimental results show excellent agreement with measurements from a commercial Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV).

  12. Mobile computing with special reference to readability task under the impact of vibration, colour combination and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Zulquernain; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Haleem, Abid

    2008-12-01

    The last 20 years have seen a tremendous growth in the field of computing with special reference to mobile computing. Ergonomic issues pertaining to this theme remains unexplored. With special reference to readability in mobile computing, an experimental research was conducted to study the gender effect on human performance under the impact of vibration in a human computer interaction environment. Fourteen subjects (7 males and 7 females) participated in the study. Three independent variables, namely gender, level of vibration and screen text/background colour, were selected for the experimental investigation while the dependent variable was the number of characters read per minute. The data collected were analyzed statistically through an experimental design for repeated measures. Results indicated that gender as an organismic variable, the level of vibration and screen text/background colour revealed statistically significant differences. However, the second order interaction was found to be statistically non-significant. These findings are discussed in light of the previous studies undertaken on the topic.

  13. Levels of vibration transmitted to the operator of the tractor equipped with front axle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the comfort and the preservation of the health of the operators became central issues in the evolution of agricultural machinery and led to the introduction of devices aimed at improving working conditions. Thereby, for instance, the presence of air conditioner, soundproof cab and driver seat suspension became normal on agricultural tractors. The vibrations are one of the most complex issues to deal with, being determined by the characteristics and interaction of elements such as tyres, axles, mainframe, cab and seat suspension. In this respect, manufacturers are trying to improve their products, even integrating these elements with new devices such as the suspension on the front axle of the tractor, aimed at reducing the level of vibrations during the transfers at high speed. One of these underwent tests at CRA-ING. Since its purpose is to reduce the level of vibration transmitted to the driver, their measurements in different points of the tractor and in different operating conditions, were compared in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the device, expressed as time of exposure. The suspension system of the front axle is designed to absorb the oscillations (especially pitching determined by irregularities in the road surface, allowing an increased control of the vehicle at high speed, as demonstrated by the test results and confirmed by the driving impressions outlined by the operator. The action of the device under these conditions results in an increase of the exposure time, important fact because of the relevance of the road transfer operations of tractors with mounted implements or trailers to tow and of the tendency to increase the speed limit for the road tractors (in Germany were brought to 50 km h–1 for several years. The action just described is less evident with increasing irregularity of the road surface and with the decrease of the travel speed. Nevertheless, in such conditions, the device appears to

  14. Dynamic Properties of the Painter Street Overpass at Different Levels of Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a series of ambient vibration studies conducted on the Painter Street Overpass in Rio Dell, California. Painter Street is a two-span, skewed reinforced concrete bridge with two single piers near the middle and monolithic abutments, typical of bridge overpasses...... from analyses of selected strong motion records. The magnitude of the events investigated ranges from ML=4.4 to ML=6.9, which produced accelerations of up to 0.54g at the free field site, 1.3g at the abutments, and 0.86g on the deck. The results of this study indicate that the overall dynamic...... properties of the bridge are very sensitive to the level of ground shaking and that soil-structure interaction is very important for this type structural system. Although the superstructure exhibited a nearly elastic response, the motions at the abutments and base of piers were significantly different...

  15. Effect of magnet/slot combination on triple-frequency magnetic force and vibration of permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mina; Wang, Shiyu; Xiu, Jie; Cao, Shuqian

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between magnet/slot combination and magnetic forces including unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) and cogging torque (CT) of permanent magnet (PM) motors is investigated by using superposition principle and mechanical and magnetic symmetries. The results show that magnetic force can be produced by all magnets passing a single slot, by all slots passing a single magnet, or by eccentricity, which respectively correspond to three frequency components. The results further show that net force/torque can be classified into three typical cases: UMF is suppressed and CT is excited, UMF excited and CT suppressed, and UMF and CT both suppressed, and consequently possible vibrations include three unique groups: rotational modes, translational modes, and balanced modes. The conclusion that combinations with the greatest common divisor (GCD) greater than unity can avoid UMF is mathematically verified, and at the same time lower CT harmonics are preliminarily addressed by the typical excitations. The above findings can create simple guidelines for the suppression of certain UMF and/or CT by using suitable combinations, which in turn can present approach to yield a more desirable response in high performance applications. The superposition effect and predicted relationship are verified by the transient magnetic Finite Element method. Since this work is motivated by symmetries, comparisons are made in order to give further insight into the inner force and vibration behaviors of general rotary power-transmission systems.

  16. Acute Whole Body Vibration Decreases the Glucose Levels in Elderly Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Florentino Pessoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (TIIDM is characterized by high levels of blood glucose followed by excessive insulin release so that the target cells become less sensitive, developing insulin resistance and maintaining hyperglycemic levels. Physical activity is the strongest element to prevent and to manage the TIIDM, and the majority of patients do not remain in regularly active levels, because the premature fatigue in these patients decreases the adherence to the training. Contrastingly, the whole body vibration (WBV training may improve the glucose metabolism in diabetic patients, reducing the peripheral blood sugar, decreasing the physical discomfort and perceived exertion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of an acute WBV session as therapy to promote fasting decreases in insulin levels in peripheral blood in TIIDM when compared to healthy elderly. For this, fifteen healthy elderly women and fourteen diabetic elderly women, all sedentary, were allocated in diabetic or control groups, and we made an acute whole body session composed of 10 bouts lasting 2 minutes each one, separated by a 30-second rest period. The WBV was executed in a triaxial platform MY3 Power Plate® at 35 hertz and has been chosen a peak-to-peak displacement of 4 millimeters. After the protocol, both groups decreased the glycemic levels and increased lactate production in relation to the basal levels and when compared diabetic and control, where the most important results have been shown in diabetic women. This study revealed that WBV training in TIIDM has had significant beneficial effects on the control of glucose levels, still in an acute session. So that, the complete training probably will show better results about glycemic control and this finding could be especially important when prescribing exercise for elderly who are unable or unwilling to use traditional loads or who show poor exercise compliance.

  17. Prediction of high level vibration test results by use of available inelastic analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a cooperative study between the United States and Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan agreed to perform a test program that would subject a large scale piping model to significant plastic strains under excitation conditions much greater than the design condition for nuclear power plants. The objective was to compare the results of the tests with state-of-the-art analyses. Comparisons were done at different excitation levels from elastic to elastic-plastic to levels where cracking was induced in the test model. The program was called the high Level Vibration Test (HLVT). The HLVT was performed on the seismic table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center in Japan. The test model was constructed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system which was previously tested by NUPEC as part of their seismic proving test program. A comparison of various analysis techniques with test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values than in the overall response values. This prediction error is magnified as the plasticity in the test model increases. There is no significant difference in the peak responses between the simplified and the detailed analyses. A comparison between various detailed finite element model runs indicates that the material properties and plasticity modeling have a significant impact on the plastic strain responses under dynamic loading reversals. 5 refs., 12 figs

  18. Triangle bracing system to reduce the vibration level of cooling tower – case study in PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu) Ltd – Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Effendi Tri Bahtiar; Naresworo Nugroho; Dede Hermawan; Wilis Wirawan; Khuschandra

    2018-01-01

    Periodical control and measurement revealed that vibration level of motor and gearbox which was supported by Cooling Tower Unit 1 at PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu) Ltd was significantly increasing since 2013. The vibration was not caused by machinery component failure, but induced by resonance of process flow. Decreasing stiffness of cooling tower structure was suspected causing the increasing vibration level. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of wood was deteriorate...

  19. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results

  20. Vibrational Spectrum of HMX at CO2 Laser Wavelengths: A Combined DRIFT and LPAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Puiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational spectrum of solid standard HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine was investigated. Two spectroscopic techniques were adopted for their different sensitivity and resolution. A preliminary survey of the absorption bands of the compound was performed in the 8000–400 cm−1 spectral range by employing the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT technique at room temperature. The high-resolution line spectrum of HMX was obtained in the 9.2–10.8 μm spectral range by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS method, using a line tuneable 10 W stabilised cw CO2 laser light source. By comparing the data collected with the two techniques in the common frequency range, a very good agreement was observed.

  1. Feedback damping of a microcantilever at room temperature to the minimum vibration amplitude limited by the noise level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Y; Kanegae, R

    2016-06-17

    Cooling the vibration amplitude of a microcantilever as low as possible is important to improve the sensitivity and resolutions of various types of scanning type microscopes and sensors making use of it. When the vibration amplitude is controlled to be smaller using a feed back control system, it is known that the obtainable minimum amplitude of the vibration is limited by the floor noise level of the detection system. In this study, we demonstrated that the amplitude of the thermal vibration of a microcantilever was suppressed to be about 0.15 pmHz(-1/2), which is the same value with the floor noise level, without the assistance of external cryogenic cooling. We think that one of the reason why we could reach the smaller amplitude at room temperature is due to stiffer spring constant of the lever, which leads to higher natural frequency and consequently lower floor noise level. The other reason is considered to be due to the increase in the laser power for the diagnostics, which lead to the decrease in the signal to noise ratio determined by the optical shot noise.

  2. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassir, M.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    A High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) Program was carried out recently on the seismic table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the study being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to use the HLVT data to assess the accuracy and usefulness of existing methods for predicting crack initiation and growth under complex, large amplitude loading. The work to be performed as part of this effort involves: (1) analysis of the stress/strain distribution in the vicinity of the crack, including the potential for residual stresses due to the weld repair; (2) analysis of the number of load cycles required for crack initiation, including estimates of the impact of the weld repair on the crack initiation behavior; (3) analysis of crack advance as a function of applied loading (classic fatigue versus cyclic tearing) taking into account the variable amplitude loading and the possible influence of the repair; and (4) material property testing to supplement the work performed as part of the HLVT, providing the materials data necessary to perform the analysis efforts. A summary of research progress for FY 1990 is presented. 2 refs

  3. FORECASTING OF DURABILITY OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT ON THE BASIS OF LEVELS OF THEIR VIBRATION LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Osinovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of low durability of flexible pavement is one of the most important problems of road economy. For example, the actual service life of asphalt pavement in Russia about 3 … 5 years. The bad condition of highways is an obstacle for the development of the national economy and leads to a significant annual economic losses.At present, this problem has no exact solution. Even at the seeming good road conditions of Europe and America the problem of low durability is no less important in these countries. And this problem becomes more and more actual every year.Our scientific researches allowed to make a hypothesis that the projected of pavements are not have the necessary durability yet not of a stage of designing because in strength calculations did not take into account the vibration of road constructions.Very actual the vibration loading becomes today as is now significantly changed the nature of loading of pavements. As a result the deflections of a pavements are reduced, but the increased vibration of pavements accelerated processes of destruction and significantly reduced durability.The theory of vibration destruction developed by the author allows to adjust the vibration, to form the vibration resistance pavements, and also to forecast a residual life of pavements that will more effectively develop repair actions.

  4. Influence of Tire Characteristics of Interurban Taxis on Exposure Level to Drivers Whole-Body Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Derakhshanjazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taxi drivers’ exposure to repeat whole-body vibrations can cause back pain and digestive disorders. Since this type of vibration depends on the car components, this study was carried out to determine the influence of tire characteristics on the amount of whole-body vibrations transmitted to the Peugeot 405 taxi drivers. Methods: In this experimental study, vibration characteristics were measured according to the ISO2631-1 with each of the statuses: tubeless tires fixed and fluid in it (normal air or nitrogen and also the fluid in the tires fixed with tubes or tubeless on asphalt-paved road. Other variables including tire pressure, engine speed, road gradient, number of passengers, springs, and shock absorbers were kept constant. Then the effect of changes was analyzed using an appropriate statistical test. Results: After changing nitrogen to normal air and tubeless tires to tube, the average of RMS in Z-axis, eight-hour equivalent acceleration A(8 and crest factor were reduced (P 0.9 m/s2 to caution zone (0.45-0.9 m/s2 with a value of 0.8 m/s2. Conclusions: The amount of vibration transmitted to the whole body is sensitive to existence of tubes and tires inflation so that we can reduce the amount of whole-body vibration to lower than the upper limit of the health risk by changing the characteristics of the tire

  5. Is two better than one? Limb Activation Treatment combined with Contralesional Arm Vibration to ameliorate signs of left neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco ePitteri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the Limb Activation Treatment (LAT alone and in combination with the Contralateral Arm Vibration (CAV on left neglect (LN rehabilitation. We conceived them as techniques that both prompt the activation of the lesioned right hemisphere because of the activation (with the LAT as an active technique and the stimulation (with the CAV as a passive technique of the left hemibody. To test the effect of the simultaneous use of these two techniques (i.e., LAT and CAV on visuo-spatial aspects of LN, we described the case of a LN patient (GR, who showed high intra-individual variability (IIV in performance. Given the high IIV of GR, we used an ABAB repeated-measures design to better define the effectiveness of the combined application of LAT and CAV, as a function of time. The results showed an improvement of GR’s performance on the Bells test following the combined application of LAT and CAV, with respect to the application of LAT alone. We did not find, however, significant effects of treatment on two other LN tests (i.e., Line bisection and Picture scanning. We propose that the combined application of LAT and CAV can be beneficial for some aspects of LN.

  6. Conformational analysis of quinine and its pseudo enantiomer quinidine: a combined jet-cooled spectroscopy and vibrational circular dichroism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ananya; Bouchet, Aude; Lepère, Valeria; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Scuderi, D; Piuzzi, F; Zehnacker-Rentien, A

    2012-08-16

    Laser-desorbed quinine and quinidine have been studied in the gas phase by combining supersonic expansion with laser spectroscopy, namely, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), and IR-UV double resonance experiments. Density funtional theory (DFT) calculations have been done in conjunction with the experimental work. The first electronic transition of quinine and quinidine is of π-π* nature, and the studied molecules weakly fluoresce in the gas phase, in contrast to what was observed in solution (Qin, W. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. C2009, 113, 11790). The two pseudo enantiomers quinine and quinidine show limited differences in the gas phase; their main conformation is of open type as it is in solution. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments in solution show that additional conformers exist in condensed phase for quinidine, which are not observed for quinine. This difference in behavior between the two pseudo enantiomers is discussed.

  7. Triangle bracing system to reduce the vibration level of cooling tower – case study in PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd – Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodical control and measurement revealed that vibration level of motor and gearbox which was supported by Cooling Tower Unit 1 at PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd was significantly increasing since 2013. The vibration was not caused by machinery component failure, but induced by resonance of process flow. Decreasing stiffness of cooling tower structure was suspected causing the increasing vibration level. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of wood was deteriorated. The residual strength of the wood had been measured and the data was used to perform dynamic structural analysis on the cooling tower. Several scenarios of structure modification were modelled and drawn, and the best one which the most effectively reducing the vibration level among others was constructed in the field. Triangle inner structure was chosen and applied to modify the cooling tower structure to achieve stiffer and more rigid structure. The vibration level before and after structure modification were measured, and it was proved that the vibration level was significantly reduced after structure modification. Furthermore the cooling tower was not in zone D (danger anymore and the vibration level was accepted according to ISO 10816-3. Keywords: Cooling tower, Dynamic structural analysis, Geothermal power plant, Structural failure, Vibration level

  8. Positron-attachment to small molecules: Vibrational enhancement of positron affinities with configuration interaction level of multi-component molecular orbital approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Masanori [Quantum Chemistry Division, Graduate School of NanoBioScience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    To theoretically demonstrate the binding of a positron to small polarized molecules, we have calculated the vibrational averaged positron affinity (PA) values along the local vibrational contribution with the configuration interaction level of multi-component molecular orbital method. This method can take the electron-positron correlation contribution into account through single electronic - single positronic excitation configurations. The PA values are enhanced by including the local vibrational contribution from vertical PA values due to the anharmonicity of the potential.

  9. Confidence Level Computation for Combining Searches with Small Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Junk, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This article describes an efficient procedure for computing approximate confidence levels for searches for new particles where the expected signal and background levels are small enough to require the use of Poisson statistics. The results of many independent searches for the same particle may be combined easily, regardless of the discriminating variables which may be measured for the candidate events. The effects of systematic uncertainty in the signal and background models are incorporated ...

  10. Heavy Rydberg behaviour in high vibrational levels of some ion-pair states of the halogens and inter-halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Robert J.; Lawley, Kenneth P.; Ridley, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I 2 , Cl 2 , ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect δ(E b ) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of δ(E b ), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ∼18 000-20 000 cm −1 below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of δ(E b ) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions

  11. Combining SKU-level sales forecasts from models and experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the performance of SKU-level sales forecasts which linearly combine statistical model forecasts and expert forecasts. Using a large and unique database containing model forecasts for monthly sales of various pharmaceutical products and forecasts given by about fifty experts, we

  12. The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

  13. The effects of whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training on the lower extremity muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of computerized postural control training using whole body vibration on lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated and were divided into groups of 10, a group of the computerized postural control training using whole body vibration (Group I), the computerized postural control training combined with aero step (Group II) and computerized postural control training (Group III). MP100 was used to measure lower limb muscle activity, and QEEG-8 was used to measure cerebral cortical activation. [Results] Comparison of muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation before and after intervention between groups showed that Group I had significant differences in lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training is effective for improving muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.

  14. Use of vibrational spectroscopy to study protein and DNA structure, hydration, and binding of biomolecules: A combined theoretical and experimental approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Jürgensen, Vibeke Würtz; Claussen, Anetta

    2006-01-01

    and experimental approach. The systems we have studied systematically are the amino acids (L-alanine, L-tryptophan, and L-histidine), peptides (N-acetyl L-alanine N'-methyl amide, N-acetyl L-tryptophan N'-methyl amide, N-acetyl L-histidine N'-methyl amide, L-alanyl L-alanine, tri-L-serine, N-acetyl L-alanine L......+disp, RHF, MP2, and DFT methodologies for the modeling studies with the goal of interpreting the experimentally measured vibrational spectra for these molecules to the greatest extent possible and to use this combined approach to understand the structure, function, and electronic properties......We report on our work with vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism, Raman scattering, Raman optical activity, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to study protein and DNA structure, hydration, and the binding of ligands, drugs, pesticides, or herbicides via a combined theoretical...

  15. Full-Dimensional Quantum Calculations of Vibrational Levels of NH4(+) and Isotopomers on An Accurate Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua-Gen; Han, Huixian; Guo, Hua

    2016-04-14

    Vibrational energy levels of the ammonium cation (NH4(+)) and its deuterated isotopomers are calculated using a numerically exact kinetic energy operator on a recently developed nine-dimensional permutation invariant semiglobal potential energy surface fitted to a large number of high-level ab initio points. Like CH4, the vibrational levels of NH4(+) and ND4(+) exhibit a polyad structure, characterized by a collective quantum number P = 2(v1 + v3) + v2 + v4. The low-lying vibrational levels of all isotopomers are assigned and the agreement with available experimental data is better than 1 cm(-1).

  16. Semi-quantitative prediction of a multiple API solid dosage form with a combination of vibrational spectroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, A; Sousa, R M; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2016-05-30

    Quality control (QC) in the pharmaceutical industry is a key activity in ensuring medicines have the required quality, safety and efficacy for their intended use. QC departments at pharmaceutical companies are responsible for all release testing of final products but also all incoming raw materials. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Raman spectroscopy are important techniques for fast and accurate identification and qualification of pharmaceutical samples. Tablets containing two different active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) [bisoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide] in different commercially available dosages were analysed using Raman- and NIR Spectroscopy. The goal was to define multivariate models based on each vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between different dosages (identity) and predict their dosage (semi-quantitative). Furthermore the combination of spectroscopic techniques was investigated. Therefore, two different multiblock techniques based on PLS have been applied: multiblock PLS (MB-PLS) and sequential-orthogonalised PLS (SO-PLS). NIRS showed better results compared to Raman spectroscopy for both identification and quantitation. The multiblock techniques investigated showed that each spectroscopy contains information not present or captured with the other spectroscopic technique, thus demonstrating that there is a potential benefit in their combined use for both identification and quantitation purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The combined fatigue effects of sequential exposure to seated whole body vibration and physical, mental, or concurrent work demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Lang, Angelica E; Stobart, Jamie; Kociolek, Aaron M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate fatigue-related human responses of WBV sequentially combined with physical, mental, or concurrent physical and mental demands. Sixteen healthy participants performed four conditions on four separate days: (1) physically demanding work, (2) mentally demanding work, (3) concurrent work, and (4) control quiet sitting. For each condition, participants performed two 15-minute bouts of the experimental task, separated by 30-minutes of simulated WBV based on realistic all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding data. A test battery of fatigue measures consisting of biomechanical, physiological, cognitive, and sensorimotor measurements were collected at four interval periods: pre-session, after the first bout of the experimental task and before WBV, after WBV and before the second bout of the experimental task, and post-session. Nine measures demonstrated statistically significant time effects during the control condition; 11, 7, and 12 measures were significant in the physical, mental, and concurrent conditions, respectively. Overall, the effects of seated WBV in combination with different tasks are not additive but possibly synergistic or antagonistic. There appears to be a beneficial effect of seated ATV operation as a means of increasing task variation; but since excessive WBV may independently pose a health

  18. [The use of low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF puncture in the combined treatment of arterial hypertension in vibration-induced disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, V A; Filippova, G N; Loseva, M I; Shpagina, L A; Shelepova, N V; Zhelezniak, M S

    2000-01-01

    Combination of EHF therapy + magnetotherapy + drugs results in faster and persistent hypotensive and analgetic effect compared to standard drug therapy, potentiates action of vascular drugs on cerebral and peripheral circulation, reduces dose of hypotensive drugs in patients with arterial hypertension and vibration disease.

  19. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  20. Automatic vibration mode selection and excitation; combining modal filtering with autoresonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Solomon; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    Autoresonance is a well-known nonlinear feedback method used for automatically exciting a system at its natural frequency. Though highly effective in exciting single degree of freedom systems, in its simplest form it lacks a mechanism for choosing the mode of excitation when more than one is present. In this case a single mode will be automatically excited, but this mode cannot be chosen or changed. In this paper a new method for automatically exciting a general second-order system at any desired natural frequency using Autoresonance is proposed. The article begins by deriving a concise expression for the frequency of the limit cycle induced by an Autoresonance feedback loop enclosed on the system. The expression is based on modal decomposition, and provides valuable insight into the behavior of a system controlled in this way. With this expression, a method for selecting and exciting a desired mode naturally follows by combining Autoresonance with Modal Filtering. By taking various linear combinations of the sensor signals, by orthogonality one can "filter out" all the unwanted modes effectively. The desired mode's natural frequency is then automatically reflected in the limit cycle. In experiment the technique has proven extremely robust, even if the amplitude of the desired mode is significantly smaller than the others and the modal filters are greatly inaccurate.

  1. A complete vibrational study on a potential environmental toxicant agent, the 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene combining the FTIR, FTRaman, UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopies with DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, María V; Pergomet, Jorgelina L; Carnavale, Gustavo A; Davies, Lilian; Zinczuk, Juan; Brandán, Silvia A

    2015-01-05

    In this study 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) was prepared and then characterized by infrared, Raman, multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. The density functional theory (DFT) together with the 6-31G(*) and 6-311++G(**) basis sets were used to study the structures and vibrational properties of the two cis and trans isomers of TCAB. The harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the optimized geometries were calculated at the same theory levels. A complete assignment of all the observed bands in the vibrational spectra of TCAB was performed combining the DFT calculations with the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The molecular electrostatic potentials, atomic charges, bond orders and frontier orbitals for the two isomers of TCAB were compared and analyzed. The comparison of the theoretical ultraviolet-visible spectrum with the corresponding experimental demonstrates a good concordance while the calculated (1)H and (13)C chemicals shifts are in good conformity with the corresponding experimental NMR spectra of TCAB in solution. The npp(*) transitions for both forms were studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) while the topological properties were calculated by employing Bader's Atoms in the Molecules (AIM) theory. This study shows that the cis and trans isomers exhibit different structural and vibrational properties and absorption bands. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. EGSIEM combination service: combination of GRACE monthly K-band solutions on normal equation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) project offers a scientific combination service, combining for the first time monthly GRACE gravity fields of different analysis centers (ACs) on normal equation (NEQ) level and thus taking all correlations between the gravity field coefficients and pre-eliminated orbit and instrument parameters correctly into account. Optimal weights for the individual NEQs are commonly derived by variance component estimation (VCE), as is the case for the products of the International VLBI Service (IVS) or the DTRF2008 reference frame realisation that are also derived by combination on NEQ-level. But variance factors are based on post-fit residuals and strongly depend on observation sampling and noise modeling, which both are very diverse in case of the individual EGSIEM ACs. These variance factors do not necessarily represent the true error levels of the estimated gravity field parameters that are still governed by analysis noise. We present a combination approach where weights are derived on solution level, thereby taking the analysis noise into account.

  3. Ultrasonic imaging of lumbar discs combined with vibration pain provocation compared with discography in the diagnosis of internal anular fissures of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Vanharanta, H

    1996-03-01

    The diagnostic information achieved by a combination of ultrasonographic imaging of discs and local bony vibration of lumbar vertebrae was compared to that obtained by discographic imaging and pain provocation. The purpose of this study was to find a noninvasive method for spine diagnostics to replace expensive and invasive methods such as discography. Internal anular fissures of the lumbar discs have been shown to be a source of back pain. Intradiscal changes associated with disc degeneration can be imaged by ultrasonography. The bony vibration test of spinal processes has shown to correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular ruptures. Discographic examination of the spine is the only widely accepted diagnostic method that combines pathoanatomic changes and patients' pain. Patients with back pain in this study were examined by means of ultrasonography, bony vibration stimulation, and discography. The three lowest lumbar discs were examined. In the cases of intradiscal ultrasound findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.75 compared to the discographic pain provocation test. In cases of total anular ruptures seen in ultrasound examination, the sensitivity and the specificity of the vibration pain provocation test were much lower, being 0.50 and 0.50, respectively. The combination of the two noninvasive methods provides a useful screening test for the evaluation of low back pain. The combination test can accurately depict painful disc degeneration with internal disc rupture and the use of discography can be limited to the cases suggesting total anular rupture in ultrasound examination.

  4. Parametric Analysis and Experimental Verification of a Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Combining Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering coil inductance and the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, this paper developed an approximate distributed-parameter model of a hybrid energy harvester (HEH. The analytical solutions were compared with numerical solutions. The effects of load resistances, electromechanical coupling factors, mechanical damping ratio, coil parameters and size scale on performance were investigated. A meso-scale HEH prototype was fabricated, tested and compared with a stand-alone piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH and a stand-alone electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH. The peak output power is 2.93% and 142.18% higher than that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. Moreover, its bandwidth is 108%- and 122.7%-times that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical values. It is indicated that the linearized electromagnetic coupling coefficient is more suitable for low-level excitation acceleration. Hybrid energy harvesting contributes to widening the frequency bandwidth and improving energy conversion efficiency. However, only when the piezoelectric coupling effect is weak or medium can the HEH generate more power than the single-mechanism energy harvester. Hybrid energy harvesting can improve output power even at the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scale. This study presents a more effective model for the performance evaluation and structure optimization of the HEH.

  5. Influence of light-induced conical intersection on the photodissociation dynamics of D2(+) starting from individual vibrational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Gábor J; Csehi, András; Vibók, Ágnes; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2014-12-26

    Previous works have shown that dressing of diatomic molecules by standing or by running laser waves gives rise to the appearance of so-called light-induced conical intersections (LICIs). Because of the strong nonadiabatic couplings, the existence of such LICIs may significantly change the dynamical properties of a molecular system. In our former paper (J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 8528), the photodissociation dynamics of the D(2)(+) molecule were studied in the LICI framework starting the initial vibrational nuclear wave packet from the superposition of all the vibrational states initially produced by ionizing D(2). The present work complements our previous investigation by letting the initial nuclear wave packets start from different individual vibrational levels of D(2)(+), in particular, above the energy of the LICI. The kinetic energy release spectra, the total dissociation probabilities, and the angular distributions of the photofragments are calculated and discussed. An interesting phenomenon has been found in the spectra of the photofragments. Applying the light-induced adiabatic picture supported by LICI, explanations are given for the unexpected structure of the spectra.

  6. Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

  7. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available al lbl d i I e I e dt ω ωρ ρ ρ − = − = −∑h (1) where, , .a b a bω ω ω= − , (2) ρab gives the elements of the density matrix, ωa the frequencies... of the individual vibrational levels, and Iab the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian [2] which include the detailed time dependence of the shaped femtosecond pulse. 2. Simulation results A transform limited 150 femtosecond laser pulse with a...

  8. A Strategy for Magnifying Vibration in High-Energy Orbits of a Bistable Oscillator at Low Excitation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Qing; Liao Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on how to maintain a high-energy orbit motion of a bistable oscillator when subjected to a low level excitation. An elastic magnifier (EM) positioned between the base and the bistable oscillator is used to magnify the base vibration displacement to significantly enhance the output characteristics of the bistable oscillator. The dimensionless electromechanical equations of the bistable oscillator with an EM are derived, and the effects of the mass and stiffness ratios between the EM and the bistable oscillator on the output displacement are studied. It is shown that the jump phenomenon occurs at a lower excitation level with increasing the mass and stiffness ratios. With the comparison of the displacement trajectories and the phase portraits obtained from experiments, it is validated that the bistable oscillator with an EM can effectively oscillate in a high-energy orbit and can generate a superior output vibration at a low excitation level as compared with the bistable oscillator without an EM. (paper)

  9. Efficacy of combined local mechanical vibrations, continuous passive motion and thermotherapy in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitay, G S; Koren, M J; Helfet, D L; Parides, M K; Markenson, J A

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of combined mechanical vibrations, continuous passive motion (CPM) and heat on the severity of pain in management of osteoarthritis of the knee (OA-K). In this controlled, double crossover study, 71 OA-K patients were randomized in Phase 1 to receive 4 weeks active treatment consisting of two 20-min sessions per day (34 patients, Group AB) or treatment with a sham device (37 patients, Group BA). This was followed by a 2-week washout period (Phase 2). In Phase 3, patients crossed over so that Group AB was treated with the sham device and Group BA received active treatment for an additional 4 weeks. Patient assessments of pain (visual analog scale, VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) OA index were performed at baseline and at study weeks 2, 4, 6, and 10. Net treatment effects were estimated by comparing outcomes between active and sham treatment study phases. Treatment benefits were noted for both of the trial's two pre-specified primary endpoints, VAS and WOMAC. VAS was reduced at all follow-up time points for patients receiving active treatment compared to sham treatment with a net treatment effect of 14.4+/-4.1 mm (P=0.001). Similarly, the WOMAC score was reduced significantly with active treatment at all measured points with a net effect of 8.8+/-1.9 points (Ppain, improves ROM and the quality of life in patients with OA-K (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00858416).

  10. A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency noise stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone] and five complex noises composed of the pure tones. For the complex noise stimuli, the sound pressure level of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL. Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of noise stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration level (VAL of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen, the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-level low-frequency noise. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-level low-frequency noise were different from those in the trunk of the body.

  11. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  12. Noise and vibration levels in artificial polar bear dens as related to selected petroleum exploration and developmental activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, A.S.; Lentfer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration and development are occurring in various locations in the Arctic, where there are important denning sites for polar bears. Petroleum activities usually coincide with winter denning activities by bears, who may abandon dens if subject to prolonged annoyance. A study was carried out to measure noise and vibration levels in artificial polar bear dens at Prudhoe's Bar, Alaska, resulting from seismic testing, drilling and transport. A microphone and an accelerometer were frozen to the floor of the dens, with leads passed through a consolidated snow filled entrance to a truck, tent or helicopter. Tests were carried out on land, sea ice, and next to a drilling tower on an artificial island, which was also used to measure noise levels resulting from a helicopter taking off. It was concluded that the dry and wind-beaten arctic snow muffles both sound and vibration extremely well, and it is unlikely that polar bears in their dens will be disturbed by the type of petroleum-related activities measured, provided they do not take place within 100 m of the dens. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Vibration Analysis of Beam and Block Precast Slab System due to Human Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Beam and block precast slabs system are very efficient which generally give maximum structural performance where their voids based on the design of the unit soffit block allow a significant reduction of the whole slab self-weight. Initially for some combinations of components or the joint connection of the structural slab, this structural system may be susceptible to excessive vibrations that could effects the performance and also serviceability. Dynamic forces are excited from people walking and jumping which produced vibrations to the slab system in the buildings. Few studies concluded that human induced vibration on precast slabs system may be harmful to structural performance and mitigate the human comfort level. This study will investigate the vibration analysis of beam and block precast slab by using finite element method at the school building. Human activities which are excited from jumping and walking will induce the vibrations signal to the building. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of slab towards the vibration sources. Five different points were assigned specifically where each of location will determine the behaviour of the entire slabs. The finite element analyses were developed in ABAQUS software and the data was further processed in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria. The results indicated that the beam and block precast systems adequate enough to the vibration serviceability and human comfort criteria. The overall vibration level obtained was fell under VC-E curve which it is generally under the maximum permissible level of vibrations. The vibration level on the slab is acceptable within the limit that have been used by Gordon.

  14. Multiscale investigation on the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on bone quality of growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianlong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Gong, He

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV; 45 Hz, 0.3 g) on bone quality. One hundred twenty rats were randomly divided into ten groups; namely, sedentary (SED), additional weight bearing in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (WBx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26), basic vibration (V), and additional weight bearing in combination with LMHFV in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (Vx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26). The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks, 7 days per week, and 15 min per day. A three-point bending mechanical test, micro computed tomography, and a nanoindentation test were used. Serum samples were analyzed chemically. Failure load in V19 rats was significantly lower than that in SED rats (P bearing in combination with LMHFV negatively affected the macromechanical properties and microarchitecture of bone. Heavy additional weight bearing, such as 26% of body weight, in combination with LMHFV was able to improve the nanomechanical properties of growing bone material compared with LMHFV. A combined mechanical stimulation was used, which may provide useful information to understand the mechanism of this mechanical stimulation on bone.

  15. Free vibration analysis of straight-line beam regarded as distributed system by combining Wittrick-Williams algorithm and transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Soo; Yang, Kyong Uk [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bonkobara, Yasuhiro [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a method for analyzing the free vibration of a structure regarded as a distributed system, by combining the Wittrick-Williams algorithm and the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method. A computational algorithm was formulated for analyzing the free vibration of a straight-line beam regarded as a distributed system, to explain the concept of the developed method. To verify the effectiveness of the developed method, the natural frequencies of straight-line beams were computed using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method, the exact solution, and the developed method. By comparing the computational results of the developed method with those of the other methods, we confirmed that the developed method exhibited superior performance over the other methods in terms of computational accuracy, cost and user convenience.

  16. High resolution spectroscopy on adsorbed molecules on a Ni (110)-surface: vibrational states and electronic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardinal, I.

