Sample records for vibration protection system

  1. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  2. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff


    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mikulik


    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of local «driver-seat» system and an algorithm for vibratory loading formation at external actions. Results of the investigations on the system vibration according to minimum vibration acceleration depending on transfer force factor acting on the seat and a vibration isolation factor are presented in the paper.

  4. Blade Vibration Measurement System (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.


    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  5. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves. (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis


    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  7. Infra-red and vibration tests of hybrid ablative/ceramic matrix technological breadboards for earth re-entry thermal protection systems (United States)

    Barcena, Jorge; Garmendia, Iñaki; Triantou, Kostoula; Mergia, Konstatina; Perez, Beatriz; Florez, Sonia; Pinaud, Gregory; Bouilly, Jean-Marc; Fischer, Wolfgang P. P.


    A new thermal protection system for atmospheric earth re-entry is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of both reusable and ablative materials to establish a new hybrid concept with advanced capabilities. The solution consists of the design and the integration of a dual shield resulting on the overlapping of an external thin ablative layer with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) thermo-structural core. This low density ablative material covers the relatively small heat peak encountered during re-entry the CMC is not able to bear. On the other hand the big advantage of the CMC based TPS is of great benefit which can deal with the high integral heat for the bigger time period of the re-entry. To verify the solution a whole testing plan is envisaged, which as part of it includes thermal shock test by infra-red heating (heating flux up to 1 MW/m2) and vibration test under launcher conditions (Volna and Ariane 5). Sub-scale tile samples (100×100 mm2) representative of the whole system (dual ablator/ceramic layers, insulation, stand-offs) are specifically designed, assembled and tested (including the integration of thermocouples). Both the thermal and the vibration test are analysed numerically by simulation tools using Finite Element Models. The experimental results are in good agreement with the expected calculated parameters and moreover the solution is qualified according to the specified requirements.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. Work during this quarter centered on the testing of the rebuilt laboratory prototype and its conversion into a version that will be operable in the drilling tests at TerraTek Laboratories. In addition, formations for use in these tests were designed and constructed, and a test protocol was developed. The change in scope and no-cost extension of Phase II to January, 2006, described in our last report, were approved. The tests are scheduled to be run during the week of January 23, and should be completed before the end of the month.

  11. Protection of historic buildings against environmental pollution of vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja


    Full Text Available Historic buildings in Poland are largely neglected objects that small percentage is preserved in its original form. Unrelenting in the case of historic buildings is a time that brings with it the natural processes of aging of buildings, but also the history of the object which is often marked by military conflicts, fires or even incompetently carried out reconstruction. Nowadays historic buildings are also destroyed by the rapid development of infrastructure and residential construction. This development could lead to changes of water in the soil, make changes in the geologic al structure or cause exposure of the historic building to the new influences (eg. traffic vibrations, to which building has not been subjected so far. Vibrations are often omitted in environmental issues, although the protection against noise and vibration has its place in the Law on Environmental Protection. This article presents the methodology for the measurement and interpretation of vibration influence on historic buildings and the assessment methods of technical condition of historic building on the example of dynamic measurements made on St. Nicholas Church in Krakow. The importance of well-done crack-by-crack documentation and characterization of damages based on damage index is shown. Difficulties that can be encountered when determining the causes of technical condition of historic buildings are also shown. Based on the example of the Church in the article are also given the possible protection solutions of historic structures from vibrations.

  12. Enriched vibrational resonance in certain discrete systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system [10], bistable systems [1,11,12], time-delayed system [13] and also in a few low- dimensional maps [14] due to its ... the driving force, has attracted much attention in recent years. The study of vibrational ... odic trigonometric functions, one can expect the recurrence of multiple resonant peaks due to vibrational ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. As a result of the lower than expected performance of the MR damper noted last quarter, several additional tests were conducted. These dealt with possible causes of the lack of dynamic range observed in the testing: additional damping from the oil in the Belleville springs; changes in properties of the MR fluid; and, residual magnetization of the valve components. Of these, only the last was found to be significant. By using a laboratory demagnetization apparatus between runs, a dynamic range of 10:1 was achieved for the damper, more than adequate to produce the needed improvements in drilling. Additional modeling was also performed to identify a method of increasing the magnetic field in the damper. As a result of the above, several changes were made in the design. Additional circuitry was added to demagnetize the valve as the field is lowered. The valve was located to above the Belleville springs to reduce the load placed upon it and offer a greater range of materials for its construction. In addition, to further increase the field strength, the coils were relocated from the mandrel to the outer housing. At the end of the quarter, the redesign was complete and new parts were on order. The project is approximately three months behind schedule at this time.

  14. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An


    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  15. Enriched vibrational resonance in certain discrete systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We wish to report the occurrence of vibrational resonance in certain discrete systems like sine square map and sine circle map, in a unique fashion, comprising of multiple resonant peaks which pave the way for enrichment. As the systems of our choice are capable of exhibiting vibrational resonance behaviour unlike the ...

  16. Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems (United States)

    Tufano, Dante

    The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators

  17. Passively damped vibration welding system and method (United States)

    Tan, Chin-An; Kang, Bongsu; Cai, Wayne W.; Wu, Tao


    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an anvil, and a passive damping mechanism (PDM). The controller generates an input signal having a calibrated frequency. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction at the calibrated frequency in response to the input signal to form a weld in a work piece. The PDM is positioned with respect to the system, and substantially damps or attenuates vibration in an undesirable second direction. A method includes connecting the PDM having calibrated properties and a natural frequency to an anvil of an ultrasonic welding system. Then, an input signal is generated using a weld controller. The method includes vibrating a welding horn in a desirable direction in response to the input signal, and passively damping vibration in an undesirable direction using the PDM.

  18. Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanović, Vladimir


     This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...

  19. Infra-red and vibration tests of hybrid ablative/ceramic matrix technological breadboards for earth re-entry thermal protection systems


    Barcena, Jorge; Garmendia, Iñaki; Triantou, Kostoula; Mergia, Konstatina; Perez, Beatriz; Florez, Sonia; Pinaud, Gregory; Bouilly, Jean-Marc; Fischer, Wolfgang P.P.


    A new thermal protection system for atmospheric earth re-entry is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of both reusable and ablative materials to establish a new hybrid concept with advanced capabilities. The solution consists of the design and the integration of a dual shield resulting on the overlapping of an external thin ablative layer with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) thermo-structural core. This low density ablative material covers the relatively small heat peak encountere...

  20. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P


    Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late

  1. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang


    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  2. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao


    Full Text Available The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibration transfer path systems was provided. The transfer reliability of vibration transfer path system with uncertain path parameters including path mass and path stiffness was analyzed theoretically and computed numerically, and the correlated mathematical expressions were derived. Thus, it provides the theoretical foundation for the dynamic design of vibration systems in practical project, so that most random path parameters can be considered to solve the random problems for vibration transfer path systems, which can avoid the system resonance failure.

  3. Noise and vibration in friction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Vladimir P


    The book analyzes the basic problems of oscillation processes and theoretical aspects of noise and vibration in friction systems. It presents generalized information available in literature data and results of the authors in vibroacoustics of friction joints, including car brakes and transmissions. The authors consider the main approaches to abatement of noise and vibration in non-stationary friction processes. Special attention is paid to materials science aspects, in particular to advanced composite materials used to improve the vibroacoustic characteristics of tribopairs The book is intended for researchers and technicians, students and post-graduates specializing in mechanical engineering, maintenance of machines and transport means, production certification, problems of friction and vibroacoustics.

  4. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter


    Features aspects and solutions of problems of linear vibrating systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Starts with development of necessary tools in matrix theory, followed by numerical procedures for relevant matrix formulations and relevant theory of differential equations. Minimum of mathematical abstraction; assumes a familiarity with matrix theory, elementary calculus. 1966 edition.

  5. Downhole Vibration Monitoring and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. The key feature of this system is its use of a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) to allow the damping coefficient to be changed extensively, rapidly and reversibly without the use of mechanical valves, but only by the application of a current. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. Much of the effort was devoted to the design and testing of the MRF damper, itself. The principal objectives of Phase II were: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in a drilling laboratory. Phase II concluded on January 31, 2006, and a final report was issued. Work on Phase III of the project began during the first quarter, 2006, with the objectives of building precommercial prototypes, testing them in a drilling laboratory and the field; developing and implementing a commercialization plan. All of these have been accomplished. The Downhole Vibration Monitoring & Control System (DVMCS) prototypes have been successfully proven in testing at the TerraTek drilling facility and at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (RMOTC.) Based on the results of these tests, we have signed a definitive development and distribution agreement with Smith, and commercial deployment is underway. This current version of the DVMCS monitors and controls axial vibrations. Due to time and budget constraints of this program, it was not possible to complete a system that would also deal with lateral and torsional (stick-slip) vibrations as originally planned; however, this effort is continuing without DOE

  6. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems


    Wei Zhao; Yi-Min Zhang


    The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibratio...

  7. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou


    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  8. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary


    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  9. Application of system concept in vibration and noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Meiping


    Full Text Available Although certain vibration and noise control technologies are maturing, such as vibration absorption, vibration isolation, sound absorption and sound insulation, and new methods for specific frequency bands or special environments have been proposed unceasingly, there is still no guarantee that practical effective vibration and noise reduction can be obtained. An important constraint for vibration and noise reduction is the lack of a system concept, and the integrity and relevance of such practical systems as ship structure have not obtained enough attention. We have tried to use the system engineering theory in guiding vibration and noise reduction, and have already achieved certain effects. Based on the system concept, the noise control of a petroleum pipeline production workshop has been completed satisfactorily, and the abnormal noise source identification of an airplane has been accomplished successfully. We want to share our experience and suggestions to promote the popularization of the system engineering theory in vibration and noise control.

  10. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav


    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  11. Improvement of the vibration isolation system for TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, R


    The vibration isolation system for TAMA300 has a vibration isolation ratio large enough to achieve the requirement in the observation band around 300 Hz. At a lower frequency range, it is necessary to reduce the large fluctuation of mirrors for stable operation of the interferometer. With this aim, the mirror suspension systems were modified and an active vibration isolation system using pneumatic actuators was installed. These improvements contributed to the realization of a continuous interferometer lock for more than 24 h.

  12. System for automatic recording of vibration parameters (United States)

    Fedorov, B. I.


    A system for automatically recording vibration parameters consists of 20 accelerometer channels with signal transducers followed by low-pass filters, and one frequency-to-voltage conversion channel. A voltmeter is connected to each channel through a commutator switch and so is a timer which feeds the voltmeter readings to a transcriber for printout and alphanumeric documentation. The printer is also connected to the commutator switch through a device which matches recorded data with the corresponding pickup channel. This SAR-21 system was designed with maximum use of series produced components. Its measurement ranges are 0-600 m/sq acceleration and 20 to 2500 Hz frequency. The recording time is 0.04 s for any one parameter and the error of the system does not exceed + or - 2%.

  13. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans (United States)

    Marscher, William


    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  14. Noise and Vibration Modeling for Anti-Lock Brake Systems (United States)

    Zhan, Wei

    A new methodology is proposed for noise and vibration analysis for Anti-Lock Brake Systems (ABS). First, a correlation between noise and vibration measurement data and simulation results need to be established. This relationship allows the engineers to focus on modeling and simulation instead of noise and vibration testing. A comprehensive ABS model is derived for noise and vibration study. The model can be set up to do different types of simulations for noise and vibration analysis. If some data is available from actual testing, then the test data can be easily imported into the model as an input to replace the corresponding part in the model. It is especially useful when the design needs to be modified, or trade-off between ABS performance and noise and vibration is necessary. The model can greatly reduce the time to market for ABS products. It also makes system level optimization possible.

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  16. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the effect of geometric non-linearity. The forced vibration analysis is carried out in an indirect way, in which the dynamic system is assumed to satisfy the force equilibrium condition at peak load value, thus ...

  17. Analytical Evaluation of the Nonlinear Vibration of Coupled Oscillator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, M.; Shahidi, M.; Barari, Amin


    We consider periodic solutions for nonlinear free vibration of conservative, coupled mass-spring systems with linear and nonlinear stiffnesses. Two practical cases of these systems are explained and introduced. An analytical technique called energy balance method (EBM) was applied to calculate...... accuracy which is valid for a wide range of vibration amplitudes as indicated in the presented examples....

  18. Performance Monitoring of Vibration in Belt Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We are always using some kind of machines in our daily life starting from fan, refrigerator and washing machines at home. In case of industries of industrial machinery items condition monitoring is important to know onset impending defects. There are so many types of indicating phenomenon such as vibration, heat, debris in oil, noise and sounds which emanate from these in efficiently running machines. This paper presents the vibration related fault identification and maintenance of belt conveyor systems (BCS. After analyzing the spectrum and vibration readings, it was observed that a combination of parallel and angular misalignment between motor & gear box was present causing high axial and radial vibration. The defect was rectified by mechanical maintenance activities and latter the vibration was found reduced within limit. Also the vibration readings were taken after rectification. The above results are presented in this paper.

  19. System for Monitoring and Analysis of Vibrations at Electric Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rață


    Full Text Available The monitoring of vibration occurring at the electric motors is of paramount importance to ensure their optimal functioning. This paper presents a monitoring system of vibrations occurring at two different types of electric motors, using a piezoelectric accelerometer (ICP 603C11 and a data acquisition board from National Instruments (NI 6009. Vibration signals taken from different parts of electric motors are transferred to computer through the acquisition board. A virtual instrument that allows real-time monitoring and Fourier analysis of signals from the vibration sensor was implemented in LabVIEW.

  20. Research on Vibration Isolation Systems Used in Laser and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Kuncė


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the efficiency of a vibration isolation system made of the optical table and two negative-stiffness tables and considers excitation referring to harmonic and nonharmonic methods in the frequency range of 0,2–110 Hz. The article reviews the types and sources of vibrations and types of vibration isolation systems, including those of negative-stiffness. The paper also presents the methodology of experimental tests and proposes research on vibration transmissibility. A composite system consisting of two vibration isolation table having negative stiffness and an air table has been tested. The results and conclusions of experimental analysis are suggested at the end of the article.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Reconstruction of Input Excitation Acting on Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhou


    Full Text Available Vibration isolation systems are widely employed in automotive, marine, aerospace, and other engineering fields. Accurate input forces are of great significance for mechanical design, vibration prediction, and structure modification and optimization. One-stage vibration isolation system including engine, vibration isolators, and flexible supporting structure is modeled theoretically in this paper. Input excitation acting on the vibration isolation system is reconstructed using dynamic responses measured on engine and supporting structure under in-suit condition. The reconstructed forces reveal that dynamic responses on rigid body are likely to provide more accurate estimation results. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of excitation reconstructed by dynamic responses on flexible supporting structure, auto/cross-power spectral density function is utilized to reduce measurement noise.

  2. Transient vibration analytical modeling and suppressing for vibration absorber system under impulse excitation (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Yu, Hu; Gao, Yulong


    The impulse excitation of mechanism causes transient vibration. In order to achieve adaptive transient vibration control, a method which can exactly model the response need to be proposed. This paper presents an analytical model to obtain the response of the primary system attached with dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) under impulse excitation. The impulse excitation which can be divided into single-impulse excitation and multi-impulse excitation is simplified as sinusoidal wave to establish the analytical model. To decouple the differential governing equations, a transform matrix is applied to convert the response from the physical coordinate to model coordinate. Therefore, the analytical response in the physical coordinate can be obtained by inverse transformation. The numerical Runge-Kutta method and experimental tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of the analytical model proposed. The wavelet of the response indicates that the transient vibration consists of components with multiple frequencies, and it shows that the modeling results coincide with the experiments. The optimizing simulations based on genetic algorithm and experimental tests demonstrate that the transient vibration of the primary system can be decreased by changing the stiffness of the DVA. The results presented in this paper are the foundations for us to develop the adaptive transient vibration absorber in the future.

  3. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F


    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The paper carried out a comparison of vibration sensors used to measure the vibration condition units with gas turbine engines, with motion sensors, microelectromechanical systems used in modern mobile devices (for example, devices on the platform "Android". It provides opinions on the possibility of assessment of vibration, using sensors of mobile devices.

  5. Modal and Vibration Analysis of Filter System in Petrochemical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchi Liu


    Full Text Available Filter systems are widely used in petrochemical plants for removing solid impurities from hydrocarbon oils. The backwash is the cleaning process used to remove the impurities on the sieves of the filters without a need to interrupt the operation of the entire system. This paper presents a case study based on the actual project of a filter system in a petrochemical plant, to demonstrate the significant effect of vibration on the structural integrity of piping. The induced vibration had led to the structural fatigue failure of the pipes connecting the filter system. A preliminary assessment suggested that the vibrations are caused by the operation of backwashing of the filter system. A process for solving the vibration problem based on the modal analysis of the filter system using the commercial finite element software for simulation is therefore proposed. The computed natural frequencies of the system and the vibration data measured on site are assessed based on the resonance effect of the complete system including the piping connected to the filters. Several approaches are proposed to adjust the natural frequencies of the system in such a way that an optimal and a reasonable solution for solving the vibration problem is obtained.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock


    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  7. Vibration and noise analysis of a gear transmission system (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, F. B.


    This paper presents a comprehensive procedure to predict both the vibration and noise generated by a gear transmission system under normal operating conditions. The gearbox vibrations were obtained from both numerical simulation and experimental studies using a gear noise test rig. In addition, the noise generated by the gearbox vibrations was recorded during the experimental testing. A numerical method was used to develop linear relationships between the gearbox vibration and the generated noise. The hypercoherence function is introduced to correlate the nonlinear relationship between the fundamental noise frequency and its harmonics. A numerical procedure was developed using both the linear and nonlinear relationships generated from the experimental data to predict noise resulting from the gearbox vibrations. The application of this methodology is demonstrated by comparing the numerical and experimental results from the gear noise test rig.

  8. Inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems (United States)

    Hyde, James M.; Chang, Kenneth W.; Seering, Warren P.


    Viewgraphs on inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems are presented. Topics covered include: input pre-shaping background; developing multiple-mode shapers; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) test article; and tests and results.

  9. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AI Signal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a Non-Intrusive Vibration Measurement System (NI-VMS) for turbopumps which will provide effective on-board/off-board...

  10. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang


    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  11. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine...

  12. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support (United States)

    Johnson, Katie


    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  13. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han


    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  14. Nonlinear spring-less electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting system (United States)

    Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.


    This paper deals with a description and modelling of a spring-less electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting system. The presented unique electromagnetic vibration energy harvester consists of a nonlinear resonance mechanism, magnetic circuit with a coil and an electronic load. The mechanical vibrations excite the nonlinear resonance mechanism and the relative movement of the magnetic circuit against fixed coil induces voltage due to Faraday's Law. When the electronics is connected the current flows through the load and output power is harvested. There are several nonlinearities which affects operations of the presented electromagnetic energy harvesting system. The significant nonlinearity of the system is stiffness of the resonance mechanism and it causes extending of an operation bandwidth. The harvesting of electrical energy from mechanical vibrations provides electromagnetic damping feedbacks of the coil to moving magnetic circuit. The feedback depends on the current flow through the electronic load and coil. The using of modern power management circuit with optimal power point provides other nonlinear operation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Макаренко


    Full Text Available In the article the control system is created, which is able to reduce steady-state vibration response of thinwalled flexible structure in the wide band of low frequencies. It is supposed, that the flexible structure is subject to external harmonic force with variable frequencies, and parameters of that force are available for the usage by the control system. The control system is based on pattern search algorithm and suggestion about the dependence of signal, which is formed by the control system, from the steady-state vibration response of the flexible structure. Developed software allows to use pattern search algorithm as the control system for plate vibration in real-time. The influence on control system operation of signal delay of executive device of compensating path and transition process after the change of control signal parameters is done by the usage of the additional idle time. During idle time the control signal is supported. It has parameters that have taken place before the beginning of idle mode. Step reset option for resuming of search after the long-term steady-state vibration of flexible structure do not derange control system operation, because step change take place only after polling cycle termination. The efficiency of proposed system is illustrated experimentally on the example of clamped plate. Experimental results analysis showed the necessity of multiple compensating devices application for vibration reduction in wide frequency range.

  16. Remote vibration monitoring system using wireless internet data transfer (United States)

    Lemke, John


    Vibrations from construction activities can affect infrastructure projects in several ways. Within the general vicinity of a construction site, vibrations can result in damage to existing structures, disturbance to people, damage to sensitive machinery, and degraded performance of precision instrumentation or motion sensitive equipment. Current practice for monitoring vibrations in the vicinity of construction sites commonly consists of measuring free field or structural motions using velocity transducers connected to a portable data acquisition unit via cables. This paper describes an innovative way to collect, process, transmit, and analyze vibration measurements obtained at construction sites. The system described measures vibration at the sensor location, performs necessary signal conditioning and digitization, and sends data to a Web server using wireless data transmission and Internet protocols. A Servlet program running on the Web server accepts the transmitted data and incorporates it into a project database. Two-way interaction between the Web-client and the Web server is accomplished through the use of a Servlet program and a Java Applet running inside a browser located on the Web client's computer. Advantages of this system over conventional vibration data logging systems include continuous unattended monitoring, reduced costs associated with field data collection, instant access to data files and graphs by project team members, and the ability to remotely modify data sampling schemes.

  17. Adaptive protection algorithm and system (United States)

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA


    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty


    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to an estimation of vibration influence on sensitive system elements. Dependences of intensity and probability of a process exit characterizing a condition of a system element for the preset range that allow to estimate serviceability and no-failure operation of the system have been obtained analytically in the paper

  19. Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti


    This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations...... signal-to-noise ratio. Simultaneously, the frequencies are low enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length, so good results can be obtained even using only one actuator. The system is demonstrated on a real 34m blade mounted on a test rig. Using the suggested approach, the system enables...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    law enforcement or judicial authorities in the maintenance of justice.12. 2.1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Witness protection first came to prominence in the United State of America to dismantle Mafia style criminal organizations.13 Before its formal establishment by act, witness protection system started to protect people.

  1. Methods of Identification of Nonlinear Mechanical Vibrating Systems (United States)

    Plakhtienko, N. P.


    Methods for determination of the dynamic characteristics and parameters of mechanical vibrating systems by processing experimental data on controlled vibrations are presented. These methods are intended for construction of mathematical models of objects to be identified and classed as parametric and nonparametric methods. The quadrature formulas of the nonparametric-identification method are derived by inverting the integral parameters of approximate analytical solutions of nonlinear differential equations. The parametric-identification method involves setting up and solving systems of linear algebraic equations in the sought-for inertia, stiffness, and dissipation parameters by integrating experimental processes using special weighting functions. Depending on the type of the nonlinearity of the vibrating system and the method of representing experimental processes, the weighting functions can be oriented toward displacement, velocity, or acceleration gauges. The results of studies made mainly at the Institute of Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are presented

  2. A General Purpose Digital System for Field Vibration Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Ventura, Carlos


    This paper describes the development and concept implementation of a highly sensitive digital recording system for seismic applications and vibration measurements on large Civil Engineering structures. The system is based on highly sensitive motion transducers that have been used by seismologists...

  3. Modal analysis of multistage gear systems coupled with gearbox vibrations (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.


    An analytical procedure to simulate vibrations in gear transmission systems is presented. This procedure couples the dynamics of the rotor-bearing gear system with the vibration in the gear box structure. The model synthesis method is used in solving the overall dynamics of the system, and a variable time-stepping integration scheme is used in evaluating the global transient vibration of the system. Locally each gear stage is modeled as a multimass rotor-bearing system using a discrete model. The modal characteristics are calculated using the matrix-transfer technique. The gearbox structure is represented by a finite element models, and modal parameters are solved by using NASTRAN. The rotor-gear stages are coupled through nonlinear compliance in the gear mesh while the gearbox structure is coupled through the bearing supports of the rotor system. Transient and steady state vibrations of the coupled system are examined in both time and frequency domains. A typical three-geared system is used as an example for demonstration of the developed procedure.

  4. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul


    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  5. Protection of industrial power systems

    CERN Document Server



    The protection which is installed on an industrial power system is likely to be subjected to more difficult conditions than the protection on any other kind of power system. Starting with the many simple devices which are employed and covering the whole area of industrial power system protection, this book aims to help achieve a thorough understanding of the protection necessary.Vital aspects such as the modern cartridge fuse, types of relays, and the role of the current transformer are covered and the widely used inverse definite-minimum time overcurrent relay, the theory of the M

  6. Diesel engine torsional vibration control coupling with speed control system (United States)

    Guo, Yibin; Li, Wanyou; Yu, Shuwen; Han, Xiao; Yuan, Yunbo; Wang, Zhipeng; Ma, Xiuzhen


    The coupling problems between shafting torsional vibration and speed control system of diesel engine are very common. Neglecting the coupling problems sometimes lead to serious oscillation and vibration during the operation of engines. For example, during the propulsion shafting operation of a diesel engine, the oscillation of engine speed and the severe vibration of gear box occur which cause the engine is unable to operate. To find the cause of the malfunctions, a simulation model coupling the speed control system with the torsional vibration of deformable shafting is proposed and investigated. In the coupling model, the shafting is simplified to be a deformable one which consists of several inertias and shaft sections and with characteristics of torsional vibration. The results of instantaneous rotation speed from this proposed model agree with the test results very well and are successful in reflecting the real oscillation state of the engine operation. Furthermore, using the proposed model, the speed control parameters can be tuned up to predict the diesel engine a stable and safe running. The results from the tests on the diesel engine with a set of tuned control parameters are consistent with the simulation results very well.