    1998-01-01

    The complementary techniques of HR-XPS and HREELS have been applied to two distinct problems. The first studies adsorption and dissociation of C 2 N 2 on Ni (110) at room temperature (RT) and at 90 K and its co-adsorption with CO. At RT C 2 N 2 dissociates and forms a c(2x2)-CN structure. The resulting CN is found to be bound in the grooves of the (110) surface yielding the lowest C-N vibrational energy yet observed. C 2 N 2 was found to dissociate even at 90 K however the resulting CN overlayer after warming to RT showed remarkable differences to that of the RT adsorption. As well as the in-groove species a number of adsorption sites on the ridges with a bond order higher have been identified. Preadsorbed CO is completely driven of the Ni (110) surface by co-adsorption of CN at RT. HREELS indicates that first CO is desorbed from the on-top-sites and then from the bridge-sites of the (110)-ridges involving a considerable increase of the HREELS cross section for the CO on the bridge-sites. Also the signal intensity of the coadsorbed CN is suppressed by the CO present on the surface. The second study investigated the adsorption of bithiophene (BiT) on clean Ni (110) and the S-modified c(2x2)-S-Ni (110) and p(4x1)-S-Ni (110). The latter provided a strongly structured substrate which forced the assembly of the adsorbed BiT-molecules. The high degree of order of this adsorbate/substrate system was obvious in both the HR-XPS results and the BREELS results with strong azimuthal anisotropy. This system was used to asses the ability to use the HREELS impact selection rules to determine molecular orientation of a reasonably complex adsorbate overlayer. (author)

  17. Structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of a series of N-benzylamides derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) combining spectroscopic studies with ONION calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E.; Ladetto, María Florencia; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the structural, topological and vibrational properties of four members of the N-benzylamides series derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) whose names are, N-benzylpentadecanamide, N-benzylhexadecanamide, N-benzylheptadecanamide and N-benzyloctadecanamide, were studied combining the FTIR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies with density functional theory (DFT) and ONION calculations. Furthermore, the N-benzylacetamide, N-benzylpropilamide and N-benzyl hexanamide derivatives were also studied in order to compare their properties with those computed for the four macamides. These seven N-benzylamides series have a common structure, C8H8NO-R, being R the side chain [-(CH2)n-CH3] with a variable n number of CH2 groups. Here, the atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies, topological properties of those macamides were analyzed as a function of the number of C atoms of the side chain while the frontier orbitals were used to compute the gap energies and some descriptors in order to predict their reactivities and behaviors in function of the longitude of the side chain. Here, the force fields, the complete vibrational assignments and the corresponding force constants were only reported for N-benzylacetamide, N-benzyl hexanamide and N-benzylpentadecanamide due to the high number of vibration normal modes that present the remains macamides.

  18. Normal and reversed supramolecular chirality of insulin fibrils probed by vibrational circular dichroism at the protofilament level of fibril structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Dukor, Rina K; Lu, Xuefang; Nafie, Laurence A; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-08-08

    Fibrils are β-sheet-rich aggregates that are generally composed of several protofibrils and may adopt variable morphologies, such as twisted ribbons or flat-like sheets. This polymorphism is observed for many different amyloid associated proteins and polypeptides. In a previous study we proposed the existence of another level of amyloid polymorphism, namely, that associated with fibril supramolecular chirality. Two chiral polymorphs of insulin, which can be controllably grown by means of small pH variations, exhibit opposite signs of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Herein, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrate that indeed VCD supramolecular chirality is correlated not only by the apparent fibril handedness but also by the sense of supramolecular chirality from a deeper level of chiral organization at the protofilament level of fibril structure. Our microscopic examination indicates that normal VCD fibrils have a left-handed twist, whereas reversed VCD fibrils are flat-like aggregates with no obvious helical twist as imaged by atomic force microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. A scheme is proposed consistent with observed data that features a dynamic equilibrium controlled by pH at the protofilament level between left- and right-twist fibril structures with distinctly different aggregation pathways for left- and right-twisted protofilaments. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  20. System-Level Coupled Modeling of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Systems by Joint Finite Element and Circuit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH system is usually composed of two coupled parts: a harvesting structure and an interface circuit. Thus, it is much necessary to build system-level coupled models for analyzing PVEH systems, so that the whole PVEH system can be optimized to obtain a high overall efficiency. In this paper, two classes of coupled models are proposed by joint finite element and circuit analysis. The first one is to integrate the equivalent circuit model of the harvesting structure with the interface circuit and the second one is to integrate the equivalent electrical impedance of the interface circuit into the finite element model of the harvesting structure. Then equivalent circuit model parameters of the harvesting structure are estimated by finite element analysis and the equivalent electrical impedance of the interface circuit is derived by circuit analysis. In the end, simulations are done to validate and compare the proposed two classes of system-level coupled models. The results demonstrate that harvested powers from the two classes of coupled models approximate to theoretic values. Thus, the proposed coupled models can be used for system-level optimizations in engineering applications.

  1. The vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of N2-H2O and N2-D2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we report vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of the van der Waals clusters N2-H2O and N2-D2O computed from an ab initio potential energy surface. The only dynamical approximation is that the monomers are rigid. We use a symmetry adapted Lanczos algorithm and an uncoupled product basis set. The pattern of the cluster's levels is complicated by splittings caused by H-H exchange tunneling (larger splitting) and N-N exchange tunneling (smaller splitting). An interesting result that emerges from our calculation is that whereas in N2-H2O, the symmetric H-H tunnelling state is below the anti-symmetric H-H tunnelling state for both K = 0 and K = 1, the order is reversed in N2-D2O for K = 1. The only experimental splitting measurements are the D-D exchange tunneling splittings reported by Zhu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 214309 (2013)] for N2-D2O in the v2 = 1 region of D2O. Due to the inverted order of the split levels, they measure the sum of the K = 0 and K = 1 tunneling splittings, which is in excellent agreement with our calculated result. Other splittings we predict, in particular those of N2-H2O, may guide future experiments.

  2. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of energy harness utilizing vortex induced vibration over half cylinder using piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.

  3. Mechanisms of molecular electronic rectification through electronic levels with strong vibrational coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2002-01-01

    We present a new view and an analytical formalism of electron flow through a donor-acceptor molecule inserted between a pair of metal electrodes. The donor and acceptor levels are strongly coupled to an environmental nuclear continuum. The formalism applies to molecular donor-acceptor systems bot...

  4. Combining synchronous averaging with a Gaussian mixture model novelty detection scheme for vibration-based condition monitoring of a gearbox

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lw+1 pLw+2 ::: p2Lw ]T . This is repeated until rN=Lw signal segments have been obtained. The signal segments are collected in the matrix Xs, where Xs = [s1 s2 :::srN=Lw ]. Each column in Xs represents a pinion-gear meshing period. 4 A measure... of discrepancy (NLL value) will be computed for each column in Xs. The resulting NLL discrepancy signal will have a much lower sampling rate than the original vibration signal. The lower sampling rate reduces the computational burden of the algorithm, without...

  5. Effect of whole body vibration therapy on circulating serotonin levels in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiu-Shi; Huang, Li; Chen, Xian-Hong; Wang, Hai-Bin; Sun, Wei-Shan; Huo, Shao-Chuan; Li, Zi-Qi; Deng, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported that whole body vibration (WBV) played a vital role in bone remodeling. Circulating serotonin is also involved in negative regulating bone mass in rodents and humans. However, both WBV and inhibition of serotonin biosynthesis may suppress receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of WBV therapy on the levels of serum serotonin in ovariectomized rats. Thirty-six-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 276.15±37.75 g were ovariectomized to induce osteoporosis, and another ten rats underwent sham operation to establish sham control (SHAM) group. After 3 months, ovariectomized rats were divided into three subgroups and then separately treated with WBV, Alendronate (ALN) and normal saline (OVX), SHAM group was given normal saline. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed. Serum serotonin, RANKL, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength were evaluated. The serum serotonin level was significantly lower in WBV group than OVX and ALN groups (P<0.05 and P<0.001). RANKL levels significantly decreased in WBV and ALN groups compared to OVX group (P<0.001 for both). BMD and biomechanical parameters of femur significantly increased (P<0.05 for both) and bone turnover levels decreased (P<0.001 for both) in WBV group compared to OVX group. These data indicated that WBV enhanced the bone strength and BMD in ovariectomized rats most likely by reducing the levels of circulating serotonin.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  7. Estimating the vibration level of an L-shaped beam using power flow techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Mccollum, M.; Rassineux, J. L.; Gilbert, T.

    1986-01-01

    The response of one component of an L-shaped beam, with point force excitation on the other component, is estimated using the power flow method. The transmitted power from the source component to the receiver component is expressed in terms of the transfer and input mobilities at the excitation point and the joint. The response is estimated both in narrow frequency bands, using the exact geometry of the beams, and as a frequency averaged response using infinite beam models. The results using this power flow technique are compared to the results obtained using finite element analysis (FEA) of the L-shaped beam for the low frequency response and to results obtained using statistical energy analysis (SEA) for the high frequencies. The agreement between the FEA results and the power flow method results at low frequencies is very good. SEA results are in terms of frequency averaged levels and these are in perfect agreement with the results obtained using the infinite beam models in the power flow method. The narrow frequency band results from the power flow method also converge to the SEA results at high frequencies. The advantage of the power flow method is that detail of the response can be retained while reducing computation time, which will allow the narrow frequency band analysis of the response to be extended to higher frequencies.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-10-09

    Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.

  9. Structure-based sampling and self-correcting machine learning for accurate calculations of potential energy surfaces and vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dral, Pavlo O.; Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Thiel, Walter

    2017-06-01

    We present an efficient approach for generating highly accurate molecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) using self-correcting, kernel ridge regression (KRR) based machine learning (ML). We introduce structure-based sampling to automatically assign nuclear configurations from a pre-defined grid to the training and prediction sets, respectively. Accurate high-level ab initio energies are required only for the points in the training set, while the energies for the remaining points are provided by the ML model with negligible computational cost. The proposed sampling procedure is shown to be superior to random sampling and also eliminates the need for training several ML models. Self-correcting machine learning has been implemented such that each additional layer corrects errors from the previous layer. The performance of our approach is demonstrated in a case study on a published high-level ab initio PES of methyl chloride with 44 819 points. The ML model is trained on sets of different sizes and then used to predict the energies for tens of thousands of nuclear configurations within seconds. The resulting datasets are utilized in variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels of CH3Cl. By using both structure-based sampling and self-correction, the size of the training set can be kept small (e.g., 10% of the points) without any significant loss of accuracy. In ab initio rovibrational spectroscopy, it is thus possible to reduce the number of computationally costly electronic structure calculations through structure-based sampling and self-correcting KRR-based machine learning by up to 90%.

  10. Analysis and wafer-level design of a high-order silicon vibration isolator for resonating MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil; Perkins, Noel C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and preliminary design, fabrication, and measurement for mechanical vibration-isolation platforms especially designed for resonating MEMS devices including gyroscopes. Important parameters for designing isolation platforms are specified and the first platform (in designs with cascaded multiple platforms) is crucial for improving vibration-isolation performance and minimizing side-effects on integrated gyroscopes. This isolation platform, made from a thick silicon wafer substrate for an environment-resistant MEMS package, incorporates the functionalities of a previous design including vacuum packaging and thermal resistance with no additional resources. This platform consists of platform mass, isolation beams, vertical feedthroughs, and bonding pads. Two isolation platform designs follow from two isolation beam designs: lateral clamped–clamped beams and vertical torsion beams. The beams function simultaneously as mechanical springs and electrical interconnects. The vibration-isolation platform can yield a multi-dimensional, high-order mechanical low pass filter. The isolation platform possesses eight interconnects within a 12.2 × 12.2 mm 2 footprint. The contact resistance ranges from 4–11 Ω depending on the beam design. Vibration measurements using a laser-Doppler vibrometer demonstrate that the lateral vibration-isolation platform suppresses external vibration having frequencies exceeding 2.1 kHz.

  11. Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate in Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Yu, Hui; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Background Alendronate (ALE) is a conventional drug used to treat osteoporosis. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been developed as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-magnitude WBV could enhance the protective effect of ALE on bone properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (SHAM, OVX+VEH, OVX+WBV, OVX + ALE, OVX+WBV+ALE). The level of WBV applied was 0.3 g at 45–55 Hz for 20 min/day, 5 day/week and for 3 months. ALE was administered in dose of 1 mg/Kg once a week. Every four weeks eight rats from each group were sacrificed and their blood and both tibiae were harvested. The expression of osteocalcin and CTX in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the tibiae were subjected to metaphyseal three-point bending and μCT analysis. Results Osteocalcin rose after ovariectomy and was not appreciably changed by either alendronate or WBV alone or in combination. Alendronate treatment significantly prevented an increase in CTX. WBV alone treatment did not alter this effect. Compared with the OVX+WBV group, nearly all tested indices such as the BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Conn.D were higher in the OVX+ALE group at week 12.Compared with the OVX+WBV group, certain tested indices such as BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, and Con.D, were higher in the OVX+WBV+ALE group at week 12. At week 12, tibiae treated with WBV+ALE exhibited a significantly higher Fmax compared to the OVX+VEH group, and a significant difference was also found in energy absorption between the OVX+WBV+ALE and OVX+VEH groups. Conclusions Compared with the WBV, ALE was more effective at preventing bone loss and improved the trabecular architecture. However, WBV enhanced the effect of alendronate in ovariectomized rats by inducing further improvements in trabecular architecture. PMID:24796785

  12. Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1α and VEGF mRNA abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations.

  13. Combination treatment with whole body vibration and a kidney-tonifying herbal Fufang prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiu-shi; Wang, Hai-bin; Wang, Jun-ling; Fang, Bin; Zhou, Guang-quan; Tan, Xin; He, Wei; Deng, Wei-min

    2015-02-01

    To assess the ability of whole body vibration (WBV) with the kidney-tonifying herbal Fufang (Bushen Zhuanggu Granules, BZG) to prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Fifty 6-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX with WBV (OVX + WBV), OVX with BZG (OVX + BZG), OVX with both WBV and BZG (OVX + WBV + BZG). The SHAM group received normal saline. After 12 weeks of treatment, the rats were killed, their serum concentrations of osteopontin (OPN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RANKL and bone turnover markers assayed and bone mineral density (BMD), histomorphometry and bone strength evaluated. Concentrations of OPN were significantly lower in the SHAM, OVX + WBV and OVX + WBV + BZG groups at 12 weeks, whereas concentrations of RANKL had decreased significantly in the SHAM, OVX + WBV, OVX + BZG and OVX + WBV + BZG groups. In the OVX + WBV, OVX + BZG and OVX + WBV + BZG groups the amount of bone turnover had been significantly antagonized. Compared with OVX group, BMD, % trabecular area (Tb.Ar), number of trabeculae (Tb.N) and assessed biomechanical variables were higher in OVX+WBV group, whereas and BMD, %Tb.Ar, Tb.N, maximal load and yield load were higher in the OVX + BZG group. All tested indices were significantly lower in the OVX + WBV and OVX + BZG groups than in the OVX + WBV + BZG group. Either WBV or BZG alone prevents OVX-induced bone loss. However, BZG enhances the effect of WBV by further enhancing BMD, bone architecture and strength. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Long-term effects of whole-body vibration training in high-level female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, J; Terrados, N; Suman, O

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) training on the jumping capabilities of high-level female basketball players. A 12-week WBV program was applied to 10 national and international level female basketball players. They were randomly distributed into a control group (CG: 23.2±3.96 years, 69.64±11.17 kg, 179.7±7.96 cm) and an experimental group (VG: 24.0±2.65 years, 70.17±9.86 kg, 181.9±10.83 cm). In order to determine the effects of the WBV program on the jumping capabilities of the subjects, the following tests were used: SJ, CMJ, ACMVJ, and 15-seconds maximal jump. In the SJ test, the CG significantly increased from 455.4±25.91 to 476.6±26.6 ms (+4.42%; P=0.05), while the VG also increased significantly from 455±15.62 to 478.33±16.56 ms (+5.13%; P=0.02). In the CMJ test, the CG significantly increased from 470.2±12.15 to 496±23.38 ms (+5.49%; P=0.04), while the VG remained unchanged: 472±15.62 to 474.67±8.74 ms (+0.76%). In the ACMVJ test, the CG increased from 514±37.67 to 520±15.5 ms (+1.42%), while the VG decreased from 515±31.43 to 510.33±16.56 ms (-0.77%). In the 15-seconds jump test, the CG increased from 459±23.48 to 481.6±15.53 ms (+5.15%), while the VG increased from 464±36.66 to 471±33.96 ms (+1.6%). In this same test, the power generated by the CG increased from 20.01±1.84 to 22.14±2.21 W/kg (+11.12%), while the VG increased from 17.28±2.39 to 22.21±5.82 W/kg (+29.7%). WBV has no extra appreciable effect or benefit on the jumping capabilities of high-level female basketball players compared to regular strength training methods.

  15. Vibration mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.

  16. Comparative Study of Reducing the Vibration Level of a Cylindrical Gear Transmissions by Increasing the Manufacturing Precision of the Gears, Respective by Applying of Fluoropolymer Coating on the Gear Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Korka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current trend in the construction of gearboxes, regarding the speed increase, favors the increase of the dynamic loads and, consequentially of the vibration level. Therefore, the vibration reduction of gear transmissions finds a growing interest, representing an element of fight against environmental pollution.

  17. GPM, DPR, GMI Level 2B Level-2 DPR and GMI Combined V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2BCMB product uses data from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radars and GMI, determining the precipitation structure that best fits the combined data from these...

  18. Vibration in car repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E

    1987-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.

  19. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I-Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H217O and H218O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Carleer, Michel R.; Csaszar, Attila G.; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Jenouvrier, Alain; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Toth, Robert A.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Daumont, Ludovic; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Mikhailenko, Semen N.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependence and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. The present article contains energy levels and data for line positions of the singly substituted isotopologues H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O. The procedure and code MARVEL, standing for measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels, is used extensively in all stages of determining the validated levels and lines and their self-consistent uncertainties. The spectral regions covered for both isotopologues H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O are 0-17125cm -1 . The energy levels are checked against ones determined from accurate variational calculations. The number of critically evaluated and recommended levels and lines are, respectively, 2687 and 8614 for H 2 17 O, and 4839 and 29 364 for H 2 18 O. The extensive lists of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the Supplementary Material, as well as in a distributed information system applied to water, W-DIS, where they can easily be retrieved. A distinguishing feature of the present evaluation of water spectroscopic data is the systematic use of all available experimental data and validation by first-principles theoretical calculations.

  20. The combined use of scanning vibrating electrode technique and micro-potentiometry to assess the self-repair processes in defects on 'smart' coatings applied to galvanized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taryba, M.; Lamaka, S.V.; Snihirova, D.; Ferreira, M.G.S.; Montemor, M.F.; Wijting, W.K.; Toews, S.; Grundmeier, G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Weldable primers were modified with submicron containers loaded with corrosion inhibitors. → SVET and micro-potentiometry were used to study the corrosion inhibition ability. → Submicron containers do not damage the barrier properties of model primers. → Artificial defects of 50μm x 50 μm in a coating can be easily analyzed by SVET and SIET. → Inhibiting dissolution of sacrificial Zn may result in detrimental dissolution of Fe. - Abstract: Model weldable primer coatings for galvanized steel were modified with submicron containers loaded with corrosion inhibitors. This procedure aims at introducing a new functionality in the thin coatings self-repair ability. The assessment of this property demands new protocols and new approaches, combining conventional electrochemical methods with electrochemical and analytical techniques of micrometer spatial resolution. Thus, in this work model defects were created in the coatings by using a focused ion beam (FIB). The coated samples, containing the model defects, were immersed in a NaCl 0.05 M solution and the corrosion inhibition ability was studied using the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). SVET-SIET measurements were performed quasi-simultaneously. Qualitative chemical analysis was performed by SEM combined with EDS. Complementary studies were carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to assess the effect of the containers filled with corrosion inhibitors on the barrier properties of the coatings. The electrochemical results highlight the importance of the combined use of integral and localized electrochemical techniques to extract information for a better understanding of the corrosion processes and corresponding repair of active microscopic defects formed on thin coatings containing inhibitor filled containers.

  1. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H 2 O 2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H 2 O 2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H 2 O 2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. (author)

  2. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  3. Spectroscopy and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H.L. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Spectroscopy, energy transfer and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules are studied through a combination of laser-based excitation techniques and efficient detection of emission from the energized molecules with frequency and time resolution. Specifically, a Time-resolved Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy technique has been developed for detecting dispersed laser-induced fluorescence in the IR, visible and UV regions. The structure and spectroscopy of the excited vibrational levels in the electronic ground state, as well as energy relaxation and reactions induced by specific vibronic excitations of a transient molecule can be characterized from time-resolved dispersed fluorescence in the visible and UV region. IR emissions from highly vibrational excited levels, on the other hand, reveal the pathways and rates of collision induced vibrational energy transfer.

  4. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational–vibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H216O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Fábri, Csaba; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    This is the third of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational–vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents experimental line positions, experimental-quality energy levels, and validated labels for rotational–vibrational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue of water, H 2 16 O. The latest version of the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational–Vibrational Energy Levels) line-inversion procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels of the electronic ground state of H 2 16 O from experimentally measured lines, together with their self-consistent uncertainties, for the spectral region up to the first dissociation limit. The spectroscopic network of H 2 16 O containstwo components, an ortho (o) and a para (p) one. For o-H 2 16 O and p-H 2 16 O, experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions were analyzed from more than 100 sources. The measured lines come from one-photon spectra recorded at room temperature in absorption, from hot samples with temperatures up to 3000 K recorded in emission, and from multiresonance excitation spectra which sample levels up to dissociation. The total number of transitions considered is 184 667 of which 182 156 are validated: 68 027 between para states and 114 129 ortho ones. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H 2 16 O and p-H 2 16 O, respectively. The energy levels, including their labeling with approximate normal-mode and rigid-rotor quantum numbers, have been checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators as well as against previous compilations of energy levels. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the supplementary data of this paper, as well as in a

  5. Design and test on vibration reduction for knife driving device of combine harvester%联合收获机切割器驱动装置减振设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 马广; 吕彭民; 陈霓

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the knife driving system of combine harvester,a slider-crank mechanism with a simple structure is used for driving the cutter bar.A low-cost balance mass is generally used in this mechanism to offset the unbalanced force for vibration reduction.The vibration characteristics of the knife driving system should be clarified in order to develop a method to reduce the vibration.Furthermore,it is necessary to develop a design theory of the knife driving system of combine harvesters in order to derive the control parameters of the balance weights used for vibration reduction. The mechanical model of the knife driving device that is equipped with a slider-crank mechanism was constructed in order to derive the control parameters of the balance weights,such as the mass and the location of the balance mass.The simulation conditions of the model,which reflect the condition of the actual combine harvester, are listed.The angular velocity was equivalent to the rotation number of the crank wheel and was around 73 rad/s (700 r/min)in the clockwise direction.Vibration experiment was done with the type 4LZS-1.8 combine harvester. The vibration acceleration was measured using the preprocessing and cutting device of the actual combine harvester (the divider and conveying unit did not work;only the knife driving system worked).The interval time in calculation was set to 1 ms according to the sampling time of the measurement of the acceleration.The simulated inertia force was compared with measured acceleration in time series in order to evaluate the vibration model of the knife driving system.In the state without a balance mass,the simulation could express the vibration of the knife driving system well by comparing it with the measured acceleration.Consequently,this mechanical model could express the vibration characteristics of the knife driving system.The root mean square (RMS) value of the inertia force was simulated in the state with the balance mass in order to examine

  6. Combining vibrational linear-by-part dynamics and kinetic-based decoupling of the dynamics for multiple elastoplastic smooth impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjau, Ana, E-mail: ana.barjau@upc.edu; Batlle, Joaquim A., E-mail: agullo.batlle@upc.edu; Font-Llagunes, Josep M., E-mail: josep.m.font@upc.edu [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Research Centre (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    This article proposes a linear-by-part approach for elastoplastic 3D multiple-point smooth impacts in multibody systems with perfect constraints. The model is an extension of a previous version, restricted to the perfectly elastic case, able to account for the high sensitivity to initial conditions and for redundancy without assuming any particular collision sequence (Barjau et al., Multibody Syst. Dyn. 31:497–517, 2014). Energy losses associated with compression and expansion in percussive analysis is a matter as complex as the physical phenomena involved, at the nanoscale level, for different materials. Simplified models can be developed for specific purposes, which can retain the most relevant trends of internal damping and at the same time be suitable for a particular analytical approach of impact mechanics. In the context of this article, energy dissipation due to material deformation is introduced through a linear-by-part elastoplastic model consisting on two elementary sets of springs and dry-friction dampers. The first set accounts for inelastic behavior (energy loss without permanent indentation), whereas the second one introduces plasticity (that is, permanent indentation). In inelastic and plastic collisions, instantaneous unilateral constraints may appear, thus reducing the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. The calculation of the corresponding normal contact force at the constrained points is then necessary in order to detect whether the constraint holds or disappears (either because a new compression or an expansion phase starts, or because contact is lost). Different simulated application examples are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  7. An effective parameter optimization technique for vibration flow field characterization of PP melts via LS-SVM combined with SALS in an electromagnetism dynamic extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    A method for predicting the optimal vibration field parameters by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is presented in this paper. One convenient and commonly used technique for characterizing the the vibration flow field of polymer melts films is small angle light scattering (SALS) in a visualized slit die of the electromagnetism dynamic extruder. The optimal value of vibration vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and the maximum light intensity projection area can be obtained by using LS-SVM for prediction. For illustrating this method and show its validity, the flowing material is used with polypropylene (PP) and fifteen samples are tested at the rotation speed of screw at 36rpm. This paper first describes the apparatus of SALS to perform the experiments, then gives the theoretical basis of this new method, and detail the experimental results for parameter prediction of vibration flow field. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of SALS and obtain detailed information on optimal parameter of vibration flow field of PP melts by LS-SVM.

  8. Spectroscopic parameters, vibrational levels, transition dipole moments and transition probabilities of the 9 low-lying states of the NCl+ cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2018-03-01

    This work calculates the potential energy curves of 9 Λ-S and 28 Ω states of the NCl+ cation. The technique employed is the complete active space self-consistent field method, which is followed by the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the Davidson correction. The Λ-S states are X2Π, 12Σ+, 14Π, 14Σ+, 14Σ-, 24Π, 14Δ, 16Σ+, and 16Π, which are yielded from the first two dissociation channels of NCl+ cation. The Ω states are generated from these Λ-S states. The 14Π, 14Δ, 16Σ+, and 16Π states are inverted with the spin-orbit coupling effect included. The 14Σ+, 16Σ+, and 16Π states are very weakly bound, whose well depths are only several-hundred cm- 1. One avoided crossing of PECs occurs between the 12Σ+ and 22Σ+ states. To improve the quality of potential energy curves, core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are included. The potential energies are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The spectroscopic parameters and vibrational levels are calculated. The transition dipole moments are computed. The Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes of many transitions are determined. The spectroscopic approaches are proposed for observing these states according to the transition probabilities. The spin-orbit coupling effect on the spectroscopic and vibrational properties is evaluated. The spectroscopic parameters, vibrational levels, transition dipole moments, as well as transition probabilities reported in this paper could be considered to be very reliable.

  9. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  10. Cross sections for the vibrational excitation of the H2 X 1Σ+g(v) levels generated by electron collisional excitation of the higher singlet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation cross sections, σ(v,v double-prime), for an H 2 molecule initially in any one of the 15 vibrational levels, v belonging to the ground electronic state and excited to a final vibrational level, v double-prime are evaluated for direct excitations via all members of the excited electronic singlet spectrum. Account is taken of predissociation, autoionization, and radiative decay of the excited electronic spectrum that leads to a final population distribution for the ground electronic state, X 1 Σ + g (v double-prime). For v=0, account is taken explicitly of transitions via the B, C, B', and D electronic states in evaluating the cross sections. The additional contribution of excitations via all Rydberg states lying above the D state enhances these cross sections by approximately 10%. For v>0, cross sections are evaluated taking explicit account of transitions through the B and C states; higher singlet excitations enhance these values by 25%. The choice of the reference total cross sections remains a subjective one, causing the values calculated here to have a possible uncertainty of +20% -30% . For excitations occurring within a hydrogen discharge, collisional excitation-ionization events among the intermediate singlet states will effectively quench the v, v double-prime excitation process for discharge densities in excess of the range 10 15 --10 16 electrons/cm -3

  11. Evaluation of mechanical vibration effect on the residual stresses levels in steel welded joints using an Interface Matlab based on Norm API 579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays with the high growth of petrochemical welding technology a great development due to high manufacturing offshore structures, storage tanks of petroleum, boilers and pressure vessels for refining plants have been done. Due to various metallurgical changes and restrictions to contraction and expansion undergone by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, internal stresses are generated in welded joint which are nominated residual stresses. It is generally undesirable because it can lead to several problems, such as cracks, cold stress fracture, stress corrosion, among others. Although several studies involving residual stresses have been developed in recent years, few information about the variation of the residual stresses level in welded joints when subjected to stress relief treatment by mechanical vibration have been done. Likewise, there are few information related to the comparison between the degree of efficiency by using the post-weld heat treatment and those treatment. Therefore, the goal of this work was to apply the relieve residual stresses treatment by mechanical vibration in steel welded joints used in oil industry, and compare the results with those obtained by post heat treatment and evaluate the efficiency level of this technique In addition, this works also hope to contribute for a better understanding of this technique and to find which parameters have a greater influence on the results.

  12. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In   this   paper   we   describe   a   field   study   conducted   with   a   wearable   vibration   belt   where   we   test   to   determine   the   vibration   intensity   sensitivity   ranges   on   a   large   diverse   group   of   participants   with   evenly   distributed  ages  and...

  13. Treatment of Distal Ureteral Calculi Using Extracorporeal Physical Vibrational Lithecbole Combined with Tamsulosin: A New Option to Speed Up Obstruction Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanlin; Cheng, Yue; Wu, Weijie; Jia, Xiaolong; Hu, Jiasheng; Xie, Guohai; Chen, Xueqin

    2018-02-01

    The obstruction of the urinary tract by calculi at the narrowest anatomical areas leads to impaired drainage and severe pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new technology, extracorporeal physical vibrational lithecbole (EPVL) combined with tamsulosin, as a treatment for distal ureteral calculi (DUC). Between July 2013 and July 2014, 672 patients diagnosed with DUC were randomly divided into three groups; a group receiving EPVL plus 0.4 mg oral tamsulosin daily (PO qd) (experimental group, n = 236), a group receiving 0.4 mg tamsulosin PO qd (n = 222), and a group receiving EPVL only (n = 214) (control groups). There were no significant differences in general characteristics between the three groups. Stone diameters ranged from 0.32 to 1 cm. In the EPVL plus tamsulosin group, 60.1% of patients showed detectable fragment expulsion at 48 hours, and 91.1% were stone free at 7 days. Compared with the two control groups, these rates were significantly higher (EPVL group was 0% and 50.5% and medical expulsive therapy group was 0% and 50.0%, p  0.05). Patients in the EPVL plus tamsulosin group achieved similar stone-free rates compared with the other two groups, but the speed of the stone expulsion was quicker for both sexes and all age groups (about a week; p tamsulosin could be used as an effective, but faster treatment option for patients with DUC, alleviating the symptoms of DUC in a shorter period of time.

  14. Combined effects of ultrasonic vibration and manganese on Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds and mechanical properties of Al-17Si alloy with 3wt.%Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research studied the combined effects of ultrasonic vibration (USV and manganese on the Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds and mechanical properties of Al-17Si-3Fe-2Cu-1Ni (wt.% alloys. The results showed that, without USV, the alloys with 0.4wt.% Mn or 0.8wt.% Mn both contain a large amount of coarse plate-like δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 phase and long needle-like β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase. When the Mn content changes from 0.4wt.% to 0.8wt.% in the alloys, the amount and the length of needle-like β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase decrease and the plate-like δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 phase becomes much coarser. After USV treatment, the Fe-containing compounds in the alloys are refined and exist mainly as δ-Al4(Fe,MnSi2 particles with an average grain size of about 20 μm, and only a small amount of β-Al5(Fe,MnSi phase remains. With USV treatment, the ultimate tensile strengths (UTS of the alloys containing 0.4wt.%Mn and 0.8wt.%Mn at room temperature are 253 MPa and 262 MPa, respectively, and the ultimate tensile strengths at 350 °C are 129 MPa and 135 MPa, respectively. It is considered that the modified morphology and uniform distribution of the Fe-containing inter-metallic compounds, which are caused by the USV process, are the main reasons for the increase in the tensile strength of these two alloys.

  15. Corrosion and wear behavior of Ni60CuMoW coatings fabricated by combination of laser cladding and mechanical vibration processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongxi, E-mail: piiiliuhx@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Qian [Faculty of Adult Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650051 (China); Wang, Chuanqi; Zhang, Xiaowei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Ni60CuMoW coatings were fabricated by mechanical vibration assisted laser cladding hybrid process. • The maximum micro-hardness of the coating with mechanical vibration increases by 16%. • The mass loss and friction coefficient of the coating decreases by 17% and 16%, respectively. • The E{sub corr} positive shifts 1134.9 mV and i{sub corr} decreases by nearly one order of magnitude. • The ideal vibration parameters is vibration frequency 200 Hz and vibration amplitude 140 μm. - Abstract: Ni60CuMoW composite coatings were fabricated on 45 medium carbon steel using mechanical vibration assisted laser cladding surface modification processing. The microstructure, element distribution, phase composition, microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance of cladding coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), hardness tester, friction and wear apparatus and electrochemical workstation. The results indicate that the microstructure of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} or (Fe, Ni){sub 23}C{sub 6}) carbide dispersion strengthening phase is uniformly distributed in eutectic (Ni, Fe) phase. The in-situ BCr and MoC compounds distribute in lamellar structure Fe{sub 3}B and dendrite Fe{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Si, and some new W{sub 2}C phases also generated in Ni60CuMoW coating. In addition, the coarse dendrite has been replaced by some fine grain structure at the bonding interface. The fine grain hard phase makes the average microhardness of cladding coating increase from 720 to 835 HV{sub 0.5}. Under the condition of 200 Hz mechanical vibration frequency, the wear mass loss and friction coefficient of Ni60CuMoW coating are 7.6 mg and 0.068, 17% and 16% lower than the coating without mechanical vibration, respectively. The corrosion potential of cladding coating with mechanical vibration increases by 1134.9 mV and the corrosion current density decreases by nearly one order of

  16. Predicting Statistical Distributions of Footbridge Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers vibration response of footbridges to pedestrian loading. Employing Newmark and Monte Carlo simulation methods, a statistical distribution of bridge vibration levels is calculated modelling walking parameters such as step frequency and stride length as random variables...

  17. DESIGN OF THE THREE-LEVEL MULTICRITERIAL STRATEGY OF HYBRID MARINE POWER PLANT CONTROL FOR A COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Budashko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficiency of hybrid ships power plants (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC by various criteria for energy management systems strategies. Methodology. Based on the classification system topologies SPP CPC for mechanical, electrical and hybrid types of motors schematic diagrams of management strategies for the criterion of minimum power consumption are defined. Changing the technical component of the traditional approach to building hybrid ships electric power systems (SEPS SPP CPC the principle of modifying the structure of SEPS is applied with the integration of additional static alternative power source as dynamic reserve, which allowed to meet modern requirements for energy efficiency, levels of vibration, noise and degradation effects produced to SPP CPC, in all areas of the energy for the transfer of power from energy to propellers. Modeling of power transmission of energy to propellers in MatLab/Simulink is conducted, using blocks of optimization library and definition of identity markers. Results. Major advantages and disadvantages SPP CPC depending on the topology of energy distribution systems are determined. According to the chosen structure system electricity characteristics were obtained in the process of power transmission SPP CPC and power systems and their control strategies in terms of increased efficiency and eliminate these drawbacks. And finally, mathematical apparatus for research in terms of the development of methods for designing and managing SPP hybrid CPC to reduced fuel consumption, emissions into the environment and improving maintainability, flexibility and comfort level are improved. Originality. The methodology for improving SPP CPC implementation by developing methods of identification markers mutually influencing processes in SPP CPC and the development of implementing these methods of settlement and information systems. Practical value. The method enables iterative optimization parameters SPP CPC, it

  18. The combined resonance tunneling and semi-resonance level in low energy D-D reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Jin Dezhe; Chang Lee

    1993-01-01

    When nuclear potential wells are connected by an atomic potential well, a new kind of tunneling may happen even if there is no virtual energy level in nuclear potential wells. The necessary condition for this combined resonance tunneling is the resonance in the atomic potential well. Thus, the nuclear reaction may be affected by the action in atomic scale in terms of combined resonance tunneling. The nuclear spectrum data support this idea. (author)

  19. Calculations of the electronic levels, spin-Hamiltonian parameters and vibrational spectra for the CrCl{sub 3} layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avram, C.N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Gruia, A.S., E-mail: adigruia@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Barb, A.M. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania)

    2015-12-01

    Calculations of the Cr{sup 3+} energy levels, spin-Hamiltonian parameters and vibrational spectra for the layered CrCl{sub 3} crystals are reported for the first time. The crystal field parameters and the energy level scheme were calculated in the framework of the Exchange Charge Model of crystal field. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters (zero-field splitting parameter D and g-factors) for Cr{sup 3+} ion in CrCl{sub 3} crystals were obtained using two independent techniques: i) semi-empirical crystal field theory and ii) density functional theory (DFT)-based model. In the first approach, the spin-Hamiltonian parameters were calculated from the perturbation theory method and the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method. The infrared (IR) and Raman frequencies were calculated for both experimental and fully optimized geometry of the crystal structure, using CRYSTAL09 software. The obtained results are discussed and compared with the experimental available data.

  20. Effects of Resistive Vibration Exercise Combined with Whey Protein and KHCO3 on Bone Tturnover Markers in Head-down Tilt Bed Rest (MTBR-MNX Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Sonja; Baecker, Natalie; Buehlmeier, Judith; Fischer, Annelie; Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

    2014-01-01

    High protein intake further increases bone resorption markers in head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR), most likely induced by low-grade metabolic acidosis. Adding an alkaline salt to a diet with high protein content prevents this additional rise of bone resorption markers in HDBR. In addition, high protein intake, specifically whey protein, increases muscle protein synthesis and improves glucose tolerance, which both are affected by HDBR. Resistive vibration exercise (RVE) training counteracts the inactivity-induced bone resorption during HDBR. To test the hypothesis that WP plus alkaline salt (KHCO3) together with RVE during HDBR will improve bone turnover markers, we conducted a randomized, three-campaign crossover design study with 12 healthy, moderately fit male subjects (age 34+/-8 y, body mass [BM] 70 +/- 8 kg). All study campaigns consisted of a 7-d ambulatory period, 21days of -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR), and a 6-d recovery period. Diet was standardized and identical across phases. In the control (CON) campaign, subjects received no supplement or RVE. In the intervention campaigns, subjects received either RVE alone or combined with WP and KHCO3 (NEX). WP was applied in 3 doses per day of 0.6 g WP/kg BM together with 6 doses of 15 mmol KHCO3 per day. Eleven subjects completed the RVE and CON campaign, 8 subjects completed all three campaigns. On day 21 of HDBR excretion of the bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (CTX) was 80+/-28% (p<0.001) higher than baseline, serum calcium concentrations increased by 12 +/- 29% (p<0.001) and serum osteocalcin concentrations decreased by 6+/-12% (p=0.001). Urinary CTX excretion was 11+/- 25% (p=0.02) lower on day 21 of HDBR in the RVE- and tended to decrease by 3+/- 22% (p=0.06) in the NEX campaign compared to CON. Urinary calcium excretion was higher on day 21 in HDBR in the RVE and NEX (24+/- 43% p=0.01; 25+/- 37% p=0.03) compared to the CON campaign. We conclude that combination of RVE with WP/KHCO3 was not

  1. Using piezo-electric material to simulate a vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Richard A.; Davie, Neil T.; Vangoethem, Douglas J.; Romero, Edward F.

    2010-12-14

    A target object can be vibrated using actuation that exploits the piezo-electric ("PE") property. Under combined conditions of vibration and centrifugal acceleration, a centrifugal load of the target object on PE vibration actuators can be reduced by using a counterweight that offsets the centrifugal loading. Target objects are also subjected to combinations of: spin, vibration, and acceleration; spin and vibration; and spin and acceleration.

  2. Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kettinger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate how these advance echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1 simple arithmetic averaging, (2 BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3 temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4 temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e. group-level t-values compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned.

  3. Combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jared G

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a major factor in the endangerment and extinction of species around the world. One promising strategy to balance continued habitat loss and biodiversity conservation is that of biodiversity offsets. However, a major concern with offset programs is their consistency with landscape-level conservation goals. While merging offset policies and landscape-level conservation planning is thought to provide advantages over a traditional disconnected approach, few such landscape-level conservation-offset plans have been designed and implemented, so the effectiveness of such a strategy remains uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively assess the conservation impact of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs by comparing regions of San Diego County, USA with the combined approach to regions with only an offset program. This comparison is generally very difficult due to a variety of complicating factors. We overcome these complications and quantify the benefits to rare and threatened species of implementing a combined approach by assessing the amount of each species' predicted distribution, and the number of documented locations, conserved in comparison to the same metric for areas with an offset policy alone. We found that adoption of the combined approach has increased conservation for many rare species, often 5-10 times more than in the comparison area, and that conservation has been focused in the areas most important for these species. The level of conservation achieved reduces uncertainty that these species will persist in the region into the future. This San Diego County example demonstrates the potential benefits of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs.

  4. A Combined Probe-Molecule, Mössbauer, Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory Approach for Evaluation of Potential Iron Active Sites in an Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneebone, Jared L. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Daifuku, Stephanie L. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kehl, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Wu, Gang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chung, Hoon T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hu, Michael Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alp, E. Ercan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); More, Karren L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holby, Edward F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Neidig, Michael L. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-07-06

    While non-precious metal M-N-C (M = Fe or Co) catalysts have been developed that are effective for the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, no consensus has yet been reached regarding the nature of the M sites in these heterogeneous catalysts that are responsible for reaction with dioxygen (O2). While multiple studies have developed correlations between Fe distributions in as-prepared catalysts and ORR activity, the direct identification of sites reactive towards O2 or O2-analog molecules remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we demonstrate a new approach to identifying and characterizing potential Fe active sites in complex ORR catalysts that combines an effective probe molecule (NO(g)) Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies demonstrate that NO(g) treatment of electrochemically reduced PANI-57Fe-C leads to selective reaction with only a sub-set of the Fe species present. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic studies identified new Fe-ligand vibrations associated with the site reactive towards NO(g). DFT calculations of vibrational properties of a small selection of previously proposed active site structures suggest that graphene zig-zag edge hosted Fe-N structures may be responsible for the observed vibrational behavior with NO(g) probe molecules. Moreover, such sites are likely also reactive to O2, possibly serving as the ORR active sites in the synthesized materials.

  5. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  6. Norwegian work on establishing a combined storage and disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency WATRP Review Team.

    1995-12-01

    The IAEA has, through its Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP), evaluated policies and facilities related to management of radioactive waste in Norway. It is concluded that the Himdalen site, in combination with the chosen engineering concept, can be suitable for the storage and disposal of the relatively small amounts of Norwegian low and intermediate level waste

  7. Quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy after dipyridamole infusion combined with low level exercise in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarman, G.J.; Niemeyer, M.G.; Ascoop, C.A.P.L.; Bruschke, A.V.G.; Wall, E.E. van der; Verzijlbergen, F.J.; Liam Go, T.

    1989-01-01

    To establish test specific normal limits for quantitative analysis of uptake and washout of 201 Tl after dipyridamole infusion combined with low level exercise, 20 healthy volunteers were studied with low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD) assessed by a stepwise probability analysis based on age, sex, symptoms, resting electrocardiogram, and exercise electrocardiography. Likelihood of CAD in these volunteers was calculated as ≤ 1%. After dipyridamole infusion combined with low level exercise, one volunteer complained of headache; no other side effects were observed. There were no chest pain complaints. Maximal hemodynamic changes were achieved during the 6th and 7th min of the test. No ST segment depression was recorded. Visual analysis of the 201 Tl scintigrams was normal in all volunteers. Mean regional washout at 4 h was 44.37%±2.11%. The regional washout in the 70 0 LAO view (46.65%±1.10%) was significantly higher than in the anterior and 30 0 LAO views (43.44%±1.50% and 43.02%±1.45%, respectively). Profiles of uptake and washout of 201 Tl were different after dipyridamole infusion combined with low level exercise as compared to maximal exercise. Thus, in quantitative analysis of 201 Tl scintigraphy after dipyridamole infusion in conjunction with low level exercise as applied in the present study, it is mandatory to use normal limits of uptake and washout of 201 Tl derived from healthy volunteers who underwent the same combined protocol. (orig.)

  8. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  9. Effects of dual combinations of antifolates with atovaquone or dapsone on nucleotide levels in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, A E; Seymour, K K; Rieckmann, K H; Christopherson, R I

    1997-04-04

    The triazine antifolates, cycloguanil and 4,6-diamino-1,2-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-1-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propy loxy]-1,3,5-triazine hydrobromide (WR99210), and their parent biguanide compounds, proguanil and N-[3-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propyloxy]-n-(1-methylethyl)-imido dicarbonimidic-diamine hydrochloride (PS-15), were tested in combination with a series of antimalarial drugs for synergism against Plasmodium falciparum growing in erythrocytic culture. Four synergistic combinations were found: cycloguanil dapsone, WR99210-dapsone, proguanil-atovaquone, and PS-15-atovaquone. Cycloguanil-dapsone or WR99210-dapsone had a profound suppressive effect on the concentration of dTTP in parasites while that of dATP increased. Depletion of dTTP is consistent with cycloguanil or WR99210 inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase and dapsone inhibiting dihydropteroate synthase. For the combinations proguanil-atovaquone and PS-15-atovaquone, the levels of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) and dNTPs were generally suppressed, suggesting that inhibition is not through nucleotide pathways but probably through another metabolic mechanism(s). Combinations of two synergistic pairs of antimalarial drugs, (proguanil-atovaquone)-(cycloguanil-dapsone) and (PS-15-atovaquone)-(WR99210-dapsone), were tested, and it was found that NTPs and dNTPs decreased much more than for a single synergistic combination. Dual synergistic combinations could play an important role in the therapy of multidrug-resistant malaria, just as combination chemotherapy is used to treat cancer.

  10. A reduced-scaling density matrix-based method for the computation of the vibrational Hessian matrix at the self-consistent field level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmann, Jörg; Luenser, Arne; Beer, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method to calculate the molecular vibrational Hessian matrix at the self-consistent field level is presented. By analysis of the multipole expansions of the relevant derivatives of Coulomb-type two-electron integral contractions, we show that the effect of the perturbation on the electronic structure due to the displacement of nuclei decays at least as r −2 instead of r −1 . The perturbation is asymptotically local, and the computation of the Hessian matrix can, in principle, be performed with O(N) complexity. Our implementation exhibits linear scaling in all time-determining steps, with some rapid but quadratic-complexity steps remaining. Sample calculations illustrate linear or near-linear scaling in the construction of the complete nuclear Hessian matrix for sparse systems. For more demanding systems, scaling is still considerably sub-quadratic to quadratic, depending on the density of the underlying electronic structure

  11. Investigation of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in the digestive organs of the rabbit under the combined influence of vibration, acceleration and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuy, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    During spaceflight, the organism is subjected to the influence of various extremal factors such as acceleration, vibration, irradiation, etc. The study of the influence of these factors on metabolism, especially carbohydrate and protein metabolism, in young rabbits is of great significance in simulation experiments. Dynamic factors and irradiation, depending on dose and duration, lead to reduced RNA and protein metabolism.

  12. Lightweight Vehicle and Driver’s Whole-Body Models for Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MdSah, Jamali; Taha, Zahari; Azwan Ismail, Khairul

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle vibration is a main factor for driving fatigue, discomfort and health problems. The ability to simulate the vibration characteristics in the vehicle and its effects on driver’s whole-body vibration will give significant advantages to designers especially on the vehicle development time and cost. However, it is difficult to achieve optimal condition of ride comfort and handling when using passive suspension system. This paper presents mathematical equations that can be used to describe the vibration characteristics of a lightweight electric vehicle that had been developed. The vehicle’s model was combined with the lumped-parameter model of driver to determine the whole-body vibration level when the vehicle is passing over a road hump using Matlab Simulink. The models were simulated at a constant speed and the results were compared with the experimental data. The simulated vibration level at the vehicle floor and seat were almost similar to the experimental vibration results. The suspension systems that are being used for the solar vehicle are able to reduce the vibration level due to the road hump. The models can be used to simulate and choose the optimal parameters for the suspensions.

  13. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The importance of accurate adiabatic interaction potentials for the correct description of electronically nonadiabatic vibrational energy transfer: A combined experimental and theoretical study of NO(v = 3) collisions with a Au(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golibrzuch, Kai; Shirhatti, Pranav R.; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M.; Bartels, Christof [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg August University of Göttingen, Göttingen 37077 (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen 37077 (Germany); Rahinov, Igor [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, Ra' anana 4353701 (Israel); Auerbach, Daniel J. [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg August University of Göttingen, Göttingen 37077 (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen 37077 (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of NO(v = 3 → 3, 2, 1) scattering from a Au(111) surface at incidence translational energies ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 eV. Experimentally, molecular beam–surface scattering is combined with vibrational overtone pumping and quantum-state selective detection of the recoiling molecules. Theoretically, we employ a recently developed first-principles approach, which employs an Independent Electron Surface Hopping (IESH) algorithm to model the nonadiabatic dynamics on a Newns-Anderson Hamiltonian derived from density functional theory. This approach has been successful when compared to previously reported NO/Au scattering data. The experiments presented here show that vibrational relaxation probabilities increase with incidence energy of translation. The theoretical simulations incorrectly predict high relaxation probabilities at low incidence translational energy. We show that this behavior originates from trajectories exhibiting multiple bounces at the surface, associated with deeper penetration and favored (N-down) molecular orientation, resulting in a higher average number of electronic hops and thus stronger vibrational relaxation. The experimentally observed narrow angular distributions suggest that mainly single-bounce collisions are important. Restricting the simulations by selecting only single-bounce trajectories improves agreement with experiment. The multiple bounce artifacts discovered in this work are also present in simulations employing electronic friction and even for electronically adiabatic simulations, meaning they are not a direct result of the IESH algorithm. This work demonstrates how even subtle errors in the adiabatic interaction potential, especially those that influence the interaction time of the molecule with the surface, can lead to an incorrect description of electronically nonadiabatic vibrational energy transfer in molecule-surface collisions.

  16. Vibrating minds

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  18. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  19. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2017-05-24

    Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.

  20. Analysis Method of Combine Harvesters Technical Level by Functional and Structural Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Zhalnin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern methods of evaluation of the grain harvesters technical level revealed a discrepancy in various criteria: comparative parameters, dimensionless series, the names of firms, the power of the motor, the width of the capture of the harvester, the capacity at the location of the manufacturer plant, advertising brands. (Purpose of research This led to a variety in the name of harvester models, which significantly complicates the assessment of their technical level, complicates the choice of agricultural necessary to him fashion, does not give the perception of the continuity of the change of generations of combines, makes it impossible to analyze trends in their development, does not disclose the technological essence of a model, but - most importantly - combines can not be compared with each other. The figures in the name of the harvester model are not related functionally to the main parameters and performance capabilities. (Materials and methods The close correlation in the form of a linear equation between their design parameters and the capacity of combines was revealed. Verification of this equation in the process of operation of the combine showed that it statistically stable and the estimates are always within the confidence interval with an error of 5-8 percent. It was found that four parameters of the variety of factors, that affect the performance of the harvester per hour net time, having most close correlation with it are: the motor power and the square of the separation concave, straw walkers and sieves for cleaning. (Results and discussion On the basis of the revealed correlation dependence we proposed a new method of assessment of the technical level of combines, which is based on the throughput (kg/s of the wetted material and the size series, indicating the nominal productivity of the combine in centners of grain harvested in 1 hour of basic time. The methodological background and mathematical apparatus

  1. Computing the dynamics of biomembranes by combining conservative level set and adaptive finite element methods

    OpenAIRE

    Laadhari , Aymen; Saramito , Pierre; Misbah , Chaouqi

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The numerical simulation of the deformation of vesicle membranes under simple shear external fluid flow is considered in this paper. A new saddle-point approach is proposed for the imposition of the fluid incompressibility and the membrane inextensibility constraints, through Lagrange multipliers defined in the fluid and on the membrane respectively. Using a level set formulation, the problem is approximated by mixed finite elements combined with an automatic adaptive ...

  2. Representation and Integration: Combining Robot Control, High-Level Planning, and Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Ronald; Kraft, Dirk; Mourao, Kira

    We describe an approach to integrated robot control, high-level planning, and action effect learning that attempts to overcome the representational difficulties that exist between these diverse areas. Our approach combines ideas from robot vision, knowledgelevel planning, and connectionist machine......-level action specifications, suitable for planning, from a robot’s interactions with the world. We present a detailed overview of our approach and show how it supports the learning of certain aspects of a high-level lepresentation from low-level world state information....... learning, and focuses on the representational needs of these components.We also make use of a simple representational unit called an instantiated state transition fragment (ISTF) and a related structure called an object-action complex (OAC). The goal of this work is a general approach for inducing high...

  3. Low level light in combination with metabolic modulators for effective therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Zhang, Qi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-03-01

    Vascular damage occurs frequently at the injured brain causing hypoxia and is associated with poor outcomes in the clinics. We found high levels of glycolysis, reduced ATP generation, and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in neurons under hypoxia. Strikingly, these adverse events were reversed significantly by noninvasive exposure of injured brain to low-level light (LLL). LLL illumination sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential, constrained cytochrome C leakage in hypoxic cells, and protected them from apoptosis, underscoring a unique property of LLL. The effect of LLL was further bolstered by combination with metabolic substrates such as pyruvate or lactate both in vivo and in vitro. The combinational treatment retained memory and learning activities of injured mice to a normal level, whereas those treated with LLL or pyruvate alone, or sham light displayed partial or severe deficiency in these cognitive functions. In accordance with well-protected learning and memory function, the hippocampal region primarily responsible for learning and memory was completely protected by a combination of LLL and pyruvate, in marked contrast to the severe loss of hippocampal tissue due to secondary damage in control mice. These data clearly suggest that energy metabolic modulators can additively or synergistically enhance the therapeutic effect of LLL in energy-producing insufficient tissues like injured brain. Keywords:

  4. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area, muscle force, and jump performance during 6 weeks of progressive whole-body vibration combined with progressive, high intensity resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, A.; Beijer, Å.; Johannes, B.; Schoenau, E.; Mester, J.; Rittweger, J.; Zange, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We hypothesized that progressive whole-body vibration (WBV) superimposed to progressive high intensity resistance training has greater effects on muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle force of leg muscles, and jump performance than progressive high intensity resistance training alone. Methods: Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either 6 weeks of Resistive Vibration Exercise (RVE, squats and heel raises with WBV, n=13) or Resistive Exercise (RE, squats and heel raises without WBV, n=13). Squats under RVE required indispensable weight loading on the forefoot to damp harmful vibrations to the head. Time, intervention, and interaction effects were analyzed. Results: After 6 weeks of training, knee extensor CSA, isometric knee extension force, and counter movement jump height increased equally in both groups (time effect, P<0.001, P≤0.02, and P≤0.03, respectively), whereas only in RVE ankle plantar flexor CSA and isometric ankle plantar flexion force reached significance or a tendency, respectively, (time effect, P=0.015 and P=0.069, respectively; intervention effect also for the latter, P=0.006). Drop jump contact time did significantly more improve in RVE (interaction effect, P=0.042). Conclusions: RVE showed better training effects than RE only in plantar flexor muscles. RVE seems to be suitable in professional sports with a special focus on calf muscles. PMID:28574410

  5. Calculation of vibrational frequencies through a variational reduced-coupling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Yohann; Benoit, David M

    2007-10-28

    In this study, we present a new method to perform accurate and efficient vibrational configuration interaction computations for large molecular systems. We use the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method to compute an initial description of the vibrational wave function of the system, combined with the single-to-all approach to compute a sparse potential energy surface at the chosen ab initio level of theory. A Davidson scheme is then used to diagonalize the Hamiltonian matrix built on the VSCF virtual basis. Our method is applied to the computation of the OH-stretch frequency of formic acid and benzoic acid to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this new technique.

  6. Anharmonic Vibrational Spectroscopy on Metal Transition Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latouche, Camille; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Advances in hardware performance and the availability of efficient and reliable computational models have made possible the application of computational spectroscopy to ever larger molecular systems. The systematic interpretation of experimental data and the full characterization of complex molecules can then be facilitated. Focusing on vibrational spectroscopy, several approaches have been proposed to simulate spectra beyond the double harmonic approximation, so that more details become available. However, a routine use of such tools requires the preliminary definition of a valid protocol with the most appropriate combination of electronic structure and nuclear calculation models. Several benchmark of anharmonic calculations frequency have been realized on organic molecules. Nevertheless, benchmarks of organometallics or inorganic metal complexes at this level are strongly lacking despite the interest of these systems due to their strong emission and vibrational properties. Herein we report the benchmark study realized with anharmonic calculations on simple metal complexes, along with some pilot applications on systems of direct technological or biological interest.

  7. Tramadol-Paracetamol Combination for Postoperative Pain Relief in Elective Single-level Microdisectomy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Samie A; Khan, Fauzia A

    2017-04-01

    The tramadol and paracetamol combination is used frequently for postoperative pain management. The literature on the use of this combination for vertebral surgery is limited. Our objective was to compare a combination of paracetamol 1 g and a lower dose of tramadol (1 mg/kg: group 1T) with a combination of paracetamol 1 g and a higher dose of tramadol (1.5 mg/kg: group 1.5T) for postoperative pain after microdisectomy surgery. Our main outcome measure was Visual Analogue Scale pain scores for 4 hours postoperatively. This prospective randomized triple-blind clinical trial was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Ninety-four patients aged between 18 and 50 years scheduled for elective single-level microdisectomy were allocated randomly into 1 of 2 groups. Twenty minutes before the end of the surgery, patients received the study drugs. There was no significant demographic difference between groups. None of the patients experienced severe pain (VAS>6). There was no significant difference in the mean pain score between groups. The mean score at 4 hours was 2.17 (1.38) in group 1.5T and 1.74 (1.37) in group 1T. The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.14). In group 1.5T, 13 patients reported having nausea and vomiting compared with 2 patients in group 1T. This was a statistically significant difference (P=0.004). The sedation score was similar between groups. The combination of low-dose tramadol (1 mg/kg) and paracetamol has comparable analgesia and a decreased incidence of nausea and vomiting compared with the higher dose of tramadol (1.5 mg/kg) and paracetamol combination.

  8. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana I Papaioannou

    Full Text Available Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Serum surfactant proteins (SPs A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival.122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year.SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively. In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05 and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05. SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons. In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI. Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively. SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042. In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05.In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials.

  9. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  10. Digital analysis of vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Walter, G.

    1982-01-01

    Vibrational measurements, e.g. on turbomachinery, can be evaluated rapidly and economically with the aid of a combination of the following instruments: a desk-top computer, a two-channel vector filter and a FFT spectral analyzer. This equipment combination is available within the Allianz Centre for Technology and has also been used for mobile, on-site investigations during the last year. It enables calculation and display of time functions, kinetic shaft orbits, displacement diagrams. Bode plots, polar-coordinate plots, cascade diagrams and histograms. (orig.) [de

  11. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  12. Collisional energy transfer between highly excited vibrational levels of K2 (11Σu+, V=46∼61) and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping; Cai Qin; Luan Nannan; Dai Kang; Shen Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Using the CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) detection technique, the electronic-to-rovibrational levels energy transfer between electronically excited K 2 (which is in the state of 1 1 ∑ u + , V=46∼61) and H 2 has been investigated. The scanned CARS spectra reveals that H 2 molecules are produced only at the V=1, J=2 and V=2, J=0, 1, 2 rovibrational levels during energy transfer processes. From scanned CARS spectral peaks the population ratios are obtained. The n 1 /n 4 9 n 2 /n 4 , and n 3 /n 4 are 3.3±0.5, 2.2±0.3 and 2.0±0.3, respectively, where n 1 , n 2 , n 3 and n 4 represent the number densities of H 2 at rovibrational levels (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2) and (1, 2), respectively. The population ratios indicate that the H 2 molecules produced by the energy transfer process are 88% populated at the V=2 level and 12% at V=1. The relative fractions (, , ) of average energy disposal are derived as (0.53, 0.01, 0.46), having major vibrational and translational energy release. Through simple kinetic model at the experimental conditions of T=573 K and P(H 2 ) =5 X 10 3 Pa, collisional transfer rate coefficients k 12 =(3.3±0.7) X 10 -14 and k 2 =(1.4±0.3) X 10 -14 cm 3 s -1 have been obtained. (authors)

  13. Combining region- and network-level brain-behavior relationships in a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Taylor; Prince, Emily B; Nomi, Jason S; Messinger, Daniel; Llabre, Maria M; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2018-01-15

    Brain-behavior associations in fMRI studies are typically restricted to a single level of analysis: either a circumscribed brain region-of-interest (ROI) or a larger network of brain regions. However, this common practice may not always account for the interdependencies among ROIs of the same network or potentially unique information at the ROI-level, respectively. To account for both sources of information, we combined measurement and structural components of structural equation modeling (SEM) approaches to empirically derive networks from ROI activity, and to assess the association of both individual ROIs and their respective whole-brain activation networks with task performance using three large task-fMRI datasets and two separate brain parcellation schemes. The results for working memory and relational tasks revealed that well-known ROI-performance associations are either non-significant or reversed when accounting for the ROI's common association with its corresponding network, and that the network as a whole is instead robustly associated with task performance. The results for the arithmetic task revealed that in certain cases, an ROI can be robustly associated with task performance, even when accounting for its associated network. The SEM framework described in this study provides researchers additional flexibility in testing brain-behavior relationships, as well as a principled way to combine ROI- and network-levels of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine levels as diagnostic marker for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janel, N; Alexopoulos, P; Badel, A; Lamari, F; Camproux, A C; Lagarde, J; Simon, S; Feraudet-Tarisse, C; Lamourette, P; Arbones, M; Paul, J L; Dubois, B; Potier, M C; Sarazin, M; Delabar, J M

    2017-06-20

    Early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors would aid development of interventions to delay the onset of dementia, but current biomarkers are invasive and/or costly to assess. Validated plasma biomarkers would circumvent these challenges. We previously identified the kinase DYRK1A in plasma. To validate DYRK1A as a biomarker for AD diagnosis, we assessed the levels of DYRK1A and the related markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and homocysteine in two unrelated AD patient cohorts with age-matched controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analyses showed that combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine has a sensitivity of 0.952, a specificity of 0.889 and an accuracy of 0.933 in testing for AD. The blood levels of these markers provide a diagnosis assessment profile. Combined assessment of these three markers outperforms most of the previous markers and could become a useful substitute to the current panel of AD biomarkers. These results associate a decreased level of DYRK1A with AD and challenge the use of DYRK1A inhibitors in peripheral tissues as treatment. These measures will be useful for diagnosis purposes.

  15. An approach for maximizing the smallest eigenfrequency of structure vibration based on piecewise constant level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengfang; Chen, Weifeng

    2018-05-01

    Maximization of the smallest eigenfrequency of the linearized elasticity system with area constraint is investigated. The elasticity system is extended into a large background domain, but the void is vacuum and not filled with ersatz material. The piecewise constant level set (PCLS) method is applied to present two regions, the original material region and the void region. A quadratic PCLS function is proposed to represent the characteristic function. Consequently, the functional derivative of the smallest eigenfrequency with respect to PCLS function takes nonzero value in the original material region and zero in the void region. A penalty gradient algorithm is proposed, which initializes the whole background domain with the original material and decreases the area of original material region till the area constraint is satisfied. 2D and 3D numerical examples are presented, illustrating the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Seven benzimidazole pesticides combined at sub-threshold levels induce micronuclei in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Benzimidazoles act by disrupting microtubule polymerisation and are capable of inducing the formation of micronuclei. Considering the similarities in their mechanisms of action (inhibition of microtubule assembly by binding to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin monomers), combination effects according to the principles of concentration addition might occur. If so, it is to be expected that several benzimidazoles contribute to micronucleus formation even when each single one is present at or below threshold levels. This would have profound implications for risk assessment, but the idea has never been tested rigorously. To fill this gap, we analysed micronucleus frequencies for seven benzimidazoles, including the fungicide benomyl, its metabolite carbendazim, the anthelmintics albendazole, albendazole oxide, flubendazole, mebendazole and oxibendazole. Thiabendazole was also tested but was inactive. We used the cytochalasin-blocked micronucleus assay with CHO-K1 cells according to OECD guidelines, and employed an automated micronucleus scoring system based on image analysis to establish quantitative concentration–response relationships for the seven active benzimidazoles. Based on this information, we predicted additive combination effects for a mixture of the seven benzimidazoles by using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. The observed effects of the mixture agreed very well with those predicted by concentration addition. Independent action underestimated the observed combined effects by a large margin. With a mixture that combined all benzimidazoles at their estimated threshold concentrations for micronucleus induction, micronucleus frequencies of ~15.5% were observed, correctly anticipated by concentration addition. On the basis of independent action, this mixture was expected to produce no effects. Our data provide convincing evidence that concentration addition is applicable to combinations of benzimidazoles that form micronuclei

  17. A Variational Level Set Model Combined with FCMS for Image Clustering Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy C means clustering algorithm with spatial constraint (FCMS is effective for image segmentation. However, it lacks essential smoothing constraints to the cluster boundaries and enough robustness to the noise. Samson et al. proposed a variational level set model for image clustering segmentation, which can get the smooth cluster boundaries and closed cluster regions due to the use of level set scheme. However it is very sensitive to the noise since it is actually a hard C means clustering model. In this paper, based on Samson’s work, we propose a new variational level set model combined with FCMS for image clustering segmentation. Compared with FCMS clustering, the proposed model can get smooth cluster boundaries and closed cluster regions due to the use of level set scheme. In addition, a block-based energy is incorporated into the energy functional, which enables the proposed model to be more robust to the noise than FCMS clustering and Samson’s model. Some experiments on the synthetic and real images are performed to assess the performance of the proposed model. Compared with some classical image segmentation models, the proposed model has a better performance for the images contaminated by different noise levels.

  18. Synthesis, structural and vibrational investigation on 2-phenyl-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide combining XRD diffraction, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies with DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Jilu; Yohannan Panicker, C; Nayak, Prakash S; Narayana, B; Sarojini, B K; Van Alsenoy, C; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-01-25

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-phenyl-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The title compound was optimized by using the HF/6-31G(6D,7F) and B3LYP/6-31G(6D,7F) calculations. The geometrical parameters are in agreement with the XRD data. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Gauge-including atomic orbital (1)H-NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular electrostatic potential was performed by the DFT method. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non linear optics. From the XRD data, in the crystal, molecules are held together by strong C-H⋯O and N-H⋯O intermolecular interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, optical and vibrational properties of Cr2O3 with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order: A combined experimental and density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, T.; Ouni, B.; Gantassi, A.; Doll, K.; Amlouk, M.; Manoubi, T.

    2017-12-01

    Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) thin films have been synthesized on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the sample have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively. X-ray diffraction results reveal that as deposited film is polycrystalline with a rhombohedral corundum structure and a preferential orientation of the crystallites along the (1 0 4) direction. IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the 100-900 cm-1 range and the observed modes were analysed and assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The direct optical band gap energy value calculated from the transmittance spectra of as-deposited thin film is about 3.38 eV. We employ first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP hybrid functional and a coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham approach (CPHF/KS). We study the electronic structure, optimum geometry, and IR and Raman spectra of ferromagnetically and antiferromagnetically ordered Cr2O3. The computed results are consistent with the experimental measurements, and provide complete vibrational assignment, for the characterization of Cr2O3 thin film materials which can be used in photocatalysis and gas sensors.

  20. Elucidating the Vibrational Fingerprint of the Flexible Metal–Organic Framework MIL-53(Al) Using a Combined Experimental/Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In this work, mid-infrared (mid-IR), far-IR, and Raman spectra are presented for the distinct (meta)stable phases of the flexible metal–organic framework MIL-53(Al). Static density functional theory (DFT) simulations are performed, allowing for the identification of all IR-active modes, which is unprecedented in the low-frequency region. A unique vibrational fingerprint is revealed, resulting from aluminum-oxide backbone stretching modes, which can be used to clearly distinguish the IR spectra of the closed- and large-pore phases. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations based on a DFT description of the potential energy surface enable determination of the theoretical Raman spectrum of the closed- and large-pore phases for the first time. An excellent correspondence between theory and experiment is observed. Both the low-frequency IR and Raman spectra show major differences in vibrational modes between the closed- and large-pore phases, indicating changes in lattice dynamics between the two structures. In addition, several collective modes related to the breathing mechanism in MIL-53(Al) are identified. In particular, we rationalize the importance of the trampoline-like motion of the linker for the phase transition. PMID:29449906

  1. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  2. The combination of an Environmental Management System and Life Cycle Assessment at the territorial level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzi, Anna; Toniolo, Sara; Catto, Stella; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Scipioni, Antonio, E-mail: scipioni@unipd.it

    2017-03-15

    A framework to include a Life Cycle Assessment in the significance evaluation of the environmental aspects of an Environmental Management System has been studied for some industrial sectors, but there is a literature gap at the territorial level, where the indirect impact assessment is crucial. To overcome this criticality, our research proposes the Life Cycle Assessment as a framework to assess environmental aspects of public administration within an Environmental Management System applied at the territorial level. This research is structured in two parts: the design of a new methodological framework and the pilot application for an Italian municipality. The methodological framework designed supports Initial Environmental Analysis at the territorial level thanks to the results derived from the impact assessment phase. The pilot application in an Italian municipality EMAS registered demonstrates the applicability of the framework and its effectiveness in evaluating the environmental impact assessment for direct and indirect aspects. Through the discussion of the results, we underline the growing knowledge derived by this research in terms of the reproducibility and consistency of the criteria to define the significance of the direct and indirect environmental aspects for a local public administration. - Highlights: • The combination between Environmental Management System and LCA is studied. • A methodological framework is elaborated and tested at the territorial level. • Life Cycle Impact Assessment supports the evaluation of aspects significance. • The framework assures consistency of evaluation criteria on the studied territory.

  3. The combination of an Environmental Management System and Life Cycle Assessment at the territorial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, Anna; Toniolo, Sara; Catto, Stella; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A framework to include a Life Cycle Assessment in the significance evaluation of the environmental aspects of an Environmental Management System has been studied for some industrial sectors, but there is a literature gap at the territorial level, where the indirect impact assessment is crucial. To overcome this criticality, our research proposes the Life Cycle Assessment as a framework to assess environmental aspects of public administration within an Environmental Management System applied at the territorial level. This research is structured in two parts: the design of a new methodological framework and the pilot application for an Italian municipality. The methodological framework designed supports Initial Environmental Analysis at the territorial level thanks to the results derived from the impact assessment phase. The pilot application in an Italian municipality EMAS registered demonstrates the applicability of the framework and its effectiveness in evaluating the environmental impact assessment for direct and indirect aspects. Through the discussion of the results, we underline the growing knowledge derived by this research in terms of the reproducibility and consistency of the criteria to define the significance of the direct and indirect environmental aspects for a local public administration. - Highlights: • The combination between Environmental Management System and LCA is studied. • A methodological framework is elaborated and tested at the territorial level. • Life Cycle Impact Assessment supports the evaluation of aspects significance. • The framework assures consistency of evaluation criteria on the studied territory.