  7. Prevention strategy for vibration hazards by portable power tools, national forest model of comprehensive prevention system in Japan. (United States)

    Yamada, S; Sakakibara, H


    In the 1950s, the introduction of portable power tools into the production process of many industries began on a large scale around the world and resulted in many cases of occupational vibration syndrome after the 1960s. There was an urgent world wide need to undertake preventive steps, medical assessment and therapy. At the end of 1964, our investigation began in Japanese national forests, and then in mines and stone quarries. The Japanese Association of Industrial Hygiene established a "Committee for Local Vibration Hazards" (1965), and many researchers in the medical and technological fields joined this Committee. After 10 years, a comprehensive system for the prevention of vibration syndrome was established in the national forestry. It consists of 1) improvements in vibrating tools, 2) hygienic regulation of operation time with an alternative working system, 3) health care system involving early medical checks, early therapy and age limitations in operation of vibrating tools, 4) protection against cold in the workplace and while commuting, and 5) education and training for health and safety. The prevention strategy for vibration syndrome in our national forests is to establish a comprehensive prevention system in cooperation among researchers in the medical and technological fields, workers and administration. The Ministry of Labor presented that strategy as good model of prevention for other industries (1976). New designs for this model were developed and adapted according to the special conditions of each industry. Thus comprehensive system for prevention of vibration syndrome developed successfully from the late 1970s to 1980s in Japan.

  8. Symptoms of Nervous System Related Disorders Among Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise and Vibration in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Wanhyung; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk; Yoon, Jin-Ha


    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vibration and noise exposure in the workplace and certain nervous system related symptoms (NSRS) among Korean workers. Using data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey, we investigated the influence of vibration and noise with three categories; none, mild, and severe, on sleep disturbance, overall fatigue, and headache/eye strain using logistic regression analysis with stratification by personal protective equipment (PPE) wearing status. Severe noise/vibration exposure was associated in a dose-response fashion with NSRS; the odds ratios (ORs) for sleep disturbance, headache/eyestrain, and overall fatigue were 1.48/1.06, 1.46/1.26, and 1.56/1.28 for severe and mild noise/vibration exposure, respectively, compared with no exposure. Workers who did not wear PPEs were the most affected. Occupational exposures to vibration and noise are associated with NSRS. Additional longitudinal studies and tightened education and safety measures are warranted.

  9. Nonlinear Vibration of Oscillation Systems using Frequency-Amplitude Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fereidoon


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the periodic solutions of free vibration of mechanical systems with third and fifth-order nonlinearity for two examples using He's Frequency-Amplitude Formulation (HFAF.The effectiveness and convenience of the method is illustrated in these examples. It will be shown that the solutions obtained with current method have a fabulous conformity with those achieved from time marching solution. HFAF is easy with powerful concepts and the high accuracy, so it can be found widely applicable in vibrations, especially strong nonlinearity oscillatory problems.

  10. Intermittent vibration protects aged muscle from mechanical and oxidative damage under prolonged compression. (United States)

    Wong, Sing Wan; Cheung, Brian Chun Ho; Pang, Bruce Tak Keung; Kwong, Ateline; Chung, Anna; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Mak, Arthur Fut Tak


    Deep tissue pressure ulcers, a serious clinical challenge originating in the muscle layer, are hardly detectable at the beginning. The challenge apparently occurs in aged subjects more frequently. As the ulcer propagates to the skin surface, it becomes very difficult to manage and can lead to fatal complications. Preventive measures are thus highly desirable. Although the complex pathological mechanisms have not been fully understood, prolonged and excessive physical challenges and oxidative stress are believed to be involved in the ulcer development. Previous reports have demonstrated that oxidative stress could compromise the mechanical properties of muscle cells, making them easier to be damaged when physical challenges are introduced. In this study, we used senescence accelerated (SAMP8) mice and its control breed (SAMR1) to examine the protective effects of intermittent vibration on aged and control muscle tissues during prolonged epidermal compression under 100mmHg for 6h. Results showed that an application of 35Hz, 0.25g intermittent vibration during compression decreased the compression-induced muscle breakdown in SAMP8 mice, as indicated histologically in terms of number of interstitial nuclei. The fact that no significant difference in muscle damage could be established in the corresponding groups in SAMR1 mice suggests that SAMR1 mice could better accommodate the compression insult than SAMP8 mice. Compression-induced oxidative damage was successfully curbed using intermittent vibration in SAMP8 mice, as indicated by 8-OHdG. A possible explanation is that the anti-oxidative defense could be maintained with intermittent vibration during compression. This was supported by the expression level of PGC-1-alpha, catalase, Gpx-1 and SOD1. Our data suggested intermittent vibration could serve as a preventive measure for deep tissue ulcer, particularly in aged subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Control System Design for Vibrational MEMS Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng


    Full Text Available There are two major control problems associated with vibrational MEMS gyroscopes: to control two vibrating axes (or modes of the gyroscope, and to estimate a time-varying rotation rate. This paper demonstrates how a novel active disturbance rejection control addresses these problems in the presence of the mismatch of natural frequencies between two axes, mechanical-thermal noises, Quadrature errors, and parameter variations. A demodulation approach based on the estimated dynamics of the system by an extended state observer is used to estimate the rotation rate. The simulation results on a Z-axis MEMS gyroscope show that the controller is very effective by driving the output of the drive axis to a desired trajectory, forcing the vibration of the sense axis to zero for a force-to-rebalance operation and precisely estimating the rotation rate.

  12. Non-stationary vibrations of mechanical systems with slowly varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an approximate analytical solution for investigation of vibration responses in linear Single-Degree-of-Freedom-Systems (SDOF) with slowly varying natural frequency subjected to a transient excitalion force with constant amplitude. The solution employs the WBKJ-approximation method, the method of ...

  13. Vibrating and shaking soliton pairs in dissipative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmediev, N. [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, the Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Soto-Crespo, J.M. [Instituto de Optica, C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Grelu, Ph. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5027, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Avenue Savary BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)


    We show that two-soliton solutions in nonlinear dissipative systems can exist in various forms. As with single solitons, they can be stationary, periodic or chaotic. In particular, we find new types of vibrating and shaking soliton pairs. Each type of pair is stable in the sense that the bound state exists in the same form indefinitely.

  14. Protecting mine hoisting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Shatilo, A.N.


    The paper discusses problems associated with coal and rock hoisting in underground coal mines in the USSR. Design of standardized safety systems used in Soviet coal mines is described. Failures of control systems which determine hoisting speed are analyzed. When a cage approaches a loading level or ground level at excessive speed the bumping beams accept cage energy. Cage deformation, damage and hoisting rope damage are the result. Correcting cage position in relation to loading levels is a relatively complicated process. The electronic system for automatic control of cage speed and automatic braking when cage speed exceeds the maximum permissible speed in a mine shaft section is evaluated. System design is shown in a scheme. Its specifications are given. It consists of speed sensors, a system activating safety brakes and a system for cage positioning after safety braking. Use of the safety system in some coal mines is discussed.

  15. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  16. Lateral vibration behavior analysis and TLD vibration absorption design of the soft yoke single-point mooring system (United States)

    Lyu, Bai-cheng; Wu, Wen-hua; Yao, Wei-an; Du, Yu


    Mooring system is the key equipment of FPSO safe operation. The soft yoke mooring system is regarded as one of the best shallow water mooring strategies and widely applied to the oil exploitation in the Bohai Bay in China and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the analysis of numerous monitoring data obtained by the prototype monitoring system of one FPSO in the Bohai Bay, the on-site lateral vibration behaviors found on the site of the soft yoke subject to wave load were analyzed. ADAMS simulation and model experiment were utilized to analyze the soft yoke lateral vibration and it was determined that lateral vibration was resonance behaviors caused by wave excitation. On the basis of the soft yoke longitudinal restoring force being guaranteed, a TLD-based vibration damper system was constructed and the vibration reduction experiments with multi-tank space and multi-load conditions were developed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed TLD vibration reduction system can effectively reduce lateral vibration of soft yoke structures.

  17. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals (United States)

    Beck, Robin A. S.


    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  18. Calculation of characteristics of torsionally vibrating mechatronic system


    A. Buchacz


    Purpose: of this paper is the application of the approximate method to solve the task of assigning the frequencymodalanalysis and characteristics of a mechatronic system.Design/methodology/approach: was the formulated and solved as a problem in the form of a set of differentialequations of motion and state equations of the considered mechatronic model of an object. To obtain thesolution, Galerkin’s method was used. The discussed torsionally vibrating mechanical system is a continuousbar of ci...

  19. A General Purpose Digital System for Field Vibration Testing


    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Ventura, Carlos


    This paper describes the development and concept implementation of a highly sensitive digital recording system for seismic applications and vibration measurements on large Civil Engineering structures. The system is based on highly sensitive motion transducers that have been used by seismologists and geophysicists for decades. The conventional geophone's ratio of cost to performance, including noise, linearity and dynamic range is unmatched by advanced modern accelerometers. The unit comprise...

  20. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.


    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  1. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server


    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  2. Hydrodynamics of an open vibrated granular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brey, J. Javier; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.; Moreno, F.


    Using the hydrodynamic description and molecular dynamics simulations, the steady state of a fluidized granular system in the presence of gravity is studied. For an open system, the density profile exhibits a maximum, while the temperature profile goes through a minimum at high altitude, beyond that the temperature increases with the height. The existence of the minimum is explained by the hydrodynamic equations if the presence of a collisionless boundary layer is taken into account. The energy dissipated by interparticle collisions is also computed. A good agreement is found between theory and simulation. The relationship with previous works is discussed.

  3. Unbalance vibration suppression for AMBs system using adaptive notch filter (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Liu, Gang; Han, Bangcheng


    The unbalance of rotor levitated by active magnetic bearings (AMBs) will cause synchronous vibration which greatly degrade the performance at high speeds in the rotating machinery. To suppress the unbalance vibration without angular velocity information, a novel modified adaptive notch filter (ANF) with phase shift in the AMBs system is presented in this study. Firstly, a 4-degree-of-freedom (DOF) radial unbalanced AMB rotor system is described and analyzed, and the solution of rotor vibration displacement is compared with the experimental data to verify the preciseness of the dynamic model. Then the principle and structure of the proposed notch filter used for the frequency estimation and online identification of synchronous component are presented. As well, the convergence property of the algorithm is investigated. In addition, the stability analysis of the closed-loop AMB system with the proposed ANF is conducted. Simulation and experiments on an AMB driveline system demonstrate the effectiveness and the adaptive characteristics of the proposed ANF on the elimination of synchronous controlled current in a widely operating speed range.

  4. Analytical and Experimental Vibration Analysis of a Faulty Gear System (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Braun, M. J.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Handschuh, R. F.


    A comprehensive analytical procedure was developed for predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions. A gear tooth fault model is developed to simulate the effects of pitting and wear on the vibration signal under normal operating conditions. The model uses changes in the gear mesh stiffness to simulate the effects of gear tooth faults. The overall dynamics of the gear transmission system is evaluated by coupling the dynamics of each individual gear-rotor system through gear mesh forces generated between each gear-rotor system and the bearing forces generated between the rotor and the gearbox structure. The predicted results were compared with experimental results obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) was used to give a comprehensive comparison of the predicted and experimental results. The WVD method applied to the experimental results were also compared to other fault detection techniques to verify the WVD's ability to detect the pitting damage, and to determine its relative performance. Overall results show good correlation between the experimental vibration data of the damaged test gear and the predicted vibration from the model with simulated gear tooth pitting damage. Results also verified that the WVD method can successfully detect and locate gear tooth wear and pitting damage.

  5. Vibration measurements on the Phalanx electro-optical stabilization system


    Schmidt, James E.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The installation of the new PHALANX Surface Mode (PSUM) upgrade will enable the PHALANX to handle a wider range of threats, such as a small boat approaching the ship. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to measure the vibration of a prototype forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera stabilizer system during live-fire tests to evaluate its performance. Uniaxial, triaxial, and angular accelerometers were mounted at 1...

  6. Phase behaviour of transfer functions in vibrating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jianyuan; Ohlrich, Mogens


    This paper investigates the applicabilities of pole-zero models and wave propagation theory in estimating the phase characteristics of vibrating systems. The measured phase spectra are compared with the estimated reverberant phase limit and wave propagation phase. The relations between transfer...... on frequency in this band, but from the transition frequency and onwards the phase increases only with the square root of frequency. This behaviour is characteristic for free propagating waves....

  7. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Isman, Kenneth E


    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  8. Free vibration analysis of spinning structural systems. (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    This article presents an efficient digital computer procedure, along with the complete listing of the associated computer program, which may be conveniently utilized for the accurate solution of a wide range of practical eigenvalue problems. Important applications of the present work are envisaged in the natural frequency analysis of spinning structures discretized by the finite element technique, and in the determination of transfer functions associated with the dynamic blocks of control systems of spacecraft utilizing gas jets or reaction wheels for attitude control, as well as of spin-stabilized and dual-spin-stabilized satellites. The validity of the Sturm sequence property is first established for the related matrix formulation involving Hermitian and real symmetric, positive-definite matrices, both being usually of highly banded configuration. A numerically stable algorithm based on the Sturm sequence method is then developed which fully exploits the banded form of the associated matrices.

  9. A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties. (United States)

    Nässelqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov


    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial

  10. Vibration Signature Analysis of a Faulted Gear Transmission System (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Huang, S.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Townsend, D. P.


    A comprehensive procedure in predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions is presented. Experimental data were obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA/Lewis. Time-synchronous-averaged vibration data were recorded throughout the test as the fault progressed from a small single pit to severe pitting over several teeth, and finally tooth fracture. A numerical procedure based on the Wigner-Ville distribution was used to examine the time-averaged vibration data. Results from the Wigner-Ville procedure are compared to results from a variety of signal analysis techniques that include time-domain analysis methods and frequency analysis methods. Using photographs of the gear tooth at various stages of damage, the limitations and accuracy of the various techniques are compared and discussed. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of the different approaches as well as the applicability of the Wigner-Ville method in predicting gear faults.

  11. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E.


    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  12. Analyses of electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems for efficient vibration energy harvesting (United States)

    Hadas, Z.; Smilek, J.; Rubes, O.


    The paper deals with analyses and evaluation of vibration energy harvesting systems which are based on electromagnetic and piezoelectric physical principles off electro-mechanical conversion. Energy harvesting systems are associated with wireless sensors and a monitoring of engineering objects. The most of engineering objects operate with unwanted mechanical vibrations. However, vibrations could provide an ambient source of energy which is converted into useful electricity. The use of electromagnetic and piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters is analyzed in this paper. Thee evaluated output power is used for a choice of the efficient system with respect to the character of vibrations and thee required power output.

  13. Active Control of Parametric Vibrations in Coupled Rotor-Blade Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar


    In rotor-blade systems basis as well as parametric vibration modes will appear due to the vibration coupling among flexible rotating blades and hub rigid body motion. Parametric vibration will typically occur when the hub operates at a constant angular velocity. Operating at constant velocity...... the model becomes periodic-variant. In order to reduce basis as well as parametric vibrations by means of active control in such systems a time-variant control strategy has to be adopted. This paper presents a methodology for designing an active controller to reduce vibrations in a coupled rotor......-blade system. The main aim is to control blade as well as hub vibrations in such a system by means of active control with focus on reducing the parametric vibration. A periodic state feedback controller is designed by transforming the system into a linear time-invariant form. Using this a controller...

  14. Vibration properties of and power harvested by a system of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters that have electrical dynamics (United States)

    Cooley, Christopher G.


    This study investigates the vibration and dynamic response of a system of coupled electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices that each consist of a proof mass, elastic structure, electromagnetic generator, and energy harvesting circuit with inductance, resistance, and capacitance. The governing equations for the coupled electromechanical system are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff circuit laws for an arbitrary number of these subsystems. The equations are cast in matrix operator form to expose the device's vibration properties. The device's complex-valued eigenvalues and eigenvectors are related to physical characteristics of its vibration. Because the electrical circuit has dynamics, these devices have more natural frequencies than typical electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters that have purely resistive circuits. Closed-form expressions for the steady state dynamic response and average power harvested are derived for devices with a single subsystem. Example numerical results for single and double subsystem devices show that the natural frequencies and vibration modes obtained from the eigenvalue problem agree with the resonance locations and response amplitudes obtained independently from forced response calculations. This agreement demonstrates the usefulness of solving eigenvalue problems for these devices. The average power harvested by the device differs substantially at each resonance. Devices with multiple subsystems have multiple modes where large amounts of power are harvested.

  15. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server


    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  16. The LHC quench protection system

    CERN Multimedia


    The new quench protection system (QPS) has the crucial roles of providing an early warning for any part of the superconducting coils and busbars that develop high resistance, as well as triggering the switch-off of the machine. Over 2000 new detectors will be installed around the LHC to make sure every busbar segment between magnets is monitored and protected. One of the major consolidation activities for the LHC is the addition of two new detectors to the quench protection system. A magnet quench occurs when part of the superconducting cable becomes normally-conducting. When the protection system detects an increased resistance the huge amount of energy stored in the magnet chains is safely extracted and ‘dumped’ into specially designed resistors. In the case of the main dipole chain, the stored energy in a single LHC sector is roughly the same as the kinetic energy of a passenger jet at cruising speed. The first new detector is designed to monitor the superconducting...

  17. Optimized Vibration Chamber for Landslide Sensory and Alarm System (United States)

    Ismail, Eliza Sabira Binti; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Daoud, Jamal I.; Rafiqul Islam, Md


    Landslide is one of natural hazard that is not unfamiliar disaster in Malaysia. Malaysia has experienced this disaster many times since 1969. This natural hazard has become a major research concern for Malaysian government when many people were injured badly and even had been killed. Many previous research works published in the open literature aimed at designing a system that could detect landslide in early stage before the landslide becomes catastrophic. This paper presents the early works on a major work-in-progress landslide early warning system for Malaysian environment. The aim of this system is to develop the most efficiently reliable cost-effective system in which slight earth movements are monitored continuously. The challenge this work aims at is to work with a low budget system that produces efficient performance. Hence, the material used is off-the-shelf. Early design optimization results of the vibration sensor used is quite promising detecting the slightest faint tremors, which are amplified using the best vibration chamber available. It is shown that the choice of proper pipe length and diameter dimensions in combination to a gravel to exaggerate the produced higher sensitivity level noise of 5 dB.

  18. Demonstration of Vibrational Braille Code Display Using Large Displacement Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuators (United States)

    Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Arouette, Xavier; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Miki, Norihisa


    In this paper, we present a vibrational Braille code display with large-displacement micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuator arrays. Tactile receptors are more sensitive to vibrational stimuli than to static ones. Therefore, when each cell of the Braille code vibrates at optimal frequencies, subjects can recognize the codes more efficiently. We fabricated a vibrational Braille code display that used actuators consisting of piezoelectric actuators and a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) as cells. The HDAM that encapsulated incompressible liquids in microchambers with two flexible polymer membranes could amplify the displacement of the MEMS actuator. We investigated the voltage required for subjects to recognize Braille codes when each cell, i.e., the large-displacement MEMS actuator, vibrated at various frequencies. Lower voltages were required at vibration frequencies higher than 50 Hz than at vibration frequencies lower than 50 Hz, which verified that the proposed vibrational Braille code display is efficient by successfully exploiting the characteristics of human tactile receptors.

  19. Development of a multi-degree-of-freedom micropositioning, vibration isolation and vibration suppression system (United States)

    Jaensch, M.; Lampérth, M. U.


    This paper describes the design and performance testing of a micropositioning, vibration isolation and suppression system, which can be used to position a piece of equipment with sub-micrometre accuracy and stabilize it against various types of external disturbance. The presented demonstrator was designed as part of a novel extremely open pre-polarization magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The active control system utilizes six piezoelectric actuators, wide-bandwidth optical fibre displacement sensors and a very fast digital field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller. A PID feedback control algorithm with emphasis on a very high level of integral gain is employed. Due to the high external forces expected, the whole structure is designed to be as stiff as possible, including a novel hard mount approach with parallel passive damping for the suspension of the payload. The performance of the system is studied theoretically and experimentally. The sensitive equipment can be positioned in six degrees of freedom with an accuracy of ± 0.2 µm. External disturbances acting on the support structure or the equipment itself are attenuated in three degrees of freedom by more than -20 dB within a bandwidth of 0-200 Hz. Excellent impulse rejection and input tracking are demonstrated as well.

  20. Robust control of novel pendulum-type vibration isolation system (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Shiun; Sun, Yann-Shuoh; Liu, Chun-Hsieh


    A novel pendulum-type vibration isolation system is proposed consisting of three active cables with embedded piezoelectric actuators and a passive elastomer layer. The dynamic response of the isolation module in the vertical and horizontal directions is modeled using the Lagrangian approach. The validity of the dynamic model is confirmed by comparing the simulation results for the frequency response in the vertical and horizontal directions with the experimental results. An approximate model is proposed to take into account system uncertainties such as payload changes and hysteresis effects. A robust quantitative feedback theory (QFT)-based active controller is then designed to ensure that the active control can achieve a high level of disturbance rejection in the low-frequency range even under variable loading conditions. It is shown that the controller achieves average disturbance rejection of -14 dB in the 2-60 Hz bandwidth range and -35 dB at the resonance frequency. The experimental results confirm that the proposed system achieves a robust vibration isolation performance under the payload in the range of 40-60 kg.

  1. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng


    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  2. Vertical vibrations of composite bridge/track structure/high-speed train systems. Part 3: Deterministic and random vibrations of exemplary system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Podworna; M. Klasztorny


    ...) bridge/track structure/high-speed train system (BTT), developed in Part 2, advanced computer algorithms for the BTT numerical modelling and simulation as well as a computer programme to simulate vertical vibrations of BTT systems are developed...

  3. Vibration reduction for vision systems on board unmanned aerial vehicles using a neuro-fuzzy controller


    Marichal, N.; Tomas-Rodriguez, M.; Hernandez, A.; Castillo, S; Campoy, P.


    In this paper, an intelligent control approach based on neuro-fuzzy systems performance is presented, with the objective of counteracting the vibrations that affect the low-cost vision platform onboard an unmanned aerial system of rotating nature. A scaled dynamical model of a helicopter is used to simulate vibrations on its fuselage. The impact of these vibrations on the low-cost vision system will be assessed and an intelligent control approach will be derived in order to reduce its detrime...

  4. Adaptive Vibration Control System for MR Damper Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tudón-Martínez


    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed to estimate the force of a semiactive damper, particularly of a magnetorheological damper because of its importance in automotive and civil engineering. Usually, all models have been proposed assuming experimental data in nominal operating conditions and some of them are estimated for control purposes. Because dampers are prone to fail, fault estimation is useful to design adaptive vibration controllers to accommodate the malfunction in the suspension system. This paper deals with the diagnosis and estimation of faults in an automotive magnetorheological damper. A robust LPV observer is proposed to estimate the lack of force caused by a damper leakage in a vehicle corner. Once the faulty damper is isolated in the vehicle and the fault is estimated, an Adaptive Vibration Control System is proposed to reduce the fault effect using compensation forces from the remaining healthy dampers. To fulfill the semiactive damper constraints in the fault adaptation, an LPV controller is designed for vehicle comfort and road holding. Simulation results show that the fault observer has good performance with robustness to noise and road disturbances and the proposed AVCS improves the comfort up to 24% with respect to a controlled suspension without fault tolerance features.

  5. Development of a semi-active dynamic vibration absorber for longitudinal vibration of propulsion shaft system based on magnetorheological elastomer (United States)

    Liu, Gaoyu; Lu, Kun; Zou, Donglin; Xie, Zhongliang; Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na


    The control of the longitudinal pulsating force and the vibration generated is very important to improve the stealth performance of a submarine. Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is a kind of intelligent composite material, whose mechanical properties can be continuously, rapidly and reversibly controlled by an external magnetic field. It can be used as variable-stiffness components in the design of a semi-active dynamic vibration absorber (SDVA), which is one of the effective means of longitudinal vibration control. In this paper, an SDVA is designed based on the MRE’s magnetic-induced variable stiffness characteristic. Firstly, a mechanical model of the propulsion shaft system with the SDVA is proposed, theoretically discussed and numerically validated. Then, the mechanical performance of the MRE under different magnetic fields is tested. In addition, the magnetic circuit and the overall structure of the SDVA are designed. Furthermore, electromagnetic and thermodynamic simulations are carried out to guarantee the structural design. The frequency shift property of the SDVA is found through dynamic simulations and validated by a frequency shift experiment. Lastly, the vibration absorption capacity of the SDVA is investigated. The results show that the magnetorheological effect of the MRE and the frequency shift of the SDVA are obvious; the SDVA has relatively acceptable vibration absorption capacity.

  6. Power Delivered to Mechanical Systems by Random Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Edwards


    Full Text Available This paper develops deformational response power descriptions of multiple degree-of-freedom systems due to stationary random vibration excitation. Two new concepts are developed. The deformational response power density (DRPD can be computed when a structure's natural frequencies and modal masses are available. The DRPD shows the spectral content of the deformational power delivered to a specific structure by the stationary, random excitation. This function can be found through a weighted windowing of the power spectrum of the input acceleration excitation. Deformational response input power spectra (DRIPS, similar to the input energy spectrum and shock response spectrum, give the power delivered to single-degree-of-freedom systems as a function of natural frequency. It is shown that the DRIPS is simply a smoothed version of the power spectrum of the input acceleration excitation. The DRIPS gives rise to a useful power-based data smoothing operation.

  7. Vibrations of Elastic Systems With Applications to MEMS and NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Magrab, Edward B


    This work presents a unified approach to the vibrations of elastic systems as applied to MEMS devices, mechanical components, and civil structures. Applications include atomic force microscopes, energy harvesters, and carbon nanotubes and consider such complicating effects as squeeze film damping, viscous fluid loading, in-plane forces, and proof mass interactions with their elastic supports. These effects are analyzed as single degree-of-freedom models and as more realistic elastic structures. The governing equations and boundary conditions for beams, plates, and shells with interior and boundary attachments are derived by applying variational calculus to an expression describing the energy of the system. The advantages of this approach regarding the generation of orthogonal functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method are demonstrated. A large number of graphs and tables are given to show the impact of various factors on the systems’ natural frequencies, mode shapes, and responses.

  8. Free vibration analysis of coupled fluid-structure systems (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    An efficient numerical technique for the eigenvalue solution in the free vibration analysis of compressible fluid-structure coupled systems is presented. The fluid is assumed to be compressible in nature and the incompressible problem is only a special case of the present generalized algorithm. A natural frequency analysis of the structure in the absence of any fluid is achieved by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that computes only the required eigenvalues and vectors. A special inverse iteration scheme is then developed for the coupled system that uses the computed eigenvalues as starting iteration values for convergence. Numerical results obtained by solving a number of standard test cases indicate the pattern of root convergence corresponding to various simplifying assumptions.

  9. Intelligent failure-proof control system for structural vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Oba, Takahiro [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    With progress of technology in recent years, gigantism and complication such as high-rise buildings, nuclear reactors and so on have brought about new problems. Particularly, the safety and the reliability for damages in abnormal situations have become more important. Intelligent control systems which can judge whether the situation is normal or abnormal at real time and cope with these situations suitably are demanded. In this study, Cubic Neural Network (CNN) is adopted, which consists of the controllers possessing cubically some levels of information abstracting. In addition to the usual quantitative control, the qualitative control is used for the abnormal situations. And, by selecting a suitable controller, CNN can cope with the abnormal situation. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this system, the structural vibration control problems with sensory failure and elasto-plastic response are dealt with. As a result of simulations, it was demonstrated that CNN can cope with unexpected abnormal situations which are not considered in learning. (author)

  10. Impedance Synthesis Based Vibration Analysis of Geared Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Ren


    Full Text Available The severity of gear noise response depends on the sensitivity of geared rotor system dynamics to the transmission error. As gearbox design trending towards lighter weight and lower noise, the influence of housing compliance on system dynamic characteristics cannot be ignored. In this study, a gear-shaft-bearing-housing coupled impedance model is proposed to account for the effect of housing compliance on the vibration of geared transmission system. This proposed dynamic model offers convenient modeling, efficient computing, and ability to combine computed parameters with experimental ones. The numerical simulations on system dynamic characteristics are performed for both a rigid housing configuration and a flexible one. Natural frequencies, dynamic mesh forces, and dynamic bearing reaction loads are computed, and the housing compliance contribution on system dynamic characteristics is analyzed. Results show that increasing housing compliance will decrease the system natural frequencies and will affect the dynamic bearing reaction loads significantly but have very little influence on the dynamic mesh force. Also, the analysis shows that bearing stiffness has significant influence on the degree of housing contribution on system dynamic characteristics.

  11. Compact Active Vibration Control System for a Flexible Panel (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)


    A diamond-shaped actuator for a flexible panel has an inter-digitated electrode (IDE) and a piezoelectric wafer portion positioned therebetween. The IDE and/or the wafer portion are diamond-shaped. Point sensors are positioned with respect to the actuator and measure vibration. The actuator generates and transmits a cancelling force to the panel in response to an output signal from a controller, which is calculated using a signal describing the vibration. A method for controlling vibration in a flexible panel includes connecting a diamond-shaped actuator to the flexible panel, and then connecting a point sensor to each actuator. Vibration is measured via the point sensor. The controller calculates a proportional output voltage signal from the measured vibration, and transmits the output signal to the actuator to substantially cancel the vibration in proximity to each actuator.

  12. Lightning Protection and Detection System (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)


    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  13. Wearable Vibration Based Computer Interaction and Communication System for Deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Yağanoğlu


    Full Text Available In individuals with impaired hearing, determining the direction of sound is a significant problem. The direction of sound was determined in this study, which allowed hearing impaired individuals to perceive where sounds originated. This study also determined whether something was being spoken loudly near the hearing impaired individual. In this manner, it was intended that they should be able to recognize panic conditions more quickly. The developed wearable system has four microphone inlets, two vibration motor outlets, and four Light Emitting Diode (LED outlets. The vibration of motors placed on the right and left fingertips permits the indication of the direction of sound through specific vibration frequencies. This study applies the ReliefF feature selection method to evaluate every feature in comparison to other features and determine which features are more effective in the classification phase. This study primarily selects the best feature extraction and classification methods. Then, the prototype device has been tested using these selected methods on themselves. ReliefF feature selection methods are used in the studies; the success of K nearest neighborhood (Knn classification had a 93% success rate and classification with Support Vector Machine (SVM had a 94% success rate. At close range, SVM and two of the best feature methods were used and returned a 98% success rate. When testing our wearable devices on users in real time, we used a classification technique to detect the direction and our wearable devices responded in 0.68 s; this saves power in comparison to traditional direction detection methods. Meanwhile, if there was an echo in an indoor environment, the success rate increased; the echo canceller was disabled in environments without an echo to save power. We also compared our system with the localization algorithm based on the microphone array; the wearable device that we developed had a high success rate and it produced faster

  14. Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Ren


    Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.

  15. Wireless alerting system using vibration for vehicles dashboard (United States)

    Raj, Sweta; Rai, Shweta; Magaramagara, Wilbert; Sivacoumar, R.


    This paper aims at improving the engine life of any vehicle through a continuous measurement and monitoring of vital engine operational parameters and providing an effective alerting to drivers for any abnormality. Vehicles currently are using audio and visible alerting signals through alarms and light as a warning to the driver but these are not effective in noisy environments and during daylight. Through the use of the sense of feeling a driver can be alerted effectively. The need to no other vehicle parameter needs to be aided through the mobile display (phone).Thus a system is designed and implements to measure engine temperature, RPM, Oil level and Coolant level using appropriate sensors and a wireless communication (Bluetooth) is established to actuate a portable vibration control device and to read the different vehicle sensor readings through an android application for display and diagnosis.

  16. Instantaneous Purified Orbit: A New Tool for Analysis of Nonstationary Vibration of Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Dongfeng


    Full Text Available In some circumstances, vibration signals of large rotating machinery possess time-varying characteristics to some extent. Traditional diagnosis methods, such as FFT spectrum and orbit diagram, are confronted with a huge challenge to deal with this problem. This work aims at studying the four intrinsic drawbacks of conventional vibration signal processing method and instantaneous purified orbit (IPO on the basis of improved Fourier spectrum (IFS to analyze nonstationary vibration. On account of integration, the benefits of short period Fourier transform (SPFT and regular holospectrum, this method can intuitively reflect vibration characteristics of’a rotor system by means of parameter analysis for corresponding frequency ellipses. Practical examples, such as transient vibration in run-up stages and bistable condition of rotor show that IPO is a powerful tool for diagnosis and analysis of the vibration behavior of rotor systems.

  17. Modeling in Nonlinear Vibrations of a High-Tc Superconducting Levitation System


    長屋, 幸助; 周東, 俊介


    Three dimensional analytical results for the levitation force of a vibrating high-Tc superconducting levitation system were presented. When the levitated superconductor vibrates, the levitation force shows nonlinear relationships with the air gap, amplitude and vibration frequency, so that the convensional models which do not consider dynamic effects cannot be applied. In the model proposed by(Uesaka et al.), dynamic effects are considered, but the critical current is constant. We propose an ...

  18. Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang


    Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.

  19. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men. (United States)

    Di Loreto, C; Ranchelli, A; Lucidi, P; Murdolo, G; Parlanti, N; De Cicco, A; Tsarpela, O; Annino, G; Bosco, C; Santeusanio, F; Bolli, G B; De Feo, P


    Whole-body vibration is reported to increase muscle performance, bone mineral density and stimulate the secretion of lipolytic and protein anabolic hormones, such as GH and testosterone, that might be used for the treatment of obesity. To date, as no controlled trial has examined the effects of vibration exercise on the human endocrine system, we performed a randomized controlled study, to establish whether the circulating concentrations of glucose and hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, GH, IGF-1, free and total testosterone) are affected by vibration in 10 healthy men [age 39 +/- 3, body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM]. Volunteers were studied on two occasions before and after standing for 25 min on a ground plate in the absence (control) or in the presence (vibration) of 30 Hz whole body vibration. Vibration slightly reduced plasma glucose (30 min: vibration 4.59 +/- 0.21, control 4.74 +/- 0.22 mM, p=0.049) and increased plasma norepinephrine concentrations (60 min: vibration 1.29 +/- 0.18, control 1.01 +/- 0.07 nM, p=0.038), but did not change the circulating concentrations of other hormones. These results demonstrate that vibration exercise transiently reduces plasma glucose, possibly by increasing glucose utilization by contracting muscles. Since hormonal responses, with the exception of norepinephrine, are not affected by acute vibration exposure, this type of exercise is not expected to reduce fat mass in obese subjects.

  20. Thermal protection system ablation sensor (United States)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)


    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  1. Control concepts for an active vibration isolation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, F.; Hurlebaus, S.; Beadle, B. M.; Stobener, U.


    In the fields of high-resolution metrology and manufacturing, effective anti-vibration measures are required to obtain precise and repeatable results. This is particularly true when the amplitudes of ambient vibration and the dimensions of the investigated or manufactured structure are comparable,

  2. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration. (United States)

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert


    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Non-traditional vibration mitigation methods for reciprocating compressor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, T.J. de; Vreugd, J. de; Slis, E.J.P.


    Reciprocating compressors generate vibrations caused by pulsation-induced forces, mechanical (unbalanced) free forces and moments, crosshead guide forces and cylinder stretch forces. The traditional way of mitigating the vibration and cyclic stress levels to avoid fatigue failure of parts of the

  4. Protection of Accelerator Hardware: RF systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S.-H.


    The radio-frequency (RF) system is the key element that generates electric fields for beam acceleration. To keep the system reliable, a highly sophisticated protection scheme is required, which also should be designed to ensure a good balance between beam availability and machine safety. Since RF systems are complex, incorporating high-voltage and high-power equipment, a good portion of machine downtime typically comes from RF systems. Equipment and component damage in RF systems results in long and expensive repairs. Protection of RF system hardware is one of the oldest machine protection concepts, dealing with the protection of individual high-power RF equipment from breakdowns. As beam power increases in modern accelerators, the protection of accelerating structures from beam-induced faults also becomes a critical aspect of protection schemes. In this article, an overview of the RF system is given, and selected topics of failure mechanisms and examples of protection requirements are introduced.

  5. The Effect of a Mechanical Arm System on Portable Grinder Vibration Emissions. (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Welcome, Daniel E; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Dong, Ren G


    Mechanical arm systems are commonly used to support powered hand tools to alleviate ergonomic stressors related to the development of workplace musculoskeletal disorders. However, the use of these systems can increase exposure times to other potentially harmful agents such as hand-transmitted vibration. To examine how these tool support systems affect tool vibration, the primary objectives of this study were to characterize the vibration emissions of typical portable pneumatic grinders used for surface grinding with and without a mechanical arm support system at a workplace and to estimate the potential risk of the increased vibration exposure time afforded by the use of these mechanical arm systems. This study also developed a laboratory-based simulated grinding task based on the ISO 28927-1 (2009) standard for assessing grinder vibrations; the simulated grinding vibrations were compared with those measured during actual workplace grinder operations. The results of this study demonstrate that use of the mechanical arm may provide a health benefit by reducing the forces required to lift and maneuver the tools and by decreasing hand-transmitted vibration exposure. However, the arm does not substantially change the basic characteristics of grinder vibration spectra. The mechanical arm reduced the average frequency-weighted acceleration by about 24% in the workplace and by about 7% in the laboratory. Because use of the mechanical arm system can increase daily time-on-task by 50% or more, the use of such systems may actually increase daily time-weighted hand-transmitted vibration exposures in some cases. The laboratory acceleration measurements were substantially lower than the workplace measurements, and the laboratory tool rankings based on acceleration were considerably different than those from the workplace. Thus, it is doubtful that ISO 28927-1 is useful for estimating workplace grinder vibration exposures or for predicting workplace grinder acceleration rank

  6. On Coulomb and Viscosity damped single-degree-of-freedom vibrating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.; Sivebæk, Ion Marius


    Attention on friction damping mechanisms could be of interest for vibration reduction, and appears therefore to be desirable. Presentations of textbook analyses on mechanical vibration of a viscosity damped single degree system [mass, spring and eventually damping] are numerous. Often they begin...

  7. Development of an Anti-Vibration Controller for Magnetic Bearing Cooling Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a program to develop a vibration-free reverse-Brayton cycle cooling system using specially-tuned magnetic bearings. Such a system is critical...

  8. Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices. (United States)


    Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...

  9. The Development of Vibration System for Applying Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) to the Supraspinatus Muscle. (United States)

    Ito, Daiki; Numano, Tomokazu; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Takamoto, Kouichi; Onishi, Takaaki; Nishijo, Hisao


    Palpation is a standard clinical tool to diagnose abnormal stiffness changes in soft tissues. However, it is difficult to palpate the supraspinatus muscle because it locates under the trapezius muscle. The magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uses harmonic mechanical excitation to quantitatively measure the stiffness (shear modulus) of both the superficial and deep tissues. The purpose of this study was to build a vibration system for applying the MRE to the supraspinatus muscle. In this study, a power amplifier and a pneumatic pressure generator were used to supply vibrations to a vibration pad. Six healthy volunteers underwent MRE. We investigated the effects of position (the head of the humerus and the trapezius muscle) of the vibration pad on the patterns of wave propagation (wave image). When the vibration pad was placed in the trapezius muscle, the wave images represented clear wave propagation. On the other hand, when the vibration pad was placed in the head of the humerus, the wave images represented unclear wave propagation. This result might be caused by wave interferences resulting from the vibrations from bones and an intramuscular tendon of the supraspinatus muscle. The mean shear modulus also was 8.12 ± 1.83 (mean ± SD) kPa, when the vibration pad was placed in the trapezius muscle. Our results demonstrated that the vibration pad should be placed in the trapezius muscle in the MRE of the supraspinatus muscle.

  10. Vibration isolation systems, considered as systems with single degree of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebilila Mohammed


    Full Text Available The research considers and analyzes vibration isolation systems, whose design schemes are single degree of freedom systems, including nonlinear elements - displacement limiter and viscous damper. Presented are calculation formulas in closed form for linear systems in operational modes (for harmonic and impulse loads, algorithms and examples of calculation of linear and nonlinear systems in operational and transient modes. The calculation method and the above dependences are written using the transfer (TF and impulse response functions (IRF of linear dynamical systems and dependencies that determine the relationship between these functions. The effectiveness of 2 options of vibration isolation systems in transient modes is analyzed. There is significant reduction of load from the equipment to the supporting structures in the starting-stopping modes by the use of displacement limiter.

  11. EFRC guidelines for vibrations in reciprocating compressor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.


    One of the disadvantages of a reciprocating compressor is that it generates pulsations and vibrations, which, without limitation and proper attention during design, manufacturing, installation and operation, can lead to fatigue failures, inefficiency, capacity limitations and unsafe situations. To

  12. LHC magnet quench protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)


    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called ``cold diode`` concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements--so called ``cold diodes``. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a ``natural`` quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  13. High frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system under in-wheel motor torque ripple (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Zuo, Shuguang; Wu, Xudong; Duan, Xianglei


    With the introduction of in-wheel motor, the electric wheel system encounters new vibration problems brought by motor torque ripple excitation. In order to analyze new vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, torque ripple of in-wheel motor based on motor module and vector control system is primarily analyzed, and frequency/order features of the torque ripple are discussed. Then quarter vehicle-electric wheel system (QV-EWS) dynamics model based on the rigid ring tire assumption is established and the main parameters of the model are identified according to tire free modal test. Modal characteristics of the model are further analyzed. The analysis indicates that torque excitation of in-wheel motor is prone to arouse horizontal vibration, in which in-phase rotational, anti-phase rotational and horizontal translational modes of electric wheel system mainly participate. Based on the model, vibration responses of the QV-EWS under torque ripple are simulated. The results show that unlike vertical low frequency (lower than 20 Hz) vibration excited by road roughness, broadband torque ripple will arouse horizontal high frequency (50-100 Hz) vibration of electric wheel system due to participation of the three aforementioned modes. To verify the theoretical analysis, the bench experiment of electric wheel system is conducted and vibration responses are acquired. The experiment demonstrates the high frequency vibration phenomenon of electric wheel system and the measured order features as well as main resonant frequencies agree with simulation results. Through theoretical modeling, analysis and experiments this paper reveals and explains the high frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, providing references for the dynamic analysis, optimal design of QV-EWS.

  14. Comparison of Two Conceptions of the Vibration Isolation Systems (United States)

    Šklíba, Jan; Sivčák, M.; Čižmár, J.

    The sprung stretcher of a ground ambulance litter as the space conducting mechanism with three degrees of freedom. The first degree is determined to compensate the vertical translations of a carriage, the second and third to compensate both horizontal rotations (so called pitching and rolling). The first degree is realized with scissor or with parallelogram, on the upper base on which the double Cardane suspension is placed (as the second and third degree). The second Cardane frame is connected with an own stretcher. The vibration isolation is realized with controlled pneumatic springs. Their control has two sensing units: sensor of the relative position of the upper and lower base and sensor of the absolute angle deflection of the second Cardane frame from an horizontal plane (double electrolytic level). This level is modeled as a spherical pendulum (on the base of its identified characteristics). There was analyzed this dynamic system with five degrees of freedom. The analyze of two conceptions demonstrates that the scissor mechanism is for the complete space mechanism more useful than the parallelogram.

  15. New System for Measuring Impact Vibration on Floor Decking Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moron


    Full Text Available Currently, there is a narrow range of materials that are used as attenuators of impact noise and building vibrations. Materials used in construction, such as elastic materials, must meet the requirement of having very low elastic modulus values. For the determination of the material’s elastic modulus and the acoustic insulation of the same, costly and difficult to execute testing is required. The present paper exposes an alternative system that is simpler and more economic, consisting of a predefined striking device and a sensor able to determine, once the strike is produced, the energy absorbed by the plate. After the impact is produced, the plate undergoes a deformation, which absorbs part of the energy, the remaining part being transmitted to the slab and, at the same time, causing induced airborne noise in the adjoining room. The plate absorbs the power through its own deformation, which is measured with the help of a capacitive sensor. This way, it would be possible to properly define the geometry of the plates, after the execution of the test, and we will try to establish a relationship between the values proposed in this research and the acoustic behavior demanded by the Spanish standards.

  16. Vibration Control of a Semiactive Vehicle Suspension System Based on Extended State Observer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Zhang


    Full Text Available A feedback control method based on an extended state observer (ESO method is implemented to vibration reduction in a typical semiactive suspension (SAS system using a magnetorheological (MR damper as actuator. By considering the dynamic equations of the SAS system and the MR damper model, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC is designed based on the ESO. Numerical simulation and real-time experiments are carried out with similar vibration disturbances. Both the simulation and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in vibration suppression for a SAS system.

  17. Coupled bending and torsional vibration of a rotor system with nonlinear friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Chunli; Cao, Guohua; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China); Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)


    Unacceptable vibrations induced by the nonlinear friction in a rotor system seriously affect the health and reliability of the rotating ma- chinery. To find out the basic excitation mechanism and characteristics of the vibrations, a coupled bending and torsional nonlinear dynamic model of rotor system with nonlinear friction is presented. The dynamic friction characteristic is described with a Stribeck curve, which generates nonlinear friction related to relative velocity. The motion equations of unbalance rotor system are established by the Lagrangian approach. Through numerical calculation, the coupled vibration characteristics of a rotor system under nonlinear friction are well investigated. The influence of main system parameters on the behaviors of the system is discussed. The bifurcation diagrams, waterfall plots, the times series, orbit trails, phase plane portraits and Poincaré maps are obtained to analyze dynamic characteristics of the rotor system and the results reveal multiform complex nonlinear dynamic responses of rotor system under rubbing. These analysis results of the present paper can effectively provide a theoretical reference for structural design of rotor systems and be used to diagnose self- excited vibration faults in this kind of rotor systems. The present research could contribute to further understanding on the self-excited vibration and the bending and torsional coupling vibration of the rotor systems with Stribeck friction model.

  18. A concept for semi-active vibration control with a serial-stiffness-switch system (United States)

    Min, Chaoqing; Dahlmann, Martin; Sattel, Thomas


    This work deals with a new semi-active vibration control concept with a serial-stiffness-switch system (SSSS), which can be seen as one and a half degree-of-freedom system. The proposed switched system is mainly composed of two serial elements, each of which consists of one spring and one switch in parallel with each other. This mechanical structure benefits from a specified switching law based on the zero crossing of velocity in order to realize vibration reduction. In contrast with conventional ways, the new system is capable of harvesting vibration energy as potential energy stored in springs, and then applies it to vibration reduction. In this paper, the concept is characterized, simulated, evaluated, and proven to be able to improve the system response. The equivalent stiffness and natural frequency of the switched system are mathematically formulated and verified.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  20. A Time Interval Memory Protection System (United States)


    demonstrated in the Mondrian Memory Protection system [59]. Use of a Protection Lookaside Buffer [PLB] [38] might also be considered. TIMPS opens up many...Fall Joint Computer Conference, November 18-20, 1969, pp. 119-133. [58] E. Witchel, J. Cates, and K. Asanovic, " Mondrian Memory Protection," in

  1. Promoting an Integral Social Protection System


    World Bank


    This note reviews the challenges in Mexico s social protection system and possible options to achieve an integral and effective system that is more than the sum of its parts. Mexico s social protection system includes contributory social security schemes, social assistance programs, and labor market programs. The contributory social security schemes offer pensions and health insurance to f...

  2. Protection of Active Distribution Systems with DGs (United States)

    Akila, Abdelrahman Ahmed; Helal, Ahmed; Eldesouki, Hussein


    Distribution systems are traditionally designed as radial passive systems fed from a single source. Protection coordination of such systems has been easily established assuming the system radiality. Insertion of distributed generators (DGs) into distribution systems makes the distribution system to be more active which causes redistribution of fault currents magnitudes and directions. This causes negative impacts on the original protection system coordination, since the distribution system losses its radiality and passiveness. Recently protection coordination in the presence of distributed generation has been paid a great attention. Researchers proposed various solutions to solve the protection coordination problem caused by adding DG into the distribution network. In this paper, the proposed solutions for the protection coordination problem considering the DG insertion will be illustrated, classified, and criticized.