  4. Combining urbanization and hydrodynamics data to evaluate sea level rise impacts on coastal water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of the potential for salt water intrusion due to sea level rise require consideration of both coastal hydrodynamic and human activity thresholds. In siliciclastic systems, sea level rise may cause salt intrusion to coastal aquifers at annual or decadal scales, whereas in karst systems salt intrudes at the tidal scalse. In both cases, human activity impacts the freshwater portion of the system by altering the water demand on the aquifer. We combine physicochemical and human activity data to evaluate impact of sea level rise on salt intrusion to siliclastic (Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA) and karst (Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico) systems under different sea level rise rate scenarios. Two hydrodynamic modeling scenarios are considered; flux controlled and head controlled. Under a flux controlled system hydraulic head gradients remain constant during sea level rise while under a head controlled system hydraulic graidents diminish, allowing saltwater intrusion. Our model contains three key terms; aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity were calculated based on high frequency (karst system) and decadal (siliciclastic system) field measurements. Aquifer recharge is defined as precipitation less evapotranspiration and water demand was evaluated based on urban planning data that provided the regional water demand. Water demand includes agricultural area, toursim, traffic patterns, garbage collection and total population. Water demand was initially estimated using a partial leaset squares regression based on these variables. Our model indicates that water demand depends most on agricultural area, which has changed significantly over the last 30 years. In both systems, additional water demand creates a head controlled scenario, thus increaseing the protential fo salt intrusion with projected sea level rise.

  5. Control of pipe vibrations; Schwingungsminderung bei Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinambari, G.R. [FH Bingen, Fachrichtung Umweltschutz, und IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany); Thorn, U. [IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Following commissioning of a new vacuum system for the refinery of MiRO Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH and Co. KG, vibrations occurred in the furnace exhaust pipes. As these had to be regarded as critical for the fatigue strength of the pipes, the pipes' vibration response in the critical frequency range was investigated immediately by means of a vibration analysis, and appropriate measures for vibration control were elaborated. All investigations, and the installation of the hydraulic vibration dampers, took place with the system operating. The effectiveness of the measures taken was checked by means of measurements following installation. The measures succeeded in attenuating the vibrations to a level at which, empirically, damage need no longer be expected. This paper illustrates the procedure for developing the vibration control measures and the essential results of the investigations. (orig.)

  6. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...... for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value...

  7. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  8. A combined single-multiphase flow formulation of the premixing phase using the level set method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.; Marn, J.

    1999-01-01

    The premixing phase of a steam explosion covers the interaction of the melt jet or droplets with the water prior to any steam explosion occurring. To get a better insight of the hydrodynamic processes during the premixing phase beside hot premixing experiments, where the water evaporation is significant, also cold isothermal premixing experiments are performed. The specialty of isothermal premixing experiments is that three phases are involved: the water, the air and the spheres phase, but only the spheres phase mixes with the other two phases whereas the water and air phases do not mix and remain separated by a free surface. Our idea therefore was to treat the isothermal premixing process with a combined single-multiphase flow model. In this combined model the water and air phase are treated as a single phase with discontinuous phase properties at the water air interface, whereas the spheres are treated as usually with a multiphase flow model, where the spheres represent the dispersed phase and the common water-air phase represents the continuous phase. The common water-air phase was described with the front capturing method based on the level set formulation. In the level set formulation, the boundary of two-fluid interfaces is modeled as the zero set of a smooth signed normal distance function defined on the entire physical domain. The boundary is then updated by solving a nonlinear equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type on the whole domain. With this single-multiphase flow model the Queos isothermal premixing Q08 has been simulated. A numerical analysis using different treatments of the water-air interface (level set, high-resolution and upwind) has been performed for the incompressible and compressible case and the results were compared to experimental measurements.(author)

  9. Systematics of gamma decay through low-lying vibrational levels of even--even nuclei excited by (p,p') and (n,n') reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which gamma-ray spectra were measured, using a Ge(Li) detector, for incident 7 to 26-MeV protons on the even-even vibrational nuclei 56 Fe, 62 Ni, 64 Zn, 108 Pd, 110 Cd, 114 Cd, 116 Cd, 116 Sn, 120 Sn, and 206 Pb, and for incident 14-MeV neutrons on natural Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb. These measurements yielded gamma-ray cross sections from which it was inferred that almost all of the gamma cascades from (p,p') and (n,n') reactions passed down through the first 2 + levels. Consequently, the strength of the 2 + → 0 + gamma transitions were found to be an indirect measure of the (p,p') or (n,n') cross sections. Several types of nuclear model calculations were performed and compared with experimental results. These calculations included coupled-channel calculations to reproduce the direct, collective excitation of the low-lying levels, and statistical plus pre-equilibrium model calculations to reproduce the (p,p') and the (n,n') cross sections for comparison with the 2 + → 0 + gamma measurements. The agreement between calculation and experiment was generally good except at high energies, where pre-equilibrium processes dominate (i.e. around 26-MeV). Here discrepancies between calculations from the two different pre-equilibrium models and between the data and the calculations were found. Significant isospin mixing of T/sub greater than/ into T/sub less than/ states was necessary in order to have the calculations match the data for the (p,p') reactions, up to about 18-MeV

  10. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  11. Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)

  12. Sources of innovation, their combinations and strengths – benefits at the NPD project level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjer, Tina Lundø; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2013-01-01

    External sourcing is increasingly seen as important for obtaining new and valuable knowledge and resources for new product development. However, when it comes to the specifics of choosing between sources and types of relationships, little is known on the NPD project level. This paper strengthens...... not only consider the potential benefits of collaboration with external sources but also the downsides, including higher cost and lengthier projects. Firms should look for opportunities in the combination of sources if they are to gain advantages of collaboration, as our analyses show that a mix of market...... and science sources is related to decreased costs. Additionally, if firms are looking for increased market performance, they should aim at collaborating with suppliers that have a similar knowledge base, whereas if the aim is lower project costs, collaboration with a customer with a similar knowledge base...

  13. Educated but anxious: How emotional states and education levels combine to influence online health information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2017-07-01

    This study combined conceptual frameworks from health information seeking, appraisal theory of emotions, and social determinants of health literatures to examine how emotional states and education predict online health information seeking. Nationally representative data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 3) were used to test the roles of education, anxiety, anger, sadness, hope, happiness, and an education by anxiety interaction in predicting online health information seeking. Results suggest that women, tablet owners, smartphone owners, the college educated, those who are sad some or all of the time, and those who are anxious most of the time were significantly more likely to seek online health information. Conversely, being angry all of the time decreased the likelihood of seeking. Furthermore, two significant interactions emerged between anxiety and education levels. Discrete psychological states and demographic factors (gender and education) individually and jointly impact information seeking tendencies.

  14. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  15. An Affine Combination of Adaptive Filters for Channels with Different Sparsity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Butsenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an affine combination strategy for two adaptive filters. One filter is designed to handle sparse impulse responses and the other one performs better if impulse response is dispersive. Filter outputs are combined using an adaptive mixing parameter and the resulting output shows a better performance than each of the combining filters separately. We also demonstrate that affine combination results in faster convergence than a convex combination of two adaptive filters.

  16. Enthalpies of formation of dihydroxybenzenes revisited: Combining experimental and high-level ab initio data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Elsa M.; Agapito, Filipe; Almeida, Tânia S.; Martinho Simões, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemistry of hydroxyphenols probed by experimental and theoretical methods. • A new paradigm for obtaining enthalpies of formation of crystalline compounds. • High-level ab initio results for the thermochemistry of gas-phase hydroxyphenols. • Sublimation enthalpies of hydroxyphenols determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. - Abstract: Accurate values of standard molar enthalpies of formation in condensed phases can be obtained by combining high-level quantum chemistry calculations of gas-phase enthalpies of formation with experimentally determined enthalpies of sublimation or vapourization. The procedure is illustrated for catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone. Using W1-F12, the gas-phase enthalpies of formation of these compounds at T = 298.15 K were computed as (−270.6, −269.4, and −261.0) kJ · mol −1 , respectively, with an uncertainty of ∼0.4 kJ · mol −1 . Using well characterised solid samples, the enthalpies of sublimation were determined with a Calvet microcalorimeter, leading to the following values at T = 298.15 K: (88.3 ± 0.3) kJ · mol −1 , (99.7 ± 0.4) kJ · mol −1 , and (102.0 ± 0.9) kJ · mol −1 , respectively. It is shown that these results are consistent with the crystalline structures of the compounds

  17. Analytical stiffness calculations of a cone-shaped magnetic vibration isolator for a micro balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteren, van D.T.E.H.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of a micro balance is highly dependent on the level of floor vibrations. One strategy to reduce floor vibrations is a magnetic vibration isolator. Magnetic vibration isolators have the possibility to obtain a zero-stiffness region, which is beneficial for attenuating vibrations. In this

  18. Quantitative detection of glucose level based on radiofrequency patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Tian; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2017-12-15

    A concept for characterizing a radiofrequency (RF) patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures is presented for timely monitoring of an individual's glucose levels based on frequency variation. Two types of patch biosensors-separately integrated with a backside slot (0.53μL) and a front-side tank (0.70μL) structure-were developed to achieve precise and efficient detection while excluding the effects of interference due to the liquidity, shape, and thickness of the tested glucose sample. A glucose test analyte at different concentrations (50-600mg/dL) was dropped into the volume-fixed structures. It fully interacted with the RF patch electromagnetic field, effectively and sensitively changing the resonance frequency and magnitude of the reflection coefficient. Measurement results based on the resonance frequency showed high sensitivity up to 1.13MHz and 1.97MHz per mg/dL, and low detection limits of 26.54mg/dL and 15.22mg/dL, for the two types of patch biosensors, respectively, as well as a short response time of less than 1s. Excellent reusability of the proposed biosensors was verified through three sets of measurements for each individual glucose sample. Regression analysis revealed a good linear correlation between glucose concentrations and the resonance frequency shift. Moreover, to facilitate a multi-parameter-sensitive detection of glucose, the magnitude of the reflection coefficient was also tested, and it showed a good linear correlation with the glucose concentration. Thus, the proposed approach can be adopted for distinguishing glucose solution levels, and it is a potential candidate for early-stage detection of glucose levels in diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

  20. The combined effect of Parathyroid hormone (1-34) and whole-body Vibration exercise in the treatment of OSteoporosis (PaVOS)- study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Ryg, Jesper; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    Background: PaVOS is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which aims to address the use of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) in combination with parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment in patients with osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 is an effective but expensive anabolic...... fracture risk. Methods/design: PaVOS is a multicenter, assessor-blinded, superiority, two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT). Postmenopausal women (n = 40, aged 50 years and older) starting taking PTH 1-34 from outpatient clinics will be randomized and assigned to a PTH 1-34 + WBV-exercise group...... (intervention group), or a PTH 1-34-alone group (control group). The intervention group will undergo WBV three sessions a week (12 min each, including 1:1 ratio of exercise: rest, 30 Hz, 1 mm amplitude) for a 12-month intervention period. Both the intervention and the control group will receive PTH 1...

  1. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  2. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  3. Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)

  4. The combination of exercise training and Zataria multiflora supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG; n = 12, resistance training group (RTG; n = 12, supplementation with Zataria multiflora group (ZG; n = 12, or supplementation with Z. multiflora and resistance training group (ZRTG; n = 12. RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of Z. multiflora every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG. Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, Z. multiflora supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin. Keywords: Antioxidants, Circuit resistance training, Myokine, Postmenopausal women, Zataria multiflora

  5. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, COPD or coronary heart disease mor- tality, and all-cause mortality were estimated from com- bined effects of level and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Risks were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models for individuals grouped...... by combinations of baseline predicted FEV1 and quartiles of slope. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % con¿dence intervals (CI) were estimated using strati¿ed analysis by gender, smoking status, and baseline age (B45 and [45). For COPD morbidity, quartiles of increasing FEV1 decline increased HRs (95 % CI......) for individuals with FEV1 at or above the lower limit of normal (LLN) but below 100 % predicted, reaching 5.11 (2.58–10.13) for males, 11.63 (4.75–28.46) for females, and 3.09 (0.88–10.86) for never smokers in the quartile of steepest decline. Signi¿cant increasing trends were also observed for mortality...

  6. Nonequilibrium electron-vibration coupling and conductance fluctuations in a C60 junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2012-01-01

    displacement. Combined with a vibrational heating mechanism we construct a model from our results that explain the polarity-dependent two-level conductance fluctuations observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments [N. Ne´el et al., Nano Lett. 11, 3593 (2011)]. These findings highlight...

  7. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  8. Where is the research frontier for hand-arm vibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemne, G

    1994-01-01

    A central question for current hand-arm vibration research is how to combine diagnostics with exposure evaluation so that reliable risk assessments can be made for different tools and work processes. The scientific foundation of the model, in annex of A of ISO 5349, for white finger (WF) risk prediction has been shown to be insufficient. Prospective epidemiologic studies are needed to establish exposure-response relationships addressing the specific etiologic factors. Another important research field concerns WF pathogenesis, which is likely to be a vessel wall lesion causing vasodilatory deficiency. Epidemiologic research, in combination with human and animal experimentation, on endothelium-dependent mechanisms is desirable, among other things, because a therapy may be within reach. A model is presented for the manifestation of cold-triggered WF in persons with exposure to vibration and other environmental stressors as a result of lowered symptom threshold and a raised level of sympathetic activity.

  9. Vibrational quasi-continuum in unimolecular multiphoton dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fernandez, P.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    The vibrational quasi-continuum of the boron trifluoride molecule has been qualitatively studied and the formalism extended to treat N-normal-mode molecules. The anharmonic potential curves for the BF/sub 3/ normal modes have been calculated, and the computed anharmonicity constants have been tested against the fundamental frequencies. The potential curve of the wagging mode has been simulated by an internal rotation of one of the fluoride atoms. The vibrational-energy levels and wave functions have been calculated applying second-order perturbation theory. The quasi-continuum energy levels of BF/sub 3/ have been obtained by means of a method based in forming adequate linear combinations of wave functions belonging to the N-1 modes resulting from removing the i.r.-active mode;the associated energies have been minimized using a constrained minimization procedure. It has been found that the energy pattern of the N-1 vibrational modes possesses an energy density high enough for constituting a vibrational heat bath and, finally, it has been verified that the ''fictitious'' pattern of the active mode is included in the pattern of the N-1 modes.

  10. Effect of combined treatment of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics on serum creatinine levels among elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2006-01-01

    The adverse effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and diuretics when given together need extensive research and attention. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients admitted to the internal department of a general medical hospital to investigate the effect of drug combinations on serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance upon admission. Age, sex, disease, status and prior consumption of the target drugs: diuretics and ACE-I were correlated with creatnine and creatinine clearance on admission. The levels of serum creatinine for groups receiving the target combination in both sexes were significantly higher than groups who were not receiving the target combination. Computing an estimate of creatinine clearance based on Cockroft equation yields similar results to that for serum level creatinine. The levels of creatinine clearance in both sexes were significantly higher in the control group compared to those receiving the target combinations. Low dose aspirin seems to have a synergistic negative effect on renal function when given in combination with the target medications. Taking ACE-I/diuretic combination was associated with significant changes in creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Attention should be made to balance positive effects of theses medications against their negative effect on renal function. (author)

  11. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  12. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A1 EOS Instrument, (S/N 202) Qualification Level Vibration Tests of August/September 1998, (S/O 565632, OC-417) Plus Addendum A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a qualification level vibration testing performed on the S/N 202, EOS AMSU-A1 Instrument was vibration tested to qualification levels per the Ref. 1 shop order. The instrument withstood the 8 g sine sweep test, the 7.5 Grms random vibration test, and the 18.75 g sine burst test in each of the three orthogonal axes. Some loss of transmissibility, however, is seen in the lower reflector after Z-axis random vibration. The test sequence was not without incidence. Failure of Channel 7 in the Limited Performance Test (LPT) performed after completion of the 1 st (X-axis) axis vibration sequence, required replacement of the DRO and subsequent re-testing of the instrument. The post-vibration comprehensive performance test (CPT) was successfully run after completion of the three axes of vibration with the replacement component installed in the instrument. Passing the CPT signified the successful completion of the S/N 202 A1 qualification vibration testing.

  13. Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.

  14. It Is Not Only Mentoring: The Combined Influences of Individual-Level and Team-Level Support on Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…

  15. Differential diagnostic value of combined detection of serum CA153, CEA and TPA levels in patients with breast tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the differential diagnostic value of combined detection of serum CA153, CEA and TPA levels in patients with breast tumor. Methods: Serum levels of CA153, CEA and TPA were measured with RIA in 269 patients with breast tumor and 150 controls. Results: The serum levels of CA153, CEA and TPA in patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than those in the patients with benign breast tumor and controls. The positive rate of CA153 was 63.8% in the patients with breast cancer and that of CEA and TPA was 22.4% and 62.1% respectively, with combined detection of CA153 and CEA, the positive rate was 69.8%, with CA153 and TPA combined, the positive rate was 87.1%, with the three marker combined, the positive rate was 90.5%. The specificity was 77.9% with CA153, 77.9% with CA153 and CEA, 71.9% with CA153 and TPA, and 73.4% with all the three markers combined. Conclusion: The positive rate was increased remarkably with combined detection of CA153, CEA and TPA, however the specificity was not much changed, so the combined detection was valuable for differential diagnosis. (authors)

  16. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  17. Combined blood and pleural levels of mesothelin and osteopontin for the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa M. Ashour

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The performance of serum and pleural mesothelin in diagnosing MPM was improved when combined with plasma and pleural osteopontin (respectively through logistic regression analysis model. This will be a great advance in screening and management of MPM.

  18. Comparison of vibration and noise level on the boiler during operation of fuel heavy oil (mazut) and on natural gas in TO 'Istok' - Toplifikacija - Joint-Stock Co. for district heating Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirovski, Hristo; Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Dzhingov, Gjorgji

    1999-01-01

    In the beginning of the heat season 1997/98, we started to use natural gas as a second fuel (the basic fuel is heavy fuel oil). Preparations were made for the use of natural gas in half of the TO 'Istok' Plant capacity (147 MW) in Skopje (Macedonia). During operation on natural gas, we noted that the levels of vibration and noise are higher when operating on heavy fuel oil. This was the reason why an investigation was carried out through a special company working on that issue. The investigation was made by measurement of vibration levels and noise at the boiler furnace in various orientation and levels. This material gives the results and conclusions from that investigation. A comparison has been made of the dynamic conditions and noise levels of the same boilers during operation on heavy fuel oil and on natural gas. We also compared the dynamic conditions and noise levels of different boilers during operations on natural gas, with different equipment for the atomizing of the natural gas. Conclusions on the dynamic conditions of the investigated boilers while operating on heavy fuel oil and on natural gas are given at the end of this material. (Author)

  19. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  20. Predicting footbridge vibrations using a probability-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vibrations in footbridges may be problematic as excessive vibrations may occur as a result of actions of pedestrians. Design-stage predictions of levels of footbridge vibration to the action of a pedestrian are useful and have been employed for many years based on a deterministic approach to mode...

  1. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF levels in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuyi; Gu Yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF levels for gastric cancer. Methods: Serum CEA, CA72-4(with RIA) and TSGF (with biochemistry)levels were measured in 31 patients with gastric cancer and 35 controls. Results: As a single tumor marker for diagnosis, the sensitivity of CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF was 23. 0%, 38.0%, 48.0% respectively and the specificity was 23.0%, 38.0%, 48.0% respectively with combined detection of the three markers and assuming two or more markers positive as diagnostic, the sensitivity would be 67.0% and specificity would be 88.0%. Conclusion: Combined determination of serum CEA, CA72-4 and TSGF levels could promote the clinical usefulness for diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  2. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  3. A combined experimental and theoretical study on vibrational and electronic properties of (5-methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl(5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-ylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Wabli Reem I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (5-Methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl(5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-ylmethanone (MIMIM is a bis-indolic derivative that can be used as a precursor to a variety of melatonin receptor ligands. In this work, the energetic and spectroscopic profiles of MIMIM were studied by a combined DFT and experimental approach. The IR, Raman, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra were calculated by PBEPBE and B3LYP methods, and compared with experimental ones. Results showed good agreement between theoretical and experimental values. Mulliken population and natural bond orbital analysis were also performed by time-dependent DFT approach to evaluate the electronic properties of the title molecule.

  4. Automated ventricular systems segmentation in brain CT images by combining low-level segmentation and high-level template matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kevin R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate analysis of CT brain scans is vital for diagnosis and treatment of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI. Automatic processing of these CT brain scans could speed up the decision making process, lower the cost of healthcare, and reduce the chance of human error. In this paper, we focus on automatic processing of CT brain images to segment and identify the ventricular systems. The segmentation of ventricles provides quantitative measures on the changes of ventricles in the brain that form vital diagnosis information. Methods First all CT slices are aligned by detecting the ideal midlines in all images. The initial estimation of the ideal midline of the brain is found based on skull symmetry and then the initial estimate is further refined using detected anatomical features. Then a two-step method is used for ventricle segmentation. First a low-level segmentation on each pixel is applied on the CT images. For this step, both Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM and Maximum A Posteriori Spatial Probability (MASP are evaluated and compared. The second step applies template matching algorithm to identify objects in the initial low-level segmentation as ventricles. Experiments for ventricle segmentation are conducted using a relatively large CT dataset containing mild and severe TBI cases. Results Experiments show that the acceptable rate of the ideal midline detection is over 95%. Two measurements are defined to evaluate ventricle recognition results. The first measure is a sensitivity-like measure and the second is a false positive-like measure. For the first measurement, the rate is 100% indicating that all ventricles are identified in all slices. The false positives-like measurement is 8.59%. We also point out the similarities and differences between ICM and MASP algorithms through both mathematically relationships and segmentation results on CT images. Conclusion The experiments show the reliability of the proposed algorithms. The

  5. Analysis of different vibration patterns to guide blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gil, Juan V; Bazuelo-Ruiz, Bruno; Moro-Pérez, David; Mollà-Domenech, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The literature indicates the best vibration positions and frequencies on the human body where tactile information is transmitted. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to combine tactile stimuli for navigation. The aim of this study is to compare different vibration patterns outputted to blind people and to determine the most intuitive vibration patterns to indicate direction for navigation purposes through a tactile belt. The vibration patterns that stimulate the front side of the waist are preferred for indicating direction. Vibration patterns applied on the back side of the waist could be suitable for sending messages such as stop.

  6. Analysis of different vibration patterns to guide blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Durá-Gil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates the best vibration positions and frequencies on the human body where tactile information is transmitted. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to combine tactile stimuli for navigation. The aim of this study is to compare different vibration patterns outputted to blind people and to determine the most intuitive vibration patterns to indicate direction for navigation purposes through a tactile belt. The vibration patterns that stimulate the front side of the waist are preferred for indicating direction. Vibration patterns applied on the back side of the waist could be suitable for sending messages such as stop.

  7. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crim, F.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research determines the nature of highly vibrationally excited molecules, their unimolecular reactions, and their photodissociation dynamics. The goal is to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to exploit that understanding to discover and control their chemical pathways. Most recently the author has used a combination of vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence both to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to study their photodissociation dynamics. The author has also begun laser induced grating spectroscopy experiments designed to obtain the electronic absorption spectra of highly vibrationally excited molecules.

  8. The combined use of scanning vibrating electrode technique and micro-potentiometry to assess the self-repair processes in defects on 'smart' coatings applied to galvanized steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taryba, M. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Lamaka, S.V., E-mail: sviatlana.lamaka@ist.utl.p [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Snihirova, D. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, M.G.S. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); CICECO, Dep. Ceramics and Glass Eng., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Wijting, W.K.; Toews, S.; Grundmeier, G. [Institute for Polymer Materials and Processes, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2011-04-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Weldable primers were modified with submicron containers loaded with corrosion inhibitors. {yields} SVET and micro-potentiometry were used to study the corrosion inhibition ability. {yields} Submicron containers do not damage the barrier properties of model primers. {yields} Artificial defects of 50{mu}m x 50 {mu}m in a coating can be easily analyzed by SVET and SIET. {yields} Inhibiting dissolution of sacrificial Zn may result in detrimental dissolution of Fe. - Abstract: Model weldable primer coatings for galvanized steel were modified with submicron containers loaded with corrosion inhibitors. This procedure aims at introducing a new functionality in the thin coatings self-repair ability. The assessment of this property demands new protocols and new approaches, combining conventional electrochemical methods with electrochemical and analytical techniques of micrometer spatial resolution. Thus, in this work model defects were created in the coatings by using a focused ion beam (FIB). The coated samples, containing the model defects, were immersed in a NaCl 0.05 M solution and the corrosion inhibition ability was studied using the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). SVET-SIET measurements were performed quasi-simultaneously. Qualitative chemical analysis was performed by SEM combined with EDS. Complementary studies were carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to assess the effect of the containers filled with corrosion inhibitors on the barrier properties of the coatings. The electrochemical results highlight the importance of the combined use of integral and localized electrochemical techniques to extract information for a better understanding of the corrosion processes and corresponding repair of active microscopic defects formed on thin coatings containing inhibitor filled containers.

  9. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  10. High-level methodology for carrying out combined red and blue teams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined Red and Blue Team Methodology to guide the process of carrying out such security auditing and penetration testing tasks. Red and Blue Teams consist of various security auditing and penetration testing tasks which serve...

  11. A multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction determination in the dissociation energy and vibrational levels of the BeF molecules in the X2Σ + state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, F.B.C.; Ornellas, F.R.

    1988-10-01

    An accurate potential energy curve for the BeF molecule in the X 2 Σ + state is calculated within the MRSDCI approach. Vibrational level spacings and the dissociation energy are reported. Agreement with the available experimental spacings is 15 cm -1 on the average. The theoretically computed D o , 5.92 eV, favors the experimental value of 5.85 eV over the higher value of 6.26 eV. Arguments are also presented that show why the value obtained by the Birge-Sponer linear extrapolation is accidentally a good one. (author) [pt

  12. Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Oxyanionic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The vibrational and thermal properties of dolomite and alkali chlorates and perchlorates were studied in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the method of a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). Long-wave vibration frequencies, IR and Raman spectra, and mode Gruneisen parameters were calculated. Equation-of-state parameters, thermodynamic potentials, entropy, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were also determined. The thermal expansion coefficient of dolomite was established to be much lower than for chlorates and perchlorates. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at T > 200 K was shown to be generally governed by intramolecular vibrations.

  13. Numerical Research on Hydraulically Generated Vibration and Noise of a Centrifugal Pump Volute with Impeller Outlet Width Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houlin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impeller outlet width of centrifugal pumps is of significant importance for numbers of effects. In the paper, these effects including the performance, pressure pulsations, hydraulically generated vibration, and noise level are investigated. For the purpose, two approaches were used to predict the vibration and sound radiation of the volute under fluid excitation force. One approach is the combined CFD/FEM analysis for structure vibration, and then the structure response obtained from the FEM analysis is treated as the boundary condition for BEM analysis for sound radiation. The other is the combined CFD/FEM/BEM coupling method. Before the numerical methods were used, the simulation results were validated by the vibration acceleration of the monitoring points on the volute. The vibration and noise were analyzed and compared at three flow conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the influences of the sound pressure of centrifugal pumps on the structure appear insignificant. The relative outlet width b2* at nq(SI = 26.7 in this paper should be less than 0.06, based on an overall consideration of the pump characteristics, pressure pulsations, vibration and noise level.

  14. Estimating absolute sea level variations by combining GNSS and Tide gauge data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bos, M.S.; Fernandes, R.M.S; Vethamony, P.; Mehra, P.

    Indian tide gauges can be used to estimate sea level rise. To separate relative sea level rise from vertical land motion at the tide gauges, various GNSS stations have been installed in the last years at, or nearby, tide gauges. Using the PSMSL...

  15. The Effect of Giving Sago Waste, Shrimp Waste and Its Combination on Cholesterol Level and Growth of White Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ralahalu, T. N; Kartiarso,; Parakkasi, A; Wiryawan, K. G; Priyanto, R

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is very beneficial for the body but it needs attention when its level is increasing in the blood. The objective of the study was to determine cholesterol level and growth rate of white rat fed on ration containing sago waste, shrimp waste and their combinations. Fourty males Spraque dowley rats, aged two months with average body weight was 195.62 g, were randomly assigned to one of ten experimental treatments according to completely randomised design with four replication for each...

  16. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  17. Anti-vibration gloves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.

  18. Numerical solutions of anharmonic vibration of BaO and SrO molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramudito, Sidikrubadi; Sanjaya, Nugraha Wanda [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Physics, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Meranti Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680 (Indonesia); Sumaryada, Tony, E-mail: tsumaryada@ipb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Physics, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Meranti Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680 (Indonesia); Computational Biophysics and Molecular Modeling Research Group (CBMoRG), Department of Physics, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Meranti Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    The Morse potential is a potential model that is used to describe the anharmonic behavior of molecular vibration between atoms. The BaO and SrO molecules, which are two almost similar diatomic molecules, were investigated in this research. Some of their properties like the value of the dissociation energy, the energy eigenvalues of each energy level, and the profile of the wavefunctions in their correspondence vibrational states were presented in this paper. Calculation of the energy eigenvalues and plotting the wave function’s profiles were performed using Numerov method combined with the shooting method. In general we concluded that the Morse potential solved with numerical methods could accurately produce the vibrational properties and the wavefunction behavior of BaO and SrO molecules from the ground state to the higher states close to the dissociation level.

  19. Collateral Resistance and Sensitivity Modulate Evolution of High-Level Resistance to Drug Combination Treatment in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Gumpert, Heidi; Munck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As drug-resistant pathogens continue to emerge, combination therapy will increasingly be relied upon to treat infections and to help combat further development of multidrug resistance. At present a dichotomy exists between clinical practice, which favors therapeutically synergistic combinations......, to reflect drug concentrations more likely to be encountered during treatment. We performed a series of adaptive evolution experiments using Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, no relationship between drug interaction type and resistance evolution was found as resistance increased significantly beyond wild......-type levels. All drug combinations, irrespective of interaction types, effectively limited resistance evolution compared with monotreatment. Cross-resistance and collateral sensitivity were found to be important factors in the extent of resistance evolution toward a combination. Comparative genomic analyses...

  20. A Combined MIS/DS Course Uses Lecture Capture Technology to "Level the Playing Field" in Student Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process taken to develop a quantitative-based and Excel™-driven course that combines "BOTH" Management Information Systems (MIS) and Decision Science (DS) modeling outcomes and lays the foundation for upper level quantitative courses such as operations management, finance and strategic management. In addition,…

  1. A two-level real-time vision machine combining coarse and fine grained parallelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Pauwels, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a real-time vision machine having a stereo camera as input generating visual information on two different levels of abstraction. The system provides visual low-level and mid-level information in terms of dense stereo and optical flow, egomotion, indicating areas...... a factor 90 and a reduction of latency of a factor 26 compared to processing on a single CPU--core. Since the vision machine provides generic visual information it can be used in many contexts. Currently it is used in a driver assistance context as well as in two robotic applications....

  2. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  3. Vibrationally resolved NEXAFS at C and N K-edges of pyridine, 2-fluoropyridine and 2,6-difluoropyridine: A combined experimental and theoretical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Mendolicchio, Marco; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Fronzoni, Giovanna; Cardenas Jimenez, Gustavo Adolfo; Stener, Mauro; Grazioli, Cesare [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Universita’ di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Simone, Monica de [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-ISM, UOS Trieste, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-28

    In the present work, the near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) spectra at both C and N K-edges of pyridine, 2-fluoropyridine, and 2,6-difluoropyridine have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. From an electronic point of view, both transition potential density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory approaches lead to reliable results provided that suitable basis sets and density functionals are employed. In this connection, the global hybrid B3LYP functional in conjunction with the EPR-III basis set appears particularly suitable after constant scaling of the band positions. For the N K-edge, vertical energies obtained at these levels and broadened by symmetric Gaussian distributions provide spectra in reasonable agreement with the experiment. Vibronic contributions further modulate the band-shapes leading to a better agreement with the experimental results, but are not strictly necessary for semi-quantitative investigations. On the other hand, vibronic contributions are responsible for strong intensity redistribution in the NEXAFS C K-edge spectra, and their inclusion is thus mandatory for a proper description of experiments. In this connection, the simple vertical gradient model is particularly appealing in view of its sufficient reliability and low computational cost. For more quantitative results, the more refined vertical Hessian approach can be employed, and its effectiveness has been improved thanks to a new least-squares fitting approach.

  4. Combined storage system for LWR spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, B.J.; Ganley, J.T.; Washington, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The MODREX storage system consists of four basic elements: (1) the storage canister, (2) the storage module, (3) the storage cask, and (4) the transport cask. The storage canister is the heart of the system and, when used in combination with the module or either of the casks, allows the MODREX system to respond quickly to varied storage system requirements. The MODREX system can be used to hold either spent fuel assemblies or canistered solidified HLW. The ability to combine a basic storage canister with either a concrete module or a metal cask provides flexibility to meet a wide range of storage requirements. The spent fuel is stored in a dry, inert atmosphere, which essentially eliminates corrosion or deterioration of the cladding during extended storage periods. The storage canister and concrete storage module provide additional barriers against radioactivity release, enhancing long-term safety. Heat dissipation is passive, eliminating the need for additional emergency cooling systems or special redundancy. Modular, expandable construction permits minimum initial investment and capital carrying charges; additional capacity is built and paid for only as it is needed, retaining flexibility. 6 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  5. Determination of the residue levels of nicarbazin and combination nicarbazin-narasin in broiler chickens after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; de Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    The depletion times of the anticoccidial nicarbazin administered individually and of nicarbazin and narasin administered in combination were evaluated by determining the presence and levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, and narasin residues in the muscle tissues of broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was used. The results showed the presence of all anticoccidial residues; however, the DNC levels were higher when the nicarbazin was administered individually than when it was used in association with narasin throughout the experimental period. After six days of withdrawal, the DNC level following nicarbazin administration alone was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) of 200 μg kg-1. However, when the nicarbazin was co-administered with narasin, the concentrations of DNC were lower than the MRL after four days of withdrawal. These results may be justified because the dosage of nicarbazin, when administrated individually, is greater than when it is used in combination with narasin. The levels of narasin were lower than the MRL of 15 μg kg-1 throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that nicarbazin is rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles up to six days of withdrawal since the DNC levels were lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) and the concentrations of narasin were lower than the MRL throughout the evaluation period. PMID:28750013

  6. BOES: Building Occupancy Estimation System using sparse ambient vibration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Bonde, Amelie; Jing, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a room-level building occupancy estimation system (BOES) utilizing low-resolution vibration sensors that are sparsely distributed. Many ubiquitous computing and building maintenance systems require fine-grained occupancy knowledge to enable occupant centric services and optimize space and energy utilization. The sensing infrastructure support for current occupancy estimation systems often requires multiple intrusive sensors per room, resulting in systems that are both costly to deploy and difficult to maintain. To address these shortcomings, we developed BOES. BOES utilizes sparse vibration sensors to track occupancy levels and activities. Our system has three major components. 1) It extracts features that distinguish occupant activities from noise prone ambient vibrations and detects human footsteps. 2) Using a sequence of footsteps, the system localizes and tracks individuals by observing changes in the sequences. It uses this tracking information to identify when an occupant leaves or enters a room. 3) The entering and leaving room information are combined with detected individual location information to update the room-level occupancy state of the building. Through validation experiments in two different buildings, our system was able to achieve 99.55% accuracy for event detection, less than three feet average error for localization, and 85% accuracy in occupancy counting.

  7. Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH 3 35 Cl and CH 3 37 Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35  HL , and CBS-37  HL , are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY 3 Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35  HL and CBS-37  HL PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm −1 , respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH 3 Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs

  8. Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Alec, E-mail: owens@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Thiel, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2015-06-28

    Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup  HL}, and CBS-37{sup  HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup  HL} and CBS-37{sup  HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.