  3. Aerogel Modified Structural Thermal Protection System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will mature and further develop structural syntactic foam insulated integral Thermal Protection System (TPS) designs and materials as an enabling...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  5. Design Of Photovoltaic Powered Cathodic Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golina Samir Adly


    Full Text Available The corrosion caused by chemical reaction between metallic structures and surrounding mediums such as soil or water .the CP cathodic protection system is used to protect metallic structure against corrosion. Cathodic protection CP used to minimize corrosion by utilizing an external source of electrical current which forces the entire structure to become a cathode. There are two Types of cathodic protection system Galvanic current Impressed current.the Galvanic current is called a sacrificial anode is connected to the protected structure cathode through a DC power supply. In Galvanic current system a current passes from the sacrificing anode to the protected structure .the sacrificial anode is corroded rather than causing the protected structure corrosion .protected structure requires a constant current to stop the corrosion which determined by area structure metal and the surrounding medium. The rains humidity are decrease soil resistivity and increase the DC current .The corrosion and over protection resulting from increase in the DC current is harmful for the metallic structure. This problem can be solved by conventional cathodic protection system by manual adjustment of DC voltage periodically to obtain a constant current .the manual adjustment of DC voltage depends on experience of the technician and using the accuracy of the measuring equipment. The errors of measuring current depend on error from the technician or error from the measuring equipment. the corrosion of structure may occur when the interval between two successive adjustment is long .An automatically regulated cathodic protection system is used to overcome problems from conventional cathodic protection system .the regulated cathodic protection system adjust the DC voltage of the system automatically when it senses the variations of surrounding medium resistivity so the DC current is constant at the required level.

  6. Piezoelectric actuators in the active vibration control system of journal bearings (United States)

    Tůma, J.; Šimek, J.; Mahdal, M.; Pawlenka, M.; Wagnerova, R.


    The advantage of journal hydrodynamic bearings is high radial load capacity and operation at high speeds. The disadvantage is the excitation of vibrations, called an oil whirl, after crossing a certain threshold of the rotational speed. The mentioned vibrations can be suppressed using the system of the active vibration control with piezoactuators which move the bearing bushing. The motion of the bearing bushing is controlled by a feedback controller, which responds to the change in position of the bearing journal which is sensed by a pair of capacitive sensors. Two stacked linear piezoactuators are used to actuate the position of the bearing journal. This new bearing enables not only to damp vibrations but also serves to maintain the desired bearing journal position with an accuracy of micrometers. The paper will focus on the effect of active vibration control on the performance characteristics of the journal bearing.

  7. Vibrational Probes: From Small Molecule Solvatochromism Theory and Experiments to Applications in Complex Systems. (United States)

    Błasiak, Bartosz; Londergan, Casey H; Webb, Lauren J; Cho, Minhaeng


    The vibrational frequency of a chosen normal mode is one of the most accurately measurable spectroscopic properties of molecules in condensed phases. Accordingly, infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopy have provided valuable information on both distributions and ensemble-average values of molecular vibrational frequencies, and these frequencies are now routinely used to investigate structure, conformation, and even absolute configuration of chemical and biological molecules of interest. Recent advancements in coherent time-domain nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy have allowed the study of heterogeneous distributions of local structures and thermally driven ultrafast fluctuations of vibrational frequencies. To fully utilize IR probe functional groups for quantitative bioassays, a variety of biological and chemical techniques have been developed to site-specifically introduce vibrational probe groups into proteins and nucleic acids. These IR-probe-labeled biomolecules and chemically reactive systems are subject to linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopic investigations and provide information on the local electric field, conformational changes, site-site protein contacts, and/or function-defining features of biomolecules. A rapidly expanding library of data from such experiments requires an interpretive method with atom-level chemical accuracy. However, despite prolonged efforts to develop an all-encompassing theory for describing vibrational solvatochromism and electrochromism as well as dynamic fluctuations of instantaneous vibrational frequencies, purely empirical and highly approximate theoretical models have often been used to interpret experimental results. They are, in many cases, based on the simple assumption that the vibrational frequency of an IR reporter is solely dictated by electric potential or field distribution around the vibrational chromophore. Such simplified description of vibrational solvatochromism generally referred to as

  8. Vibration diagnostic system for evaluation of state interconnected electrical motors mechanical parameters (United States)

    Vasilevskyi, Oleksandr M.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.; Dudatiev, Igor A.; Didych, Volodymyr M.; Kotyra, Andrzej; Suleimenov, Batyrbek; Assembay, Azat; Kozbekova, Ainur


    The paper presents the structural diagram and mathematical model of a vibration diagnostic system to measure angular velocities of two interconnected electric motors. The system is based on vibration signals and the control signals of the motor mechanical parameters. The measurement procedure of the rotor rotational speed is based on vibration signals during synchronization. The procedure presented allows simultaneous measurement and synchronization frequencies of rotation to diagnose of the motors' mechanical parts. The calculated reduced error of synchronizing frequencies of rotation of the rotors, which is 0.45% of the measurement range of frequencies of rotation from 0 to 80Hz.

  9. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...

  10. Vibration-based Energy Harvesting Systems Characterization Using Automated Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis KOSMADAKIS


    Full Text Available A measurement bench has been developed to fully automate the procedure for the characterization of a vibration-based energy scavenging system. The measurement system is capable of monitoring all important characteristics of a vibration harvesting system (input and output voltage, current, and other parameters, frequency and acceleration values, etc.. It is composed of a PC, typical digital measuring instruments (oscilloscope, waveform generator, etc., certain sensors and actuators, along with a microcontroller based automation module. The automation of the procedure and the manipulation of the acquired data are performed by LabVIEW software. Typical measurements of a system consisting of a vibrating source, a vibration transducer and an active rectifier are presented.

  11. An examination of the vibration transmissibility of the hand-arm system in three orthogonal directions (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.


    The objective of this study is to enhance the understanding of the vibration transmission in the hand-arm system in three orthogonal directions (X, Y, and Z). For the first time, the transmitted vibrations distributed on the entire hand-arm system exposed in the three orthogonal directions via a 3-D vibration test system were measured using a 3-D laser vibrometer. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. This study confirms that the vibration transmissibility generally decreased with the increase in distance from the hand and it varied with the vibration direction. Specifically, to the upper arm and shoulder, only moderate vibration transmission was measured in the test frequency range (16 to 500 Hz), and virtually no transmission was measured in the frequency range higher than 50 Hz. The resonance vibration on the forearm was primarily in the range of 16–30 Hz with the peak amplitude of approximately 1.5 times of the input vibration amplitude. The major resonance on the dorsal surfaces of the hand and wrist occurred at around 30–40 Hz and, in the Y direction, with peak amplitude of more than 2.5 times of the input amplitude. At higher than 50 Hz, vibration transmission was effectively limited to the hand and fingers. A major finger resonance was observed at around 100 Hz in the X and Y directions and around 200 Hz in the Z direction. In the fingers, the resonance magnitude in the Z direction was generally the lowest, and the resonance magnitude in the Y direction was generally the highest with the resonance amplitude of 3 times the input vibration, which was similar to the transmissibility at the wrist and hand dorsum. The implications of the results are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration could result in hand-arm vibration syndrome. While the syndrome's precise mechanisms remain unclear, the characterization of the vibration transmissibility of the system in the three orthogonal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakar J. Abakarov


    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to search for methods to improve the efficiency of the earthquake protection systems with rubber-metallic seismic insulating supports by combining them with dry friction and brittle uncoupling elements. Method The research is based on dynamic modelling methods. Results The computational dynamic model of the combined earthquake protection system and the system of differential equations of the seismic motion of a five-story frame building were compiled and an algorithm for estimating the efficiency and selection of the optimum parameters of the earthquake protection system was developed. Horizontal shifting seismic forces, maximum mass movements and maximum movements of rubber-metallic seismic insulating supports at different intensities and prevailing periods of seismic soil oscillations were determined. It is shown that, by using a combined earthquake protection system, seismic loads on frame buildings can be reduced by a factor of 1.5-2 and maximum mass movements – by 4-5 times. In addition, the area of rational application of seismic isolation systems with rubber-metallic supports in relation to the prevailing periods of seismic ground oscillations is expanding substantially. Conclusion The combined earthquake protection system allows the area of effective use of rubber-metallic supports to be expanded by increasing the range of possible prevailing periods of seismic soil vibrations at which the maximum movement of the top of the rubber-metallic supports does not exceed the maximum allowable value. The maximum residual movements of rubber-metallic supports can be reduced by using a lead core. 



    Ruotsalainen, Petri


    The thesis subscriber was Metso Shared Services Ltd. The objective was to find out if Microsoft Forefront Endpoint Protection 2010 (FEP) would be secure and cost-effective enough system to fulfill the requirements of the company’s endpoint protection security system. Microsoft FEP was compared and benchmarked with some other most significant endpoint protection products based on the requirements and definitions of the subscriber. The comparison and evaluation were based on investigation a...

  14. Acute effects of shock-type vibration transmitted to the hand-arm system. (United States)

    Schäfer, N; Dupuis, H; Hartung, E


    The aim of the project was to find out whether shock-type vibration of hand-tools compared to non-impulsive vibration has stronger acute effects on the hand-arm system and therefore needs a stricter evaluation from the occupational health point of view in comparison with the requirements of the Draft International Standard ISO-DIS 5349. Under laboratory conditions, subjects were exposed to simulated vibration of hand-tools (grinder, chain saw, hammer-drill, pneumatic hammer, rivet hammer and nailer). The following evaluation criteria were used: biomechanical transmissibility of the hand-arm system (wrist, elbow joint, shoulder joint); muscle-activity (m. flexor carpi ulnaris, m. biceps, m. triceps); peripheral circulation (skin temperature) and subjective perception (comparison of intensity of standard and test vibrations). The results show no significant difference in acute effects on the hand-arm system between impulsive and non-impulsive type vibrations of the hand-tools tested with respect to the chosen vibration level, short-time exposure (up to 8 min) and evaluation criteria. In summary, therefore, it may be concluded that for the evaluation of shock-type vibration of the hand-tools tested, it is justified to use the existing Draft International Standard ISO-DIS 5349.

  15. Development of a Self-Powered Magnetorheological Damper System for Cable Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Wang


    Full Text Available A new self-powered magnetorheological (MR damper control system was developed to mitigate cable vibration. The power source of the MR damper is directly harvested from vibration energy through a rotary permanent magnet direct current (DC generator. The generator itself can also serve as an electromagnetic damper. The proposed smart passive system also incorporates a roller chain and sprocket, transforming the linear motion of the cable into the rotational motion of the DC generator. The vibration mitigation performance of the presented self-powered MR damper system was evaluated by model tests with a 21.6 m long cable. A series of free vibration tests of the cable with a passively operated MR damper with constant voltage, an electromagnetic damper alone, and a self-powered MR damper system were performed. Finally, the vibration control mechanisms of the self-powered MR damper system were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the supplemental modal damping ratios of the cable in the first four modes can be significantly enhanced by the self-powered MR damper system, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the new smart passive system. The results also show that both the self-powered MR damper and the generator are quite similar to a combination of a traditional linear viscous damper and a negative stiffness device, and the negative stiffness can enhance the mitigation efficiency against cable vibration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  17. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems. (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey


    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  18. Relaxation of vibrationally excited states in solid "nitrate-nitrite" binary systems (United States)

    Aliev, A. R.; Akhmedov, I. R.; Kakagasanov, M. G.; Aliev, Z. A.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Amirov, A. M.


    The processes of molecular relaxation in the solid NaNO3-NaNO2 and KNO3-KNO2 "nitrate-nitrite" binary systems have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The relaxation time of the vibration ν1(A) of an NO- 3 anion in the binary system is found to be shorter than that in individual nitrate. The increase in the relaxation rate is explained by the existence of an additional mechanism of relaxation of vibrationally excited states of the nitrate ion in the system. This mechanism is related to the excitation of vibration of another anion (NO- 2) and generation of a lattice phonon. It has been established that this relaxation mechanism is implemented provided that the difference between the frequencies of the aforementioned vibrations correspond to the range of sufficiently high density of states in the phonon spectrum.

  19. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul


    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  20. Vibrational resonance induced by transition of phase-locking modes in excitable systems. (United States)

    Yang, Lijian; Liu, Wangheng; Yi, Ming; Wang, Canjun; Zhu, Qiaomu; Zhan, Xuan; Jia, Ya


    We study the occurrence of vibrational resonance as well as the underlying mechanism in excitable systems. The single vibration resonance and vibration bi-resonance are observed when tuning the amplitude and frequency of high-frequency force simultaneously. Furthermore, by virtue of the phase diagram of low-frequency-signal-free FitzHugh-Nagumo model, it is found that each maxima of response measure is located exactly at the transition boundary of phase patterns. Therefore, it is the transition between different phase-locking modes that induces vibrational resonance in the excitable systems. Finally, this mechanism is verified in the Hodgkin-Huxley neural model. Our results provide insights into the transmission of weak signals in nonlinear systems, which are valuable in engineering for potential applications.

  1. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo,, E-mail:; Zakaria,, E-mail:; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail:; Triyono,, E-mail:; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)


    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  2. Studying the influence of vibration exposures on digestives system of workers in a food processing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Introduction: Today’s, defective and faulty equipments lose a large part of them energy as noise and vibration which beside their financial costs can be hazardous to the health of people. Vibration as a physical agent can cause an adverse health effect on human to nervous system. These effects, based on body region can be as specific or general systems. Digestion system has a natural vibration of 3-8Hz frequency. When the digestive system is exposed by such vibration, it can make impairment on that system. This study aimed to study vibration effect on digestion irregularities. . Material and Method: This was a retrospective case-control study conducted in a food industry. The number of 103 workers digestive problem and 431 healthy workers were selected as population study. Exposure to the vibration in the different parts were measured. People with more than 100 dB was considered exposed group. Then, after determining the number of exposed and non exposed groups, data were analyzed using statistical methodologies. .Result: The acceleration level of vibration was 109.8 dB in the packing section, which was less than standard limit (118.8 dB. Study population had a managed of 24-57 years old with 4-15 years of job tenure. In 59.2% of case comparing to 22.7% of control group were exposed to the vibration. The odds ratio (OR of prevalence rate of digestive problem among exposed group was 6.3 times more than non exposed group people, in risk of gastrointestinal complications. .Conclusion: Beside of the other risk factors of digestive problem, vibration can be also an effective cause of adverse health problem: Even by lower level of digestive problem can be seen in the exposed people. So, we suggest in the workplace with vibration risk factor, a digestive health exam be take general medical beside periodic examination. Moreover, it is recommended that researches related to the vibration is widely developed and the vibration standard limits is revised

  3. Active Damping of Vibrations in High-Precision Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, B.


    Technology advancements feed the need for ever faster and more accurate industrial machines. Vibration is a significant source of inaccuracy of such machines. A light-weight design in favor of the speed, and avoiding the use of energy-dissipating materials from the structure to omit any source of

  4. Control system synthesis of seat suspensions used for protection of working machine operators (United States)

    Maciejewski, Igor; Krzyzynski, Tomasz; Meyer, Lutz


    This paper deals with a novel approach to the control system synthesis of semi-active and active seat suspensions. An original control strategy is discussed in order to increase the effectiveness of vibration isolators used for protection of working machines operators. As an example of the proposed control system design, the suspension systems with a magneto-rheological damper and a pneumatic spring are investigated using a laboratory experimental set-up with seated humans.

  5. Modeling and parameter identification of an active anti-vibration system (United States)

    Beadle, Brad M.; Hurlebaus, Stefan; Stoebener, Uwe; Gaul, Lothar


    In the fields of high-resolution metrology and manufacturing, effective anti-vibration measures are required to obtain precise and repeatable results. This is particularly true when the amplitudes of ambient vibration and the dimensions of the investigated or manufactured structure are comparable, e.g. in sub-micron semiconductor chip production, holographic interferometry, confocal optical imaging, and scanning probe microscopy. In the active anti-vibration system examined, signals are acquired by extremely sensitive vibration detectors, and the vibration is reduced using a feedback controller to drive electrodynamic actuators. This paper deals with the modeling of this anti-vibration system. First, a six-degree-of-freedom rigid body model of the system is developed. The unknown parameters of the unloaded system, including actuator transduction constants, spring stiffness, damping, moments of inertia, and the location of the center of mass, are determined by comparing measured transfer functions to those calculated using the updated model. The model is then re-updated for the case of an arbitrarily loaded system. The responses predicted by the final updated model agree well with the experimental measurements, thereby giving confidence in the model and the updating procedure.

  6. Vibration characteristics of a cylindrical shell with 25 microm thickness fabricated by the rotating sputtering system. (United States)

    Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Hata, Seiichi; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira


    A thin film rotating sputtering system is presented for fabrication of a circular cylindrical shell (CCS). The length, diameter, and thickness of the CCS are 5.0 mm, 1.5 mm, and 25 mum, respectively. To investigate the vibration characteristics, the CCS is fabricated on the outer surface of a piezoelectric ceramic tube (PCT). The vibration of PCT excited by driving voltage signals causes the vibration of the CCS, and the vibration characteristics can be measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Furthermore, a finite element method (FEM) simulation and 2 analytical calculation methods are proposed for comparison with the measurement results. The frequency factor, the key factor that dominates the effective ranges of the 2 analytical methods, is determined as a value of 0.92 through a series of discussions. Combining the results of the 2 analytical calculation methods, good agreement of the analytical, FEM, and measurement results is obtained.

  7. Comparison of vibration damping of standard and PDCPD housing of the electric power steering system (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.


    A comparison of two different types of electric power steering system housing is presented. The first considered type of the housing was a standard one that is made of an aluminium alloy. The second one is made of polydicyclopentadiene polymer (PDCPD) and was produced using the RIM technology. Considered elements were analysed in order to verify their properties of vibrations damping. This property is very important taking into account noise generated by elements of a car’s power steering system. During the carried out tests vibrations of analysed power steering housings were measured using Marco Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric transducers. Results obtained for both considered power steering housings in case of the same parameters of vibrations excitations were measured and juxtaposed. Obtained results were analysed in order to verify if the housing made of PDCPD polymer has better properties of vibration damping than the standard one.

  8. Design and Test of Semi-Active Vibration-Reducing System for Lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Hu


    Full Text Available In this paper, its theory design, analysis and test system of semi-active vibration controlling system used for precision machine have been done. Firstly, lathe bed and spindle entity were modeled by using UG software; Then modes of the machine bed and the key components of spindle were obtained by using ANSYS software; Finally, harmonic response analysis of lathe spindle under complex load was acquired, which provided a basis of MR damper’s structure optimization design for a certain type of precision machine. In order to prove its effectives, a prototype semi-active vibration controlling lathe with MR damper was developed. Tests have been done, and comparison results between passive vibration isolation equipment and semi-active vibration controlling equipment proved its good performances of MR damper.

  9. Self-excited vibration of the shell-liquid coupled system induced by dry friction (United States)

    Xijun, Liu; Dajun, Wang; Yushu, Chen


    The nonlinear vibration theory and the experimental modal analysis are used in this paper to study the self-excited vibration of the shell-liquid coupled system induced by dry friction. The effect of dry friction stick-slip coefficients and rubbing velocity on self-excited vibration, and the limit cycle and Hopf bifurcation solution of the system are obtained. In particular, it is shown that the phenomenon of 4 point (or 6 point) water droplet spurting of the Chinese cultural relic Dragon Washbasin is the result of the perfect combination of the self-excited vibration induced by dry friction and its special modes, which indicates the significant scientific value of the Chinese cultural relic Dragon Washbasin.

  10. Dynamic modeling and simulation of a two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guo


    Full Text Available A two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system is already widely used in various industrial fields. However, when the researchers analyze the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system, the system is usually regarded as a single-stage one composed of two substructures. The dynamic modeling of a two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system using frequency response function–based substructuring method has not been studied. Therefore, this article presents the source-path-receiver model and the substructure property identification model of such a system. These two models make up the transfer path model of the system. And the model is programmed by MATLAB. To verify the proposed transfer path model, a finite element model simulating a vehicle system, which is a typical two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system, is developed. The substructure frequency response functions and system level frequency response functions can be obtained by MSC Patran/Nastran and LMS Virtual.lab based on the finite element model. Next, the system level frequency response functions are substituted into the transfer path model to predict the substructural frequency response functions and the system response of the coupled structure can then be further calculated. By comparing the predicted results and exact value, the model proves to be correct. Finally, the random noise is introduced into several relevant system level frequency response functions for error sensitivity analysis. The system level frequency response functions that are most sensitive to the random error are found. Since a two-stage series-parallel system has not been well studied, the proposed transfer path model improves the dynamic theory of the multi-stage vibration isolation system. Moreover, the validation process of the model here actually provides an example for acoustic and vibration transfer path analysis based on the proposed model. And it is worth noting that the

  11. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Testing Digital Electronic Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S


    This paper outlines the core concepts and realisation of the Safe Machine Parameters Controller (SMPC) testbench, based on a VME crate and LabVIEW program. Its main goal is to ensure the correct function of the SMPC for the protection of the CERN accelerator complex. To achieve this, the tester has been built to replicate the machine environment and operation, in order to ensure that the chassis under test is completely exercised. The complexity of the task increases with the number of input combinations. This paper also outlines the benefits and weaknesses of developing a test suite independently of the hardware being tested, using the “V” approach.

  13. Distance Protection for Microgrids in Distribution System


    Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Chengxi; Josep M. Guerrero; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez


    Owing to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, there are some challenges for the conventional protection in distribution system. Bidirectional power flow and variable fault current because of the various operation modes may lead to the selectivity and sensitivity of the overcurrent protection decreased. This paper adopts distance protection for one mid-voltage level microgrid in Aalborg, Denmark. Different operation modes of the network are analyzed and tested in the paper. Th...

  14. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Generation


    Vassbotten, Kristian


    In recent years the amount of distributed generation(DG) in distribution systems have increased. This poses problems for the traditional protection scheme, with non-directional over-current relays and fuses. When DG is introduced the load flow in distribution systems are often reversed; there is a surplus of power on the radial. Present thesis seeks to determine the most beneficial protection scheme to use in distribution systems with DG. To investigate the impact of different relays and...

  15. Monitoring Vibration of A Model of Rotating Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Djajadi


    Full Text Available Mechanical movement or motion of a rotating machine normally causes additional vibration. A vibration sensing device must be added to constantly monitor vibration level of the system having a rotating machine, since the vibration frequency and amplitude cannot be measured quantitatively by only sight or touch. If the vibration signals from the machine have a lot of noise, there are possibilities that the rotating machine has defects that can lead to failure. In this experimental research project, a vibration structure is constructed in a scaled model to simulate vibration and to monitor system performance in term of vibration level in case of rotation with balanced and unbalanced condition. In this scaled model, the output signal of the vibration sensor is processed in a microcontroller and then transferred to a computer via a serial communication medium, and plotted on the screen with data plotter software developed using C language. The signal waveform of the vibration is displayed to allow further analysis of the vibration. Vibration level monitor can be set in the microcontroller to allow shutdown of the rotating machine in case of excessive vibration to protect the rotating machine from further damage. Experiment results show the agreement with theory that unbalance condition on a rotating machine can lead to larger vibration amplitude compared to balance condition. Adding and reducing the mass for balancing can be performed to obtain lower vibration level. 

  16. Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Buchannan, Steve; Gomaa, Islam


    This book is a Packt tutorial, walking the administrator through the steps needed to create real solutions to the problems and tasks faced when ensuring that their data is protected. This book is for network administrators, system administrators, backup administrators, or IT consultants who are looking to expand their knowledge on how to utilize DPM to protect their organization's data.

  17. Study on Forced Torsional Vibration of CFRP Drive-Line System with Internal Damping (United States)

    Yang, Mo; Hu, Yefa; Zhang, Jinguang; Ding, Guoping; Song, Chunsheng


    The use of CFRP transmission shaft has positive effect on the weight and flexural vibration reduction of drive-line system. However, the application of CFRP transmission shaft will greatly reduce the torsional stiffness of the drive-line, and may cause strong transient torsional vibration. Which will seriously affect the performance of CFRP drive-line. In this study, the forced torsional vibration of the CFRP drive-line system is carried out using the lumped parameter model. In addition, the effect of rotary inertia, internal damping, coupling due to the composite laminate, and excitation torque are incorporated in the modified transfer matrix model (TMM). Then, the modified TMM is used to predict the torsional frequency and forced torsional vibration of a CFRP drive-line with three-segment drive shafts. The results of modified TMM shown that the rotational speed difference of the CFRP transmission shaft segment is much larger than metal transmission shaft segment under excitation torque. And compared the results from finite element simulation, modified TMM and torsional vibration experiment respectively, and it has shown that the modified TMM can accurately predict forced torsional vibration behaviors of the CFRP drive-line system.

  18. Impact Analysis of Roller System Stability for Four-High Mill Horizontal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bin Fan


    Full Text Available In order to study the hot Compact Strip Production (CSP, four-high mill vibration characteristics, and vibration suppression method, the roller system structure stability was analyzed and calculated at first in the paper. And then, the mill stand gap was measured at field and its influence on roll transverse vibration was analyzed. The drum gear coupling effect on the roller system stability and the automatic balance conditions of the coupling transmission torque were studied; the influence of axial force caused by the roller cross on the system stability was analyzed. Finally, the roller transverse friction chatter vibration mechanics model was established; the simulation analysis was carried out with eliminating mill house-bearing clearance and adding floating support for coupling, respectively. And the characteristics of the roller “jump vibration” were studied. We applied copper gaskets to eliminate or reduce mill house-bearing clearance for suppressing the rolling mill vibration on the spot; the test results show that the roller transverse vibration was suppressed after eliminating clearance.

  19. Systems and methods for photovoltaic string protection (United States)

    Krein, Philip T.; Kim, Katherine A.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.


    A system and method includes a circuit for protecting a photovoltaic string. A bypass switch connects in parallel to the photovoltaic string and a hot spot protection switch connects in series with the photovoltaic string. A first control signal controls opening and closing of the bypass switch and a second control signal controls opening and closing of the hot spot protection switch. Upon detection of a hot spot condition the first control signal closes the bypass switch and after the bypass switch is closed the second control signal opens the hot spot protection switch.

  20. Relay protection coordination with generator capability curve, excitation system limiters and power system relay protections settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Danilo


    Full Text Available The relay protection settings performed in the largest thermal powerplant (TE "Nikola Tesla B" are reffered and explained in this paper. The first calculation step is related to the coordination of the maximum stator current limiter settings, the overcurrent protection with inverse characteristics settings and the permitted overload of the generator stator B1. In the second calculation step the settings of impedance generator protection are determined, and the methods and criteria according to which the calculations are done are described. Criteria used to provide the protection to fulfill the backup protection role in the event of malfunction of the main protection of the transmission system. are clarified. The calculation of all protection functions (32 functions of generator B1 were performed in the project "Coordination of relay protection blocks B1 and B2 with the system of excitation and power system protections -TENT B".

  1. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  2. NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS),...

  3. NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel...

  4. Vibroacoustic system for monitoring vibrations of heavy equipment with rotary elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipowczan, A.; Rabsztyn, T.


    A system for continuous monitoring of mechanical vibrations of blowers for ventilation of underground coal mines is presented. Use of the system prevents damage to bearings and other damage caused by excessive mechanical vibrations of a blower wheel. The monitoring system uses the PPWa converter (developed by the Central Mining Institute in Poland) which transforms mechanical signals which characterize vibration intensity into electrical signals. The PPWa converters are used with amplifiers and other auxiliary equipment. Design of the continuous monitoring equipment is shown. The following types of converter systems are characterized: the PPWa-1, the PPWa-2, the PPWa-3, the PPWa-4, the PPWa-5 and the PPWa-6. Specifications of the 6 converters are shown in a table. Performance of the continuous monitoring systems for ventilation blowers in coal mines is evaluated. 4 references

  5. Vibration analysis of multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary and coupling conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Chaofan


    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of studying the vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system under various boundary and coupling conditions, this paper constructs a free vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system on the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. The vibration characteristics of a multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary supports and elastic coupling conditions are investigated using the current analysis model. Unlike most existing techniques, the beam displacement function is generally sought as an improved Fourier cosine series, and four sine terms are introduced to overcome all the relevant discontinuities or jumps of elastic boundary conditions. On this basis, the unknown series coefficients of the displacement function are treated as the generalized coordinates and solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz method, and the vibration problem of multi-span bean systems is converted into a standard eigenvalue problem concerning the unknown displacement expansion coefficient. By comparing the free vibration characteristics of the proposed method with those of the FEA method, the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are validated, providing a reliable and theoretical basis for multi-span beam system structure in engineering applications.

  6. Self-powered wireless vibration-sensing system for machining monitoring (United States)

    Chung, Tien-Kan; Lee, Hao; Tseng, Chia-Yung; Lo, Wen-Tuan; Wang, Chieh-Min; Wang, Wen-Chin; Tu, Chi-Jen; Tasi, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Jui-Wen


    In this paper, we demonstrate an attachable energy-harvester-powered wireless vibration-sensing module for milling-process monitoring. The system consists of an electromagnetic energy harvester, MEMS accelerometer, and wireless module. The harvester consisting of an inductance and magnets utilizes the electromagnetic-induction approach to harvest the mechanical energy from the milling process and subsequently convert the mechanical energy to an electrical energy. Furthermore, through an energy-storage/rectification circuit, the harvested energy is capable of steadily powering both the accelerometer and wireless module. Through integrating the harvester, accelerometer, and wireless module, a self-powered wireless vibration-sensing system is achieved. The test result of the system monitoring the milling process shows the system successfully senses the vibration produced from the milling and subsequently transmits the vibration signals to the terminal computer. Through analyzing the vibration data received by the terminal computer, we establish a criterion for reconstructing the status, condition, and operating-sequence of the milling process. The reconstructed status precisely matches the real status of the milling process. That is, the system is capable of demonstrating a real-time monitoring of the milling process.

  7. Vibration test on KMRR reactor structure and primary cooling system piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Hoh; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Hoh; Park, Jin Suk; Ryoo, Jung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Most equipments, piping systems and reactor structures in nuclear power plants are subjected to flow induced vibration due to high temperature and high pressure coolant flowing inside or outside of the equipments, systems and structures. Because the flow induced vibration sometimes causes significant damage to reactor structures and piping systems, it is important and necessary to evaluate the vibration effect on them and to prove their structural integrity. Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR) being constructed by KAERI is 30 MWt pool type research reactor. Since its main structures and piping systems were designed and manufactured in accordance with the standards and guidelines for commercial nuclear power plant, it was decided to evaluate their vibratory response in accordance with the standards and guidelines for commercial NPP. The objective of this vibration test is the assessment of vibration levels of KMRR reactor structure and primary cooling piping system for their structural integrity under the steady-state or transient operating condition. 38 figs, 14 tabs, 2 refs. (Author).

  8. Experimental evidence of vibrational resonance in a multistable system (United States)

    Chizhevsky, V. N.


    Experimental evidence of vibrational resonance in a multistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is reported. The VCSEL is characterized by a coexistence of four polarization states and driven by low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) periodic signals. In these conditions a series of resonances on the low frequency depending on the HF amplitude is observed. The location of resonances in a parameter space (dc current, amplitude of HF signal) is experimentally studied. For a fixed value of the dc current an evolution of the resonance curves with an increase of the LF amplitude is experimentally investigated.

  9. Real-Time Spatial Monitoring of Vehicle Vibration Data as a Model for TeleGeoMonitoring Systems


    Robidoux, Jeff


    This research presents the development and proof of concept of a TeleGeoMonitoring (TGM) system for spatially monitoring and analyzing, in real-time, data derived from vehicle-mounted sensors. In response to the concern for vibration related injuries experienced by equipment operators in surface mining and construction operations, the prototype TGM system focuses on spatially monitoring vehicle vibration in real-time. The TGM vibration system consists of 3 components: (1) Data Acquisition ...

  10. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm


    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples of au...... and safe behaviors. In general the potential of saving e.g. of herbicides are huge when high precision targeting based on individual weed plant detections is used....

  11. Power system protection 1 principles and components

    CERN Document Server

    Association, Electricity Training


    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  12. Functionality Inspection of Interconnected Fire Protection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærup, René; Jomaas, Grunde


    systems, such as a smoke detection system, sprinkler system, warning system and fire ventilation system. However, only smoke detections systems and sprinkler systems require inspection from an independent accredited company, whereas the other systems’ functionality is entirely up to the professionals...... that install them and the owner’s maintenance schedule, both of which do not require any supervision from the authorities. Herein, 12 complex buildings, in which all fire protections systems were inspected by an independent accredited company, were studied to see whether or not the buildings adhere to the fire...... safety design in their operational phase. The results showed that the functionality of the interconnected fire protection systems was not as designed in the performance-based analysis. Furthermore, due to the lack of this functionality the fire safety level is not at high as the authorities’ demand...

  13. A finite element analysis of the vibration behaviour of a cementless hip system. (United States)

    Pérez, M A; Seral-García, B


    An early diagnosis of aseptic loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) by plain radiography, scintigraphy or arthography has been shown to be less reliable than using a vibration technique. However, it has been suggested that it may be possible to distinguish between a secure and a loose prosthesis using a vibration technique. In fact, vibration analysis methods have been successfully used to assess dental implant stability, to monitor fracture healing and to measure bone mechanical properties. Several studies have combined the vibration technique with the finite element (FE) method in order to better understand the events involved in the experimental technique. In the present study, the main goal is to simulate the change in the resonance frequency during the osseointegration process of a cementless THR (Zweymüller). The FE method was used and a numerical modal analysis was conducted to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes under vibration. The effects were studied of different bone and stem material properties, and different contact conditions at the bone-implant interface. The results were in agreement with previous experimental and computational observations, and differences among the different cases studied were detected. As the osseointegration process at the bone-implant interface evolved, the resonance frequency values of the femur-prosthesis system also increased. In summary, vibration analysis combined with the FE method was able to detect different boundary conditions at the bone-implant interface in cases of both osseointegration and loosening.

  14. Study on the Effect of Reciprocating Pump Pipeline System Vibration on Oil Transportation Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Lu


    Full Text Available Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause a pressure pulsation, and the resulting pipeline vibration may lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of reciprocating pump pipelines based on pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by a fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the unbalanced exciting force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by indoor experiments. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and vibration reduction measures are proposed. The following main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1 unbalanced exciting forces are produced in the elbows or tee joints, and it can also influence the straight pipe to different levels; (2 in actual engineering, it should be possible to prevent the simultaneous settlement of multiple places; (3 the vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85 °C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.

  15. PCIe40 temperature protection system

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Aguilar, Angel


    PCIe40 is a high-throughput data-acquisition card based on PCI Express that is currently under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment readout system. As part of this development, SMBus is intended to be used as a lightweight, out-of-band protocol to monitor the health of each data acquisition board. Starting from a simple prototype, the student will work on enabling SMBus communication between a COTS linux host and various on-board sensors, on top of existing linux facilities.

  16. Positioning and Microvibration Control by Electromagnets of an Air Spring Vibration Isolation System (United States)

    Watanabe, Katsuhide; Cui, Weimin; Haga, Takahide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi; Yano, Kenichi


    Active positioning and microvibration control has been attempted by electromagnets equipped in a bellows-type, air-spring vibration isolation system. Performance tests have been carried out to study the effects. The main components of the system's isolation table were four electromagnetic actuators and controllers. The vibration isolation table was also equipped with six acceleration sensors for detecting microvibration of the table. The electromagnetic actuators were equipped with bellows-type air springs for passive support of the weight of the item placed on the table, with electromagnets for active positioning, as well as for microvibration control, and relative displacement sensors. The controller constituted a relative feedback system for positioning control and an absolute feedback system for vibration isolation control. In the performance test, a 1,490 kg load (net weight of 1,820 kg) was placed on the vibration isolation table, and both the positioning and microvibration control were carried out electromagnetically. Test results revealed that the vibration transmission was reduced by 95%.

  17. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro


    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the

  18. Multiple mode analysis of the self-excited vibrations of rotary drilling systems (United States)

    Germay, Christophe; Denoël, Vincent; Detournay, Emmanuel


    This paper extends the analysis of the self-excitated vibrations of a drilling structure presented in an earlier paper [T. Richard, C. Germay, E. Detournay, A simplified model to explore the root cause of stick-slip vibrations in drilling systems with drag bits, Journal of Sound and Vibration 305 (3) (2007) 432-456] by basing the formulation of the model on a continuum representation of the drillstring rather than on a characterization of the drilling structure by a 2 degree of freedom system. The particular boundary conditions at the bit-rock interface, which according to this model are responsible for the self-excited vibrations, account for both cutting and frictional contact processes. The cutting process combined with the quasi-helical motion of the bit leads to a regenerative effect that introduces a coupling between the axial and torsional modes of vibrations and a state-dependent delay in the governing equations, while the frictional contact process is associated with discontinuities in the boundary conditions when the bit sticks in its axial and angular motion. The dynamic response of the drilling structure is computed using the finite element method. While the general tendencies of the system response predicted by the discrete model are confirmed by this computational model (for example that the occurrence of stick-slip vibrations as well as the risk of bit bouncing are enhanced with an increase of the weight-on-bit or a decrease of the rotational speed), new features in the self-excited response of the drillstring can be detected. In particular, stick-slip vibrations are predicted to occur at natural frequencies of the drillstring different from the fundamental one (as sometimes observed in field operations), depending on the operating parameters.

  19. The Influence of Vibration on CaCO3 Scale Formation in Piping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangestiyono W.


    Full Text Available Carbonate scale is a common problem found in a piping system of industrial process. The presence of mechanical equipment such as turbine, compressor, blower, mixer and extruder produce a mechanical vibration on the piping system which is placed near these equipments. The influence of vibration on the CaCO3 scale formation in the piping system was experimentally investigated in the present study. The aim of the research was to understand the effect of vibration on the kinetics, deposition rates and the crystals formation in the synthetic solution. The solution was prepared using CaCl2 and Na2CO3 for concentration of calcium of 3.500 ppm, while the induction time, deposition rate, crystal growth were investigated at temperature of 25°C. In generating the vibration force, the mechanical equipment consisting of electrical motor, crankshaft, connecting rod and a vibration table were employed, including four coupons inside the pipe for investigating the scale formed. Frequency of the vibration was set at 0.00, 1.00 Hz and 2.00 Hz, respectively. A dosing pump with two inlets and two outlets was used to circulate the solutions at flowrate of 30 ml/min from each vessel to the coupons. After running for three hours, the induction time was recorded at 17; 10 and 8 minute with vibration frequency of 0.00; 1.00 and 2.00 Hz, respectively. The scale formed was then characterized using SEM/EDX for crystal morphology and elemental analysis. The results show that the deposition rates were 0.9457 and 3.3441 gram/h for the frequency of 1.00 and 2.00 Hz. The carbonate crystals found in coupon and filter were vaterite.

  20. [Artificial intelligence] AI for protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, R.; Johns, A.


    The reliable operation of large power systems with small stability margins is highly dependent on control systems and protection devices. Progress in the field of microprocessor systems and demanding requirements in respect of the performance of protective relays are the reasons for digital device applications to power system protection. The superiority of numeric protection over its analogue alternatives is attributed to such factors as accurate extraction of the fundamental voltage and current components through filtering, functional benefits resulting from multi-processor design and extensive self-monitoring, etc. However, all these reasons have not led to a major impact on speed, sensitivity and selectivity of primary protective relays, and the gains are only marginal; this is so because conventional digital relays still rely on deterministic signal models and a heuristic approach for decision making, so that only a fraction of the information contained within voltage and current signals as well as knowledge about the plant to be protected is used. The performance of digital relays may be substantially improved if the decision making is based on elements of artificial intelligence (AI). (Author)

  1. Advanced Protection & Service Restoration for FREEDM Systems (United States)

    Singh, Urvir

    A smart electric power distribution system (FREEDM system) that incorporates DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), SSTs (Solid State Transformers - that can limit the fault current to two times of the rated current) & RSC (Reliable & Secure Communication) capabilities has been studied in this work in order to develop its appropriate protection & service restoration techniques. First, a solution is proposed that can make conventional protective devices be able to provide effective protection for FREEDM systems. Results show that although this scheme can provide required protection but it can be quite slow. Using the FREEDM system's communication capabilities, a communication assisted Overcurrent (O/C) protection scheme is proposed & results show that by using communication (blocking signals) very fast operating times are achieved thereby, mitigating the problem of conventional O/C scheme. Using the FREEDM System's DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence) capability, an automated FLISR (Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration) scheme is proposed that is based on the concept of 'software agents' & uses lesser data (than conventional centralized approaches). Test results illustrated that this scheme is able to provide a global optimal system reconfiguration for service restoration.

  2. Active vibration-based SHM system: demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti


    This study presents a system that is able to detect defects like cracks, leading/trailing edge opening or delamination of at least 15 cm size, remotely, without stopping the wind turbine. The system is vibration-based: mechanical energy is artificially introduced by means of an electromechanical ...

  3. A small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system (United States)

    Li, Rui; Mu, Wenjun; Zhang, Luyang; Wang, Xiaojie


    A magneto-rheological bearing (MRB) is proposed to improve the vibration isolation performance of a floating slab track system. However, it's difficult to carry out the test for the full-scale track vibration isolation system in the laboratory. In this paper, the research is based on scale analysis of the floating slab track system, from the point view of the dimensionless of the dynamic characteristics of physical quantity, to establish a small scale test bench system for the MRBs. A small scale MRB with squeeze mode using magneto-rheological grease is designed and its performance is tested. The major parameters of a small scale test bench are obtained according to the similarity theory. The force transmissibility ratio and the relative acceleration transmissibility ratio are selected as evaluation index of system similarity. Dynamics of these two similarity systems are calculated by MATLAB experiment. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the prototype and scale models have good similarity. Further, a test bench is built according to the small-scale model parameter analysis. The experiment shows that the bench testing results are consistency with that of theoretical model in evaluating the vibration force and acceleration. Therefore, the small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system based on similarity theory reveals the isolation performance of a real slab track prototype system.

  4. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System (United States)

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine


    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George-Mihai IRIMESCU


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is comparing different trademark protection system, focusing on European jurisdictions and the relevant legislations. The comparison focuses on the Romanian jurisdiction, as representative for the attributive system, and the Italian jurisdiction, which the doctrine considers representative for the declarative system. For each of them, the relevance of both use and registration are presented in terms of acquiring, consolidating or loosing protection. By presenting the first to use and first to file systems, the article aims to compare them by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of both systems, and also by showing what they have in common in terms of legal consequences. The article also describes the approach of international conventions with respect to trademark protection system, focusing on the legislation of the European Union, which is also directly relevant to both jurisdictions chosen to outline the two systems. Finally, brief commentaries regarding the notion of "use" are made, along with conclusion regarding the analyzed trademark protections systems.

  6. DLP-systems: Protection from Insiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sergeevich Boridko


    Full Text Available In the paper the necessity of further introduction of modern systems of information protection against internal leaks, including DLP-systems, is justified. The issues of development of training specialists in the field of information security is considered.

  7. Management information system on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  8. Synthesis of polyaluminum chloride using alternative and simple ultrasonic vibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Kunal N.; Boricha, Arvind B.; Bajaj, Hari C.; Jasra, Raksh V. [Discipline of Inorganic Materials and Catalysis, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, CSIR), Gujarat (India)


    Advantage of ultrasonic vibrating system over usual method (under simply rapid stirring) for the synthesis of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) is illustrated here. Ultrasonication helps in dispersion of NaOH into the aluminum solution. Coagulants were synthesized at two different OH/Al ratios (1.0 and 2.4). Aluminum present in the coagulants as monomeric, oligomeric and colloidal form was analyzed by Al-Ferron timed spectroscopy; and {sup 27}Al-NMR spectroscopy. PACls synthesized under ultrasonic vibrating system generated more oligomeric Al species compared to the PACls prepared by usual method, and gave better coagulation/flocculation efficiency. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Y.V.


    Full Text Available Reduced models of stochastic parametric vibrations of elastic systems with regard to their previous states were constructed on the base of the finite element method, generalized coordinates method, asymptotic method and functional approach. Stochastic stability problem was formulated in the average for the moment functions of the first order phase coordinates. The stability of stochastic parametric vibrations of the single degree of freedom system with regard to its previous states was investigated by the 7-stages 5-order continuous Runge-Kutta method and nested formulas Dormand-Prince.

  10. Vibration control of uncertain multiple launch rocket system using radial basis function neural network (United States)

    Li, Bo; Rui, Xiaoting


    Poor dispersion characteristics of rockets due to the vibration of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) have always restricted the MLRS development for several decades. Vibration control is a key technique to improve the dispersion characteristics of rockets. For a mechanical system such as MLRS, the major difficulty in designing an appropriate control strategy that can achieve the desired vibration control performance is to guarantee the robustness and stability of the control system under the occurrence of uncertainties and nonlinearities. To approach this problem, a computed torque controller integrated with a radial basis function neural network is proposed to achieve the high-precision vibration control for MLRS. In this paper, the vibration response of a computed torque controlled MLRS is described. The azimuth and elevation mechanisms of the MLRS are driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors and supposed to be rigid. First, the dynamic model of motor-mechanism coupling system is established using Lagrange method and field-oriented control theory. Then, in order to deal with the nonlinearities, a computed torque controller is designed to control the vibration of the MLRS when it is firing a salvo of rockets. Furthermore, to compensate for the lumped uncertainty due to parametric variations and un-modeled dynamics in the design of the computed torque controller, a radial basis function neural network estimator is developed to adapt the uncertainty based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system and show that the proposed controller is robust with regard to the uncertainty.

  11. The Effect of Rail Fastening System Modifications on Tram Traffic Noise and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Lakušić


    Full Text Available Tram system is a backbone of public transportation in the City of Zagreb. In the last decade, its fleet has been renewed by 142 new low-floor trams. Shortly after their introduction, it was observed that they have a negative impact on the exploitation behavior of tram infrastructure, primarily on the durability of rail fastening systems. Because of that, it was decided to modify existing rail fastening systems to the new track exploitation conditions. When the (reconstruction of tram infrastructure is carried out by applying new systems and technologies, it is necessary to take into account their impact on the future propagation of noise and vibration in the environment. This paper gives a short overview of the characteristics of the two newly developed rail fastening systems for Zagreb tram tracks, their application in construction of experimental track section, and performance and comparison of noise and vibration measurements results. Measured data on track vibrations and noise occurring during passage of the tram vehicles is analyzed in terms of track decay rates and equivalent noise levels of passing referent vehicle. Vibroacoustic performance of new fastening systems is evaluated and compared to referent fastening system, in order to investigate their ability to absorb vibration energy induced by tram operation and to reduce noise emission.

  12. Verification of the Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System based on Parabolic Flight (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Dong, Wen-bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Zong-feng; Lv, Shi-meng; Sang, Xiao-ru; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity active vibration isolation system (MAIS) is a device to reduce on-orbit vibration and to provide a lower gravity level for certain scientific experiments. MAIS system is made up of a stator and a floater, the stator is fixed on the spacecraft, and the floater is suspended by electromagnetic force so as to reduce the vibration from the stator. The system has 3 position sensors, 3 accelerometers, 8 Lorentz actuators, signal processing circuits and a central controller embedded in the operating software and control algorithms. For the experiments on parabolic flights, a laptop is added to MAIS for monitoring and operation, and a power module is for electric power converting. The principle of MAIS is as follows: the system samples the vibration acceleration of the floater from accelerometers, measures the displacement between stator and floater from position sensitive detectors, and computes Lorentz force current for each actuator so as to eliminate the vibration of the scientific payload, and meanwhile to avoid crashing between the stator and the floater. This is a motion control technic in 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) and its function could only be verified in a microgravity environment. Thanks for DLR and Novespace, we get a chance to take the DLR 27th parabolic flight campaign to make experiments to verify the 6-DOF control technic. The experiment results validate that the 6-DOF motion control technique is effective, and vibration isolation performance perfectly matches what we expected based on theoretical analysis and simulation. The MAIS has been planned on Chinese manned spacecraft for many microgravity scientific experiments, and the verification on parabolic flights is very important for its following mission. Additionally, we also test some additional function by microgravity electromagnetic suspension, such as automatic catching and locking and working in fault mode. The parabolic flight produces much useful data for these experiments.

  13. Verification of the Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System based on Parabolic Flight (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Dong, Wen-bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Zong-feng; Lv, Shi-meng; Sang, Xiao-ru; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity active vibration isolation system (MAIS) is a device to reduce on-orbit vibration and to provide a lower gravity level for certain scientific experiments. MAIS system is made up of a stator and a floater, the stator is fixed on the spacecraft, and the floater is suspended by electromagnetic force so as to reduce the vibration from the stator. The system has 3 position sensors, 3 accelerometers, 8 Lorentz actuators, signal processing circuits and a central controller embedded in the operating software and control algorithms. For the experiments on parabolic flights, a laptop is added to MAIS for monitoring and operation, and a power module is for electric power converting. The principle of MAIS is as follows: the system samples the vibration acceleration of the floater from accelerometers, measures the displacement between stator and floater from position sensitive detectors, and computes Lorentz force current for each actuator so as to eliminate the vibration of the scientific payload, and meanwhile to avoid crashing between the stator and the floater. This is a motion control technic in 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) and its function could only be verified in a microgravity environment. Thanks for DLR and Novespace, we get a chance to take the DLR 27th parabolic flight campaign to make experiments to verify the 6-DOF control technic. The experiment results validate that the 6-DOF motion control technique is effective, and vibration isolation performance perfectly matches what we expected based on theoretical analysis and simulation. The MAIS has been planned on Chinese manned spacecraft for many microgravity scientific experiments, and the verification on parabolic flights is very important for its following mission. Additionally, we also test some additional function by microgravity electromagnetic suspension, such as automatic catching and locking and working in fault mode. The parabolic flight produces much useful data for these experiments.