  9. The effects of changes of plasma endothelin level in patients with hypertension after medication of metoprolol tartrate combined with felodipine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhihu; Pan Quan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of metoprolol tartrate combined with felodipine sustained-release tablets in treatment of high blood pressure. Methods: Patients were allocated to groups of medication of metoprolol tartrate combined with felodipine (Group A, n=57) and single medication of metoprolol tartrate (Group B, n=60). All patients received daily measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, observation of adverse reactions and detection of the plasma endothelin levels before and after the medication. Results: Compared with Group B after the medication, the therapeutic effect was significant in Group A (P<0.01) and both the plasma endothelin levels and the side effects were much lower(P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Metoprolol tartrate combined with sustained release felodipine tablets appears effectively in treatment of hypertension, and the therapeutic effect may be associated with the variation of plasma endothelin levels. In addition, metoprolol in combination sustained release felodipine tablets can counteract the adverse reaction from single dose and is worthy for wide clinical use. (authors)

  10. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  11. Combining Geography, Math, and Science to Teach Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldakowski, Ray; Johnson, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of integrating geography into existing math and science curriculum to teach climate change and sea level rise. The desired outcome is to improve student performance in all three subjects. A sample of 120 fifth graders from three schools were taught the integrated curriculum over a period of two to three weeks.…

  12. Combination of Reduced Levels of Serum Albumin and Αlpha-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is global disease affecting about one third of the world's population with its attendant mortality and morbidity. Acute phase proteins have been used in monitoring the progression of infections but not in relation to PTB in this environment. The levels of total protein, albumin, α-2-macroglobulin, ...

  13. Effect of the Combined Extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on Sex Hormone Functional Levels in Osteoporosis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RenHui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi has been used to treat osteoporosis for almost 50 years by Professor Shizeng Li, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, it is unclear whether the combination of the effective constituents of the two herbs may have a protective influence on the skeleton. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid by gavage. With administrations of the combination extracts of the two herbs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day via oral gavage for 3 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD, femur histomorphometry, some sex hormones, and sex hormone receptors were measured. Results showed that the combined extracts could increase BMD, affect bone histomorphometry, coordinate the sex hormones at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and increase the protein and mRNA expressions of sex hormone receptors. The findings suggested that the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  14. Study on low level radioactive wastewater treatment by inorganic membrane permeation combined with complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Wang Jianlong; Bai Qinzhong

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic membranes exhibit greater mechanical durability in some operations than polymeric membranes. They do not suffer from the performance degradation that was resulted from compaction of the membrane structure under pressure or ageing. Membrane permeation combined with complexation was tested for radioactive wastes processing purpose. Sodium poly-acrylic acid was selected as the complexing agent, the efficiency of inorganic membrane with cut-off 1kD, 3kD, 8kD assisted by sodium poly-acrylic acid of different molecular weight were compared. The removal efficiencies of nuclides such as strontium, cesium and cobalt by were compared. The flux and retention factors of different membrane system were compared. The impacts of complexation agent concentration on permeate flux retention factors were studied. The long term behaviours of the membrane system were also studied. Diatomite filter was selected as the pretreatment method, and the efficiency of diatomite filter for pretreatment was investigated also. (author)

  15. Robust Framework to Combine Diverse Classifiers Assigning Distributed Confidence to Individual Classifiers at Class Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a classification framework that combines multiple heterogeneous classifiers in the presence of class label noise. An extension of m-Mediods based modeling is presented that generates model of various classes whilst identifying and filtering noisy training data. This noise free data is further used to learn model for other classifiers such as GMM and SVM. A weight learning method is then introduced to learn weights on each class for different classifiers to construct an ensemble. For this purpose, we applied genetic algorithm to search for an optimal weight vector on which classifier ensemble is expected to give the best accuracy. The proposed approach is evaluated on variety of real life datasets. It is also compared with existing standard ensemble techniques such as Adaboost, Bagging, and Random Subspace Methods. Experimental results show the superiority of proposed ensemble method as compared to its competitors, especially in the presence of class label noise and imbalance classes.

  16. Smart Sensor for Analyzing Train Vibration in WCR Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka DUBEY

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a smart vibration sensor is developed for railway electric engine WAP-7. Which is a self-sensation device equipped with recording and wireless communication interface. One programmed microcontroller 89C52 is used, which record vibration of trains with real time into memory. There is certain limit of vibrations, which is acceptable by track. Beyond this limit track can be damaged and may result major casualty. Smart sensor indicate the level of current vibration with its ideal value for prevention of excessive vibration it starts buzz ring. The work is highly applicable to the high speed trains. The high level vibration cause serious accidents due to the vibration.

  17. A combination of preoperative CT findings and postoperative serum CEA levels improves recurrence prediction for stage I lung adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Motohiko, E-mail: xackey2001@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences (Japan); Ishikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences (Japan); Kunii, Ryosuke [Division of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences (Japan); Tasaki, Akiko; Sato, Suguru; Ikeda, Yohei; Yoshimura, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences (Japan); Hashimoto, Takehisa; Tsuchida, Masanori [Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences (Japan); Aoyama, Hidefumi [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Objectives: To assess the prognostic value of combined evaluation of preoperative CT findings and pre/postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels for pathological stage I lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: This retrospective study included 250 consecutive patients who underwent complete resection for ≤3-cm pathological stage I (T1–2aN0M0) adenocarcinomas (132 men, 118 women; mean age, 67.8 years). Radiologists evaluated following CT findings: maximum tumor diameter, percentage of solid component (%solid), air bronchogram, spiculation, adjacency of bullae or interstitial pneumonia (IP) around the tumor, notch, and pleural indent. These CT findings, pre/postoperative CEA levels, age, gender, and Brinkman index were assessed by Cox proportional hazards model to determine the best prognostic model. Prognostic accuracy was examined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Median follow-up period was 73.2 months. In multivariate analysis, high %solid, adjacency of bullae or IP around the tumor, and high postoperative CEA levels comprised the best combination for predicting recurrence (P < 0.05). A combination of these three findings had a greater accuracy in predicting 5-year disease-free survival than did %solid alone (AUC = 0.853 versus 0.792; P = 0.023), with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 74.3% at the optimal threshold. The best cut-off values of %solid and postoperative CEA levels for predicting high-risk patients were ≥48% and ≥3.7 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to %solid alone, combined evaluation of %solid, adjacency of bullae or IP change around the tumor, and postoperative CEA levels improves recurrence prediction for stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

  18. Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)

  19. An Overview of Recent Automotive Applications of Active Vibration Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowalczyk, K; Svaricek, F; Bohn, C; Karkosch, H

    2004-01-01

    .... Continental has developed and implemented prototypes of active mounting systems on various test vehicles and demonstrated that significant reductions in noise and vibration levels are achievable...

  20. Transfer vibration through spine

    OpenAIRE

    Benyovszky, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...

  1. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    thresholds from 0.02 cm/s2. The sound and vibration sensitivity was compared for each fiber using the offset between the rate-level curves for sound and vibration stimulation as a measure of relative vibration sensitivity. When measured in this way relative vibration sensitivity decreases with frequency from......We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore......, the animals were stimulated with dorso-ventral vibrations, and the sound-induced vertical vibrations in the setup could be canceled by emitting vibrations in antiphase from the vibration exciter. All low-frequency fibers responded to both sound and vibration with sound thresholds from 23 dB SPL and vibration...

  2. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  3. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid

  4. Two-phase flow induced vibrations in CANDU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The U-Bend region of nuclear steam generators tube bundles have suffered from two-phase cross flow induced vibrations. Tubes in this region have experienced high amplitude vibrations leading to catastrophic failures. Turbulent buffeting and fluid-elastic instability has been identified as the main causes. Previous investigations have focused on flow regime and two-phase flow damping ratio. However, tube bundles in steam generators have vapour generated on the surface of the tubes, which might affect the flow regime, void fraction distribution, turbulent intensity levels and tube-flow interaction, all of which have the potential to change the tube vibration response. A cantilevered tube bundle made of electric cartridges heaters was built and tested in a Freon-11 flow loop at McMaster University. Tubes were arranged in a parallel triangular configuration. The bundle was exposed to two-phase cross flows consisting of different combinations of void from two sources, void generated upstream of the bundle and void generated at the surface of the tubes. Tube tip vibration response was measured optically and void fraction was measured by gamma densitometry technique. It was found that tube vibration amplitude in the transverse direction was reduced by a factor of eight for void fraction generated at the tube surfaces only, when compared to the upstream only void generation case. The main explanation for this effect is a reduction in the correlation length of the turbulent buffeting forcing function. Theoretical calculations of the tube vibration response due to turbulent buffeting under the same experimental conditions predicted a similar reduction in tube amplitude. The void fraction for the fluid-elastic instability threshold in the presence of tube bundle void fraction generation was higher than that for the upstream void fraction generation case. The first explanation of this difference is the level of turbulent buffeting forces the tube bundle was exposed to

  5. Temperature dependence of the photodissociation of CO2 from high vibrational levels: 205-230 nm imaging studies of CO(X1Σ+) and O(3P, 1D) products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Samanta, B. R.; Samanta, A. K.; Reisler, H.

    2017-07-01

    The 205-230 nm photodissociation of vibrationally excited CO2 at temperatures up to 1800 K was studied using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and time-sliced Velocity Map Imaging (VMI). CO2 molecules seeded in He were heated in an SiC tube attached to a pulsed valve and supersonically expanded to create a molecular beam of rotationally cooled but vibrationally hot CO2. Photodissociation was observed from vibrationally excited CO2 with internal energies up to about 20 000 cm-1, and CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were detected by REMPI. The large enhancement in the absorption cross section with increasing CO2 vibrational excitation made this investigation feasible. The internal energies of heated CO2 molecules that absorbed 230 nm radiation were estimated from the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of CO(X1Σ+) products in v″ = 0. At 230 nm, CO2 needs to have at least 4000 cm-1 of rovibrational energy to absorb the UV radiation and produce CO(X1Σ+) + O(3P). CO2 internal energies in excess of 16 000 cm-1 were confirmed by observing O(1D) products. It is likely that initial absorption from levels with high bending excitation accesses both the A1B2 and B1A2 states, explaining the nearly isotropic angular distributions of the products. CO(X1Σ+) product internal energies were estimated from REMPI spectroscopy, and the KER distributions of the CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were obtained by VMI. The CO product internal energy distributions change with increasing CO2 temperature, suggesting that more than one dynamical pathway is involved when the internal energy of CO2 (and the corresponding available energy) increases. The KER distributions of O(1D) and O(3P) show broad internal energy distributions in the CO(X1Σ+) cofragment, extending up to the maximum allowed by energy but peaking at low KER values. Although not all the observations can be explained at this time, with the aid of available theoretical studies of CO2 VUV

  6. Achieving new levels of recall in consent to research by combining remedial and motivational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Clements, Nicolle T

    2014-04-01

    Research supports the efficacy of both a remedial consent procedure (corrected feedback (CF)) and a motivational consent procedure (incentives) for improving recall of informed consent to research. Although these strategies were statistically superior to standard consent, effects were modest and not clinically significant. This study examines a combined incentivised consent and CF procedure that simplifies the cognitive task and increases motivation to learn consent information. We randomly assigned 104 individuals consenting to an unrelated host study to a consent as usual (CAU) condition (n=52) or an incentivised CF (ICF) condition (n=52). All participants were told they would be quizzed on their consent recall following their baseline assessment and at 4 monthly follow-ups. ICF participants were also informed that they would earn $5 for each correct answer and receive CF as needed. Quiz scores in the two conditions did not differ at the first administration (p=0.39, d=0.2); however, ICF scores were significantly higher at each subsequent administration (second: p=0.003, Cohen's d=0.6; third: pmotivational consent procedure for enhancing recall of study information and human research protections.

  7. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  8. Experimental chaos in nonlinear vibration isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jingjun; Zhu Shijian; He Lin; He Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic vibration isolation method was studied thoroughly from an experimental perspective. The nonlinear load-deflection characteristic of the conical coil spring used in the experiment was surveyed. Chaos and subharmonic responses including period-2 and period-6 motions were observed. The line spectrum reduction and the drop of the acceleration vibration level in chaotic state and that in non-chaotic state were compared, respectively. It was concluded from the experiment that the nonlinear vibration isolation system in chaotic state has strong ability in line spectrum reduction.

  9. International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Chaari, Fakher; Walha, Lasaad; Abdennadher, Moez; Abbes, Mohamed; Haddar, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and industrial trends in field of industrial acoustics and vibration. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work presented and discussed at International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration (ICAV2016), which was organized by the Tunisian Association of Industrial Acoustics and Vibration (ATAVI) and held March 21-23, in Hammamet, Tunisia. The contributions, mainly written by north African authors, covers advances in both theory and practice in a variety of subfields, such as: smart materials and structures; fluid-structure interaction; structural acoustics as well as computational vibro-acoustics and numerical methods. Further topics include: engines control, noise identification, robust design, flow-induced vibration and many others.This book provides a valuable resource for both academics and professionals dealing with diverse issues in applied mechanics. By combining advanced theori...

  10. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  11. Combination therapy using antioxidants and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on noise induced hearing loss (NIHL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku

    2016-02-01

    One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is noise trauma. Noise is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous noise levels in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud noises from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure levels[4].

  12. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  13. Effect of Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels in patients with breast cancer. Methods: A total of 90 breast cancer patients in our hospital were randomly divided into control group (45 cases and observation group (45 cases. The two groups received CAF chemotherapy, and the observation group was additionally given Kanglaite injection (200 mL/d for 2 weeks continuously. Both groups had chemotherapy for 6 courses. The effect on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels was detected and compared before and after treatment in two groups. Results: After treatment, myelosuppression was found in both groups, and the levels of leukocyte, hemoglobin and platelet decreased significantly compared with before treatment (P0.05, and the levels of immune function indexes (CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/ CD8+ of the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) . After treatment, the levels of two tumor markers (CEA, CA15-3 decreased significantly than before treatment in both groups (P<0.05, and the decrease amplitude in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy has evident therapeutic effect on breast cancer. It can alleviate the myelosuppression caused by chemotherapy, improve immune function, and reduce the concentration of tumor markers in patients with breast cancer.

  14. Daylong Effect of Rinsing with Water Diluted Antiplaque®Toothpaste Combined with Toothbrushing on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandina Irmagita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis, complained by most adult population, is a common oral condition. About 8%% of the cases happened because of the microbia activity in the oral cavity that produces Volatile Sulphur Compound (VSC which has unpleasant odour. Daily oral prophylaxis can reduce the oral VSC levels. Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplque® toothpaste in daily oral prophylaxis: as dentrifice for tooth brushing and, in modified way, as oral rinse; on the VSC level. Methods: a double blind, clinical experimental study, involving 120 subjects with or without halitosis complain, divided in 2 treatment groups (oral rinse group and the combination of tooth brushing and oral rinse group, using Antiplaque® toothpaste and 2 control groups (same procedure using placebo toothpaste. The daylong VSC levels measure with halimeter were taken twice, in the afternoon day I and day II. Results: there are significant reduction of daylong VSC levels (Wilcoxon signed rank test P<0.0%, but not in the treatment groups using the placebo toothpaste. The result on conbination of tooth brushing and oral rinse using Antiplaque® toothpaste are significant compared to the oral rinse treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste alone (Mann Whitney, P<0.05. Conclusion: tooth brushing with Antiplaque® toothpaste combined with oral rinse using the modified Antiplaque® toothpaste can significantly reduce daylong VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.94

  15. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tumor markers (NSE, CA-242, TPA, CEA) levels in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juzhen; Cai Tietie; Qin Shana

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum NSE, CA242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and CEA levels in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: Serum NSE, CA242, TPA and CEA levels were determined with ELISA in (1) 102 patients with various types of primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma 38, squamous cell carcinoma 32, small cell lung carcinoma 32) (2) 33 patients with open lung T. B. and (3) 30 controls. Results: (1) In patients with lung cancer, serum levels of all the four markers were increased and significantly higher than their respective values in patients with open lung T.B. and controls. (2) Positive rate of combined any two markers were 75% for adenocarcinoma, 50% for squamous cell carcinoma and 65% for small cell lung carcinoma, while false positive rate was only 9% for T.B patients and none for the controls. (3) The most appropriate single marker for each specific type of lung cancer was: NSE for SCLC (sensitivity 72%, specificity 97%, CA242 for adenocarcinoma sensitivity 62%, specificity 90%). Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of primary lung carcinoma. (authors)

  16. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum AFP, CEA, CA199, SF levels in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Rui Zhilian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined detection of four tumor markers in patients with possible malignant change in liver disorders. Methods: Serum AFP, CEA, CA199 and SF levels were determined with chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) in 49 patients with primary liver carcinoma, 7 patients with metastatic liver carcinoma, 40 patients with hepatic cirrhosis, 47 patients with HBV hepatitis and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of AFP, CEA, SF in patients with primary hepatic cancer and serum levels of AFP, SF in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were all significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Moreover, positive rate of combined determination of AFP, CEA, CA199, SF in patients with primary hepatic cancer was significantly higher than that in patients with metastatic liver cancer. Conclusion: With combined determination of these four tumor markers, the detection rate of primary hepatic carcinoma could be enhanced to above 95%. Also, differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic hepatic cancers could be facilitated. (authors)

  17. The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica S. Giolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15 or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17 groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001 in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05, with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.

  18. Possibility of combining nuclear level pumping in plasma with lasing in solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Carroll, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear isomers can be used for the storage and release of 'clean' nuclear energy, and the visible schemes are discussed. Resonance between the atomic and nuclear transitions may be manifested in a form of the hybridization of atomic-nuclear excitation at the appropriate case. The nuclear levels - candidates for triggering via atomic transitions are described. A variety of the ionization states and atomic-shell configurations arises in hot plasma generated by the short powerful pulse of laser light. The nonradiative conversion of the ionization energy within atom can be suppressed in the hot-plasma surroundings. Time-scales of different processes in nuclear, atomic and condensed-matter subsystems are compared. The processes of fast ionization in solid, X-ray radiance in plasma, sample melting and recrystallisation may precede nuclear fluorescence. Time-scale shorter 0.1 ns makes this sequence promising for the group excitation of short-lived modes in nuclear subsystem

  19. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  20. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  1. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  2. Molecular Origin of the Vibrational Structure of Ice Ih.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Daniel R; Straight, Shelby C; Knight, Christopher; Paesani, Francesco

    2017-06-15

    An unambiguous assignment of the vibrational spectra of ice I h remains a matter of debate. This study demonstrates that an accurate representation of many-body interactions between water molecules, combined with an explicit treatment of nuclear quantum effects through many-body molecular dynamics (MB-MD), leads to a unified interpretation of the vibrational spectra of ice I h in terms of the structure and dynamics of the underlying hydrogen-bond network. All features of the infrared and Raman spectra in the OH stretching region can be unambiguously assigned by taking into account both the symmetry and the delocalized nature of the lattice vibrations as well as the local electrostatic environment experienced by each water molecule within the crystal. The high level of agreement with experiment raises prospects for predictive MB-MD simulations that, complementing analogous measurements, will provide molecular-level insights into fundamental processes taking place in bulk ice and on ice surfaces under different thermodynamic conditions.

  3. The Health Effects and Keep Down of Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration was defined that oscillation of the body according to the reference point. The tools that are used in industry and are the source of vibration cause diseases. For this reason, the vibration has been one of the factors that affect the health and of the most widely researched in the field of ergonomics. The perceived intensity and health effects of vibration depend on the vibration frequency, intensity, direction, acceleration, duration of exposure, vibration affects the region, age, gender, posture, distance from the source person, activity, time of day and the person\\s overall health condition. The one of the most common health effects of whole body vibration is impact on musculoskeletal system. In many studies, indicated that whole-body vibration effect waist, back, shoulder and neck especially. There were varied studies that hormone levels were not changed as well there were varied studies that hormone levels were increased or decreased. There were varied studies about the digestive and circulatory system. In these studies, digestive system complaints, peptic ulcer, gastritis, varicose veins and hemorrhoids were determined frequently. For protection the health effect of vibration, Directives of the European Commission, Turkish Standards, Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise and Vibration Regulations were published. For the control of vibration are need technical and medical measures and education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 177-186

  4. Lay health worker experiences administering a multi-level combination intervention to improve PMTCT retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Abby; Fayorsey, Ruby; Syengo, Masila; Chege, Duncan; Sirengo, Martin; Reidy, William; Otieno, Juliana; Omoto, Jackton; Hawken, Mark P; Abrams, Elaine J

    2018-01-10

    The recent scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services has rapidly accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. The Mother and Infant Retention for Health (MIR4Health) study evaluates the impact of a combination intervention administered by trained lay health workers to decrease attrition among HIV-positive women initiating PMTCT services and their infants through 6 months postpartum. This was a qualitative study nested within the MIR4Health trial. MIR4Health was conducted at 10 health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya from September 2013 to September 2015. The trial intervention addressed behavioral, social, and structural barriers to PMTCT retention and included: appointment reminders via text and phone calls, follow-up and tracking for missed clinic visits, PMTCT health education at home visits and during clinic visits, and retention and adherence support and counseling. All interventions were administered by lay health workers. We describe results of a nested small qualitative inquiry which conducted two focus groups to assess the experiences and perceptions of lay health workers administering the interventions. Discussions were recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Study findings show lay health workers played a critical role supporting mothers in PMTCT services across a range of behavioral, social, and structural domains, including improved communication and contact, health education, peer support, and patient advocacy and assistance. Findings also identified barriers to the uptake and implementation of the interventions, such as concerns about privacy and stigma, and the limitations of the healthcare system including healthcare worker attitudes. Overall, study findings indicate that lay health workers found the interventions to be feasible, acceptable, and well received by clients. Lay

  5. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational–vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part IV. Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for D216O, D217O, and D218O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Dénes, Nóra; Fazliev, Alexander Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the fourth of a series of papers reporting critically evaluated rotational–vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependences, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents energy level and transition data for the following doubly and triply substituted isotopologues of water: D 2 16 O, D 2 17 O, and D 2 18 O. The MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational–Vibrational Energy Levels) procedure is used to determine the levels, the lines, and their self-consistent uncertainties for the spectral regions 0–14 016, 0–7969, and 0–9108 cm −1 for D 2 16 O, D 2 17 O, and D 2 18 O, respectively. For D 2 16 O, D 2 17 O, and D 2 18 O, 53 534, 600, and 12 167 lines are considered, respectively, from spectra recorded in absorption at room temperature and in emission at elevated temperatures. The number of validated energy levels is 12 269, 338, and 3351 for D 2 16 O, D 2 17 O, and D 2 18 O, respectively. The energy levels have been checked against the ones determined, with an average accuracy of about 0.03 cm −1 , from variational rovibrational computations employing exact kinetic energy operators and an accurate potential energy surface. Furthermore, the rovibrational labels of the energy levels have been validated by an analysis of the computed wavefunctions using the rigid-rotor decomposition (RRD) scheme. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained is deposited in the Supplementary Material of this paper, in a distributed information system applied to water, W@DIS, and on the official MARVEL website, where they can easily be retrieved. - Highlights: • All published transitions are collected and analyzed. • A set of validated rovibrational transitions are presented. • Experimental energy levels for all three D 2 O isotopologues are determined. • Synthetic spectra are presented using these validated energy levels

  6. Study of the solvent effects on the molecular structure and Cdbnd O stretching vibrations of flurbiprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Nalan; Pir, Hacer; Sagdinc, Seda

    2012-12-01

    The effects of 15 solvents on the C=O stretching vibrational frequency of flurbiprofen (FBF) were determined to investigate solvent-solute interactions. Solvent effects on the geometry and C=O stretching vibrational frequency, ν(C=O), of FBF were studied theoretically at the DFT/B3LYP and HF level in combination with the polarizable continuum model and experimentally using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The calculated C=O stretching frequencies in the liquid phase are in agreement with experimental values. Moreover, the wavenumbers of ν(C=O) of FBF in different solvents have been obtained and correlated with the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat equation (KBM), the solvent acceptor numbers (ANs), and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The solvent-induced stretching vibrational frequency shifts displayed a better correlation with the LSERs than with the ANs and KBM.

  7. Linear response properties required to simulate vibrational spectra of biomolecules in various media: (R)-phenyloxirane (A comparative theoretical and spectroscopic vibrational study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Jürgensen, Vibeke Würtz; Degtyarenko, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    We here present a combined VA, VCD, Raman and ROA vibrational study of phenyloxirane. We have simulated the vibrational absorption (VA), also called IR, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), Raman scattering and Raman optical activity (ROA) intensities utilizing the density functional theory (DFT...

  8. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  9. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  10. The reduced effective vibration-rotational Hamiltonian for the nu(t ') = nu(t '')=1 levels of C-3v symmetric-top molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ceausu-Velcescu, A.; Pracna, Petr; Nová Stříteská, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 289, JUL 2013 (2013), s. 7-12 ISSN 0022-2852 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : effective Hamiltonian * reductions * combination bands Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.529, year: 2013

  11. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  12. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  13. Handbook Of Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.

  14. A Survey of Floor Vibration Noise at All Sectors in the APS Experiment Hall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shu, Deming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration survey of the APS experiment hall floor was conducted. It was found that beamlines 10-20 have particularly low levels of vibration when compared to the rest of the facility. The vibration spectrum for each beamline floor can be found in the appendix. Throughout the majority of the 5-100 Hz vibration spectrum beamlines at the APS fall below the most stringent NEST vibration criteria. Lastly, it was concluded that the magnitude of vibrations at a particular beamline is largely dependent upon the magnitude of vibrations present at the nearby mezzanine support column.

  15. Vibration insensitive interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.

    2017-11-01

    The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.

  16. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  17. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (re)absorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory) mechanisms. PMID:22018353

  18. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Evaluation of RNFL thickness and serum cytokine levels after retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Na

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection in RNFL thickness, serum cytokine levels and other aspects of diabetic retinopathy.Methods:A total of 92 patients with diabetic retinopathy (126 eyes) who received inpatient treatment in our hospital from December, 2013 to December 2015 were included in the study and divided into observation group 46 cases (62 eyes) and control group 46 cases (64 eyes) according to random number table, control group received retinal photocoagulation therapy alone, observation group received retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection treatment, and then differences in RNFL thickness, hemodynamic indexes, serum levels of cytokines and others were compared between two groups after treatment.Results: Average RNFL thickness of inner optic disc top, bottom, bitamporal and nasal ring area as well as the average full-cycle 360° RNFL thickness of observation group after treatment was less than those of control group; PSV and EDV values of CRA were higher than those of control group while RI value was lower than that of control group, and PSV, EDV and RI values of CRV were lower than those of control group; serumβ2-GPⅠ, Hcy, VEGF and SDF-1 levels were lower than those of control group while C-peptide and APN levels were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection can significantly reduce the RNFL thickness of the patients with diabetic retinopathy and optimize the retinal hemodynamic status, and helps to improve patients’ overall conditions.

  20. RHIZOME YIELD OF TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. AT N, P, K VARIOUS LEVEL AND N, K COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Nihayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of N, P and K on temulawak have not been clear enough to explain the need in temulawak rhizome in order to get high yield. The experiment was conducted in a screen house in Malang East Java with an altitude of 500 m asl. from Desember 2010 - August 2011. There were 4 experiments in series, consisting of N, P, K various level and N,K alone and combination on the growth and quantity of rhizome arranged in randomized block design comprising 7 levels of fertilizer per plant with 3 replications. The treatments of urea (N, SP36 (P consisted of 0, 1,25, 2,5, 3,75, 5, 6,25 and 7.5 g. The KCl (K comprised 0, 1,5, 3, 4,5, 6, 7,5 and 9 g. The N, K alone and combination treatments consisted of (No fertilizer, N, K, NK g /plant. The results of this research were N, P, K optimum dose of each N 6.25 g N / plant P2O5/tan P 6.25 g, K 7.5 g K2O / plant increased temulawak rhizome dry weight. Combination 4.5 g N + 2.8 g K / plant could increase temulawak rhizome dry weight by 33% compared to the addition of N and 220% when compared to the addition of a single K harvesting age 6 months.

  1. Combined phase and X-Ray fluorescence imaging at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosior, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    This work presents some recent developments in the field of hard X-ray imaging applied to biomedical research. As the discipline is evolving quickly, new questions appear and the list of needs becomes bigger. Some of them are dealt with in this manuscript. It has been shown that the ID22NI beamline of the ESRF can serve as a proper experimental setup to investigate diverse aspects of cellular research. Together with its high spatial resolution, high flux and high energy range the experimental setup provides bigger field of view, is less sensitive to radiation damages (while taking phase contrast images) and suits well chemical analysis with emphasis on endogenous metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) but also with a possibility for exogenous one's like these found in nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag) study. Two synchrotron-based imaging techniques, fluorescence and phase contrast imaging were used in this research project. They were correlated with each other on a number of biological cases, from bacteria E.coli to various cells (HEK 293, PC12, MRC5VA, red blood cells). The explorations made in the chapter 5 allowed preparation of more established and detailed analysis, described in the next chapter where both techniques, X-ray fluorescence and phase contrast imaging, were exploited in order to access absolute metal projected mass fraction in a whole cell. The final image presents for the first time true quantitative information at the sub-cellular level, not biased by the cell thickness. Thus for the first time a fluorescence map serves as a complete quantitative image of a cell without any risk of misinterpretation. Once both maps are divided by each other pixel by pixel (fluorescence map divided by the phase map) they present a complete and final result of the metal (Zn in this work) projected mass fraction in ppm of dry weight. For the purpose of this calculation the analysis was extended to calibration (non-biological) samples. Polystyrene spheres of a known diameter and known

  2. Enhancement of the vibration stability of a microdiffraction goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Preissner, C.; Lai, B.; Cai, Z.; Shu, D.

    2002-01-01

    High-precision instrumentation, such as that for x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and other optical micropositioning systems, requires the stability that comes from vibration-isolated support structures. Structure-born vibrations impede the acquisition of accurate experimental data through such high-precision instruments. At the Advanced Photon Source, a multiaxis goniometer is installed in the 2-ID-D station for synchrotron microdiffraction investigations. However, ground vibration can excite the kinematic movements of the goniometer linkages, resulting in critically contaminated experimental data. In this paper, the vibration behavior of the goniometer has been considered. Experimental vibration measurements were conducted to define the present vibration levels and determine the threshold sensitivity of the equipment. In addition, experimental modal tests were conducted and used to guide an analytical finite element analysis. Both results were used for finding the best way to reduce the vibration levels and to develop a vibration damping/isolation structure for the 2-ID-D goniometer. The device that was designed and tested could be used to reduce local vibration levels for the vibration isolation of similar high-precision instruments

  3. Combined glutamate and glutamine levels in pain-processing brain regions are associated with individual pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Schweizer, Lauren M; Witte, Vanessa; Harris, Richard E; Bingel, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity. The Glx levels were measured using point-resolved spectroscopy at 3 T, within a network of pain-associated brain regions comprising the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, the mid-cingulate cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the thalamus. GABA levels were measured using GABA-edited spectroscopy (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) within the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the mid-cingulate cortex. Glx and/or GABA levels correlated positively across all brain regions. Gender, weekly alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Glx and/or GABA levels. A linear regression analysis including all these factors indicated that Glx levels pooled across pain-related brain regions were positively associated with pain sensitivity, whereas no appreciable relationship with GABA was found. In sum, we show that the levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its precursor glutamine across pain-related brain regions are positively correlated with individual pain sensitivity. Future studies will have to determine whether our findings also apply to clinical populations.

  4. Calculation of 125Te NMR Chemical Shifts at the Full Four-Component Relativistic Level with Taking into Account Solvent and Vibrational Corrections: A Gateway to Better Agreement with Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakova, Irina L; Rusakov, Yuriy Yu; Krivdin, Leonid B

    2017-06-29

    Four-component relativistic calculations of 125 Te NMR chemical shifts were performed in the series of 13 organotellurium compounds, potential precursors of the biologically active species, at the density functional theory level under the nonrelativistic and four-component fully relativistic conditions using locally dense basis set scheme derived from relativistic Dyall's basis sets. The relativistic effects in tellurium chemical shifts were found to be of as much as 20-25% of the total calculated values. The vibrational and solvent corrections to 125 Te NMR chemical shifts are about, accordingly, 6 and 8% of their total values. The PBE0 exchange-correlation functional turned out to give the best agreement of calculated tellurium shifts with their experimental values giving the mean absolute percentage error of 4% in the range of ∼1000 ppm, provided all corrections are taken into account.

  5. Numerical simulation of the roll levelling of third generation fortiform 1050 steel using a nonlinear combined hardening material model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Mendiguren, J.; Silvestre, E.

    2017-09-01

    The roll levelling is a flattening process used to remove the residual stresses and imperfections of metal strips by means of plastic deformations. During the process, the metal sheet is subjected to cyclic tension-compression deformations leading to a flat product. The process is especially important to avoid final geometrical errors when coils are cold formed or when thick plates are cut by laser. In the last years, and due to the appearance of high strength materials such as Ultra High Strength Steels, machine design engineers are demanding reliable tools for the dimensioning of the levelling facilities. Like in other metal forming fields, finite element analysis seems to be the most widely used solution to understand the occurring phenomena and to calculate the processing loads. In this paper, the roll levelling process of the third generation Fortiform 1050 steel is numerically analysed. The process has been studied using the MSC MARC software and two different material laws. A pure isotropic hardening law has been used and set as the baseline study. In the second part, tension-compression tests have been carried out to analyse the cyclic behaviour of the steel. With the obtained data, a new material model using a combined isotropic-kinematic hardening formulation has been fitted. Finally, the influence of the material model in the numerical results has been analysed by comparing a pure isotropic model and the later combined mixed hardening model.

  6. Combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine levels as diagnostic marker for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janel, N; Alexopoulos, P; Badel, A; Lamari, F; Camproux, A C; Lagarde, J; Simon, S; Feraudet-Tarisse, C; Lamourette, P; Arbones, M; Paul, J L; Dubois, B; Potier, M C; Sarazin, M; Delabar, J M

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk factors would aid development of interventions to delay the onset of dementia, but current biomarkers are invasive and/or costly to assess. Validated plasma biomarkers would circumvent these challenges. We previously identified the kinase DYRK1A in plasma. To validate DYRK1A as a biomarker for AD diagnosis, we assessed the levels of DYRK1A and the related markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and homocysteine in two unrelated AD patient cohorts with age-matched controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analyses showed that combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine has a sensitivity of 0.952, a specificity of 0.889 and an accuracy of 0.933 in testing for AD. The blood levels of these markers provide a diagnosis assessment profile. Combined assessment of these three markers outperforms most of the previous markers and could become a useful substitute to the current panel of AD biomarkers. These results associate a decreased level of DYRK1A with AD and challenge the use of DYRK1A inhibitors in peripheral tissues as treatment. These measures will be useful for diagnosis purposes. PMID:28632203

  7. Validity of a combined fibromyalgia (FM) questionnaires to asses physical activity levels in Spanish elderly women: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, José María; Varela, Silvia; Alvarez, María José; Molina, Antonio; Ayán, Carlos; Martín, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires designed to assess the level of physical activity among elderly Spanish speaking women usually have problems of reproducibility and are difficult to administer. This study aims to validate a Spanish combined version of two questionnaires originally designed to assess physical activity levels in fibromyalgia women. The leisure time physical activity instrument (LTPAI) and the physical activity at home and work instrument (PAHWI). Both questionnaires were translated to Spanish using translation/back translation methodology, and then were administered to 44 women aged 60-80 twice, with an interval of 2 weeks. During the first administration, participants answered the Yale physical activity questionnaires (YPAS) and performed the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Although the Spanish version of the LTPAI and the PAWHI showed poor test-retest reliability and poor construct validity, the sum of the two questionnaires showed much better associations. The results suggest that the Spanish combined version of LTPAI and PAHWI would seem to be useful tools for assessing the level of physical activity among elderly Spanish speaking women. Nevertheless, such considerations as the cultural adaptation of their content or the link between the intensity of physical activity as perceived and that actually done must be adjusted for greater efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopic studies of Isoleucine by quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-04-24

    In this work, we reported a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of Isoleucine (2-Amino-3-methylpentanoic acid). The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments, thermodynamics properties, NBO analyses, NMR chemical shifts and ultraviolet-visible spectral interpretation of Isoleucine have been studied by performing MP2 and DFT/cc-pVDZ level of theory. The FTIR, FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1) respectively. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. Computational calculations at MP2 and B3LYP level with basis set of cc-pVDZ is employed in complete assignments of Isoleucine molecule on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using VEDA-4 program. The calculated wavenumbers are compared with the experimental values. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The formation of hydrogen bond was investigated in terms of the charge density by the NBO calculations. Based on the UV spectra and TD-DFT calculations, the electronic structure and the assignments of the absorption bands were carried out. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing a combination of validated questionnaires and level III portable monitor with polysomnography to diagnose and exclude sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Effie J; Driver, Helen S; Stewart, Steven C; Fitzpatrick, Michael F

    2013-12-15

    Questionnaires have been validated as screening tools in adult populations at risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Portable monitors (PM) have gained acceptance for confirmation of OSA in some patients with a high pretest probability of the disorder. We evaluated the combined diagnostic utility of 3 validated questionnaires and a Level III PM in the diagnosis and exclusion of OSA, as compared with in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) derived apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Consecutive patients referred to the Sleep Disorders Clinic completed 3 testing components: (1) 3 questionnaires (Berlin, STOP-Bang, and Sleep Apnea Clinical Score [SACS]); (2) Level III at-home PM (MediByte) study; and (3) Level I in-laboratory PSG. The utility of individual questionnaires, the Level III device alone, and the combination of questionnaires and the Level III device were compared with the PSG. One hundred twenty-eight patients participated in the study (84M, 44F), mean ± SD age 50 ± 12.3years, BMI 31 ± 6.6 kg/m(2). At a PSG threshold AHI = 10, the PM derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI) had a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 86%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the other screening tools were: Berlin 88%, 25%; STOP-Bang 90%, 25%; SACS 33%, 75%. The sensitivity and specificity at a PSG AHI = 15 were: PM 77%, 95%; Berlin 91%, 28%; STOP-Bang 93%, 28%; SACS 35%, 78%. Questionnaires alone, possibly given a reliance on sleepiness as a symptom, cannot reliably rule out the presence of OSA. Objective physiological measurement is critical for the diagnosis and exclusion of OSA.

  10. IMPACT OF DIET, EXERCISE AND DIET COMBINED WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMS ON PLASMA LIPOPROTEIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN OBESE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ben Ounis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of three programs, diet restriction (D, individualized exercise training (E at the maximal lipid oxidation point (LIPOXmax and diet combined with exercise (D+E, on body mass, plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls. Eighteen obese adolescents girls aged 12-14 years were studied. A longitudinal intervention was carried out, consisting of a two-month diet (D; -500 kcal·day-1, of individualized exercise (E; 4 days/week, 90 min·day-1 and of diet combined with exercise (D+E. Body mass, body mass index (BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference, substrate crossover point, LIPOXmax point, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of lipids and circulatory adiponectin, were measured in all subjects before and after the program. In subjects of the D+E group, body mass, BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio were significantly lower, and HDL-C and adiponectin were higher after the program than that of subjects in the D or E groups. Diet/exercise improved the ability to oxidize lipids during exercise (crossover point: + 18.5 ± 3.4 of % Wmax; p < 0.01 and fat oxidation rate at LIPOXmax: + 89.7 ± 19.7 mg·min-1; p < 0.01. In the D+E group, significant correlations were found between changes in body mass and adiponectin and between changes in the TC/HDL-C ratio and LIPOXmax. These findings show that the combined program of diet restriction and individualized exercise training at the LIPOXmax point is necessary to simultaneously improve body mass loss, adiponectin levels, as well as metabolic parameters, in obese girls

  11. Ionic liquids. Combination of combustion calorimetry with high-level quantum chemical calculations for deriving vaporization enthalpies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P; Heintz, Andreas; Schick, Christoph

    2008-07-10

    In this work, the molar enthalpies of formation of the ionic liquids [C2MIM][NO3] and [C4MIM][NO3] were measured by means of combustion calorimetry. The molar enthalpy of fusion of [C2MIM][NO3] was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. Ab initio calculations of the enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase have been performed for the ionic species using the G3MP2 theory. We have used a combination of traditional combustion calorimetry with modern high-level ab initio calculations in order to obtain the molar enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the ionic liquids under study.

  12. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Wanhyung; Won, Jong-Uk; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Seunghyun; Roh, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers' health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain. We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure. Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all pheadache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination. The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache/eyestrain is increased. Therefore, efforts aimed at reducing and

  13. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kim

    Full Text Available The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers' health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain.We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure.Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all p<0.05. The odds ratios between each exposure and headache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination.The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache

  14. Incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers by an all-fiber 7 × 1 signal combiner at a power level of 14 kW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chengmin; Gu, Yanran; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Zengfeng; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Wang, Xiaolin; Hou, Jing; Xu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jinbao; Liu, Zejin

    2018-04-16

    We demonstrate an all-fiber 7 × 1 signal combiner with an output core diameter of 50 μm for high power incoherent beam combining of seven self-made Yb-doped single-mode fiber lasers around a wavelength of 1080 nm and output power of 2 kW. 14.1 kW combined output power is achieved with a total transmission efficiency of higher than 98.5% and a beam quality of M 2 = 5.37, which is close to the theoretical results based on finite-difference beam propagation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power ever reported for all-fiber structure beam combining generation, which indicates the feasibility and potential of >10 kW high brightness incoherent beam combining based on an all-fiber signal combiner.

  15. Diagnosis of Centrifugal Pump Faults Using Vibration Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albraik, A; Althobiani, F; Gu, F; Ball, A

    2012-01-01

    Pumps are the largest single consumer of power in industry. This means that faulty pumps cause a high rate of energy loss with associated performance degradation, high vibration levels and significant noise radiation. This paper investigates the correlations between pump performance parameters including head, flow rate and energy consumption and surface vibration for the purpose of both pump condition monitoring and performance assessment. Using an in-house pump system, a number of experiments have been carried out on a centrifugal pump system using five impellers: one in good condition and four others with different defects, and at different flow rates for the comparison purposes. The results have shown that each defective impeller performance curve (showing flow, head, efficiency and NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) is different from the benchmark curve showing the performance of the impeller in good condition. The exterior vibration responses were investigated to extract several key features to represent the healthy pump condition, pump operating condition and pump energy consumption. In combination, these parameter allow an optimal decision for pump overhaul to be made.

  16. Diagnosis of Centrifugal Pump Faults Using Vibration Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albraik, A.; Althobiani, F.; Gu, F.; Ball, A.

    2012-05-01

    Pumps are the largest single consumer of power in industry. This means that faulty pumps cause a high rate of energy loss with associated performance degradation, high vibration levels and significant noise radiation. This paper investigates the correlations between pump performance parameters including head, flow rate and energy consumption and surface vibration for the purpose of both pump condition monitoring and performance assessment. Using an in-house pump system, a number of experiments have been carried out on a centrifugal pump system using five impellers: one in good condition and four others with different defects, and at different flow rates for the comparison purposes. The results have shown that each defective impeller performance curve (showing flow, head, efficiency and NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) is different from the benchmark curve showing the performance of the impeller in good condition. The exterior vibration responses were investigated to extract several key features to represent the healthy pump condition, pump operating condition and pump energy consumption. In combination, these parameter allow an optimal decision for pump overhaul to be made [1].

  17. Sea level reconstruction: Exploration of methods for combining altimetry with other data to beyond the 20-year altimetric record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Ocean satellite altimetry has provided global sets of sea level data for the last two decades, allowing determination of spatial patterns in global sea level. For reconstructions going back further than this period, tide gauge data can be used as a proxy for the model. We examine different methods...... to spatial distribution, and tide gauge data are available around the Arctic Ocean, which may be important for a later high-latitude reconstruction....... of combining satellite altimetry and tide gauge data using optimal weighting of tide gauge data, linear regression and EOFs, including automatic quality checks of the tide gauge time series. We attempt to augment the model using various proxies such as climate indices like the NAO and PDO, and investigate...

  18. Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.

  19. System Detects Vibrational Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.

  20. Coherent vibrational dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.

  1. Protein Level the Influence and the Period of Combined Feed Administration in Ross 308 Hybrid in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Omoran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various researches where during growth period of broilers are used 2 or 4 combined feed (CF recipes, with different nutritional characteristics, which can cover the chickens need, and which can also satisfy the technical-economical condition. The purpose of this work was to assess the possibility to simplify the way of feeding the chickens Ross 308 hybrid, by reducing the number of forage recipes from 4 to 3, and by administering combined feed with a protein level of 4% higher during the so-called growing period (11-33 days. In meat chickens, Ross 308 hybrid, for which the growing technology was applied with 4 types of CF: starter, I grower, II grower and finisher, at the age of 43 days, there was obtained an average body weight of 2557.81 g, an intake of 4790 g/chicken, a feed conversion ratio of 1.90, the feed costs to achieve 1 kg live weight being of 0.685 euros; in chickens fodder-fed with 3 CF structures, the body weight was of about 5.6% higher, a close feed intake, and the same feed conversion ratio, and the foraging costs related to kg live weight were of 0.15% higher. The conclusion is the simplification of broiler feeding technology reducing from 4 and 3 structures of combined feed by administering a CF with up 4p% more protein, during the so-called growing period.

  2. Combined effects of temperature changes and metal contamination at different levels of biological organization in yellow perch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasset, Julie; Ollivier, Élodie; Bougas, Bérénice; Yannic, Glenn; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Bernatchez, Louis; Couture, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Yellow perch were exposed to a combination of heat and metal (Cd or Ni) stress. • Kidney metal accumulation was greatly enhanced at higher temperatures. • Elevated temperatures negatively affected several indicators of condition and metabolic capacities. • Exposure to Ni stimulated gonad development. • Metal stress modified the normal response of antioxidant capacities and apoptosis to heat stress. - Abstract: In this study, we measured the effects of temperature (9 °C, 20 °C, and 28 °C), metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) and their interaction on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) using liver enzymatic and transcriptomic endpoints and biometric indices. Kidney metal concentrations increased with a rise of temperature. The biometric indices analysed (Fulton condition factor, pyloric cæca, hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices) generally decreased with an increase of temperature but not with metal contamination. At the enzymatic level, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), involved in antioxidant response, was affected by both temperature and metal contamination, whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), involved in energy accumulation but also in antioxidant response, was only affected by metal exposure. The response of perch to the stressors at the transcriptional level differed from the metabolic response. In particular, the transcription level of the cco and g6pdh genes sharply decreased with increasing temperature, while the activities of the corresponding enzymes remained stable. The normal response of the transcription level of the apoptotic gene (diablo) to heat stress was also altered in metal-contaminated fish. The combination of metal and temperature stresses also modified the response of antioxidant metabolism induced by these stressors individually. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influences of natural stressors like temperature on biomarkers commonly used in

  3. Combined effects of temperature changes and metal contamination at different levels of biological organization in yellow perch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasset, Julie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Ollivier, Élodie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bougas, Bérénice [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Yannic, Glenn [Laboratoire d’Écologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Université de Savoie Mont Blanc, 73376 Le Bourget-du-lac (France); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Yellow perch were exposed to a combination of heat and metal (Cd or Ni) stress. • Kidney metal accumulation was greatly enhanced at higher temperatures. • Elevated temperatures negatively affected several indicators of condition and metabolic capacities. • Exposure to Ni stimulated gonad development. • Metal stress modified the normal response of antioxidant capacities and apoptosis to heat stress. - Abstract: In this study, we measured the effects of temperature (9 °C, 20 °C, and 28 °C), metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) and their interaction on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) using liver enzymatic and transcriptomic endpoints and biometric indices. Kidney metal concentrations increased with a rise of temperature. The biometric indices analysed (Fulton condition factor, pyloric cæca, hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices) generally decreased with an increase of temperature but not with metal contamination. At the enzymatic level, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), involved in antioxidant response, was affected by both temperature and metal contamination, whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), involved in energy accumulation but also in antioxidant response, was only affected by metal exposure. The response of perch to the stressors at the transcriptional level differed from the metabolic response. In particular, the transcription level of the cco and g6pdh genes sharply decreased with increasing temperature, while the activities of the corresponding enzymes remained stable. The normal response of the transcription level of the apoptotic gene (diablo) to heat stress was also altered in metal-contaminated fish. The combination of metal and temperature stresses also modified the response of antioxidant metabolism induced by these stressors individually. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influences of natural stressors like temperature on biomarkers commonly used in

  4. Combining vibrational biomolecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques for the study of response and sensitivity of molecular structures/functional groups mainly related to lipid biopolymer to various processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) combine vibrational spectroscopy with chemometric multivariate techniques to determine the effect of processing applications on molecular structural changes of lipid biopolymer that mainly related to functional groups in green- and yellow-type Crop Development Centre (CDC) pea varieties [CDC strike (green-type) vs. CDC meadow (yellow-type)] that occurred during various processing applications; (2) relatively quantify the effect of processing applications on the antisymmetric CH3 ("CH3as") and CH2 ("CH2as") (ca. 2960 and 2923 cm(-1), respectively), symmetric CH3 ("CH3s") and CH2 ("CH2s") (ca. 2873 and 2954 cm(-1), respectively) functional groups and carbonyl C=O ester (ca. 1745 cm(-1)) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH3 to antisymmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3as to CH2as), ratios of symmetric CH3 to symmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3s to CH2s), and ratios of carbonyl C=O ester peak area to total CH peak area (ratio of C=O ester to CH); and (3) illustrate non-invasive techniques to detect the sensitivity of individual molecular functional group to the various processing applications in the recently developed different types of pea varieties. The hypothesis of this research was that processing applications modified the molecular structure profiles in the processed products as opposed to original unprocessed pea seeds. The results showed that the different processing methods had different impacts on lipid molecular functional groups. Different lipid functional groups had different sensitivity to various heat processing applications. These changes were detected by advanced molecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques which may be highly related to lipid utilization and availability. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization) are unable to fully distinguish the structural differences in the

  5. Effects of valsartan combined with atorvastatin on cardiac function, myocardial enzymes and thyroxine levels in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Gang Wang1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of valsartan combined with atorvastatin on cardiac function, myocardial enzymes and thyroxine levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. Methods: 90 cases of CHF cases were divided into observation group and control group according to the order of single and double number, 45 cases each. In the control group, atorvastatin was given on the basis of conventional therapy, and the observation group was given valsartan on the basis of the control group. After 6 months, the differences of cardiac function indexes (LVEF, LVEDD, LVESD, E/A, myocardial enzymes (LDH, AST, CK, CKMB and thyroxine (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH in the two groups were observed. Results: After treatment, LVEF and E/A in both groups increased significantly (P0.05, the observation group TT3 and FT3 were respectively (1.37±0.33 mol/L and (2.61±0.69 pmol/L , higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: valsartan combined with atorvastatin in the treatment of CHF, can improve cardiac function and myocardial protection effect, and can effectively promote the recovery of thyroid hormone levels, better than the single use of atorvastatin.

  6. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chromatographic Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanne E. Pemberton

    2011-03-10

    Chromatographic separations play a central role in DOE-supported fundamental research related to energy, biological systems, the environment, and nuclear science. The overall portfolio of research activities in the Separations and Analysis Program within the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences includes support for activities designed to develop a molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes that underlie separations for both large-scale and analytical-scale purposes. The research effort funded by this grant award was a continuation of DOE-supported research to develop vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the interfacial details of separations processes at a molecular level.

  7. Comparison of Spinal Block Levels between Laboring and Nonlaboring Parturients Using Combined Spinal Epidural Technique with Intrathecal Plain Bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was suggested that labor may influence the spread of intrathecal bupivacaine using combined spinal epidural (CSE technique. However, no previous studies investigated this proposition. We designed this study to investigate the spinal block characteristics of plain bupivacaine between nonlaboring and laboring parturients using CSE technique. Methods. Twenty-five nonlaboring (Group NL and twenty-five laboring parturients (Group L undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled. Following identification of the epidural space at the L3-4 interspace, plain bupivacaine 10 mg was administered intrathecally using CSE technique. The level of sensory block, degree of motor block, and hemodynamic changes were assessed. Results. The baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP and the maximal decrease of SBP in Group L were significantly higher than those in Group NL (=0.002 and =0.03, resp.. The median sensory level tested by cold stimulation was T6 for Group NL and T5 for Group L (=0.46. The median sensory level tested by pinprick was T7 for both groups (=0.35. The degree of motor block was comparable between the two groups (=0.85. Conclusion. We did not detect significant differences in the sensory block levels between laboring and nonlaboring parturients using CSE technique with intrathecal plain bupivacaine.

  8. Construction of a Vibration Monitoring System for HANARO's Rotating Machinery and Analysis of Pump Vibration Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2005-01-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor with a thermal power of 30MW. In order to remove the heat generated by the reactor core and the reflector vessel, primary cooling pumps and reflector cooling pumps circulate coolant. These pumps are installed at the RCI(Reactor Concrete Island) which is covered by heavy concrete hatches. For the prevention of an abnormal operation of these pumps in the RCI, it is necessary to construct a vibration monitoring system that provides an alarm signal to the reactor control room when the rotating speed or the vibration level exceeds the allowable limit. The first objective of this work is to construct a vibration monitoring system for HANARO's rotating machinery. The second objective is to verify the possibility of condition monitoring of the rotating machinery. To construct a vibration monitoring system, as a first step, the standards and references related to the vibration monitoring system were investigated. In addition, to determine the number and the location of sensors that can effectively characterize the overall vibration of a pump, the vibration of the primary cooling pumps and the reflector cooling pumps were measured. Based on these results, detailed construction plans for the vibration monitoring system for HANARO were established. Then, in accordance with the construction plans, the vibration monitoring system for HANARO's rotating machinery was manufactured and installed at HANARO. To achieve the second objective, FFT analysis and bearing fault detection of the measured vibration signals were performed. The analysis results demonstrate that the accelerometers mounted at the bearing locations of the pumps can effectively monitor the pump condition

  9. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of

  10. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  11. Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang

    2016-01-01

    We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...

  12. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is unchanged in comparison to the 3rd edition. Only a few errors have been corrected.......The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  13. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilaire, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  14. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer

    1999-01-01

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B

  15. A vibration sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Denisenko, V.V.; Dzhalalov, M.G.; Kirichek, F.P.; Pitatel, Yu.A.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A vibration sieve is proposed which includes a vibration drive, a body and a screen installed on shock absorbers, a device for washing out the screen, and a subassembly for loading the material. To increase the operational reliability and effectiveness of the vibration sieve by improving the cleaning of the screen, the loading subassembly is equipped with a baffle with a lever which is hinged to it. The device for washing out the screen is made in the form of an electromagnet with a connecting rod, a switch and an eccentric, a friction ratchet mechanism and sprinkling systems. Here, the latter are interconnected, using a connecting rod, while the sprinkling system is installed on rollers under the screen. The electromagnetic switch is installed under the lever. The body is made with grooves for installing the sprinkling system. The vibration sieve is equipped with a switch which interacts with the connecting rod. The friction ratchet mechanism is equipped with a lug.

  16. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Safrangian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this study, the effects of different blends of biodiesel, bioethanol and diesel on the engine vibration were investigated. As a result, a blend of fuels such as synthetic fuel that creates less vibration engine can be identified and introduced. Materials and Methods In this study, canola oil and methanol alcohol with purity of 99.99% and the molar ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide catalyst with 1% by weight of oil were used for biodiesel production. Reactor configurations include: maintaining the temperature at 50 ° C, the reaction time of 5 minutes and the intensity of mixing (8000 rpm, and pump flow, 0.83 liters per minute. A Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor with single differential (2WD, built in 2012 at Tractor factory of Iran was used for the experiment. To measure the engine vibration signals, an oscillator with model of VM120 British MONITRAN was used. Vibration signals were measured at three levels of engine speed (2000, 1600, 1000 rpm in three directions (X, Y, Z. The analysis performed by two methods in this study: statistical data analysis and data analysis using Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Statistical analysis of data: a factorial experiment of 10×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications was used in each direction of X, Y and Z that conducted separately. Data were compiled and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Ten levels of fuel were including of biodiesel (5, 15 and 25% and bioethanol (2, 4 and 6%, and diesel fuel. Data

  17. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  18. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  19. Studies of interstellar vibrationally-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziurys, L.M.; Snell, R.L.; Erickson, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    Several molecules thus far have been detected in the ISM in vibrationally-excited states, including H 2 , SiO, HC 3 N, and CH 3 CN. In order for vibrational-excitation to occur, these species must be present in unusually hot and dense gas and/or where strong infrared radiation is present. In order to do a more thorough investigation of vibrational excitation in the interstellar medium (ISM), studies were done of several mm-wave transitions originating in excited vibrational modes of HCN, an abundant interstellar molecule. Vibrationally-excited HCN was recently detected toward Orion-KL and IRC+10216, using a 12 meter antenna. The J=3-2 rotational transitions were detected in the molecule's lowest vibrational state, the bending mode, which is split into two separate levels, due to l-type doubling. This bending mode lies 1025K above ground state, with an Einstein A coefficient of 3.6/s. The J=3-2 line mode of HCN, which lies 2050K above ground state, was also observed toward IRC+10216, and subsequently in Orion-KL. Further measurements of vibrationally-excited HCN were done using a 14 meter telescope, which include the observations of the (0,1,0) and (0,2,0) modes towards Orion-KL, via their J=3-2 transitions at 265-267 GHz. The spectrum of the J=3-2 line in Orion taken with the 14 meter telescope, is shown, along with a map, which indicates that emission from vibrationally-excited HCN arises from a region probably smaller than the 14 meter telescope's 20 arcsec beam

  20. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  1. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  2. Viral fusion efficacy of specific H3N2 influenza virus reassortant combinations at single-particle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hung-Lun; Millet, Jean K.; Costello, Deirdre A.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Virus pseudotyping is a useful and safe technique for studying entry of emerging strains of influenza virus. However, few studies have compared different reassortant combinations in pseudoparticle systems, or compared entry kinetics of native viruses and their pseudotyped analogs. Here, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudovirions displaying distinct influenza virus envelope proteins were tested for fusion activity. We produced VSV pseudotypes containing the prototypical X-31 (H3) HA, either alone or with strain-matched or mismatched N2 NAs. We performed single-particle fusion assays using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to compare hemifusion kinetics among these pairings. Results illustrate that matching pseudoparticles behaved very similarly to native virus. Pseudoparticles harboring mismatched HA-NA pairings fuse at significantly slower rates than native virus, and NA-lacking pseudoparticles exhibiting the slowest fusion rates. Relative viral membrane HA density of matching pseudoparticles was higher than in mismatching or NA-lacking pseudoparticles. An equivalent trend of HA expression level on cell membranes of HA/NA co-transfected cells was observed and intracellular trafficking of HA was affected by NA co-expression. Overall, we show that specific influenza HA-NA combinations can profoundly affect the critical role played by HA during entry, which may factor into viral fitness and the emergence of new pandemic influenza viruses. PMID:27752100

  3. Relaxation of the vibrational distribution function in N2 time varying discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitelli, M.; Gorse, C.; Ricard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Relaxation of the electron and vibrational distribution functions have been calculated in function of residence time in nitrogen electrical discharges and post-discharges. In the discharge the vibrational temperature get bigger with the residence time for t -2 s. In the post-discharge the vibrational distribution is evolving in such a manner that the high levels are overpopulated as the low vibrational level population is dropping

  4. Nonsynchronous vibrations observed in a supercritical power transmission shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M. S.; Zorzi, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible shaft is prone to a number of vibration phenomena which occur at frequencies other than synchronous with rotational speed. Nonsynchronous vibrations from several sources were observed while running a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a supercritical power transmission shaft. The test rig was run first with very light external damping and then with a higher level of external damping, for comparison. As a result, the effect of external damping on the nonsynchronous vibrations of the test rig was observed. All of these nonsynchronous vibrations were of significant amplitude. Their presence in the vibrations spectra for a supercritical power transmission shaft at various speeds in the operating range indicates that very careful attention to all of the vibration spectra should be made in any supercritical power transmission shafting. This paper presents a review of the analysis performed and a comparison with experimental data. A thorough discussion of the observed nonsynchronous whirl is also provided.

  5. Particular aspects regarding the effects of whole body vibration exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picu Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of whole-body vibrations on human performance; for this it was investigated how a group of men (20-29 years of age and a group of woman (21–31 years of age answered to specific requirements after being subjected to vertical vibrations under controlled laboratory conditions for 10-25 min. The vibrations were generated by a vibrant system with known amplitudes and frequencies. Accelerations were measured with NetdB - complex system for measuring and analysing human vibration and they were found in the range 0.4 - 3.1m/s2. The subjects’ performances were determined for each vibration level using specific tests. It can be concluded that exposure to vibrations higher than those recommended by ISO 2631 significantly disrupts how subjects responded to tests requirements.

  6. Experimental Research on Vibrations of Double Harmonic Gear Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gears transmission can be important sources of vibration in the mechanical system structures and can have a significant share in the overall vibration level. The current trend of significant increase in powers and speeds transmitted by modern mechanical systems, along with the size reduction, may cause a worsening of the behaviour of transmissions with gears in terms of vibration, especially when the optimization criteria were not respected in the design, execution and installation phase. This paper presents a study of vibrations that occur in a double harmonic gear transmission (DHGT, based on experimental research. The experimental researches revealed that in a double harmonic gear transmission the vibrations are initiated and develop in the multipara harmonics engagement of the teeth and in the kinematic couplings materialized between the wave generator and the flexible toothed wheel. These vibrations are later transmitted by means of the shafts and bearings to the transmission housing, respectively, through the walls of it, propagating in the air.

  7. Effect of rosuvastatin monotherapy and in combination with fenofibrate or omega-3 fatty acids on serum vitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makariou, Stefania E; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Agouridis, Aris P; Challa, Anna; Elisaf, Moses

    2012-12-01

    Low levels of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)VitD] have been recognized as a new cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Statins seem to increase 25(OH)VitD concentration. To investigate whether combined treatment with the usual dose of rosuvastatin plus fenofibrate or omega-3 fatty acids would increase 25(OH)VitD levels compared with the high-dose rosuvastatin monotherapy in participants with mixed dislipidemia. We randomly allocated 60 patients with mixed dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: >160 mg/dL plus triglycerides: >200 mg/dL) to receive rosuvastatin 40 mg (n = 22), rosuvastatin 10 mg plus fenofibrate 200 mg (n = 21), or rosuvastatin 10 mg plus omega-3 fatty acids 2 g (n = 17) daily for 3 months. Our primary end point was changes in the levels of serum 25(OH)VitD. Rosuvastatin monotherapy was associated with a 53% increase in 25(OH)VitD (from 14.6 [1.0-38.0] to 17.8 [5.3-49.6] ng/mL; P = .000). Rosuvastatin plus micronized fenofibrate and rosuvastatin plus omega-3 fatty acids were associated with increases of 64% (from 14.1 [1.0-48.0] to 18.4 [6.7-52.4] ng/mL, P = .001) and 61% (from 10.4 [6.6-38.4] to 14.0 [9.6-37.6] ng/mL, P = .04), respectively. The changes in 25(OH)VitD after treatment were comparable in the 3 groups. High-dose rosuvastatin monotherapy and the usual dose of rosuvastatin plus fenofibrate or omega-3 fatty acids are associated with significant and similar increases in the 25(OH)VitD levels. This increase may be relevant in terms of CVD risk prevention.

  8. Laser diagnostics of high vibrational and rotational H2-states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbach, Th.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    We report on measurements of vibrational and rotational excited electronic-ground-state hydrogen molecules in a magnetic multipole plasma source by LIF with VUV radiation. The measurements are taken after rapid shut-off of the discharge current. Absolute level populations are obtained using Rayleigh scattering calibration with Krypton. The theoretically predicted suprathermal population of the vibrational distribution is clearly identified. We found also non-Boltzmann rotational distributions for the high vibrational states. The addition of noble gases (Argon and Xenon) to hydrogen leads to a decrease of the vibrational population. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Analysis of Vibration Diagnostics Methods for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kalinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of existing vibration diagnostics methods. In order to evaluate an efficiency of method application the following criteria have been proposed: volume of input data required for establishing diagnosis, data content, software and hardware level, execution time for vibration diagnostics. According to the mentioned criteria a classification of vibration diagnostics methods for determination of their advantages and disadvantages, search for their development and improvement has been presented in paper. The paper contains a comparative estimation of methods in accordance with the proposed  criteria. According to this estimation the most efficient methods are a spectral analysis and spectral analysis of the vibration signal envelope.

  10. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A system for isotope separation or enrichment wherein molecules of a selected isotope type in a flow of molecules of plural isotope types are vibrationally excited and collided with a background gas to provide enhanced diffusivity for the molecules of the selected isotope type permitting their separate collection. The system typically is for the enrichment of uranium using a uranium hexafluoride gas in combination with a noble gas such as argon. The uranium hexafluoride molecules having a specific isotope of uranium are vibrationally excited by laser radiation. The vibrational energy is converted to a translation energy upon collision with a particle of the background gas and the added translation energy enhances the diffusivity of the selected hexafluoride molecules facilitating its condensation on collection surfaces provided for that purpose. This process is periodically interrupted and the cryogenic flow halted to permit evaporation of the collected molecules to provide a distinct, enriched flow

  11. Conformational and vibrational reassessment of solid paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Ana M.; Azevedo, Celeste; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This work provides an answer to the urge for a more detailed and accurate knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug commonly known as paracetamol. A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis - including infrared, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) - is combined with a computational approach which takes account for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the solid state. This allows a full reassessment of the vibrational assignments for Paracetamol, thus preventing the propagation of incorrect data analysis and misassignments already found in the literature. In particular, the vibrational modes involving the hydrogen-bonded Nsbnd H and Osbnd H groups are correctly reallocated to bands shifted by up to 300 cm- 1 relatively to previous assignments.

  12. Classification Trees and the Analysis of Helicopter Vibration Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Harold

    1997-01-01

    .... These systems monitor (and can record) various flight parameters, pilot conversations, engine exhaust debris, metallic chip detector levels in the lubrication system, rotor track and balance, as well as vibration levels at selected...

  13. Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsakashalo-Senkwe Mutale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs, such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%, and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%. The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92] for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23] for 45 + years age group. Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57 (95%CI [1.44, 4.57]. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age

  14. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  15. Semi-active control of helicopter vibration using controllable stiffness and damping devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

    Semi-active concepts for helicopter vibration reduction are developed and evaluated in this dissertation. Semi-active devices, controllable stiffness devices or controllable orifice dampers, are introduced; (i) in the blade root region (rotor-based concept) and (ii) between the rotor and the fuselage as semi-active isolators (in the non-rotating frame). Corresponding semi-active controllers for helicopter vibration reduction are also developed. The effectiveness of the rotor-based semi-active vibration reduction concept (using stiffness and damping variation) is demonstrated for a 4-bladed hingeless rotor helicopter in moderate- to high-speed forward flight. A sensitivity study shows that the stiffness variation of root element can reduce hub vibrations when proper amplitude and phase are used. Furthermore, the optimal semi-active control scheme can determine the combination of stiffness variations that produce significant vibration reduction in all components of vibratory hub loads simultaneously. It is demonstrated that desired cyclic variations in properties of the blade root region can be practically achieved using discrete controllable stiffness devices and controllable dampers, especially in the flap and lag directions. These discrete controllable devices can produce 35--50% reduction in a composite vibration index representing all components of vibratory hub loads. No detrimental increases are observed in the lower harmonics of blade loads and blade response (which contribute to the dynamic stresses) and controllable device internal loads, when the optimal stiffness and damping variations are introduced. The effectiveness of optimal stiffness and damping variations in reducing hub vibration is retained over a range of cruise speeds and for variations in fundamental rotor properties. The effectiveness of the semi-active isolator is demonstrated for a simplified single degree of freedom system representing the semi-active isolation system. The rotor

  16. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  17. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  18. Non-traditional vibration mitigation methods for reciprocating compressor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, T.J. de; Vreugd, J. de; Slis, E.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocating compressors generate vibrations caused by pulsation-induced forces, mechanical (unbalanced) free forces and moments, crosshead guide forces and cylinder stretch forces. The traditional way of mitigating the vibration and cyclic stress levels to avoid fatigue failure of parts of the

  19. Levels, fluxes and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Thun, Switzerland: Combining trace analysis and multimedia modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Blaeuenstein, Markus; Kohler, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Levels, mass fluxes, and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Thun, a peri-Alpine lake, are investigated. We present measurements of PBDEs and PCBs in air, lake water, lake sediment, and tributary water. These measurements are combined with a multimedia fate model, based on site-specific environmental parameters from the lake catchment. Measured loadings of PBDEs and PCBs in air and tributaries were used to drive the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces PBDE and PCB congener patterns in water and sediment, but it tends to yield concentrations in water below the measurements and concentrations in sediment exceeding the measurements. A sensitivity analysis reveals that partitioning of PBDEs and PCBs between the aqueous dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water column strongly affects the model results, in particular the concentrations in water and sediment. For lower-brominated PBDEs, approximately 70% and 30% of input into the lake stems from atmospheric deposition and from tributaries, respectively. For heavier PBDEs and all PCBs, rivers appear to deliver the major load (64-92%). Waste water effluents are of minor importance. 50-90% of the total input is buried in the permanent sediment. Sediment burial makes PBDEs and PCBs less available for recycling in the environment, and reduces concentrations in the outflowing river. If use of deca-BDE increases in the future, levels in Lake Thun will follow the same trend. If the use and resulting environmental emissions decrease, concentrations in water will rapidly decline, according to our calculations, while sediment levels will decrease at a considerably slower rate.

  20. Serum levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and oxytocin in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined presentation with and without comorbid conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, Ümit; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Kılınç, Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and oxytocin levels of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined presentation and those diagnosed with ADHD combined presentation and coexisting conduct disorder. A total of 74 drug-naive children with ADHD combined presentation alone, 32 children with ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder, and 42 healthy controls were included. The severities of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms were assessed via parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. The severity of aggression, anxiety, and depression symptoms of the children were assessed by the self-report inventories. Independent of potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, and severity of depression and anxiety, serum oxytocin levels of the ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder group were significantly lower than those of both the ADHD combined presentation alone and control groups. There was also a trend for the ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder group to show lower serum DHEA levels than that of the ADHD combined presentation alone group. However, serum cortisol levels did not show significant alterations among the groups. These findings suggest that oxytocin and DHEA may play a role in the pathophysiology of conduct disorder, at least in the presence of ADHD combined presentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of S-wave portable vibrator; S ha potable vibrator shingen no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaida, Y; Matsubara, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nijhof, V; Brouwer, J

    1996-05-01

    An S-wave portable vibrator to serve as a seismic source has been developed for the purpose of applying the shallow-layer reflection method to the study of the soil ground. The author, et al., who previously developed a P-wave portable vibrator has now developed an S-wave version, considering the advantage of the S-wave over the P-wave in that, for example, the S-wave velocity may be directly compared with the N-value representing ground strength and that the S-wave travels more slowly than the P-wave through sticky soil promising a higher-resolution exploration. The experimentally constructed S-wave vibrator consists of a conventional P-wave vibrator and an L-type wooden base plate combined therewith. Serving as the monitor for vibration is a conventional accelerometer without any modification. The applicability test was carried out at a location where a plank hammering test was once conducted for reflection aided exploration, and the result was compared with that of the plank hammering test. As the result, it was found that after some preliminary treatment the results of the two tests were roughly the same but that both reflected waves were a little sharper in the S-wave vibrator test than in the plank hammering test. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-05-08

    Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.