  14. An Efficient Approach for Determining Forced Vibration Response Amplitudes of a MDOF System with Various Attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Wu


    of the same vibrating system are calculated by using a relationship between |Y(x|t and |Y(x|s obtained from the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF vibrating system. It is noted that, near resonance (i.e., we/w≈ 1.0, the entire MDOF system (with natural frequency w will vibrate synchronously in a certain mode and can be modeled by a SDOF system. Finally, the conventional finite element method (FEM incorporated with the Newmark's direct integration method is also used to determine the "total" response amplitudes |Y(x|t of the same forced vibrating system from the time histories of dynamic responses at each specified exciting frequency we. It has been found that the numerical results of the presented approach are in good agreement with those of FEM, this confirms the reliability of the presented theory. Because the CPU time required by the presented approach is less than 1% of that required by the conventional FEM, the presented approach should be an efficient technique for the title problem.

  15. Modelling and Analysis of Automobile Vibration System Based on Fuzzy Theory under Different Road Excitation Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wen Chen


    Full Text Available A fuzzy increment controller is designed aimed at the vibration system of automobile active suspension with seven degrees of freedom (DOF. For decreasing vibration, an active control force is acquired by created Proportion-Integration-Differentiation (PID controller. The controller’s parameters are adjusted by a fuzzy increment controller with self-modifying parameters functions, which adopts the deviation and its rate of change of the body’s vertical vibration velocity and the desired value in the position of the front and rear suspension as the input variables based on 49 fuzzy control rules. Adopting Simulink, the fuzzy increment controller is validated under different road excitation, such as the white noise input with four-wheel correlation in time-domain, the sinusoidal input, and the pulse input of C-grade road surface. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can reduce obviously the vehicle vibration compared to other independent control types in performance indexes, such as, the root mean square value of the body’s vertical vibration acceleration, pitching, and rolling angular acceleration.

  16. Non-linear Vibration of Oscillation Systems using Frequency-Amplitude Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereidoon, A.; Ghadimi, M.; Barari, Amin


    In this paper we study the periodic solutions of free vibration of mechanical systems with third and fifthorder nonlinearity for two examples using He’s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (HFAF).The effectiveness and convenience of the method is illustrated in these examples. It will be shown...... that the solutions obtained with current method have a fabulous conformity with those achieved from time marching solution. HFAF is easy with powerful concepts and the high accuracy, so it can be found widely applicable in vibrations, especially strong nonlinearity oscillatory problems....

  17. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani


    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  18. Synchronization of three homodromy coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system of plane motion (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Liang; Wen, Bang-Chun; Zhao, Chun-Yu


    In this paper, the synchronization problem of three homodromy coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system of plane motion is studied. By introducing the average method of modified small parameters, we deduced dimensionless coupling equation of three exciters, which converted the problem of synchronization into that of the existence and stability of zero solutions for the average differential equations of the small parameters. Based on the dimensionless coupling torques and characteristics of the corresponding limited functions, the synchronization criterion for three exciters was derived as the absolute value of dimensionless residual torque difference between arbitrary two motors being less than the maximum of their dimensionless coupling torques. The stability criterion of its synchronous state lies in the double-condition that the inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive as well. The synchronization determinants are the coefficients of synchronization ability, also called as the general dynamical symmetry coefficients. The double-equilibrium state of the vibrating system is manifested by numeric method, and the numeric and simulation results derived thereof indicate the indispensable and crucial role the structural parameters of the vibrating system play in the stability criterion of synchronous operation. Besides, by adjusting its structural parameters, the elliptical motion of the vibrating system successfully met the requirements in engineering applications.

  19. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production systems caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.


    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design

  20. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.


    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design

  1. Analytical design and evaluation of an active control system for helicopter vibration reduction and gust response alleviation (United States)

    Taylor, R. B.; Zwicke, P. E.; Gold, P.; Miao, W.


    An analytical study was conducted to define the basic configuration of an active control system for helicopter vibration and gust response alleviation. The study culminated in a control system design which has two separate systems: narrow band loop for vibration reduction and wider band loop for gust response alleviation. The narrow band vibration loop utilizes the standard swashplate control configuration to input controller for the vibration loop is based on adaptive optimal control theory and is designed to adapt to any flight condition including maneuvers and transients. The prime characteristics of the vibration control system is its real time capability. The gust alleviation control system studied consists of optimal sampled data feedback gains together with an optimal one-step-ahead prediction. The prediction permits the estimation of the gust disturbance which can then be used to minimize the gust effects on the helicopter.

  2. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, F. T.; Huang, C. C.


    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application

  3. Active Vibration Control in a Rotor System by an Active Suspension with Linear Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arias-Montiel


    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of modeling, analysis and unbalance response control of a rotor system with two disks in an asymmetrical configuration is treated. The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to get the system model including the gyroscopic effects and then, the obtained model is experimentally validated. Rotordynamic analysis is carried out using the finite element model obtaining the Campbell diagram, the natural frequencies and the critical speeds of the rotor system. An asymptotic observer is designed to estimate the full state vector which is used to synthesize a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR to reduce the vibration amplitudes when the system passes through the first critical speed. Some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the closed-loop system behavior. The active vibration control scheme is experimentally validated using an active suspension with electromechanical linear actuators, obtaining significant reductions in the resonant peak.

  4. Advanced Rigid Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Feldman, J. D.; Gasch, M. J.; Poteet, C. C.; Szalai, Christine


    With the gradual increase in robotic rover sophistication and the desire for humans to explore the solar system, the need for reentry systems to deliver large payloads into planetary atmospheres is looming. Heritage ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for many future missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable susequent human exploration missions. This paper summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid ablative TPS that could be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular, the effort focuses on technologies required to land heavy masses on Mars to facilitate exploration.

  5. Piezoelectric vibration-driven locomotion systems - Exploiting resonance and bistable dynamics (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, K. W.


    While a piezoelectric-based vibration-driven system is an excellent candidate for actuating small-size crawling-type locomotion robots, it has the major drawback of limited stroke output that would severely constraint the system's locomotion performance. In this paper, to advance the state of the art, we propose two novel designs of piezoelectric vibration-driven locomotion systems. The first utilizes the resonant amplification concept, and the second explores the design of a bistable device. While these two ideas have been explored for piezoelectric actuation amplification in general, they have never been exploited for crawling-type robotic locomotion. Numerical analyses on both systems reveal that resonance and bistability can substantially increase the systems' average locomotion speed. Moreover, this research shows that with bistability, the system is able to output high average locomotion speed in a wider frequency band, possess multiple locomotion modes, and achieve fast switches among them. Through proof-of-concept prototypes, the predicted locomotion performance improvements brought by resonance and bistability are verified. Finally, the basin stability is evaluated to systematically describe the occurring probability of certain locomotion behavior of the bistable system, which would provide useful guideline to the design and control of bistable vibration-driven locomotion systems.

  6. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin


    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  7. A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jing, E-mail:; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)


    Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.

  8. Research on signal demodulation technology of Mach-Zehnder optical fiber sensor vibration system (United States)

    Liu, Juncheng; Cheng, Pengshen; Hu, Tong


    Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is frequently used in optical fiber vibration system. And signal demodulation technology plays an important role in the signal processing of M-Z optical fiber vibration system. In order to accurately get the phase information of the vibration signals, the signal demodulation technique based on M-Z interference principle is studied. In this paper, by analyzing the principles of 3 × 3 fiber coupler homodyne demodulation method and phase-generating carrier (PGC) technology, the advantages and disadvantages of the two demodulation methods for different vibration signal are presented. Then the method of judging signal strength is proposed. The correlation between the demodulation effects and strength of the perturbation signals is analyzed. Finally, the simulation experiments are carried out to compare the demodulation effects of the two demodulation methods, the results demonstrate that PGC demodulation technology has great advantages in weak signals, and the 3 × 3 fiber coupler is more suitable for strong signals.

  9. Vibration Damping Materials and Their Applications in Nano/Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems: A Review. (United States)

    Choudhary, Nitin; Kaur, Davinder


    The present review explores an overall view of the vibration damping materials ranging from traditionally used viscoelastic materials for macroscale damping to hybrid thin film heterostructures for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Vibration damping materials like rubbers, polymers, metals, metal-matrix composites and smart materials are reviewed in terms of damping capacity, stiffness, mechanical strength and figure of merit. Nanoscale shape memory alloys, piezoelectric materials, carbon nanotubes, their composites and thin films are promising materials for future nanoscale damping devices. The main focus of this article is on our development of new vibration damping approach for MEMS structures comprising of ferroelastic/ferroelastic thin film heterostructures. For the first time, nanoindentation has been explored as an alternative tool to evaluate the damping capability of actual components (e.g., thin films for MEMS) where production of dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) test samples is not feasible. A comprehensive insight on the existing vibration damping materials and our new approach would definitely trigger some important applications in nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  10. Jerk Control for Vibration Suppression of an Uncertain Mechanical Transfer System with a Flexible Beam (United States)

    Miura, Takahiro; Ikeda, Masao; Hoshijima, Kohta

    High productivity is commonly required in manufacturing processes. For this purpose, we need to run machines at high speed. However, high-speed motion usually generates vibration in positioning and then makes the settling time long. For this reason, various control strategies have been proposed for high-speed motion and vibration suppression at the same time. In this paper, we deal with a mechanical transfer system with a loading beam, which is widely used in manufacturing processes. We represent the system as composed of three rigid bodies, that is, a driving unit, a hand, and a work. The driving unit and the hand are connected by an elastic link, and slide on a smooth floor. The work is loaded on a flexible beam which is connected rigidly to the hand. When the driving unit moves on the floor, the work is vibrated not only in the translational motion but also in the bending motion because of the flexibility of the beam. Under polytopic uncertainties of the stiffness and damping parameters in the link and the beam, we apply the idea of jerk reduction control to the hand for vibration suppression of the work and shortening the settling time in positioning. We show the effectiveness of jerk reduction of the hand by numerical simulations for a finite element model.

  11. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.


    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  12. A novel vision-based mold monitoring system in an environment of intense vibration (United States)

    Hu, Fen; He, Zaixing; Zhao, Xinyue; Zhang, Shuyou


    Mold monitoring has been more and more widely used in the modern manufacturing industry, especially when based on machine vision, but these systems cannot meet the detection speed and accuracy requirements for mold monitoring because they must operate in environments that exhibit intense vibration during production. To ensure that the system runs accurately and efficiently, we propose a new descriptor that combines the geometric relationship-based global context feature and the local scale-invariant feature transform for the image registration step of the mold monitoring system. The experimental results of four types of molds showed that the detection accuracy of the mold monitoring system is improved in the environment with intense vibration.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Vibration Isolation and Vernier Pointing System (United States)

    Neff, Daniel J.; Britcher, Colin P.


    This paper discusses the recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS), originally developed in the mid 1970's for pointing and vibration isolation of space experiments. The hardware was developed for NASA Langley Research Center by Sperry Flight Systems (now Honeywell Satellite Systems), was delivered to NASA in 1983. Recently, the hardware was loaned to Old Dominion University (ODU). The ASPS includes coarse gimbal assemblies and a Vernier Pointing Assembly (VPA) that utilize magnetic suspension to provide noncontacting vibration isolation and vernier pointing of the payload. The VPA is the main focus of this research. At ODU, the system has been modified such that it can now be operated in a l-g environment without a gravity offload. Suspension of the annular iron rotor in five degrees-of-freedom has been achieved with the use of modern switching power amplifiers and a digital controller implemented on a 486-class PC.

  14. Development of an Optical Fiber Sensor Interrogation System for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Lamberti


    Full Text Available Since the introduction of dynamic optical fiber sensor interrogation systems on the market it has become possible to perform vibration measurements at frequencies up to a few kHz. Nevertheless, the use of these sensors in vibration analysis has not become a standard practice yet. This is mainly caused by the fact that interrogators are stand-alone systems which focus on strain measurements while other types of signals are also required for vibration analysis (e.g., force signals. In this paper, we present a fiber Bragg grating (FBG interrogation system that enables accurate strain measurement simultaneously with other signals (e.g., excitation forces. The system is based on a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL and can easily be assembled with relatively low-cost off-the-shelf components. Dynamic measurements up to a few tens of kHz with a dynamic precision of around 3 nanostrain per square-root Hz can be performed. We evaluate the proposed system on two measurement examples: a steel beam with FBG sensors glued on top and a composite test specimen with a fiber sensor integrated within the material. We show that in the latter case the results of the interrogation system are superior in quality compared to a state-of-the-art commercially available interrogation system.

  15. Nonlocal vibration and biaxial buckling of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C. [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Y.Q., E-mail: [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fan, L.F. [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)


    The general equation for transverse vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between and each nanoplate subjected to in-plane edge loads is formulated on the basis of the Eringen's nonlocal elastic theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of the structural damping, medium damping, small size effect, loading ratio, and Winkler modulus and shear modulus of the medium are incorporated in the formulation. Based on the Navier's method, the analytical solutions for vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The influences of these factors on vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system are discussed. It is demonstrated that the vibrational frequency of the system for the out-of-phase vibration is dependent upon the structural damping, small size effect and viscoelastic Pasternak medium, whereas the vibrational frequency for the in-phase vibration is independent of the viscoelastic Pasternak medium. While the buckling load of the system for the in-phase buckling case has nothing to do with the viscoelastic Pasternak medium, the buckling load for the out-of-phase case is related to the small size effect, loading ratio and Pasternak medium. - Highlights: • Vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system under in-plane edge loads is investigated. • Biaxial buckling of the system with simply supported boundary conditions is analyzed. • Explicit expression for the vibrational frequency and buckling load is obtained. • Impacts of viscoelastic Pasternak medium on vibrational frequency and buckling load are discussed. • Influences of structural damping, small size effect and loading ratio are also considered.

  16. Distribution system protection with communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe


    Due to the communication technologies’ involvement in the distribution power system, the time-critical protection function may be implemented more accurately, therefore distribution power systems’ stability, reliability and security could be improved. This paper presents an active distribution...... power system, including CHPs (Combined Heating and Power) and small scaled WTs (Wind Turbines), as a practical example to examine the possible impacts of communication technologies on the power system. Under some fault scenarios, the power system’s responses to the fault are compared between the system...... with communication technologies and that without communication technologies. At the same time, the previously proposed study method of combining the simulations of communication and power systems is adopted in this study. The performance of a communication network adopted for power system is simulated by OPNET...

  17. Vibration Control of Double-Beam System with Multiple Smart Damping Members


    Dominik Pisarski; Tomasz Szmidt; Czesław I. Bajer; Bartłomiej Dyniewicz; Jacek M. Bajkowski


    A control method to stabilize vibration of a double cantilever system with a set of smart damping blocks is designed and numerically evaluated. The externally controlled magnetorheological sheared elastomer damping block is considered, but other smart materials can be used as well. The robust bang-bang control law for stabilization the bilinear system is elaborated. The key feature of the closed loop controller is the efficiency for different types of initial excitement. By employing the fini...

  18. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Lu, R. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)


    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  19. Development of Approaches to Creation of Active Vibration Control System in Problems of the Dynamics for Granular Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomenko Andrei P.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of mathematical models and evaluation criteria of the vibration field in the dynamic interactions of the elements of the vibrational technological machines for the processes of vibrational strengthening of long-length parts with help of a steel balls working medium. The study forms a theoretical understanding of the modes of motions of material particles in interaction with a vibrating surface of the working body of the vibration machine. The generalized approach to the assessment of the dynamic quality of the work of vibrating machines in multiple modes of tossing, when the period of free flight of particles is a multiple of the period of the surface oscillations of the working body, is developed in the article. For the correction of vibration field of the working body, the characteristics of dynamic interactions of granular elements of the medium are taken into account using original sensors. The sensors that can detect different particularities of interaction of the granular medium elements at different points of the working body are proposed to evaluate the deviation from a homogeneous and one-dimensional mode of vibration field. Specially developed sensors are able to register interactions between a single granule, a system of granules in filamentous structures, and multipoint interactions of the elements in a close-spaced cylindrical structure. The system of regularization of the structure of vibration fields based on the introduction of motion translation devices is proposed using the multi-point sensor locations on the working body. The article refers to analytical approaches of the theory of vibration displacements. For the experimental data assessment, the methods of statistical analysis are applied. It is shown that the peculiar features of the motion of granular medium registered by the sensors can be used to build active control systems of field vibration.

  20. Circus, software for computation of flow induced vibrations in piping system. General purpose; Code circus, logiciel pour la prediction des vibrations sous ecoulement. Une presentation generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligmann, D.


    This paper is a presentation of the code CIRCUS version 2. CIRCUS deals with the hydraulic, acoustic and vibratory behaviour of piping systems under acoustic loads. CIRCUS first computes permanent mean-flow, and associated acoustic loads. It then determines the acoustic and vibration response along the piping system. The CIRCUS software is used at EDF to check the design of piping system and to investigate solutions in case of damage or troubleshooting. (author). 10 refs.

  1. Development of In-Core Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. H; Kim, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Jeong, S. H.; Sohn, S. D.; BaeK, S. M.; YOON, J. H. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In-core Protection System (ICOPS) is an on-line digital computer system which continuously calculates Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and Local Power Density (LPD) based on plant parameters to make trip decisions based on the computations. The function of the system is the same as that of Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) and Reactor Core Protection System (RCOPS) which are applied to Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) and Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). The ICOPS has been developed to overcome the algorithm related obstacles in overseas project. To achieve this goal, several algorithms were newly developed and hardware and software design was updated. The functional design requirements document was developed by KEPCO-NF and the component design was conducted by Doosan. System design and software implementation were performed by KEPCO-E and C, and software Verification and Validation (V and V) was performed by KEPCO-E and C and Sure Softtech. The ICOPS has been developed to overcome the algorithm related obstacles in overseas project. The function of I/O simulator was improved even though the hardware platform is the same as that of RCOPS for Shin-Hanul 1 and 2. SCADE was applied to the implementation of ICOPS software, and the V and V system for ICOPS which satisfies international standards was developed. Although several further detailed design works remain, the function of ICOPS has been confirmed. The ICOPS will be applied to APR+ project, and the further works will be performed in following project.

  2. Collaborative Point Paper on Active Protection Systems (United States)


    support for the Chameleon ECM CIED System. Under the teaming agreement, MES, Plexus Corp. Neenah, WI and Applied Marine Technology, Inc. Hanahan, SC...power mode is used at the general direction of the threat, in a search pattern designed to locate the target’s optics. Once locked on a target, the... locking onto target 7.8- 10.06m from tank; after processing data computer selects countermunition (CM)- protective ammunition housed in 20 silos around

  3. Chromate Free Magnesium Gearbox Protection System (United States)


    its subsidiary or associated companies. Chromate Free Magnesium Gearbox Protection System Brad Wiley ASETSDefense November 2014 Approved for...number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chromate Free Magnesium Gearbox ...Proprietary The AE2100D3 engine PGB – Propeller Gear Box GMAD – Gearbox Mounted Accessory Drive 5 PGB I] Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Proprietary Split line

  4. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT


    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  5. A new fuzzy sliding mode controller for vibration control systems using integrated-structure smart dampers (United States)

    Dzung Nguyen, Sy; Kim, Wanho; Park, Jhinha; Choi, Seung-Bok


    Vibration control systems using smart dampers (SmDs) such as magnetorheological and electrorheological dampers (MRD and ERD), which are classified as the integrated structure-SmD control systems (ISSmDCSs), have been actively researched and widely used. This work proposes a new controller for a class of ISSmDCSs in which high accuracy of SmD models as well as increment of control ability to deal with uncertainty and time delay are to be expected. In order to achieve this goal, two formualtion steps are required; a non-parametric SmD model based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a novel fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) which can weaken the model error of the ISSmDCSs and hence provide enhanced vibration control performances. As for the formulation of the proposed controller, first, an ANFIS controller is desgned to identify SmDs using the improved control algorithm named improved establishing neuro-fuzzy system (establishing neuro-fuzzy system). Second, a new control law for the FSMC is designed via Lyapunov stability analysis. An application to a semi-active MRD vehicle suspension system is then undertaken to illustrate and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated through an experimental realization that the FSMC proposed in this work shows superior vibration control performance of the vehicle suspension compared to other surveyed controller which have similar structures to the FSMC, such as fuzzy logic and sliding mode control.

  6. Vibration suppression in a flexible gyroscopic system using modal coupling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan A. Q. Siddiqui


    Full Text Available Several recent studies have shown that vibrations in a two-degree-of-freedom system can be suppressed by using modal coupling based control techniques. This involves making the first two natural frequencies commensurable (e.g, in a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2 to establish a state of Internal Resonance (IR. When the system exhibits IR, vibrations in the two directions are strongly coupled resulting in a beat phenomenon. Upon introducing damping in one direction, oscillations in both directions can be quickly suppressed. In this paper we consider vibration suppression of a flexible two-degree-of-freedom gyroscopic system using 1:1 and 1:2 IR. The possibility of using 1:1 and 1:2 IR to enhance the coupling in the system is established analytically using the perturbation method of multiple scales. The results of IR based control strategy are compared with a new method, which is based on tuning the system parameters to make the mode shapes identical. Results indicate that this new technique is more efficient and easy to implement than IR based control strategies. Another advantage of this method is that there is no restriction on the frequencies as in the case of IR. Finally, a control torque is obtained which on application automatically tunes the system parameters to establish modal coupling.

  7. Detection of directional energy damping in vibrating systems - Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The transmission efficiency, frequency and amplitude alteration have been measured by a simple technique of coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and in a system of non-Newtonian fluid in the form of corn-flour slime. The system of coupled oscillators was found to exhibit preferential energy transfer ...

  8. Detection of directional energy damping in vibrating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transmission efficiency, frequency and amplitude alteration have been measured by a simple technique of coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and in a system of non-Newtonian fluid in the form of corn-flour slime. The system of coupled oscillators was found to exhibit preferential energy transfer towards the ...

  9. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  10. Investigation for Synchronization of a Rotor-Pendulum System considering the Multi-DOF Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Hou


    Full Text Available This work is a continuation for our published literature for vibration synchronization. A new mechanism, two rotors coupled with a pendulum rod in a multi-DOF vibration system, is proposed to implement coupling synchronization, and the dynamics equation of mechanism is derived by Lagrange equation. In addition, the coupling relationship between the vibrobody and the pendulum rod is ascertained with the Laplace transformation method, based on the dimensionless equation of the dynamics system. The Poincare method is employed to study the synchronization state between the two unbalanced rotors, which is converted into that of existence and the stability of solutions for synchronization-balance equations. The obtained results are supported by computer simulations. It is demonstrated that the values of the spring stiffness coefficient, the length of the pendulum, and the angular installation of the pendulum are important parameters with respect to the synchronous behavior in the rotor-pendulum system.

  11. Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli QIAO


    Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.

  12. High Accuracy ab Initio Calculations of Rotational-Vibrational Levels of the HCN/HNC System. (United States)

    Makhnev, Vladimir Yu; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A; Zobov, Nikolai F; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Polyansky, Oleg L


    Highly accurate ab initio calculations of vibrational and rotational-vibrational energy levels of the HCN/HNC (hydrogen cyanide/hydrogen isocyanide) isomerising system are presented for several isotopologues. All-electron multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) electronic structure calculations were performed using basis sets up to aug-cc-pCV6Z on a grid of 1541 geometries. The ab initio energies were used to produce an analytical potential energy surface (PES) describing the two minima simultaneously. An adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) correction surface as well as a relativistic correction surface were also calculated. These surfaces were used to compute vibrational and rotational-vibrational energy levels up to 25 000 cm -1 which reproduce the extensive set of experimentally known HCN/HNC levels with a root-mean-square deviation σ = 1.5 cm -1 . We studied the effect of nonadiabatic effects by introducing opportune radial and angular corrections to the nuclear kinetic energy operator. Empirical determination of two nonadiabatic parameters results in observed energies up to 7000 cm -1 for four HCN isotopologues (HCN, DCN, H 13 CN, and HC 15 N) being reproduced with σ = 0.37 cm -1 . The height of the isomerization barrier, the isomerization energy and the dissociation energy were computed using a number of models; our best results are 16 809.4, 5312.8, and 43 729 cm -1 , respectively.

  13. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  14. Minimum variance control for mitigation of vibrations in adaptive optics systems. (United States)

    Escárate, Pedro; Carvajal, Rodrigo; Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Katie; Agüero, Juan C


    In this paper, we address the design of a minimum variance controller (MVC) for the mitigation of vibrations in modern telescope adaptive optics (AO) systems. It is widely accepted that a main source of non-turbulent perturbations is the mechanical resonance induced by the wind or the instrumentation systems, such as fans and cooling pumps. To adequately mitigate vibrations, the application of frequency-based controllers has been considered in the past decade. In this work, we express the system model in terms of the tracking of a zero-input signal via the MVC. We show that the MVC is an equivalent representation of the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller for the AO system. We also show that by developing the MVC, we can obtain different expressions, in terms of transfer functions, that offer insights into the behavior and expected performance of the controller in the frequency domain. In addition, we analyze the impact of the accuracy of the system and perturbations model on the mitigation of vibrations.

  15. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen


    Full Text Available Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as vibration meter, signal acquisition card, data processing platform, and machine control program. Meanwhile, based on the difference between the mechanical configuration and the desired characteristics, it is difficult for a vibration detection system to directly choose the commercially available kits. For this reason, it was also selected as an item for self-development research, along with the exploration of a significant parametric study that is sufficient to represent the machine characteristics and states. However, we also launched the development of functional parts of the system simultaneously. Finally, we entered the conditions and the parameters generated from both the states and the characteristics into the developed system to verify its feasibility.

  16. IEEE 802.11-Based Wireless Sensor System for Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Uchimura


    Full Text Available Network-based wireless sensing has become an important area of research and various new applications for remote sensing are expected to emerge. One of the promising applications is structural health monitoring of building or civil engineering structure and it often requires vibration measurement. For the vibration measurement via wireless network, time synchronization is indispensable. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed time synchronized wireless sensor network system. The system employs IEEE 802.11 standard-based TSF-counter and sends the measured data with the counter value. TSF based synchronization enables consistency on common clock among different wireless nodes. We consider the scale effect on synchronization accuracy and evaluated the effect by taking beacon collisions into account. The scalability issue by numerical simulations is also studied. This paper also introduces a newly developed wireless sensing system and the hardware and software specifications are introduced. The experiments were conducted in a reinforced concrete building to evaluate synchronization accuracy. The developed system was also applied for a vibration measurement of a 22-story steel structured high rise building. The experimental results showed that the system performed more than sufficiently.

  17. Collaboratively Adaptive Vibration Sensing System for High-fidelity Monitoring of Structural Responses Induced by Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijia Pan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.

  18. Study on hydraulic exciting vibration due to flexible valve in pump system with method of characteristics in the time domain (United States)

    Yu, Y. H.; Liu, D.; Yang, X. F.; Si, J.


    To analyse the flow characteristics of leakage as well as the mechanism of selfexcited vibration in valves, the method of characteristics was used to assess the effect of flexible valve leakage on the self-excited vibration in water-supply pump system. Piezometric head in upstream of the valve as a function of time was obtained. Two comparative schemes were proposed to simulate the process of self-excited vibration by changing the length, the material of the pipeline and the leakage of valves in the above pump system. It is shown that the length and material of the pipe significantly affect the amplitude and cycle of self-excited vibration as well as the increasing rate of the vibration amplitude. In addition, the leakage of the valve has little influence on the amplitude and cycle of self-excited vibration, but has a significant effect on the increasing rate of vibration amplitude. A pipe explosion accident may occur without the inhibiting of self-excited vibration.

  19. Distance Protection of Cross-Bonded Transmission Cable-Systems


    Bak, Claus Leth; F. Jensen, Christian


    In this paper the problems of protecting a cross-bonded cable system using distance protection are analysed. The combination of the desire to expand the high voltage transmission grid and the public's opinion towards new installations of overhead lines (OHL), more and more transmission cable systems are being laid around the world. Differential protection is often used for the main protection of cables. As a backup protection, distance protection is very often the preferred choice. Therefore,...

  20. Active vibration and noise control of vibro-acoustic system by using PID controller (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaojun; Huang, Ren; Qiu, Zhiping


    Active control simulation of the acoustic and vibration response of a vibro-acoustic cavity of an airplane based on a PID controller is presented. A full numerical vibro-acoustic model is developed by using an Eulerian model, which is a coupled model based on the finite element formulation. The reduced order model, which is used to design the closed-loop control system, is obtained by the combination of modal expansion and variable substitution. Some physical experiments are made to validate and update the full-order and the reduced-order numerical models. Optimization of the actuator placement is employed in order to get an effective closed-loop control system. For the controller design, an iterative method is used to determine the optimal parameters of the PID controller. The process is illustrated by the design of an active noise and vibration control system for a cavity structure. The numerical and experimental results show that a PID-based active control system can effectively suppress the noise inside the cavity using a sound pressure signal as the controller input. It is also possible to control the noise by suppressing the vibration of the structure using the structural displacement signal as the controller input. For an airplane cavity structure, considering the issue of space-saving, the latter is more suitable.

  1. An approach to compatible multiple nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy measurements using a commercial sum frequency generation system. (United States)

    Ye, Shuji; Wei, Feng


    In this paper, we designed a compatible multiple nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy system that can be used for recording infrared-visible sum frequency generation vibrational spectra (SFG) and infrared-infrared-visible three-pump-field four-wave-mixing (IIV-TPF-FWM) spectra using a commercial EKSPLA SFG system. This is the first time IIV-TPF-FWM signals were obtained using picosecond laser pulses. We have applied this compatible system to study the surface and vibrational structures of riboflavin molecules (also known as vitamin B2). The SFG spectra of eight polarization combinations have non-vanishing signals. The signals with incoming s-polarized IR are relatively weaker than the signals with incoming p-polarized IR. Under the double resonant conditions, the SFG signals of the conjugated tricyclic ring are greatly enhanced. For the IIV-TPF-FWM spectra with incoming p-polarized IR, only the sspp and pppp polarization combinations have non-vanishing signals. The IIV-TPF-FWM spectra show a very strong peak at 1585 cm(-1) that is mainly dominated by the N(5)-C(4a) stretch. The method developed in this study will be helpful for researchers, either using a home-built or commercial (EKSPLA) SFG system, to obtain independent and complementary measurements for SFG spectroscopy and more detailed structural information of interfacial molecules.

  2. Strategic Investment in Protection in Networked Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leduc, Matt V


    We study the incentives that agents have to invest in costly protection against cascading failures in networked systems. Applications include vaccination, computer security and airport security. Agents are connected through a network and can fail either intrinsically or as a result of the failure of a subset of their neighbors. We characterize the equilibrium based on an agent's failure probability and derive conditions under which equilibrium strategies are monotone in degree (i.e. in how connected an agent is on the network). We show that different kinds of applications (e.g. vaccination, airport security) lead to very different equilibrium patterns of investments in protection, with important welfare and risk implications. Our equilibrium concept is flexible enough to allow for comparative statics in terms of network properties and we show that it is also robust to the introduction of global externalities (e.g. price feedback, congestion).

  3. Vibratory synchronization transmission of a cylindrical roller in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu


    In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.

  4. Transient Vibration of Gyroscopic Systems with Unsteady Superposed Motion (United States)

    Wickert, J. A.


    The equation of motion for a gyroscopic system with unsteady superposed motion is derived for the prototypical problem in which motion of an oscillating particle is measured relative to a non-inertial frame. The resulting coefficient matrices are time-dependent, and skew-symmetric acceleration terms are present both as Coriolis acceleration and as a component of net stiffness. Such mathematical structure is also demonstrated in the context of other unsteady gyroscopic systems, including flexible media that translate with time-dependent speed. Following the asymptotic approach of Krylov, Bogoliubov, and Mitropolsky, a perturbation method is developed for the case in which the superposed motion varies slowly when viewed on the time scale of the system's natural periods of oscillation. First-order approximations for the modal amplitude and phase are obtained in closed form. The method is illustrated through two examples of technical interest: a two-degree-of-freedom model of a rotating shaft, and a distributed parameter model of a moving tape or web.

  5. Investigations on Elastic and Damping Characteristics of Vibration Isolation Systems While Using Factor Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Reysina


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the investigations on elastic and damping characteristics of a vibration isolation system. Adequate mathematical models of relative root-mean-square values for acceleration of antivibration mass have been obtained depending on elastic and viscous constituents. The paper  reveals  that the proposed method of multiple correlation is the most rational one for the analysis of power  fluids used in the electro-rheological dampers.

  6. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz


    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  7. The Development of Vibration System for Applying Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) to the Supraspinatus Muscle


    伊東, 大輝; 沼野, 智一; 水原, 和行; 高本, 考一; 大西, 孝明; 西条, 寿夫


    Palpation is a standard clinical tool to diagnose abnormal stiffness changes in soft tissues. However, it is difficult to palpate the supraspinatus muscle because it locates under the trapezius muscle. The magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uses harmonic mechanical excitation to quantitatively measure the stiffness (shear modulus) of both the superficial and deep tissues. The purpose of this study was to build a vibration system for applying the MRE to the supraspinatus muscle. In this stu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aydın


    Full Text Available Vibration damping and sound insulation are essential for all vehicles. Because moving parts and external factors such as wind, tracks, etc. can cause vibration and noise. Wave which is a dynamic force, drive system and HVAC systems are the main vibration and noise generators in a vessel. These all can affect comfort level on board yachts. Different types of isolators and absorbers such as sylomer®, cork panels, etc. are used to reduce these effects. Comfort level on board yachts can be increased using these types of materials. Otherwise, discomfort of passenger and crew may increase. These materials not only reduce structure-borne and air-borne noise and vibrations from waves, air, engines, pumps, generators and HVAC systems but also protect vibration sensitive interior or fittings. Noise and vibration evaluation is an important issue for this reason. And, measurement tools must be used not only to minimize this problem but also fulfill the regulations such as “comfort class”. Besides, providing quiet and low vibration increases the costs too. From this point of view, this study aims to explain clearly how noise and vibration damping can be done in a yacht.

  9. A fuzzy robust control scheme for vibration suppression of a nonlinear electromagnetic-actuated flexible system (United States)

    Tavakolpour-Saleh, A. R.; Haddad, M. A.


    In this paper, a novel robust vibration control scheme, namely, one degree-of-freedom fuzzy active force control (1DOF-FAFC) is applied to a nonlinear electromagnetic-actuated flexible plate system. First, the flexible plate with clamped-free-clamped-free (CFCF) boundary conditions is modeled and simulated. Then, the validity of the simulation platform is evaluated through experiment. A nonlinear electromagnetic actuator is developed and experimentally modeled through a parametric system identification scheme. Next, the obtained nonlinear model of the actuator is applied to the simulation platform and performance of the proposed control technique in suppressing unwanted vibrations is investigated via simulation. A fuzzy controller is applied to the robust 1DOF control scheme to tune the controller gain using acceleration feedback. Consequently, an intelligent self-tuning vibration control strategy based on an inexpensive acceleration sensor is proposed in the paper. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed acceleration-based control technique owns the benefits of the conventional velocity feedback controllers. Finally, an experimental rig is developed to investigate the effectiveness of the 1DOF-FAFC scheme. It is found that the first, second, and third resonant modes of the flexible system are attenuated up to 74%, 81%, and 90% respectively through which the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is affirmed.

  10. Bifurcations and chaos of a vibration isolation system with magneto-rheological damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang


    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR damper possesses inherent hysteretic characteristics. We investigate the resulting nonlinear behaviors of a two degree-of-freedom (2-DoF MR vibration isolation system under harmonic external excitation. A MR damper is identified by employing the modified Bouc-wen hysteresis model. By numerical simulation, we characterize the nonlinear dynamic evolution of period-doubling, saddle node bifurcating and inverse period-doubling using bifurcation diagrams of variations in frequency with a fixed amplitude of the harmonic excitation. The strength of chaos is determined by the Lyapunov exponent (LE spectrum. Semi-physical experiment on the 2-DoF MR vibration isolation system is proposed. We trace the time history and phase trajectory under certain values of frequency of the harmonic excitation to verify the nonlinear dynamical evolution of period-doubling bifurcations to chaos. The largest LEs computed with the experimental data are also presented, confirming the chaotic motion in the experiment. We validate the chaotic motion caused by the hysteresis of the MR damper, and show the transitions between distinct regimes of stable motion and chaotic motion of the 2-DoF MR vibration isolation system for variations in frequency of external excitation.

  11. Optimized design of suspension systems for hand-arm transmitted vibration reduction (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco


    This paper describes a systematic approach for optimizing suspension systems to reduce the vibrations transmitted to workers by hand-held power tools. The optimization is based on modeling tool-operator interactions using a mobility scheme. The tool is modeled as a vibration generator, and its internal impedance is included. A hand-arm impedance matrix is used to model the operator upper limbs. The mobility model is used to identify the optimal suspension characteristics, which in our study were the set of parameters that minimizes the frequency-weighted acceleration at the hand-tool interface. Different handling conditions (one and two hands) and different working cycles with the same tools can be included in the optimization process. The constraints derived from the limitation on the increase in the tool mass and the static deflection of the mounting system under the working loads are also considered. The proposed method has been applied to the reduction of the vibrations transmitted to the operator by a small pneumatic hammer. The designed system reduced the worker's exposure so that it is within the limits of the EU directive. The agreement between the model predictions and the measured suspension performances validates the effectiveness of this approach.

  12. A synergistic method for vibration suppression of an elevator mechatronic system (United States)

    Knezevic, Bojan Z.; Blanusa, Branko; Marcetic, Darko P.


    Modern elevators are complex mechatronic systems which have to satisfy high performance in precision, safety and ride comfort. Each elevator mechatronic system (EMS) contains a mechanical subsystem which is characterized by its resonant frequency. In order to achieve high performance of the whole system, the control part of the EMS inevitably excites resonant circuits causing the occurrence of vibration. This paper proposes a synergistic solution based on the jerk control and the upgrade of the speed controller with a band-stop filter to restore lost ride comfort and speed control caused by vibration. The band-stop filter eliminates the resonant component from the speed controller spectra and jerk control provides operating of the speed controller in a linear mode as well as increased ride comfort. The original method for band-stop filter tuning based on Goertzel algorithm and Kiefer search algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to generate the speed reference trajectory which can be defined by different shapes and amplitudes of jerk, a unique generalized model is proposed. The proposed algorithm is integrated in the power drive control algorithm and implemented on the digital signal processor. Through experimental verifications on a scale down prototype of the EMS it has been verified that only synergistic effect of controlling jerk and filtrating the reference torque can completely eliminate vibrations.

  13. Dynamics of coupled nonlinear oscillators: The formation of long-lived vibrational states in the case of molecular systems (United States)

    Koval'skaya, G. A.; Petrov, A. K.


    Nonlinear vibrations in a closed system of coupled nonlinear oscillators are studied using acetylene type molecules as an example. A criterion for the stable existence of long-lived vibrational states—local modes—in one of the oscillators is obtained. It is shown that the disappearance of a local mode, as well as its appearance, proceeds abruptly, and the mechanism of stabilization of these excitations is due to the presence or absence of internal resonances of an oscillatory system such as any polyatomic molecule. Energy values needed to excite vibrations in which local modes can appear are determined. It is shown that calculation results agree with experimental data.

  14. Errors in the estimation method for the rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz


    In recent years the problem of the mechanical vibrations impact in adaptive optics (AO) systems has been renewed. These signals are damped sinusoidal signals and have deleterious effect on the system. One of software solutions to reject the vibrations is an adaptive method called AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) where the procedure has three steps: estimation of perturbation parameters, estimation of the frequency response of the plant, update the reference signal to reject/minimalize the vibration. In the first step a very important problem is the estimation method. A very accurate and fast (below 10 ms) estimation method of these three parameters has been presented in several publications in recent years. The method is based on using the spectrum interpolation and MSD time windows and it can be used to estimate multifrequency signals. In this paper the estimation method is used in the AVC method to increase the system performance. There are several parameters that affect the accuracy of obtained results, e.g. CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, b - number of ADC bits, γ - damping ratio of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value for systematic error is approximately 10^-10 Hz/Hz for N = 2048 and CiR = 0.1. This paper presents equations that can used to estimate maximum systematic errors for given values of H, CiR and N before the start of the estimation process.

  15. Theoretical and Numerical Experiences on a Test Rig for Active Vibration Control of Mechanical Systems with Moving Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinchi


    Full Text Available Active control of vibrations in mechanical systems has recently benefited of the remarkable development of robust control techniques. These control techniques are able to guarantee performances in spite of unavoidable modeling errors. They have been successfully codified and implemented for vibrating structures whose uncertain parameters could be assumed to be time-invariant. Unfortunately a wide class of mechanical systems, such as machine tools with carriage motion realized by a ball-screw, are characterized by time varying modal parameters. The focus of this paper is on modeling and controlling the vibrations of such systems. A test rig for active vibration control is presented. An analytical model of the test rig is synthesized starting by design data. Through experimental modal analysis, parametric identification and updating procedures, the model has been refined and a control system has been synthesized.

  16. Development of Vibration-Based Piezoelectric Raindrop Energy Harvesting System (United States)

    Wong, Chin Hong; Dahari, Zuraini


    The trend of finding new means to harvest energy has triggered numerous researches to explore the potential of raindrop energy harvesting. This paper presents an investigation on raindrop energy harvesting which compares the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) cantilever and bridge structure transducers and the development of a raindrop energy harvesting system. The parameters which contribute to the output voltage such as droplet size, droplets released at specific heights and dimensions of PVDF transducers are analyzed. Based on the experimental results, the outcomes have shown that the bridge structure transducer generated a higher voltage than the cantilever. Several dimensions have been tested and it was found that the 30 mm × 4 mm × 25 μm bridge structure transducer generated a relatively high AC open-circuit voltage, which is 4.22 V. The power generated by the bridge transducer is 18 μW across a load of 330 kΩ. The transducer is able to drive up a standard alternative current (AC) to direct current (DC) converter (full-wave bridge rectifier). It generated a DC voltage, V DC of 8.7 mV and 229 pW across a 330 kΩ resistor per drop. It is also capable to generate 9.3 nJ in 20 s from an actual rain event.

  17. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system. (United States)

    Kihlberg, S; Attebrant, M; Gemne, G; Kjellberg, A


    The purpose of this study was to compare various effects on the hand-arm system of vibration exposure from a chipping hammer and a grinder with the same frequency weighted acceleration. Grip and push forces were measured and monitored during the exposure. The various effects were: muscle activity (measured with surface electrodes), discomfort ratings for different parts of the hand-arm system (made during and after exposure), and vibration perception threshold (for 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the exposure). No increase in muscle activity due to exposure to vibration was found in the hand muscle studied. In the forearm, conversely, there was an increase in both muscle studied. For the upper arm the muscle activity only increased when exposed to impact vibration. Subjective ratings in the hand and shift in vibration perception threshold were effected more by the grinder than the hammer exposure. These results show that the reaction of the hand-arm system to vibration varies with frequency quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They do not support the notion that one single frequency weighted curve would be valid for the different health effects of hand-arm vibration (vascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychophysiological).

  18. Vibration Noise Modeling for Measurement While Drilling System Based on FOGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Zhang


    Full Text Available Aiming to improve survey accuracy of Measurement While Drilling (MWD based on Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs in the long period, the external aiding sources are fused into the inertial navigation by the Kalman filter (KF method. The KF method needs to model the inertial sensors’ noise as the system noise model. The system noise is modeled as white Gaussian noise conventionally. However, because of the vibration while drilling, the noise in gyros isn’t white Gaussian noise any more. Moreover, an incorrect noise model will degrade the accuracy of KF. This paper developed a new approach for noise modeling on the basis of dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR. In contrast to conventional white noise models, the new noise model contains both the white noise and the color noise. With this new noise model, the KF for the MWD was designed. Finally, two vibration experiments have been performed. Experimental results showed that the proposed vibration noise modeling approach significantly improved the estimated accuracies of the inertial sensor drifts. Compared the navigation results based on different noise model, with the DAVAR noise model, the position error and the toolface angle error are reduced more than 90%. The velocity error is reduced more than 65%. The azimuth error is reduced more than 50%.

  19. Vibration reduction using autoparametric resonance in a high-Tc superconducting levitation system (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Takazakura, Toyoki; Sakaguchi, Ryunosuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko


    High-Tc superconducting levitation systems have very small damping and enable stable levitation without control. Therefore, they can be applied to various kinds of application. However, there are some problems that small damping produces large vibration and nonlinearity of magnetic force can generate complicated phenomena. Accordingly, analysis of these phenomena and reduction of vibration occurring in the system are important. In this study, we examined reduction of vibration without using any absorbers, but utilizing autoparametric resonance caused by nonlinear coupling between vertical oscillation and horizontal oscillation. We conducted numerical analysis and experiments in order to investigate motions of a rigid bar levitated by the electromagnetic force from high-Tc superconductors. As a result, if the ratio of the natural frequency of vertical oscillation and that of horizontal oscillation is two to one, the vertical oscillation decreases while the horizontal oscillation is excited. Thus, it was confirmed that the amplitude of a primary resonance can be reduced by occurrence of autoparametric resonance without using any absorbers.

  20. Dynamic vibrations in wind energy systems: Application to vertical axis wind turbine (United States)

    Mabrouk, Imen Bel; El Hami, Abdelkhalak; Walha, Lassâad; Zghal, Bacem; Haddar, Mohamed


    Dynamic analysis of Darrieus turbine bevel spur gear subjected to transient aerodynamic loads is carried out in the present study. The aerodynamic torque is obtained by solving the two dimensional unsteady incompressible Navies Stocks equation with the k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model. The results are presented for several values of tip speed ratio. The two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is validated with experimental results. The optimum tip speed ratio is achieved, giving the best overall performance. In this study, we developed a lamped mass dynamic model with 14 degrees of freedom. This model is excited by external and internal issues sources. The main factors of these excitations are the periodic fluctuations of the gear meshes' stiffness and the unsteady aerodynamic torque oscillations. The vibration responses are obtained in time and frequency domains. The originality of our work is the correlation between the complexity of the aerodynamic phenomenon and the non-stationary dynamics vibration of the mechanical gearing system. The effect of the rotational speed on the dynamic behavior of the Darrieus turbine is also discussed. The present study shows that the variation of rotor rotational speed directly affects the torque production. However, there is a small change in the dynamic vibration of the studied gearing system.

  1. Experimental Active Vibration Control in Truss Structures Considering Uncertainties in System Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Domingues Bueno


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of algorithms for robust active vibration control in flexible structures considering uncertainties in system parameters. It became an area of enormous interest, mainly due to the countless demands of optimal performance in mechanical systems as aircraft, aerospace, and automotive structures. An important and difficult problem for designing active vibration control is to get a representative dynamic model. Generally, this model can be obtained using finite element method (FEM or an identification method using experimental data. Actuators and sensors may affect the dynamics properties of the structure, for instance, electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material must be considered in FEM formulation for flexible and lightly damping structure. The nonlinearities and uncertainties involved in these structures make it a difficult task, mainly for complex structures as spatial truss structures. On the other hand, by using an identification method, it is possible to obtain the dynamic model represented through a state space realization considering this coupling. This paper proposes an experimental methodology for vibration control in a 3D truss structure using PZT wafer stacks and a robust control algorithm solved by linear matrix inequalities.

  2. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan


    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  3. Investigation of an energy harvesting MR damper in a vibration control system (United States)

    Sapiński, Bogdan; Rosół, Maciej; Węgrzynowski, Marcin


    In this paper the authors investigate the performance of an energy harvesting MR damper (EH-MRD) employed in a semi-active vibration control system (SVCS) and used in a single DOF mechanical structure configuration. Main components of the newly proposed SCVS include the MR damper and an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester based on the Faraday’s law (EVEH) that converts vibration energy into electrical energy and delivers electrical power supplying the MR damper. The main objective of the study is to indicate that the SVCS, controlled by the specially designed embedded system, is feasible and presents good performance at the present stage of the research. The work describes investigation the unique features of the EH-MRD, i.e. its self-powering and self-sensing capabilities. Two cases were considered and the testing was done accordingly. In the case 1, only the self-powered capability was investigated. It was found out that harvested energy is sufficient to power the EH-MRD damper and to adjust it to structural vibration. The results confirmed the adequacy of the SVCS and demonstrated a significant reduction of the resonance peak. In the case 2, both the self-powering and self-sensing capabilities were investigated. Due to the self-sensing capability, the SCVS does not require any sensor. It appeared that thus harvested energy is sufficient to power the EH-MRD and enables self-sensing action since the signal of voltage induced by EVEH agrees with the relative velocity signal across the device. Similar to case 1, the resonance peak is significantly reduced.

  4. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (United States)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken


    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  5. Vibration Effects of Nonclassically Damped Building-Piping Systems Subjected to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongHee Ryu


    Full Text Available Piping leakage can occur at T-joint, elbows, valves, or nozzles in nuclear power plants and nonnuclear power plants such as petrochemical plants when subjected to extreme loads and such leakage of piping systems can also lead to fire or explosion. For example, leakage of sodium, toxic gases, or nitrogen in hospitals can cause man-made hazards. The primary objective of this research is to understand the vibration effects due to classical/nonclassical damping with building-piping systems under extreme loads. The current evaluation employed finite-element analysis to calculate the effects of the responses of classically and nonclassically damped building-piping systems. Classical and nonclassical damping matrices for a coupled primary-secondary system were developed based on the Rayleigh equation. A total of 10 selected ground motions were applied to single degree of freedom (SDOF primary-SDOF secondary (2-DOF coupled systems in which the ratios of the natural frequencies between the primary and secondary systems ranged between 0.9 and 1.1. It revealed that the vibration effect of nonclassical damping was significant where the natural frequencies of the two systems were nearly tuned. For piping-material nonlinearity, the effects of nonclassical damping on the result forces of piping systems were not significantly different from those of classical damping.