  3. Effects of low-level laser therapy in combination with physiotherapy in the management of rotator cuff tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Fariba; Shakouri, Seyyed Kazem; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Nobari, Ozra Eslampanah; Eftekharsadat, Bina

    2012-09-01

    Rotator cuff tendinitis is one of the main causes of shoulder pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible additive effects of low-power laser treatment in combination with conventional physiotherapy endeavors in these patients. A total of 50 patients who were referred to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic with shoulder pain and rotator cuff disorders were selected. Pain severity measured with visual analogue scale (VAS), abduction, and external rotation range of motion in shoulder joint was measured by goniometry, and evaluation of daily functional abilities of patients was measured by shoulder disability questionnaire. Twenty-five of the above patients were randomly assigned into the control group and received only routine physiotherapy. The other 25 patients were assigned into the experimental group and received conventional therapy plus low-level laser therapy (4 J/cm(2) at each point over a maximum of ten painful points of shoulder region for total 5 min duration). The above measurements were assessed at the end of the third week of therapy in each group and the results were analyzed statistically. In both groups, statistically significant improvement was detected in all outcome measures compared to baseline (p rotation (78.0 ± 19.5 vs. 76.3 ± 19.1) had no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.20 and 0.77, respectively). As one of physical modalities, gallium-arsenide low-power laser combined with conventional physiotherapy has superiority over routine physiotherapy from the view of decreasing pain and improving the patient's function, but no additional advantages were detected in increasing shoulder joint range of motion in comparison to other physical agents.

  4. Vibrations in orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, L D; Thorne, G C

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of various mechanical properties of skeletal material using vibration techniques have been reported. The purposes of such investigations include the monitoring of pathogenic disorders such as osteoporosis, the rate and extent of fracture healing, and the status of internal fixations. Early investigations pioneered the application of conventional vibration measurement equipment to biological systems. The more recent advent of the microcomputer has made available to research groups more sophisticated techniques for data acquisition and analysis. The economical advantages of such equipment has led to the development of portable research instrumentation which lends itself to use in a clinical environment. This review article reports on the developments and progression of the various vibrational techniques and theories as applied to musculoskeletal systems.

  5. Fully automated radiochemical preparation system for gamma-spectroscopy on fission products and the study of the intruder and vibrational levels in 83Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, O.G. III.

    1983-10-01

    AUTOBATCH was developed to provide a usable source of short-lived neutron-rich nuclides through chemical preparation of the sample from fission products for detailed gamma-ray spectroscopy, which would complement the output of on-line isotope separators. With AUTOBATCH the gamma rays following the β - decay of 83 As were studied to determine the ground state spin and parity of 83 As to be 5/2 - ; the absolute intensity of the β - branch from 83 As to 83 Se/sup m/ to be 0.3%; the absolute intensity of the ground state β - branch from 83 Se/sup m/ to 83 Br to be 39%; the halflife of the 5/2 1 + level to be 3.2 ns; and the structure of 83 Se 49 . Results are used to show that the intruder structure which had been previously observed in the odd mass 49 In isotopes could be observed in the N = 49 isotones. The observed structure is discussed in terms of the unified model calculations of Heyde which has been used to describe the intruder structure in the indium nuclei. The intruder structure is most strongly developed, not at core mid-shell, 89 Zr 49 , but rather at core mid-sub-shell 83 Se. This difference is qualitatively understood to be due to the blocking of collectivity by the Z = 40 subshell closure which prevents the intruder structure from occurring in 87 Sr 49 and 89 Zr 49

  6. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  7. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  8. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is basically unchanged in comparison to the 1st edition. Only section 4.2 on single input - single output systems and chapter 6 on offshore structures have been modified in order to enhance the clearness....

  9. Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric; Jang, Seogjoo; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Dethier, Bérénice; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Gundala, Sivaji; Pan, Yi; Li, Shengju; Li, Zhen; Lodge, Stephene N; Ozbil, Mehmet; Jiang, Huihong; Penalba, Sonia F; Batista, Victor S; Zhuang, Hanyi

    2015-05-26

    The vibrational theory of olfaction assumes that electron transfer occurs across odorants at the active sites of odorant receptors (ORs), serving as a sensitive measure of odorant vibrational frequencies, ultimately leading to olfactory perception. A previous study reported that human subjects differentiated hydrogen/deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of the musk compound cyclopentadecanone as evidence supporting the theory. Here, we find no evidence for such differentiation at the molecular level. In fact, we find that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and (13)C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling our results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that the proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm(-1) IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with our extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory.

  10. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F

    2015-01-01

    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  11. Research on the design of fixture for motor vibration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W. X.; Ma, W. S.; Zhang, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    The vibration reliability of the new energy automobile motor plays a very important role in driving safety, so it is very important to test the vibration durability of the motor. In the vibration test process, the fixture is very important, simulated road spectrum signal vibration can be transmitted without distortion to the motor through the fixture, fixture design directly affect the result of vibration endurance test. On the basis of new energy electric vehicle motor concrete structure, Two fixture design and fixture installation schemes for lateral cantilever type and base bearing type are put forward in this article, the selection of material, weighting process, middle alignment process and manufacturing process are summarized.The modal analysis and frequency response calculation of the fixture are carried out in this design, combine with influence caused by fixture height and structure profile on response frequency, the response frequency of each order of the fixture is calculated, then ultimately achieve the purpose of guiding the design.

  12. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  13. Application for vibration monitoring of aspheric surface machining based on wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chun Guang; Guo, Yin Biao; Jiang, Chen

    2010-05-01

    Any kinds of tiny vibration of machine tool parts will have a great influence on surface quality of the workpiece at ultra-precise machining process of aspheric surface. At present the major way for decreasing influence of vibration is machining compensation technology. Therefore it is important for machining compensation control to acquire and transmit these vibration signals effectively. This paper presents a vibration monitoring system of aspheric surface machining machine tool based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). Some key issues of wireless sensor networks for vibration monitoring system of aspheric surface machining are discussed. The reliability of data transmission, network communication protocol and synchronization mechanism of wireless sensor networks are studied for the vibration monitoring system. The proposed system achieves multi-sensors vibration monitoring involving the grinding wheel, the workpiece and the workbench spindle. The wireless transmission of vibration signals is achieved by the combination with vibration sensor nodes and wireless network. In this paper, these vibration sensor nodes are developed. An experimental platform is structured which employs wireless sensor networks to the vibration monitoring system in order to test acquisition and wireless transmission of vibration signal. The test results show that the proposed system can achieve vibration data transmission effectively and reliability and meet the monitoring requirements of aspheric surface machining machine tool.

  14. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  15. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  16. Dissipative two-level system under strong ac driving: A combination of Floquet and Van Vleck perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausinger, Johannes; Grifoni, Milena

    2010-01-01

    We study the dissipative dynamics of a two-level system (TLS) exposed to strong ac driving. By combining Floquet theory with Van Vleck perturbation theory in the TLS tunneling matrix element, we diagonalize the time-dependent Hamiltonian and provide corrections to the renormalized Rabi frequency of the TLS, which are valid for both a biased and unbiased TLS and go beyond the known high-frequency and rotating-wave results. In order to mimic environmental influences on the TLS, we couple the system weakly to a thermal bath and solve analytically the corresponding Floquet-Bloch-Redfield master equation. We give a closed expression for the relaxation and dephasing rates of the TLS and discuss their behavior under variation of the driving amplitude. Further, we examine the robustness of coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) and driving-induced tunneling oscillations (DITO). We show that also for a moderate driving frequency an almost complete suppression of tunneling can be achieved for short times and demonstrate the sensitiveness of DITO to a change of the external parameters.

  17. Study on treating of low-level radioactive reactor wastewater by combined membrane process (UF-RO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yunyun; Cao Qiru; Chen Yunming; Huang Lijuan; Bai Xiaofeng; Li Bing; Feng Liang

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of radionuclide exists in the low-level radioactive reactor waste water from HFETR, we use a new combined membrane process separation technology to study the efficient treating of low-lever radioactive reactor wastewater. First, the prepared the simulated wastewater contained Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ . Then, we sequentially investigated the pressure, ion concentration, pH value and EDTA, which have effects on the desalination rate of membrane processing metal ions in wastewater. The results show that: in the condition of pH = 7, and added 0.15 mol/L EDTA, the simulated wastewater separated by UF-RO, desalination rates of Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ are all above 95%; In the subsequent trials, adding 0.15 mol/L EDTA into the radioactive residuary solution, and then treating by UF-RO-RO, the decontamination efficiency can reach 95.7%. (authors)

  18. Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2012-07-01

    Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.

  19. Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, K.

    2012-01-01

    Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.

  20. Piping vibrations measured during FFTF startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1981-03-01

    An extensive vibration survey was conducted on the Fast Flux Test Facility piping during the plant acceptance test program. The purpose was to verify that both mechanical and flow induced vibration amplitudes were of sufficiently low level so that pipe and pipe support integrity would not be compromised over the plant design lifetime. Excitation sources included main heat transport sodium pumps, reciprocating auxiliary system pumps, EM pumps, and flow oscillations. Pipe sizes varied from one-inch to twenty-eight-inches in diameter. This paper describes the test plan; the instrumentation and procedures utilized; and the test results

  1. Neutron reflectometry with ROG and mechanical vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well, A.A. van.

    1991-11-01

    Specifications for the maximum level of vibrational amplitudes at the sample position of the IRI neutron reflectometer ROG are presented. The acceleration and displacement amplitudes in the reactor floor have been measured as a function of frequency. These measured values meet the ROG specifications. (author). 11 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  3. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru [National Research Inst. for Earth sceince and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  4. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Lim, Sung H; Wilson, Deborah A; SalasVargas, Ana Victoria; Churi, Yair S; Rhodes, Paul A; Mazzone, Peter J; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    combined rapid detection of pathogenic yeasts in blood culture with accurate species-level identification.

  5. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin K Shrestha

    .The CSA combined rapid detection of pathogenic yeasts in blood culture with accurate species-level identification.

  6. Force Limited Vibration Test of HESSI Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Deborah; Pankow, David; Thomsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    The High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) is a solar x-ray and gamma-ray observatory scheduled for launch in November 2000. Vibration testing of the HESSI imager flight unit was performed in August 1999. The HESSI imager consists of a composite metering tube, two aluminum trays mounted to the tube on titanium flexure mounts, and nine modulation grids mounted on each tray. The vibration tests were acceleration controlled and force limited, in order to prevent overtesting. The force limited strategy reduced the shaker force and notched the acceleration at resonances. The test set-up, test levels, and results are presented. The development of the force limits is also discussed. The imager successfully survived the vibration testing.

  7. Control aid for xenon vibration in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekawa, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    In the present invention, the control operation for suppressing xenon vibrations in a reactor is aided for saving forecasting analysis and operator's skills. That is, parameters to be controlled for the suppression of xenon vibrations are power distribution, iodine distribution and xenon distribution. But what can be observed by operaters by the conventional fast overtone method is only the output distribution. In the present invention, the output level of the reactor core is always observed. Then, mathematical processings are conducted for the iodine distribution, the xenon distribution and the power distribution in the reactor core based on the histeresis of the parameters obtained by the measurement using physical constants and reactor design data. The xenon vibration control is aided by displaying the change with time of the distortion in axial direction. Accordingly, operators can always recognize the axial distortion of the power distribution, the iodine distribution and the xenon distribution. (I.S.)

  8. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  10. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathe- matics and physics. ... ing this science [mechanics],and the art of solving the problems pertaining to it, to .... used tools for finding maxima and minima of functions of several variables.

  11. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  12. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  13. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  14. General principles of vibrational spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Atoms in molecules and solids do not remain in fixed relative positions, but vibrate about some mean position. This vibrational motion is quantized and at room temperature, most of the molecules in a given sample are in their lowest vibrational state. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation with

  15. High-Temperature Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.

  16. Franck-Condon fingerprinting of vibration-tunneling spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Sundaradevan, Praveen; Gruebele, Martin

    2013-08-15

    We introduce Franck-Condon fingerprinting as a method for assigning complex vibration-tunneling spectra. The B̃ state of thiophosgene (SCCl2) serves as our prototype. Despite several attempts, assignment of its excitation spectrum has proved difficult because of near-degenerate vibrational frequencies, Fermi resonance between the C-Cl stretching mode and the Cl-C-Cl bending mode, and large tunneling splittings due to the out-of-plane umbrella mode. Hence, the spectrum has never been fitted to an effective Hamiltonian. Our assignment approach replaces precise frequency information with intensity information, eliminating the need for double resonance spectroscopy or combination differences, neither of which have yielded a full assignment thus far. The dispersed fluorescence spectrum of each unknown vibration-tunneling state images its character onto known vibrational progressions in the ground state. By using this Franck-Condon fingerprint, we were able to determine the predominant character of several vibration-tunneling states and assign them; in other cases, the fingerprinting revealed that the states are strongly mixed and cannot be characterized with a simple normal mode assignment. The assigned transitions from vibration-tunneling wave functions that were not too strongly mixed could be fitted within measurement uncertainty by an effective vibration-tunneling Hamiltonian. A fit of all observed vibration-tunneling states will require a full resonance-tunneling Hamiltonian.

  17. Water interactions with condensed organic phases: a combined experimental and theoretical study of molecular-level processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sofia M.; Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S.; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Lovrić, Josip; Toubin, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake on aerosol particles modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for air quality and climate. A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol consists of organic aerosol particles or inorganic particles with condensed organic components. Here, we combine laboratory studies using the environmental molecular beam (EMB) method1 with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize water interactions with organic surfaces in detail. The over-arching aim is to characterize the mechanisms that govern water uptake, in order to guide the development of physics-based models to be used in atmospheric modelling. The EMB method enables molecular level studies of interactions between gases and volatile surfaces at near ambient pressure,1 and the technique may provide information about collision dynamics, surface and bulk accommodation, desorption and diffusion kinetics. Molecular dynamics simulations provide complementary information about the collision dynamics and initial interactions between gas molecules and the condensed phase. Here, we focus on water interactions with condensed alcohol phases that serve as highly simplified proxies for systems in the environment. Gas-surface collisions are in general found to be highly inelastic and result in efficient surface accommodation of water molecules. As a consequence, surface accommodation of water can be safely assumed to be close to unity under typical ambient conditions. Bulk accommodation is inefficient on solid alcohol and the condensed materials appear to produce hydrophobic surface structures, with limited opportunities for adsorbed water to form hydrogen bonds with surface molecules. Accommodation is significantly more efficient on the dynamic liquid alcohol surfaces. The results for n-butanol (BuOH) are particularly intriguing where substantial changes in water accommodation taking place over a 10 K interval below and above the BuOH melting point.2 The governing mechanisms for the

  18. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  19. Control of blast overpressure and vibrations at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Onagi, D.P.; Mohanty, B.

    1991-01-01

    AECL Research (AECL) has constructed an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as a facility for research and development in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The objectives of the program are to develop and evaluate the technology to ensure safe, permanent disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. Several multidisciplinary experiments and engineering demonstrations are planned for the URL over the next ten years. In 1989, AECL excavated a test room for the Buffer/Container Experiment at the 240 Level. The blasts were designed to limit vibration and overpressure damage because the excavation was located close to existing furnishings and services that were very susceptible to blast-induced vibration and overpressure. An experimental room, which contained sensitive instrumentation, was located within 30 m of the initial blasts. A concrete floor slab, timber curtains and a bulkhead were installed to protect furnishings and services from fly-rock and overpressure. Five of the initial blasts were monitored. This paper describes the results of the monitoring program and the effectiveness of the blast design, floor slab and timber curtains and bulkhead in reducing blast overpressure and vibrations at the blast site. It is shown that greater than a 20-fold reduction in both blast vibrations and air overpressures can be achieved with specific combinations of blast design, installation of timber curtains and construction of a concrete floor slab

  20. A computational perspective of vibrational and electronic analysis of potential photosensitizer 2-chlorothioxanthone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Narmeen; Mansha, Asim; Asim, Sadia; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Ghafoor, Sidra; Akbar, Muhammad Usman

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with combined theoretical and experimental study of geometric, electronic and vibrational properties of 2-chlorothioxanthone (CTX) molecule which is potential photosensitizer. The FT-IR spectrum of CTX in solid phase was recorded in 4000-400 cm-1 region. The UV-Vis. absorption spectrum was also recorded in the laboratory as well as computed at DFT/B3LYP level in five different phases viz. gas, water, DMSO, acetone and ethanol. The quantum mechanics based theoretical IR and Raman spectra were also calculated for the title compound employing HF and DFT functional with 3-21G+, 6-31G+ and 6-311G+, 6-311G++ basis sets, respectively, and assignment of each vibrational frequency has been done on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). A comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra as well as for the UV-Vis. absorption spectra. The computed infra red & Raman spectra by DFT compared with experimental spectra along with reliable vibrational assignment based on PED. The calculated electronic properties, results of natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis, charge distribution, dipole moment and energies have been reported in the paper. Bimolecular quenching of triplet state of CTX in the presence of triethylamine, 2-propanol triethylamine and diazobicyclooctane (DABCO) reflect the interactions between them. The bimolecular quenching rate constant is fastest for interaction of 3CTX in the presence of DABCO reflecting their stronger interactions.

  1. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock: a field study of quad bike use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Stephan; McBride, David I; Bagheri, Nasser; Vasiljev, Radivoj M; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Carman, Allan B; Rehn, Borje

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock in rural workers who use quad bikes and to explore how personal, physical, and workplace characteristics influence exposure. A seat pad mounted triaxial accelerometer and data logger recorded full workday vibration and shock data from 130 New Zealand rural workers. Personal, physical, and workplace characteristics were gathered using a modified version of the Whole Body Vibration Health Surveillance Questionnaire. WBVs and mechanical shocks were analysed in accordance with the International Standardization for Organization (ISO 2631-1 and ISO 2631-5) standards and are presented as vibration dose value (VDV) and mechanical shock (S(ed)) exposures. VDV(Z) consistently exceeded European Union (Guide to good practice on whole body vibration. Directive 2002/44/EC on minimum health and safety, European Commission Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. 2006) guideline exposure action thresholds with some workers exceeding exposure limit thresholds. Exposure to mechanical shock was also evident. Increasing age had the strongest (negative) association with vibration and shock exposure with body mass index (BMI) having a similar but weaker effect. Age, daily driving duration, dairy farming, and use of two rear shock absorbers created the strongest multivariate model explaining 33% of variance in VDV(Z). Only age and dairy farming combined to explain 17% of the variance for daily mechanical shock. Twelve-month prevalence for low back pain was highest at 57.7% and lowest for upper back pain (13.8%). Personal (age and BMI), physical (shock absorbers and velocity), and workplace characteristics (driving duration and dairy farming) suggest that a mix of engineered workplace and behavioural interventions is required to reduce this level of exposure to vibration and shock.

  2. Evaluation of commercially available seat suspensions to reduce whole body vibration exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Marin, Luz S; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2018-09-01

    As mining vehicle operators are exposed to high level of Whole body vibration (WBV) for prolonged periods of time, approaches to reduce this exposure are needed for the specific types of exposures in mining. Although various engineering controls (i.e. seat suspension systems) have been developed to address WBV, there has been lack of research to systematically evaluate these systems in reducing WBV exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle settings. Therefore, this laboratory-based study evaluated the efficacy of different combinations of fore-aft (x-axis), lateral (y-axis), and vertical (z-axis) suspensions in reducing WBV exposures. The results showed that the active vertical suspension more effectively reduced the vertical vibration (∼50%; p's suspension (10%; p's suspension systems did not attenuate the corresponding axis vibration (p's > 0.06) and sometimes amplified the floor vibration, especially when the non-vertical vibration was predominant (p's suspensions to address non-vertical WBV exposures, especially because these non-vertical WBV exposures can increase risks for adverse health effects including musculoskeletal loading, discomfort, and impaired visual acuity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    larger than that in the latter. A nonlinear absorber design has been proposed comprising of thin beams as elastic elements. The geometric configuration of the proposed design has been shown to provide cubic stiffness nonlinearity in torsion. The values of design variables, namely the strength of nonlinearity alpha and torsional stiffness kalpha, were obtained by optimizing dimensions and material properties of the beams for a maximum vibration energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber. A parametric study has also been conducted to analyze the effect of the magnitude of excitation provided to the system on the performance of a nonlinear absorber. It has been shown that the nonlinear absorber turns out to be more effective in terms of energy dissipation as compared to a linear absorber with an increase in the excitation level applied to the system.

  4. Experiment studies of fuel rod vibration in coolant flow for substantiation of vibration stability of fuel rods with no fretting-wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu. V.; Afanasiev, A. V.; Makarov, V. V.; Matvienko, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    For substantiation of vibration stability it is necessary to determine the ultimate permissible vibration levels which do not cause fretting, to compare them with the level of fuel rod vibration caused by coolant flow. Another approach is feasible if there is experience of successful operation of FA-prototypes. In this case in order to justify vibration stability it may be sufficient to demonstrate that the new element does not cause increased vibration of the fuel rod. It can be done by comparing the levels of hydro-dynamic fuel rod vibration and FA new designs. Program of vibration tests of TVS-2M model included studies of forced oscillations of 12 fuel rods in the coolant flow in the spans containing intensifiers, in the reference span without intensifiers, in the lower spans with assembled ADF and after its disassembly. The experimental results for TVS-2M show that in the spans with intensifier «Sector run» the level of movements is 6% higher on the average than in the span without intensifiers, in the spans with intensifier «Eddy» it is 2% higher. The level of fuel rod vibration movements in the spans with set ADF is 2 % higher on the average than without ADF. During the studies of TVS-KVADRAT fuel rod vibration, the following tasks were solved: determination of acceleration of the middle of fuel rod spans at vibration excited due to hydrodynamics; determination of influence of coolant thermal- hydraulic parameters (temperature, flowrate, dynamic pressure) on fuel rod vibration response; determination of influence of span lengths on the vibration level. Conclusions: 1) The vibration tests of the full-scale model of TVS-2M in the coolant flow showed that the new elements of TVS-2M design (intensifiers of heat exchange and ADF) are not the source of fuel rod increased vibration. Considering successful operation of similar fuel rod spans in the existing TVS-2M design, vibration stability of TVS-2M fuel rods with new elements is ensured on the mechanism of

  5. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or open-quotes synergyclose quotes between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The open-quotes Vibrationclose quotes view of the combined program is then presented

  6. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  7. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2017-09-01

    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  8. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  9. Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n = 2–6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five hexamer isomer minima previously reported by MP2 are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n=2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ~0.02 Å, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ~15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ~15 and ~25 cm-1 are observed for the bending and “free” OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies. The CCSD(T) red shifts from the monomer frequencies (Δω) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that the former produces shorter elongations (ΔR) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to the latter. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation - Δω = s · ΔR, with a rate of s = 20.3 cm-1 / 0.001 Å. The CCSD

  10. Combined detection of CEA, CYFRA21-1, NSE and SF levels in chest effusion fluid for differentiation of malignant hydrothorax from tuberculous hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianguo; Zhai Shijun; Liu Ruihua; Quan Min

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To improve the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of malignant hydrothorax from tuberculous hydrothorax by combined detection of the levels of the four tumor markers in chest effusion fluid. Methods: The chest fluid levels of the four tumor markers were determined with RIA (for CYFRA21-1 and NSE) and chemiluminescence method (for CEA and SF) in 69 patients with tuberculous hydrothorax and 107 patients with malignant hydrothorax. Results: The positive rate and mean levels of the four tumor markers in malignant chest fluid were significantly higher than those in tuberculous chest fluid (p<0.01). Positive rate of combined detection in malignant chest fluid was 95.33%. Conclusion: Detection of chest fluid CEA, CYFRA21-1, NSE and SF levels is very useful for the differentiation of malignant hydrothorax from tuberculous hydrothorax. Combined detection of the four markers will greatly improve the diagnostic accuracy

  11. Structural determination of some uranyl compounds by vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E.

    1990-07-01

    The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds has been studied and of it spectral information has been used the fundamental asymmetric vibrational frequency, to determine the length and constant bond force U=O by means of the combination of the concept of absorbed energy and the mathematical expression of Badger modified by Jones. It is intended a factor that simplifies the mathematical treatment and the results are compared with the values obtained for other methods. (Author)

  12. Response analysis and energy transmissibility of a vibration isolation system with real-power nonlinearities under a NMPPF controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dongmei; Xu, Wei; Shi, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. • The primary resonance, dynamical stability and energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. • The sensitivity of the controller parameters on the responses has been analyzed. • In order to suppress the amplitude peak, the feedback parameters have been determined by the frequency response. • The energy transmissibility is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, the nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. Based on the method of multiple scales, the frequency response, the stability and the energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. It is found that the controlled isolation system exhibits a softening behavior for sub-linear restoring force, while it exhibits the two peak response characteristic rather than a hardening behavior for over-linear restoring force. Further, the sensitivity of the feedback parameters on the responses is discussed. The results, compared to the conventional PPF and IRC methods, show that the proposed method is significantly more effective in controlling the steady-state response, and slightly advantageous for the steady-state dynamics control. The effectiveness of this method is also verified by time domain analysis. Then, the suitable feedback and controller parameters are derived by simulation results in which the amplitude peak is suppressed and the resonance stability is maintained. Finally, the energy transmissibility of the vibration isolation system is investigated. The results show that the feedback gain can reduce the whole transmissibility level and greatly suppress vibration

  13. Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Study on Elbow Vibration Transmission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-shan, Dai; Zhen-hai, Zhang; Shi-jian, Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Pipeline system vibration is one of the significant factors leading to the vibration and noise of vessel. Elbow is widely used in the pipeline system. However, the researches about vibration of elbow are little, and there is no systematic study. In this research, we firstly analysed the relationship between elbow vibration transmission characteristics and bending radius by ABAQUS finite element simulation. Then, we conducted the further vibration test to observe the vibration transmission characteristics of different elbows which have the same diameter and different bending radius under different flow velocity. The results of simulation calculation and experiment both showed that the vibration acceleration levels of the pipeline system decreased with the increase of bending radius of the elbow, which was beneficial to reduce the transmission of vibration in the pipeline system. The results could be used as reference for further studies and designs for the low noise installation of pipeline system.

  14. Materials for Damping Ambient Acoustic and Vibration Signals, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-term exposure to even relatively low levels of acoustic and vibration signals has been shown to be potentially harmful to humans. A new class of piezoelectric...

  15. Vibration monitoring of large generator stator and-winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffeau, F.; Bernard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Large generators of French Nuclear Power plants are equipped with a standardised vibration monitoring system. The first aim of these new systems is to protect the machines by generating alarms in the control room when predefined vibration thresholds have been over-passed. Secondly, this specially designed instrumentation permits to create a National data base allowing to compare different generators of the same technology. Additionally, statistical methods have been developed in order to 'guess' vibration level at several locations of the stator end-windings, depending on the actual operating parameters of the generator, i.e. reactive and active power load. So this paper presents the general concept of the vibration monitoring of EDF large generator stators and deals with a new method to predict vibrations in different locations under control. (authors)

  16. Effect of structural design on traffic-induced building vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and urbanization results in densified cities, where new buildings are being built closer to existing vibration sources such as road-, tram- and rail traffic. In addition, new transportation systems are constructed closer to existing buildings. Potential disturbing vibrations...... are one issue to consider in planning urban environment and densification of cities. Vibrations can be disturbing for humans but also for sensitive equipment in, for example, hospitals. In determining the risk for disturbing vibrations, the distance between the source and the receiver, the ground...... properties, and type and size of the building are governing factors. In the paper, a study is presented aiming at investigating the influence of various parameters of the building's structural design on vibration levels in the structure caused by ground surface loads, e.g. traffic. Parameters studied...

  17. Molecular structure, chemical reactivity, nonlinear optical activity and vibrational spectroscopic studies on 6-(4-n-heptyloxybenzyoloxy)-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-2H-chromen-2-one: A combined density functional theory and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegu, David; Deb, Jyotirmoy; Saha, Sandip Kumar; Paul, Manoj Kumar; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have synthesized new coumarin Schiff base molecule, viz., 6-(4-n-heptyloxybenzyoloxy)-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-2H-chromen-2-one and characterized its structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical analysis of UV-visible absorption spectra reflects a red shift in the absorption maximum in comparison to the experimental results. Most of the vibrational assignments of infrared and Raman spectra predicted using density functional theory approach match well with the experimental findings. Further, the chemical reactivity analysis confirms that solvent highly affects the reactivity of the studied compound. The large hyperpolarizability value of the compound concludes that the system exhibits significant nonlinear optical features and thus, points out their possibility in designing material with high nonlinear activity.

  18. Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.

    2009-12-01

    The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi

  19. Vibration Suppression of Electronic Box by a Dual Function Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Tuned Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Rafique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry

  20. Vibration suppression of electronic box by a dual function piezoelectric energy harvester-tuned vibration absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, S.; Shah, S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber). It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of electromechanical TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel electromechanical TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry. (author)

  1. Vibration of fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1975-06-01

    Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods

  2. Characterization of the Valence and Conduction Band Levels of n = 1 2D Perovskites: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Silver, Scott; Yin, Jun; Li, Hong; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Kahn, Antoine

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a combined experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of two 2D metal halide perovskite films. Ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies are performed on solution-processed thin films of the n = 1

  3. Wind Turbine Loads Induced by Terrain and Wakes: An Experimental Study through Vibration Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A wind turbine is a very well-known archetype of energy conversion system working at non-stationary regimes. Despite this, a deep mechanical comprehension of wind turbines operating in complicated conditions is still challenging, especially as regards the analysis of experimental data. In particular, wind turbines in complex terrain represent a very valuable testing ground because of the possible combination of wake effects among nearby turbines and flow accelerations caused by the terrain morphology. For these reasons, in this work, a cluster of four full-scale wind turbines from a very complex site is studied. The object of investigation is vibrations, at the level of the structure (tower and drive-train. Data collected by the on-board condition monitoring system are analyzed and interpreted in light of the knowledge of wind conditions and operating parameters collected by the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA. A free flow Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation is also performed, and it allows one to better interpret the vibration analysis. The main outcome is the interpretation of how wakes and flow turbulences appear in the vibration signals, both at the structural level and at the drive-train level. Therefore, this wind to gear approach builds a connection between flow phenomena and mechanical phenomena in the form of vibrations, representing a precious tool for assessing loads in different working conditions.

  4. Effects of nuclear vibration on the ionization process of H2+ in ultrashort intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Ngoc-Loan; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty; Truong, Tran-Chau

    2015-01-01

    By numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we calculate the ionization probability of a vibrating H 2 + exposed to ultrashort intense laser fields. The results show that the ionization probability increases by time and gets a saturation value. We also find that with some first vibration levels, the ionization probability from a higher vibration level is larger than that from a lower one. However, with higher vibration levels, at a certain level the ionization probability will take maximum and decrease with next levels. (paper)

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy and intramolecular energy transfer in isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.J.; Berghout, H.L.; Woods, E. III; Crim, F.F.

    1999-01-01

    Room temperature photoacoustic spectra in the region of the first through the fourth overtones (2ν 1 to 5ν 1 ) and free-jet action spectra of the second through the fourth overtones (3ν 1 to 5ν 1 ) of the N - H stretching vibration permit analysis of the vibrational and rotational structure of HNCO. The analysis identifies the strong intramolecular couplings that control the early stages of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and gives the interaction matrix elements between the zero-order N - H stretching states and the other zero-order states with which they interact. The experimentally determined couplings and zero-order state separations are consistent with ab initio calculations of East, Johnson, and Allen [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 1299 (1993)], and comparison with the calculation identifies the coupled states and likely interactions. The states most strongly coupled to the pure N - H stretching zero-order states are ones with a quantum of N - H stretching excitation (ν 1 ) replaced by different combinations of N - C - O asymmetric or symmetric stretching excitation (ν 2 or ν 3 ) and trans-bending excitation (ν 4 ). The two strongest couplings of the nν 1 state are to the states (n-1)ν 1 +ν 2 +ν 4 and (n-1)ν 1 +ν 3 +2ν 4 , and sequential couplings through a series of low order resonances potentially play a role. The analysis shows that if the pure N - H stretch zero-order state were excited, energy would initially flow out of that mode into the strongly coupled mode in 100 fs to 700 fs, depending on the level of initial excitation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Parametric analysis of protective grid flow induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jooyoung; Eom, Kyongbo; Jeon, Sangyoun; Suh, Jungmin [KEPCO NF Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Protective grid (P-grid) flow-induced vibration in a nuclear power reactor is one of the critical factors for the mechanical integrity of a nuclear fuel. The P-grid is located at the lower most position above the bottom nozzle of the nuclear fuel as shown in Fig. 1, and it is required for not only filtering debris, but also supporting fuel rods. On the other hand, P-grid working conditions installed in a nuclear fuel in a reactor are severe in terms of flow speed, temperature and pressure. Considering such a severe condition of P-grid's functional performance in working environment, excessive vibration could be developed. Furthermore, if the P-grid is exposed to high levels of excessive vibration over a long period of time, fatigue failure could be unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to reduce excessive vibration while maintaining P-grid's own functional performance. KEPCO Nuclear Fuel has developed a test facility - Investigation Flow-induced Vibration (INFINIT) - to study flow-induced vibration caused by flowing coolant at various flow rates. To investigate specific relationships between configuration of P-grid and flow-induced vibration characteristics, several types of the P-grids were tested in INFINIT facility. And, based on the test results through parametric studies, the flow-induced vibration characteristics could be analyzed, and critical design parameters were found.

  7. Investigation of Concrete Floor Vibration Using Heel-Drop Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaman, N. A. Mohd; Ghafar, N. H. Abd; Azhar, A. F.; Fauzi, A. A.; Ismail, H. A.; Syed Idrus, S. S.; Mokhjar, S. S.; Hamid, F. F. Abd

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there is an increased in floor vibration problems of structures like residential and commercial building. Vibration is defined as a serviceability issue related to the comfort of the occupant or damage equipment. Human activities are the main source of vibration in the building and it could affect the human comfort and annoyance of residents in the building when the vibration exceed the recommend level. A new building, Madrasah Tahfiz located at Yong Peng have vibration problem when load subjected on the first floor of the building. However, the limitation of vibration occurs on building is unknown. Therefore, testing is needed to determine the vibration behaviour (frequency, damping ratio and mode shape) of the building. Heel-drop with pace 2Hz was used in field measurement to obtain the vibration response. Since, the heel-drop test results would vary in light of person performance, test are carried out three time to reduce uncertainty. Natural frequency from Frequency Response Function analysis (FRF) is 17.4Hz, 16.8, 17.4Hz respectively for each test.

  8. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  9. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  10. Magnetically coupled flextensional transducer for wideband vibration energy harvesting: Design, modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Li, Wen-Bo; Wei, Ke-Xiang; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2018-03-01

    The combination of nonlinear bistable and flextensional mechanisms has the advantages of wide operating frequency and high equivalent piezoelectric constant. In this paper, three magnetically coupled flextensional vibration energy harvesters (MF-VEHs) are designed from three magnetically coupled vibration systems which utilize a magnetic repulsion, two symmetrical magnetic attractions and multi-magnetic repulsions, respectively. The coupled dynamic models are developed to describe the electromechanical transitions. Simulations under harmonic excitation and random excitation are carried out to investigate the performance of the MF-VEHs with different parameters. Experimental validations of the MF-VEHs are performed under different excitation levels. The experimental results verify that the developed mathematical models can be used to accurately characterize the MF-VEHs for various magnetic coupling modes. A comparison of three MF-VEHs is provided and the results illustrate that a reasonable arrangement of multiple magnets can reduce the threshold excitation intensity and increase the harvested energy.

  11. The effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of combining analytic and holistic rating scales for assessing communication skills in an internal medicine resident OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vijay John; Harley, Dwight

    2017-07-01

    Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents. Communication stations were scored with an analytic scale (empathy, non-verbal skills, verbal skills, and coherence subscales) and a holistic scale. Authors analyzed reliability of individual and combined scales using generalizability theory and evaluated each scale's sensitivity to level of training. For analytic, holistic, and combined scales, 12, 12, and 11 stations respectively yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-1,2 cohort, and 16, 16, and 14 stations yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-4 cohort. PGY-4 residents scored higher on the combined scale, the analytic rating scale, and the non-verbal and coherence subscales. A combined analytic-holistic rating scale increased score reliability and was sensitive to level of training. Given increased validity evidence, OSCE developers should consider combining analytic and holistic scales when assessing communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION OF 2-3 DEGREE WITH FIXED COMBINATION OF ENALAPRIL OR LOSARTAN WITH HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kudryavtsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effects of fixed combinations of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril or angiotensin II receptor antagonist (losartan with diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide, HCT on the "office" blood pressure (BP level in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 2-3 degrees.Materials and methods. Patients (n=73; 34 men and 39 women; aged 50.5±5.8 with HT of 2-3 degrees were included in the study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: patients of group 1 (n=34 received a fixed combination of enalapril with HCT; patients (n=39 of group 2 — a fixed combination of losartan with HCT. The study duration was 24 weeks. "Office" BP levels (Korotkov method were evaluated.Results. Combination of losartan with HCT shown more prominent effect on systolic BP (reduction from 176.1±2.77 to 122.3±1.54 mm Hg in comparison with combination enalapril with HCT (reduction from 172.4±1.62 to 129.8±3.4 mm Hg after 12 weeks of treatment (p<0.05. High frequency of target BP level achievement was observed in patients of groups 1 and 2 (83% and 86% respectively.Conclusion. The fixed combination of enalapril or lozartan with HCT has high efficacy and can be recommended as initial therapy in patients with HT of 2-3 degree.

  13. Optimized Vibration Chamber for Landslide Sensory and Alarm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Eliza Sabira Binti; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Daoud, Jamal I.; Rafiqul Islam, Md

    2017-11-01

    Landslide is one of natural hazard that is not unfamiliar disaster in Malaysia. Malaysia has experienced this disaster many times since 1969. This natural hazard has become a major research concern for Malaysian government when many people were injured badly and even had been killed. Many previous research works published in the open literature aimed at designing a system that could detect landslide in early stage before the landslide becomes catastrophic. This paper presents the early works on a major work-in-progress landslide early warning system for Malaysian environment. The aim of this system is to develop the most efficiently reliable cost-effective system in which slight earth movements are monitored continuously. The challenge this work aims at is to work with a low budget system that produces efficient performance. Hence, the material used is off-the-shelf. Early design optimization results of the vibration sensor used is quite promising detecting the slightest faint tremors, which are amplified using the best vibration chamber available. It is shown that the choice of proper pipe length and diameter dimensions in combination to a gravel to exaggerate the produced higher sensitivity level noise of 5 dB.

  14. A study on the evaluation of vibration effect and the development of vibration reduction method for Wolsung unit 1 main steam piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Yeon Whan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The main steam piping of nuclear power plant which runs between steam generator and high pressure turbine has been experienced to have a severe effect on the safe operation of the plant due to the vibration induced by the steam flowing inside the piping. The imposed cyclic loads by the vibration could result in the degradation of the related structures such as connection parts between main instruments, valves, pipe supports and building. The objective of the study is to reduce the vibration level of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 main steam pipeline by analyzing vibration characteristics of the piping, identifying sources of the vibration and developing a vibration reduction method .The location of the maximum vibration is piping between the main steam header and steam chest .The stress level was found to be within the allowable limit .The main vibration frequency was found to be 4{approx}6 Hz which is the same as the natural frequency from model test .A vibration reduction method using pipe supports of energy absorbing type(WEAR)is selected .The measured vibration level after WEAR installation was reduced about 36{approx}77% in displacement unit (author). 36 refs., 188 figs.

  15. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  16. Clinical value of combined determination of serum and hydrothorax fluid levels of CEA, CA125, NSE in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Wentang; Shu Lingling; Yang Huaxi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of combined determination of CEA, CA125, NSE levels both in serum and hydrothorax fluid in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Serum and hydrothorax fluid levels of CEA, CA125, NSE were determined with RIA in 88 patients with lung cancers, 100 patients with inflammatory hydrothorax, and 50 controls. Results: The levels of serum and hydrothorax fluid CEA, CA125, NSE in lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those in patients with inflammatory hydrothorax and controls (P <0.05). In lung cancer group, the positive rate of combined detection of serum CEA, CA125, NSE was 70.5%, the positive rate of combined detection of hydrothorax fluid CEA, CA125, NSE was 79.5% and the positive rate of combined detection of serum and hydrothorax fluid three kinds of tumor markers was 87. 5%. Conclusion: Combined detection of serum and hydrothuax fluid levels of CEA, CA125, NSE is to be advocated because of higher sensitivity for diagnosis of lung cancer. (authors)

  17. Direct observation of vibrational energy dispersal via methyl torsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M; Tuttle, William D; Whalley, Laura E; Wright, Timothy G

    2018-02-28

    Explicit evidence for the role of methyl rotor levels in promoting energy dispersal is reported. A set of coupled zero-order vibration/vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels in the S 1 state of para -fluorotoluene ( p FT) are investigated. Two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) and two-dimensional zero-kinetic-energy (2D-ZEKE) spectra are reported, and the assignment of the main features in both sets of spectra reveals that the methyl torsion is instrumental in providing a route for coupling between vibrational levels of different symmetry classes. We find that there is very localized, and selective, dissipation of energy via doorway states, and that, in addition to an increase in the density of states, a critical role of the methyl group is a relaxation of symmetry constraints compared to direct vibrational coupling.

  18. Precision gravity measurement utilizing Accelerex vibrating beam accelerometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Brian L.

    Tests run using Sundstrand vibrating beam accelerometers to sense microgravity are described. Lunar-solar tidal effects were used as a highly predictable signal which varies by approximately 200 billionths of the full-scale gravitation level. Test runs of 48-h duration were used to evaluate stability, resolution, and noise. Test results on the Accelerex accelerometer show accuracies suitable for precision applications such as gravity mapping and gravity density logging. The test results indicate that Accelerex technology, even with an instrument design and signal processing approach not optimized for microgravity measurement, can achieve 48-nano-g (1 sigma) or better accuracy over a 48-h period. This value includes contributions from instrument noise and random walk, combined bias and scale factor drift, and thermal modeling errors as well as external contributions from sampling noise, test equipment inaccuracies, electrical noise, and cultural noise induced acceleration.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of an Office Building due to Vibration from Road Construction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.

    2018-04-01

    Construction activities are widely known as one of the predominant sources of man-made vibrations that able to create nuisance towards any adjacent building, and this includes the road construction operations. Few studies conclude the construction-induced vibration may be harmful directly and indirectly towards the neighbouring building. This lead to the awareness of study the building vibration response of concrete masonry load bearing system and its vibrational performance towards the road construction activities. This study will simulate multi-storey office building of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) Bandar Enstek at Negeri Sembilan by using finite element vibration analyses. The excitation of transient loads from ground borne vibrations which triggered by the road construction activities are modelled into the building. The vibration response was recorded during in-situ ambient vibration test by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), which specifically performed on four different locations. The finite element simulation process was developed in the commercial FEA software ABAQUS. Then, the experimental data was processed and evaluated in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria of the floor in building. As a result, the vibration level of floor in building is fall under VC-E curve which was under the maximum permissible level for office building (VC-ISO). The vibration level on floor is acceptable within the limit that have been referred.

  20. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  1. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  2. Daily low-dose/continuous capecitabine combined with neo-adjuvant irradiation reduces VEGF and PDGF-BB levels in rectal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loven, David; B e'Ery, Einat; Yerushalmi, Rinat; Koren, Claude; Sulkes, Aaron; Fenig, Eyal; Lavi, Idit; Shaked, Yuval

    2008-01-01

    Metronomic low-dose chemotherapy regimen was found to have an antiangiogenic effect in tumors. However, its effect on levels of circulating pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is not fully explored. Materials and methods. The levels of both VEGF and PDGF-BB were measured in three time points, in the serum of 32 rectal carcinoma patients receiving daily reduced-dose/continuous capecitabine in combination with preoperative pelvic irradiation. Results. We found a significant decrease in VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels during the combination treatment (p<0.0001), followed by an increase in the successive rest-period (p<0.0001). In addition, substantial changes in platelets counts were observed during treatment in correlation with the changes of VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels. Discussion. These results suggest that combined chemo-irradiation affect levels of pro-angiogenic factors during treatment, and may reflect an anti-angiogenic window induced during this treatment. The potential implications of this inducible phenomenon, including a possible clinical benefit from the administration of long lasting metronomic chemotherapy immediately following combined chemo-irradiation, would warrant further investigation

  3. Vibration Monitoring of Gas Turbine Engines: Machine-Learning Approaches and Their Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Matthaiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, condition monitoring strategies are examined for gas turbine engines using vibration data. The focus is on data-driven approaches, for this reason a novelty detection framework is considered for the development of reliable data-driven models that can describe the underlying relationships of the processes taking place during an engine’s operation. From a data analysis perspective, the high dimensionality of features extracted and the data complexity are two problems that need to be dealt with throughout analyses of this type. The latter refers to the fact that the healthy engine state data can be non-stationary. To address this, the implementation of the wavelet transform is examined to get a set of features from vibration signals that describe the non-stationary parts. The problem of high dimensionality of the features is addressed by “compressing” them using the kernel principal component analysis so that more meaningful, lower-dimensional features can be used to train the pattern recognition algorithms. For feature discrimination, a novelty detection scheme that is based on the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM algorithm is chosen for investigation. The main advantage, when compared to other pattern recognition algorithms, is that the learning problem is being cast as a quadratic program. The developed condition monitoring strategy can be applied for detecting excessive vibration levels that can lead to engine component failure. Here, we demonstrate its performance on vibration data from an experimental gas turbine engine operating on different conditions. Engine vibration data that are designated as belonging to the engine’s “normal” condition correspond to fuels and air-to-fuel ratio combinations, in which the engine experienced low levels of vibration. Results demonstrate that such novelty detection schemes can achieve a satisfactory validation accuracy through appropriate selection of two parameters of the

  4. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  5. Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate reptile phylogeny: molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Kuczynski, Caitlin A; Townsend, Ted; Reeder, Tod W; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Sites, Jack W

    2010-12-01

    Molecular data offer great potential to resolve the phylogeny of living taxa but can molecular data improve our understanding of relationships of fossil taxa? Simulations suggest that this is possible, but few empirical examples have demonstrated the ability of molecular data to change the placement of fossil taxa. We offer such an example here. We analyze the placement of snakes among squamate reptiles, combining published morphological data (363 characters) and new DNA sequence data (15,794 characters, 22 nuclear loci) for 45 living and 19 fossil taxa. We find several intriguing results. First, some fossil taxa undergo major changes in their phylogenetic position when molecular data are added. Second, most fossil taxa are placed with strong support in the expected clades by the combined data Bayesian analyses, despite each having >98% missing cells and despite recent suggestions that extensive missing data are problematic for Bayesian phylogenetics. Third, morphological data can change the placement of living taxa in combined analyses, even when there is an overwhelming majority of molecular characters. Finally, we find strong but apparently misleading signal in the morphological data, seemingly associated with a burrowing lifestyle in snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids. Overall, our results suggest promise for an integrated and comprehensive Tree of Life by combining molecular and morphological data for living and fossil taxa.

  6. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  7. Atomic beams probe surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)

  8. COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF MASSAGE THERAPY ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH GREEN COCONUT WATER THERAPY ON Β-ENDORPHIN LEVEL IN TEENAGE GIRLS WITH DYSMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Hikmatul Ulya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is pain during menstruation in lower abdomen, and is not due to other diseases. Effleurage massage and consuming green coconut water are considered able to reduce menstrual pain. However, little is known about the effect of the combination between the two interventions. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of effleurage massage and in combination with green coconut water on pain, anxiety, and ß-endorphin level in teenage girls with menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea. Design: A quasy experiment with pretest-posttest approach design with control group. There were 36 samples recruited in this study by purposive sampling, which were divided into a massage therapy group, the combination therapy group, and a control group. Menstrual pain was measured using Numeric Rating Scale, while anxiety was measured using Zung Self rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS, and endorphin level using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. One way anova test and repeated anova were performed as a bivariate analysis. Mancova and post hoc anova were used for multivariate analysis. Result: The combination of massage and green coconut water was more effective in reducing pain (p 0.013 and anxiety levels (p 0.000, and in increasing β-endorphin (p 0.029 with significant value of <0.05 compared to the massage therapy alone. Conclusion: The combination of effleurage massage and green coconut water had significant effect in decreasing anxiety and pain levels, and increasing β-endorphin levels in teenage girls with painful periods (dysmenorrhea; and more effective than performing effleurage massage only. It is suggested that this combination therapy could be used as an alternative therapy for women with dysmenrrohea.

  9. Hand-arm vibration in orthopaedic surgery: a neglected risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, F; Ferguson, K B; Clarke, J; Hill, K; Macdonald, E B; Macdonald, D J M

    2017-12-30

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome is an occupational disease caused by exposure to hand-arm transmitted vibration. The Health and Safety Executive has set limits for vibration exposure, including an exposure action value (EAV), where steps should be taken to reduce exposure, and an exposure limit value (ELV), beyond which vibrating equipment must not be used for the rest of the working day. To measure hand-arm transmitted vibration among orthopaedic surgeons, who routinely use hand-operated saws. We undertook a cadaveric study measuring vibration associated with a tibial cut using battery-operated saws. Three surgeons undertook three tibial cuts each on cadaveric tibiae. Measurements were taken using a frequency-weighted root mean square acceleration, with the vibration total value calculated as the root of the sums squared in each of the three axes. A mean (SD) vibration magnitude of 1 (0.2) m/s2 in the X-axis, 10.3 (1.9) m/s2 in the Y-axis and 4.2 (1.3) m/s2 in the Z-axis was observed. The weighted root mean squared magnitude of vibration was 11.3 (1.7) m/s2. These results suggest an EAV of 23 min and ELV of 1 h 33 min using this equipment. Our results demonstrate that use of a battery-operated sagittal saw can transmit levels of hand-arm vibration approaching the EAV or ELV through prolonged use. Further study is necessary to quantify this risk and establish whether surveillance is necessary for orthopaedic surgeons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Vibration-reducing gloves: transmissibility at the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; Xu, Xueyan S; Warren, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves are commonly used as a means to help control exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations generated by powered hand tools. The objective of this study was to characterise the vibration transmissibility spectra and frequency-weighted vibration transmissibility of VR gloves at the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions. Seven adult males participated in the evaluation of seven glove models using a three-dimensional hand-arm vibration test system. Three levels of hand coupling force were applied in the experiment. This study found that, in general, VR gloves are most effective at reducing vibrations transmitted to the palm along the forearm direction. Gloves that are found to be superior at reducing vibrations in the forearm direction may not be more effective in the other directions when compared with other VR gloves. This casts doubts on the validity of the standardised glove screening test. Practitioner Summary: This study used human subjects to measure three-dimensional vibration transmissibility of vibration-reducing gloves at the palm and identified their vibration attenuation characteristics. This study found the gloves to be most effective at reducing vibrations along the forearm direction. These gloves did not effectively attenuate vibration along the handle axial direction.

  11. [THE CRITICAL INCIDENTS IN THE COMBINED ANESTHESIA DURING MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY IN ELDERRY AND OLD PATIENTS: ROLE PREOPERATIVE LEVEL OF WAKEFULNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyler, R V; Musaeva, T S; Trembach, N V; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2016-09-01

    to determine patterns during combined anesthesia andfrequency ofcritical incidents, depending on the initial level of wakefulness and patient age. 158 patients of planning operated under combined anesthesia for colon tumors were divided into two groups of elderly patients (n= 79) and old (n= 79). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups, depending on level of wakefulness, the estimatedfor level of direct current potential: low, optimum and high levels ofwakefulness. Relations of age and level ofwakefulness with afrequency of critical incidents. In the number of registered incidents included hemodynamic incidents: hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, arrhythmia and tachycardia; respiratory incidents: hypoxemia, hypercapnia, the needfor prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation; metabolic incidents: hypothermia, slow recovery of neuromuscular conduction, slow postoperative awakening has been studied. The most frequent incidents in our study were hemodynamic incidents, which prevailed in the structure of hypotension and hypertension. Among of the respiratory incidents dominated by hypoxia and hypercapnia. In the group of elderly patients the most incidents occurred in the subgroup with low level of wakefulness, while in the oldest patients statistically group significant differences between the groups were not found Conclusion. Frequency of critical incidents does not only depend from the age but also from a preoperative level of wakefulness; frequency was lower in elderly patients with an optimum level of wakefulness, and the low level of wakefulness - was high regardless of age.

  12. Collisional flow of vibrational energy into surrounding vibrational fields within S1 benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.Y.; Parmenter, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Vapor phase fluorescence spectra are used to determine the absolute rate constants for the collisional transfer of vibrational energy from initial single vibronic levels of S 1 benzene into the surrounding S 1 vibronic field. 11 initial levels are probed with vibrational energies ranging to 2368 cm -1 where the level density is about 10 per cm -1 . CO, isopentane, and S 0 benzene are the collision partners. Benzene rate constants are three to four times gas kinetic for all levels, and electronic energy switching between the initial S 1 molecule and the S 0 collision partner probably makes important contributions. Isopentane efficiencies range from one to two times gas kinetic. Most of the transfer from low S 1 levels occurs with excitation of vibrational energy within isopentane. These V--V contributions decline to only about 10% for the high transfer. CO-induced transfer is by V-T,R processes for all levels. The CO efficiency rises from about 0.1 for low regions to about unity for levels above 1500 cm -1 . The CO efficiencies retain significant sensitivity to initial level identity even in the higher regions. Propensity rules derived from collisional mode-to-mode transfer among lower levels of S 1 benzene are used to calculate the relative CO efficiencies. The calculated efficiencies agree well enough with the data to suggest that it may be meaningful to model vibrational equilibration with the use of propensity rules. The rules suggest that only a small number of levels among the thousands surrounding a high initial level contribute significantly to the total relaxation cross section and that this number is rather independent of the level density

  13. Combined use of the National Early Warning Score and D-dimer levels to predict 30-day and 365-day mortality in medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Christian H; Kellett, John; Cooksley, Tim

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined use of NEWS and D-dimer levels to predict the 30-day and 365-day mortality rates of a cohort of Danish patients with complete follow-up. METHODS: Post-hoc retrospective observational study of acutely admitted medical patients aged 18 years or older who had D...... with a NEWS on admission levels below 0.50mgL(-1) appears to identify patients of low risk...

  14. Study on vibration behaviors of engineered barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Minowa, Chikahiro [National Research Inst. for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Small engineered barrier model was mode and tested by vibrating with the random wave and the real earthquake wave. The wave observed at Kamaishi (N-S, N-W), Iwate Prefecture, in September 6, 1993, and Kobe (N-S) etc. were used as the real earthquake waves. The trial overpack showed non-linear characteristics (soft spring) by vibrating with the random wave. The pressure and acceleration of trial overpack and constraint container increased with increasing the vibration level of the real earthquake wave. The trial overpack moved the maximum 1.7 mm of displacement and 16 mm subsidence. The results showed both waves rocked the trialpack. (S.Y.)

  15. Vibration monitoring and fault diagnostics of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, T.; Ghani, R.; Chohan, G.Y.; Amir, M.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal power plant was monitored from HP-turbine to the generator end. The vibration data at different plant locations was obtained with the help of a data collector/analyzer. The spectra of-all locations generate the symptoms for different problems of moderate and high vibration levels like bent shaft, misalignment in the exciter rotor and three couplings, mechanical looseness on generator and exciter sides. The possible causes of these faults are discussed on the basis of presented vibration spectra in this paper. The faults were later on rectified on the basis of this diagnostics. (author)

  16. Vibrational Raman optical activity of ketose monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alasdair F.; Hecht, Lutz; Barron, Laurence D.

    1995-07-01

    The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of the four ketose sugars D-fructose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose and D-psicose in aqueous solution, which have been measured in backscattering in the range ≈250-1500 cm -1, are reported. These results are combined with those from a previous ROA study of aldose and pentose sugars in an attempt to establish new vibrational assignments and to verify old ones. The high information content of these spectra provides a new perspective on all the central features of monosaccharide stereochemistry including dominant anomeric configuration, ring conformation, exocyclic CH 2OH group conformation and relative disposition of the hydroxyl groups around the ring.

  17. High-speed digital holographic interferometry for vibration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang; Gusev, Mikhail E.

    2006-01-01

    A system based on digital holographic interferometry for the measurement of vibrations is presented. A high-power continuous laser(10 W) and a high-speed CCD camera are used. Hundreds of holograms of an object that has been subjected to dynamic deformation are recorded. The acquisition speed and the time of exposure of the detector are determined by the vibration frequency. Two methods are presented for triggering the camera in order to acquire at a given phase of the vibration. The phase of the wavefront is calculated from the recorded holograms by use of a two-dimensional digital Fourier-transform method. The deformation of the object is obtained from the phase. By combination of the deformations recorded at different times it is possible to reconstruct the vibration of the object

  18. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  19. Vibration control, machine diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de

  20. Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter

    2013-01-01

    We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H 2 CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to J max = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm −1 and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments

  1. Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter

    2013-11-01

    We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H2CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to Jmax = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm-1 and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments.

  2. Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachmenev, Andrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, D–45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-28

    We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H{sub 2}CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to J{sub max} = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm{sup −1} and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments.

  3. [Indications for the combination of pravastatin and fenofibrate according to the cardiovascular risk level. Common clinical situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    In diabetes, metabolic syndrome, some types of familial dyslipidemia, ischemic pathology of atheromatous origin and renal failure, the presence of mixed dyslipidemia is common. In other words, there is an excess of cholesterol and triglycerides, associated or not with HDL-c deficiency. These clinical conditions are associated with high to very high cardiovascular risk. It is appropriate when treating these conditions to achieve an overall control of lipid metabolism abnormalities, in terms of excess cholesterol carried by atherogenic lipoproteins (LDL-c and non-HDL-c) and triglyceride excess and deficit of HDL-c. To achieve this overall control is necessary to correct the potential causes of secondary dyslipidemia, improve lifestyle habits and use a drug from the statin family, and it is often necessary to combine a drug from the fibrate family. This combination has been shown to be effective and safe in the overall control of dyslipidemia and the cardiovascular risk prevention in patients at high risk. This combination has been shown to have a favorable eff ect in the population with diabetes and microangiopathy, both in the retina and in the glomerulus. For patients with moderate renal failure, the use of fibrates is controversial, and there are marked disagreements between the recommendations issued by various organizations and expert consensus groups. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of small surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben area from a combined analysis of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Leijen, F.J. van; Mayer, M.; Westerhaus, M.; Hanssen, R.F.; Heck, B.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-plate deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in Central Europe is investigated using geodetic measurement techniques. We present a new approach to calculate a combined velocity field from InSAR, levelling and GNSS measurements. As the expected tectonic movements in the URG

  5. A simplified approach for simulating changes in beach habitat due to the combined effectgs of long-term sea level rise, storm erosion, and nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better understanding of vulnerability of coastal habitats to sea level rise and major storm events require the use of simulation models. Coastal habitats also undergo frequent nourishment restoration works in order to maintain their viability. Vulnerability models must be able to assess the combined...

  6. Off-axis Modal Active Vibration Control Of Rotational Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.

    Collocated active vibration control is an effective and robustly stable way of adding damping to the performance limiting vibrations of a plant. Besides the physical parameters of the Active Damping Unit (ADU) containing the collocated actuator and sensor, its location with respect to the

  7. Study on vibration behaviors of engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Minowa, Chikahiro

    1998-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes have been buried underground by packing into a strong sealed container made from carbon steel (over-pack) with buffer material (bentonite). The engineered barrier system constructed with an overpack and buffer materials must be resistant to earthquakes as well as invasion of groundwater for a long period. Therefore, seismic evaluation of barrier system for earthquakes is indispensable especially in Japan to keep its structural safety. Here, the effects of earthquake vibration on the engineered barrier systems were investigated experimentally. Random-wave vibration and practical seismic wave one were loaded for the systems and fundamental data were obtained. For the former vibration the response characteristics of both engineered barrier models constructed with overpack and bentonite were non-linear. For the latter one, the stress in bentonite was increased in proportion to the vibration level. (M.N.)

  8. On the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in dense molecular environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benten, Rebekka S. von [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 6, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Abel, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Abel@uni-lepzig.de [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linne-Strasse 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-12-09

    Graphical abstract: Mechanisms of IVR in multi-tiers of intramolecular energy levels in different molecular environments are investigated. - Abstract: Transient femtosecond-IR-pump-UV-absorption probe-spectroscopy has been employed to shed light on the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer (IVR) in dense molecular environments ranging from the diluted gas phase to the liquid. A general feature in our experiments and those of others is that IVR proceeds via multiple timescales if overtones or combination vibrations of high frequency modes are excited. It has been found that collisions enhance IVR if its (slower) timescales can compete with collisions. This enhancement is, however, much more weaker and rather inefficient as opposed to the effect of collisions on intermolecular energy transfer which is well known. In a series of experiments we found that IVR depends not significantly on the average energy transferred in a collision but rather on the number of collisions. The collisions are much less efficient in affecting IVR than VET. We conclude that collision induced broadening of vibrational energy levels reduces the energy gaps and enhances existing couplings between tiers. The present results are an important step forward to rationalize and understand apparently different and not consistent results from different groups on different molecular systems between gas and liquid phases.

  9. CN molecule vibrational spectra excitation in several LTE plasma sources conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iova, I.; Iova, Floriana; Ionita, I.; Bazavan, M.; Ilie, Gh.; Stanescu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Our interest in CN plasma study steams of the facilities to obtain the CN radicals in a free atmosphere electric discharge where the C of the coal electrodes can to combine in the enough high temperature plasma with the atmospheric nitrogen. Also of much interest is the very important phenomena in which the CN vibrational spectra can be implied and used as a diagnostic tool (plasma chemistry, astrophysics and so on). A peculiar importance presents the CN vibrational spectra in the transient plasmas. It is the reason why we have investigated here some internal processes of a continued and interrupted arc of various pulse lengths. To these purposes we present with enough accuracy the behaviour of the relative band head intensities of the sequences Δ v = +1 and Δ v = 0 belonging to the CN electronic transition (B 2 Σ - X 2 Σ), as a function of the pulse length (50 - 200 ms) as well as a function of the cathode to anode separation. These behaviours give us indications on the vibrational levels of the electronic state populations in several regions of the arc plasma as well on the efficiency of these levels excitation for several plasma pulse lengths. (authors)

  10. Combining predictive microbiology with cold-enrichment in minced pork for quantifying low levels of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, C. O. A.; Aabo, Søren; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2013-01-01

    underestimation of the Salmonella count after enrichment. Whether competition between these species also took place in the meat during enrichment is not known. However, as the observed levels of the competitive species were below 5.5 log10-units it is questionable whether interaction with S. Typhimurium DT104......OBJECTIVE For determination of Salmonella concentration in meat various methods can be used depending on the expected level. When higher levels (102 to 103 bacteria or more per g) are anticipated, plate count techniques using selective agars, i.e. XLD, are appropriate whereas for low numbers (3......, the objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility to carry out a Salmonella enrichment step in the meat itself and use the two species interaction model, presented by Møller et al. (2013), for quantifying levels of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in minced pork. METHODS A total number of 101 minced pork...

  11. Combined Effect of food deprivation and serotonin injection on plasma prolactin and glucose levels in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Khamis, F.I.; Abu Zaid, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) on the homeostasis of plasma prolactin and glucose in rats induced by gamma irradiation and food deprivation. Animals were divided into seven groups; control, irradiated at a dose level of 6 Gy, injected with 500 mg/kg b.wt. 5-HT intra-peritoneally, injected with 5-HT before irradiation food deprived for 48 hrs then irradiated, food deprived then injected with 5-HT, and food deprived then injected with 5-HT before whole body irradiation. Samples were collected at 1,3, 7 and 14 days post irradiation. The results showed that gamma irradiation firstly elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in plasma (1 and 3 days) then the levels decreased after 7 and 14 days as compared to control values. Rats received serotonin before irradiation exhibited an increased level of PRL after 14 days post irradiation compared to control value, while the level decreased after 1, 3, 7 days post irradiation. Food deprivation for 48 hrs altered the effect of serotonin and /or irradiation on PRL levels in plasma. Rats injected with serotonin showed a decreased level of plasma prolactin in food deprived rats, 3 days post injection. The obtained results showed that serotonin causes variable effects on plasma prolactin compared to control values. Glucose plasma levels were increased in both irradiated and serotonin injected rats before irradiation, and also in serotonin injected rats as compared to control values. Irradiation of rats after 48 hrs food deprivation induced an increase in plasma glucose levels measured throughout the different experimental periods. Injection of serotonin to rats after 48 hrs food deprivation before irradiation increased plasma glucose levels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days compared to control value. Also, injection of serotonin to 48 hrs food deprived rats increased glucose levels during all examined days of experiment.It could be concluded that serotonin may have a variable mechanism controlling prolactin

  12. Shape Reconstruction of Thin Electromagnetic Inclusions via Boundary Measurements: Level-Set Method Combined with the Topological Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kwang Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inverse problem for reconstructing arbitrary-shaped thin penetrable electromagnetic inclusions concealed in a homogeneous material is considered in this paper. For this purpose, the level-set evolution method is adopted. The topological derivative concept is incorporated in order to evaluate the evolution speed of the level-set functions. The results of the corresponding numerical simulations with and without noise are presented in this paper.

  13. Clinical application of combined determination of serum/chest fluid CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE levels for diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yalin; Zhu Xiangping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of combined determination of serum/chest fluid CEA,CYFRA21-1 and NSE levels in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Combined determination of serum levels of CEA,CYFRA21-1 and NSE were done in 53 patients with lung cancer , 26 patients with benign lung diseases and 37 controls. Levels of these three tumor markers were also determined in the pleural fluid present in 33 of the 53 lung cancer patients. Results: In the controls, the serum levels of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE were 2.68 ± 1.75, 1.52 ± 0.86 and 8.77 ± 4.13 ng/ml respectively. In patients with benign lung diseases, the values were 5.48 ± 3.26, 5.32 ± 2.27 and 15.21 ± 11.36 ng/ml respectively. In patients with lung cancer, they were 24.95 ± 18.36, 17.81 ± 11.35 and 19.85 ± 14.22 ng/ml respectively. Serum levels of all these three markers were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer than those in the controls (P 0.05). Levels of all these markers were significantly higher in patients with benign lung diseases than those in the controls (P 0.05); only levels of CYFRA21-1 were significantly higher (P<0.01). Sensitivity of the respective marker in pleural fluid was higher than that in serum. Conclusion: For diagnosis of lung cancer, determination of serum CYFRA21-1 levels or combined determination of the three tumor markers would be most valuable to test levels in pleural fluid, if available, would be more sensitive. (authors)

  14. Effects of Irbesartan combined Atorvastatin on serum levels of Cys C, Hcy, TNF-α, ET, TGF-b1 in patients with early diabetic nephropathyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudula.Reziwanguli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of Irbesartan combined with Atorvastatin on early diabetic nephropathy patients’ serum Cys C, Hcy, TNF-α, ET and TGF-b1 levels. Methods: A total of 60 early diabetic nephropathy patients were randomly divided into observation group (30 cases and control group (30 cases. Observation group: Irbesartan combined with Atorvastatin; control group: patients were treated only by Irbesartan. Recording and comparing the levels of Cys C, Hcy, TNF-α, ET and TGF-b1 before and after treatment. Results: (1 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum FBG, TG, Scr, BUN levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum TG, Scr, BUN levels of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, the difference between two groups was statistically significant; (2 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum Cys C, Hcy, TNF-α, ET, TGF-b1 levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum Cys C, Hcy, TNF-α, ET, TGF-b1 levels of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, the difference between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Irbesartan combined with Atorvastatin for early diabetic nephropathy patients can reduce the levels of serum Cys C, Hcy, TNF-α, ET, TGF-b1 and be beneficial to protect their nephritic function.

  15. Improved assignments of the vibrational fundamental modes of ortho -, meta -, and para -xylene using gas- and liquid-phase infrared and Raman spectra combined with ab initio calculations: Quantitative gas-phase infrared spectra for detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Scharko, Nicole K.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Nguyen, Kiet T.; Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2017-07-25

    Xylenes contain a blend of the ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers, and all are abundant contaminants in the ground, surface waters, and air. To better characterize xylene and to better enable its detection, we report high quality quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectra of all three isomers over the 540-6500 cm-1 range. All fundamental vibrational modes are assigned based on these vapor-phase infrared spectra, liquid-phase infrared and Raman spectra, along with density functional theory (DFT), ab initio MP2 and high energy-accuracy compound theoretical model (W1BD) calculations. Both MP2 and DFT predict a single conformer with C2v symmetry for ortho-xylene, and two conformers each for meta- and para-xylene, depending on the preferred orientations of the methyl groups. For meta-xylene the two conformers have Cs and C2 symmetry, and for para-xylene these conformers have C2v or C2h symmetry. Since the relative population of the two conformers is approximately 50% for both isomers and predicted frequencies and intensities are very similar for each conformer, we made an arbitrary choice to discuss the Cs conformer for meta-xylene and the C2v conformer for para-xylene. We report integrated band intensities for all isomers. Using the quantitative infrared data, we determine the global warming potential values of each isomer and discuss potential bands for atmospheric monitoring.

  16. Electronic Rydberg wavepacket effects on molecular vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Meacher, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic wavepacket states of molecular hydrogen are considered which represent the situation of a spectator electron orbiting a molecular core. A quantum defect theory approach is used to determine the energy level structure, wavefunctions and molecular potentials, which is valid in regions where the quantum defects approach zero. In such a region the orbital motion of the wavepacket leads to a periodic variation in the molecular vibration frequency of the order of 100 cm -1 . Possible detection schemes are discussed. (author)

  17. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  18. Analysis and simulation of centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emma

    2015-01-01

    When environmental laws are constricted and downsizing of engines has become the reality of the vehicle industry, there needs to be a solution for the rise in torsion vibrations in the drivetrain. These increased levels of torsion vibrations are mostly due to excitations from the firing pulses, which in turn have become increased due to higher cylinder pressures. One of the solutions for further dampening the system is to add a centrifugal pendulum absorber to the flywheel, and predicting the...

  19. An expert system for vibration based diagnostics of rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteniemi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Very often changes in the mechanical condition of the rotating machinery can be observed as changes in its vibration. This paper presents an expert system for vibration-based diagnosis of rotating machines by describing the architecture of the developed prototype system. The importance of modelling the problem solving knowledge as well as the domain knowledge is emphasized by presenting the knowledge in several levels

  20. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic studies of iron-containing biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takehiro; Seto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we report recent nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic (NRVS) studies of iron-containing biomolecules and their model complexes. The NRVS is synchrotron-based element-specific vibrational spectroscopic methods. Unlike Raman and infrared spectroscopy, the NRVS can investigate all iron motions without selection rules, which provide atomic level insights into the structure/reactivity correlation of biologically relevant iron complexes. (author)