    Inna V. Herasymenko


    This article focuses on data protection in the support systems of distance learning. Different security tools such as hardware, software, transformation security and organizational protection are considered. There are analyzed key places that require protection and suggested possible options for their protection, such as the use of CAPTCHA for registration, protection for the IP-address and service of copy protection. Testing of the proposed security tools was piloted in terms of e-learning c...

  7. Vibration attenuation of a continuous rotor-blisk-journal bearing system employing smooth nonlinear energy sinks (United States)

    Bab, Saeed; Khadem, S. E.; Shahgholi, Majid; Abbasi, Amirhassan


    The current paper investigates the effects of a number of smooth nonlinear energy sinks (NESs) located on the disk and bearings on the vibration attenuation of a rotor-blisk-journal bearing system under excitation of a mass eccentricity force. The blade and rotor are modeled using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The nonlinear energy sinks on the bearing have a linear damping and an essentially nonlinear stiffness. The nonlinear energy sinks on the disk have a linear damping, linear stiffness, and an essentially nonlinear stiffness. It can be seen that the linear stiffness of the NESs on the disk is eliminated by the negative stiffness induced by the centrifugal force, and the collection of the NESs can be tuned to a required rotational speed of the rotor by varying the linear stiffness of the NESs. Furthermore, the remained stiffness of the NESs on the disk after elimination of their linear stiffness, would be essentially a nonlinear (nonlinearizable) one. Two nonlinear energy sinks in the vertical axes are positioned on the bearing housing and nnd NESs are located on the perimeter of the disk. The equations of motion are extracted using the extended Hamilton principle. The modal coordinates and complex transformations are employed to decrease the number of equations of motion. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the nonlinear energy sinks and its objective function is considered as minimizing the vibration of the rotating system within an operating speed range. In order to examine the periodic and non-periodic solutions of the system, time history, bifurcation diagram, Poincaré map, phase portrait, Lyapunov exponent, and power spectra analyses are performed. System shows periodic and quasi-periodic motions for different values of the system parameters. It is shown that the NESs on the disk and bearings have almost local effects on vibration reduction of rotating system. In addition, the optimum NESs remove the instability region from the

  8. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of single-sided and single-mass crushing system under impact and vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhuan NI


    Full Text Available To research and develop efficient vibrating type crusher, a single-sided dynamic model is established for the impact and vibration crushing system, and the differential equation of vibration is set up with Newton's law for dynamic analysis. By making amplitude frequency curve, hysteretic impact force curve and energy absorption curve, the influence of which on the system response is analyzed. Based on the conclusion and using numerical method, the primary forced resonance of the system is calculated, and the time history of displacement, velocity and acceleration is obtained, showing that the motion mass movement is not a simple harmonic motion, the nonlinear impact force is one of the factors that influences the vibration system, and the influence rules of clearance, vibration frequency on the amplitude frequency curve, impact force and energy absorption are also obtained. The gap between the material and the broken head should be kept as small as possible so as to achieve a better crushing effect with a smaller excitation force, and the system is best to work in the main resonant area to get a big impact. The research result provides reference for further study of rules and mechanism of the vibration systems.

  9. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  10. Real-time observation of vibrational revival in the fastest molecular system (United States)

    Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Feuerstein, B.; Zrost, K.; Schröter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.


    After preparing a coherent vibrational wave packet in the hydrogen molecular ion by ionizing neutral H 2 molecules with a 6.5 fs, 760 nm laser pulse at 3 × 10 14 W/cm 2, we map its spatio-temporal evolution by the fragmentation induced with a second 6.5 fs laser pulse of doubled intensity. In this proof-of-principle experiment, we visualize the oscillations of this most fundamental molecular system, observe a dephasing of the vibrational wave packet and its subsequent revival. Whereas the experimental data exhibit an overall qualitative agreement with the results of a simple numerical simulation, noticeable discrepancy is found in the characteristic revival time. The most likely reasons for this disagreement originate from the simplifications used in the theoretical model, which assumes a Franck-Condon transition induced by the pump pulse with subsequent field-free propagation of the H2+ vibrational wave packet, and neglects the influence of the rotational motion.

  11. Vehicle Tracking and Counting System in Dusty Weather with Vibrating Camera Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Yaghoobi Ershadi


    Full Text Available Traffic surveillance systems are interesting to many researchers to improve the traffic control and reduce the risk caused by accidents. In this area, many published works are only concerned about vehicle detection in normal conditions. The camera may vibrate due to wind or bridge movement. Detection and tracking of vehicles are a very difficult task when we have bad weather conditions in winter (snowy, rainy, windy, etc. or dusty weather in arid and semiarid regions or at night, among others. In this paper, we proposed a method to track and count vehicles in dusty weather with a vibrating camera. For this purpose, we used a background subtraction based strategy mixed with extra processing to segment vehicles. In this paper, the extra processing included the analysis of the headlight size, location, and area. In our work, tracking was done between consecutive frames via a particle filter to detect the vehicle and pair the headlights using the connected component analysis. So, vehicle counting was performed based on the pairing result. Our proposed method was tested on several video surveillance records in different conditions such as in dusty or foggy weather, with a vibrating camera, and on roads with medium-level traffic volumes. The results showed that the proposed method performed better than other previously published methods, including the Kalman filter or Gaussian model, in different traffic conditions.

  12. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei


    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  13. Vibration absorption in systems with a nonlinear energy sink: Nonlinear damping (United States)

    Starosvetsky, Y.; Gendelman, O. V.


    In this work, response regimes are investigated in a system comprising of a linear oscillator (subject to harmonic excitation) and a nonlinear energy sink (NES) with nonlinear damping characteristics. An analytical technique for the treatment of certain class of nonlinear damping functions is developed. Special attention is paid to the case of piecewise-quadratic damping, motivated by possible applications. It is demonstrated that the NES with a properly tuned piecewise-quadratic damping element allows complete elimination of undesirable periodic regimes. In this way, an efficient system of vibration absorption is obtained, and its performance can overcome that of a tuned mass damper (TMD). Numerical results agree satisfactorily with the analytical predictions.

  14. Coupled transverse and torsional vibrations in a mechanical system with two identical beams (United States)

    Vlase, S.; Marin, M.; Scutaru, M. L.; Munteanu, R.


    The paper aims to study a plane system with bars, with certain symmetries. Such problems can be encountered frequently in industry and civil engineering. Considerations related to the economy of the design process, constructive simplicity, cost and logistics make the use of identical parts a frequent procedure. The paper aims to determine the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenmodes for transverse and torsional vibrations of a mechanical system where two of the three component bars are identical. The determination of these properties allows the calculus effort and the computation time and thus increases the accuracy of the results in such matters.

  15. A Case with Systemic Sclerosis Following Exposure To Silica and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Ürkmez


    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory, vascular and sclerotic changes in the internal organs. Although the etiology is not known with certainty; silica dust, which is one of the environmental risk factors, can lead to scleroderma by some immunological changes. In this case, a mine worker, who worked in a mercury mine during a 15-year period, developed systemic sclerosis due to exposure to chronic silica and vibration, is presented. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 45-7

  16. Uncertainty modeling in vibration, control and fuzzy analysis of structural systems

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, Achintya; Ayyub, Bilal M


    This book gives an overview of the current state of uncertainty modeling in vibration, control, and fuzzy analysis of structural and mechanical systems. It is a coherent compendium written by leading experts and offers the reader a sampling of exciting research areas in several fast-growing branches in this field. Uncertainty modeling and analysis are becoming an integral part of system definition and modeling in many fields. The book consists of ten chapters that report the work of researchers, scientists and engineers on theoretical developments and diversified applications in engineering sy

  17. Vibration control of rotor-bearing system by controlled squeeze-film damper bearings (United States)

    He, Erming; Gu, Jialiu


    A new vibration control scheme for rotor-bearing systems is presented which offers many advantages over the scheme proposed by Gu (1990). Due to the nonlinear state feedback, closed-loop control becomes possible. Thus control can be readily adjusted in accordance with transient state information. Optimal structure parameters are determined by the optimal control law. The control force is applied on line; by merely adjusting CSFDB structure parameters, control forces can be applied to the system. The feasibility of the present design is confirmed by simulation, which is performed for a flexible Jeffcott rotor elastically supported at both ends on identical CSFDBs.

  18. The Design of Vibration Sensing System Used for the Internet of Things (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Ma, Xuejie


    A vibration sensing system used for the Internet of Things is presented in this paper. Using the distributed feedback fiber lasers (DFB-FL) collects external sound signals and digital phase generated carrier (PGC) method realizes wavelength demodulation. The platform is designed based on an open architecture and B/S (Browser/Server) technology which makes it an ideal platform to be operated under a network environment. The sensing system is no power supply and could be monitored anytime and anywhere which is the requirement of Internet of things.

  19. Selective confinement of vibrations in composite systems with alternate quasi-regular sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalban, A. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Division de Optica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Velasco, V.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Tutor, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Velicia, F.J. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28080 Madrid (Spain)


    We have studied the atom displacements and the vibrational frequencies of 1D systems formed by combinations of Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro quasi-regular stacks and their alternate ones. The materials are described by nearest-neighbor force constants and the corresponding atom masses, particularized to the Al, Ag systems. These structures exhibit differences in the frequency spectrum as compared to the original simple quasi-regular generations but the most important feature is the presence of separate confinement of the atom displacements in one of the sequences forming the total composite structure for different frequency ranges.

  20. Coupled transverse and torsional vibrations in a mechanical system with two identical beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vlase


    Full Text Available The paper aims to study a plane system with bars, with certain symmetries. Such problems can be encountered frequently in industry and civil engineering. Considerations related to the economy of the design process, constructive simplicity, cost and logistics make the use of identical parts a frequent procedure. The paper aims to determine the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenmodes for transverse and torsional vibrations of a mechanical system where two of the three component bars are identical. The determination of these properties allows the calculus effort and the computation time and thus increases the accuracy of the results in such matters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Stepanenko


    Full Text Available The paper contains a theoretical underpinning on creation of ultrasonic vibration concentrators based on annular elastic elements with non-circular (ellipse-like eccentric shape of internal contour. Shape of internal contour in polar coordinates is described by Fourier series relative to angular coordinate that consists of a constant term and first and second harmonics. An effect of geometric parameters of the concentrator on amplification factor and natural vibration frequencies has been investigated with the help of a finite element method. The paper reveals the possibility to control an amplification factor of annular concentrators while varying eccentricity of internal contour and mean value of cross-section thickness. The amplification factor satisfies a condition K < N, where N is thickness ratio of amplifier input and output sections, and it is decreasing with increase of vibration mode order. The similar condition has been satisfied for conical bar concentrator with the difference that in the case of bar concentrators an amplification is ensured due to variation of diameter and N will represent ratio of diameters. It has been proved that modification of internal contour shape makes it possible to carry out a wide-band tuning of natural frequencies of concentrator vibrations without alteration of its overall dimensions and substantial change of amplification factor, which is important for frequency matching of the concentrator and ultrasonic vibratory system. Advantages of the proposed concentrators include simplicity of design and manufacturing, small overall dimensions, possibility for natural frequency tuning by means of static load variation. The developed concentrators can find their application in ultrasonic devices and instruments for technological and medical purposes.

  2. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.


    Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the

  3. Vibration Isolation System for Cryocoolers of Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) Onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi) (United States)

    Takei, Yoh; Yasuda, Susumu; Ishimura, Kosei; Iwata, Naoko; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoichi; Ogawa, Mina; Sawada, Makoto; Kawano, Taro; Obara, Shingo; hide


    Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (named Hitomi after launch) is a micro-calorimeter-type spectrometer, installed in a dewar to be cooled at 50 mK. The energy resolution of the SXS engineering model suffered from micro-vibration from cryocoolers mounted on the dewar. This is mitigated for the flight model by introducing vibration isolation systems between the cryocoolers and the dewar. The detector performance of the flight model was verified before launch of the spacecraft in both ambient condition and thermal-vac condition, showing no detectable degradation in energy resolution. The in-orbit performance was also consistent with that on ground, indicating that the cryocoolers were not damaged by launch environment. The design and performance of the vibration isolation system along with the mechanism of how the micro-vibration could degrade the cryogenic detector is shown.

  4. Reliable Software Development for Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D; Dragu, M; Fuchsberger, K; Garnier, JC; Gorzawski, AA; Koza, M; Krol, K; Misiowiec, K; Stamos, K; Zerlauth, M


    The Controls software for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, with more than 150 millions lines of code, resides amongst the largest known code bases in the world1. Industry has been applying Agile software engineering techniques for more than two decades now, and the advantages of these techniques can no longer be ignored to manage the code base for large projects within the accelerator community. Furthermore, CERN is a particular environment due to the high personnel turnover and manpower limitations, where applying Agile processes can improve both, the codebase management as well as its quality. This paper presents the successful application of the Agile software development process Scrum for machine protection systems at CERN, the quality standards and infrastructure introduced together with the Agile process as well as the challenges encountered to adapt it to the CERN environment.

  5. Study on Frame Vibration Suppression Control Method for Position Sensorless drive System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


    Supharat, Suthep


    Permanent magnet synchronous motor has been widely used in variable speed drive system for various fields, such as industry, household applications, etc., The merits of PMSM are rugged construction, high efficiency, high torque to current ratio, low inertia, etc. Recently, PMSM driven air-conditioners and refrigerators are obviously increased. However, the compressors used in the air-conditioners have the problem that vibration occurs due to the torque pulsation. The frame vibration results i...

  6. Relaxation dynamics in quantum dissipative systems: The microscopic effect of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)


    We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It

  7. Charging power optimization for nonlinear vibration energy harvesting systems subjected to arbitrary, persistent base excitations (United States)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.


    The vibrations of mechanical systems and structures are often a combination of periodic and random motions. Emerging interest to exploit nonlinearities in vibration energy harvesting systems for charging microelectronics may be challenged by such reality due to the potential to transition between favorable and unfavorable dynamic regimes for DC power delivery. Therefore, a need exists to devise an optimization method whereby charging power from nonlinear energy harvesters remains maximized when excitation conditions are neither purely harmonic nor purely random, which have been the attention of past research. This study meets the need by building from an analytical approach that characterizes the dynamic response of nonlinear energy harvesting platforms subjected to combined harmonic and stochastic base accelerations. Here, analytical expressions are formulated and validated to optimize charging power while the influences of the relative proportions of excitation types are concurrently assessed. It is found that about a 2 times deviation in optimal resistive loads can reduce the charging power by 20% when the system is more prominently driven by harmonic base accelerations, whereas a greater proportion of stochastic excitation results in a 11% reduction in power for the same resistance deviation. In addition, the results reveal that when the frequency of a predominantly harmonic excitation deviates by 50% from optimal conditions the charging power reduces by 70%, whereas the same frequency deviation for a more stochastically dominated excitation reduce total DC power by only 20%. These results underscore the need for maximizing direct current power delivery for nonlinear energy harvesting systems in practical operating environments.

  8. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems. (United States)


    ..., underframes, metal jackets, insulation, and thermal protection. A complete record of each analysis shall be...) Systems that no longer require test verification. The Department maintains a list of thermal protection... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thermal protection systems. 179.18 Section 179.18...

  9. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong


    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  10. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H


    Full Text Available Vibration Test (GVT) System Presented at CSIR Research and Innovation Conference: 27 - 28 February 2006 DPSS Mr Louw van Zyl Mr Erik Wegman 27 February 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 Agenda • Introduction Why ground... stream_source_info VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9765 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Development of a Sine-Dwell Ground...

  11. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Hasnain, Aqib


    's rays directly impinging on the system. Heating rate of the lamps were calculated by knowing fraction of emitted energy in a wavelength interval and the filament temperature. This version of the model can be used to predict performance of the system under vacuum with extreme cold or hot conditions. Initial testing of the PTMS showed promise, and the thermal math model predicts even better performance in thermal vacuum testing. ii) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are required for vehicles which enter earth's atmosphere to protect from aerodynamic heating caused by the friction between the vehicle and atmospheric gases. Orion's heat shield design has two aspects which needed to be analyzed thermally: i) a small excess of adhesive used to bond the outer AVCOAT layer to the inner composite structure tends to seep from under the AVCOAT and form a small bead in between two bricks of AVCOAT, ii) a silicone rubber with different thermophysical properties than AVCOAT fills the gap between two bricks of AVCOAT. I created a thermal model using TD to determine temperature differences that are caused by these two features. To prevent false results, all TD models must be verified against something known. In this case, the TD model was correlated to CHAR, an ablation modelling software used to analyze TPS. Analyzing a node far from the concerning features, we saw that the TD model data match CHAR data, verifying the TD model. Next, the temperature of the silicone rubber as well as the bead of adhesive were analyzed to determine if they exceeded allowable temperatures. It was determined that these two features do not have a significant effect on the max temperature of the heat shield. This model can be modified to check temperatures at various locations of the heat shield where the composite thickness varies.

  12. Influence of high-frequency vibrations on the onset of convection in a two-layer system (United States)

    Zenkovskaya, Svetlana M.; Novosiadliy, Vasili A.


    This Note deals with the influence of high-frequency translational oscillations on the onset of convection in a two-layer system of weakly heterogeneous immiscible fluids with deformable interface. The averaging method is applied to the generalized Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations. Vibration-generated forces and tensions appear as the result. A transition to the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is made in the averaged equations. Analysis of averaged equations leads to the following conclusions. Horizontal vibrations are obtained not influencing the onset of convection, and in the cases of other directions the influence of vibration is determined by a single parameter, depending on velocity amplitude and direction. Vibration is shown to generate effective surface tension, smoothing the interface. Critical parameters are calculated for the case of homogeneous fluids. To cite this article: S.M. Zenkovskaya, V.A. Novosiadliy, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna V. Herasymenko


    Full Text Available This article focuses on data protection in the support systems of distance learning. Different security tools such as hardware, software, transformation security and organizational protection are considered. There are analyzed key places that require protection and suggested possible options for their protection, such as the use of CAPTCHA for registration, protection for the IP-address and service of copy protection. Testing of the proposed security tools was piloted in terms of e-learning course "Information Technologies of Systems Analysis".

  14. Model-free fuzzy control of a magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation system: analysis and experimental evaluation (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Li, Peidong; Wang, Yuan; Liao, Guanyao; Yu, Miao


    This paper addresses the problem of micro-vibration control of a precision vibration isolation system with a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator and fuzzy control strategy. Firstly, a polyurethane matrix MRE isolator working in the shear-compression mixed mode is introduced. The dynamic characteristic is experimentally tested, and the range of the frequency shift and the model parameters of the MRE isolator are obtained from experimental results. Secondly, a new semi-active control law is proposed, which uses isolation structure displacement and relative displacement between the isolation structure and base as the inputs. Considering the nonlinearity of the MRE isolator and the excitation uncertainty of an isolation system, the designed semi-active fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is independent of a system model and is robust. Finally, the numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the FLC with single-frequency and multiple-frequency excitation, respectively, and the experimental results show that the acceleration transmissibility is reduced by 54.04% at most, which verifies the effectiveness of the designed semi-active FLC. Moreover, the advantages of the approach are demonstrated in comparison to the passive control and ON-OFF control.

  15. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component (United States)

    Robertson, Bryan A.; Wilkerson, Delisa


    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data fiom two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMC-IRA design has completed all engineering and deliverable unit testing. P

  16. Running interfacial waves in a two-layer fluid system subject to longitudinal vibrations. (United States)

    Goldobin, D S; Pimenova, A V; Kovalevskaya, K V; Lyubimov, D V; Lyubimova, T P


    We study the waves at the interface between two thin horizontal layers of immiscible fluids subject to high-frequency horizontal vibrations. Previously, the variational principle for energy functional, which can be adopted for treatment of quasistationary states of free interface in fluid dynamical systems subject to vibrations, revealed the existence of standing periodic waves and solitons in this system. However, this approach does not provide regular means for dealing with evolutionary problems: neither stability problems nor ones associated with propagating waves. In this work, we rigorously derive the evolution equations for long waves in the system, which turn out to be identical to the plus (or good) Boussinesq equation. With these equations one can find all the time-independent-profile solitary waves (standing solitons are a specific case of these propagating waves), which exist below the linear instability threshold; the standing and slow solitons are always unstable while fast solitons are stable. Depending on initial perturbations, unstable solitons either grow in an explosive manner, which means layer rupture in a finite time, or falls apart into stable solitons. The results are derived within the long-wave approximation as the linear stability analysis for the flat-interface state [D.V. Lyubimov and A.A. Cherepanov, Fluid Dynamics 21, 849 (1986)] reveals the instabilities of thin layers to be long wavelength.

  17. On the Free Vibration Modeling of Spindle Systems: A Calibrated Dynamic Stiffness Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gaber


    Full Text Available The effect of bearings on the vibrational behavior of machine tool spindles is investigated. This is done through the development of a calibrated dynamic stiffness matrix (CDSM method, where the bearings flexibility is represented by massless linear spring elements with tuneable stiffness. A dedicated MATLAB code is written to develop and to assemble the element stiffness matrices for the system’s multiple components and to apply the boundary conditions. The developed method is applied to an illustrative example of spindle system. When the spindle bearings are modeled as simply supported boundary conditions, the DSM model results in a fundamental frequency much higher than the system’s nominal value. The simply supported boundary conditions are then replaced by linear spring elements, and the spring constants are adjusted such that the resulting calibrated CDSM model leads to the nominal fundamental frequency of the spindle system. The spindle frequency results are also validated against the experimental data. The proposed method can be effectively applied to predict the vibration characteristics of spindle systems supported by bearings.

  18. Free Vibration Characteristic of Multilevel Beam Based on Transfer Matrix Method of Linear Multibody Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith K. Abbas


    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach based on transfer matrix method of linear multibody systems (MS-TMM is developed to analyze the free vibration of a multilevel beam, coupled by spring/dashpot systems attached to them in-span. The Euler-Bernoulli model is used for the transverse vibration of the beams, and the spring/dashpot system represents a simplified model of a viscoelastic material. MS-TMM reduces the dynamic problem to an overall transfer equation which only involves boundary state vectors. The state vectors at the boundaries are composed of displacements, rotation angles, bending moments, and shear forces, which are partly known and partly unknown, and end up with reduced overall transfer matrix. Nontrivial solution requires the coefficient matrix to be singular to yield the required natural frequencies. This paper implements two novel algorithms based on the methodology by reducing the zero search of the reduced overall transfer matrix's determinate to a minimization problem and demonstrates a simple and robust algorithm being much more efficient than direct enumeration. The proposal method is easy to formulate, systematic to apply, and simple to code and can be extended to complex structures with any boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to show the validity of the proposal method against the published literature.

  19. Study of the influences of rotary table speed on stick-slip vibration of the drilling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Tang


    Full Text Available Stick-slip vibration presents one of the major causes of drilling problems, such as premature tool failures, low drilling efficiency and poor wellbore quality. The objective of this work is to investigate the influences of rotary table speed (RTS on stick-slip phenomenon of the drilling system. In this study, the drilling system is treated as a lumped torsional pendulum model of which the bit/rock interaction is regarded as Coulomb friction. By analyzing cases with different RTS, two types of vibrations on the bit are found: stick-slip vibration and uniform motion. With an increase in the RTS, the stick-slip vibration on the drill bit disappears once the RTS arrives at its critical value. For the cases that stick-slip vibrations occur, the phase trajectories converge toward a limit cycle. For the cases that stick-slip vibration does not appear, the drill bit tends to stabilize at a uniform motion and the phase trajectories correspond to contracting spirals observed in the phase plane.

  20. Guidelines for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of disc brake squeal using simple models of brake systems (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.; Marburg, S.


    Brake squeal has become of increasing concern to the automotive industry but guidelines on how to confidently predict squeal propensity are yet to be established. While it is standard practice to use the complex eigenvalue analysis to predict unstable vibration modes, there have been few attempts to calculate their acoustic radiation. Here guidelines are developed for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of brake squeal using models of simplified brake systems with friction contact by considering (1) the selection of appropriate elements, contact and mesh; (2) the extraction of surface velocities via forced response; and (3) the calculation of the acoustic response itself. Results indicate that quadratic tetrahedral elements offer the best option for meshing more realistic geometry. A mesh has to be sufficiently fine especially in the contact region to predict mesh-independent unstable vibration modes. Regarding the vibration response, only the direct, steady-state method with a pressurised pad and finite sliding formulation (allowing contact separation) should be used. Comparison of different numerical methods suggest that a obroadband fast multi-pole boundary element method with the Burton-Miller formulation would efficiently solve the acoustic radiation of a full brake system. Results also suggest that a pad lift-off can amplify the acoustic radiation similar to a horn effect. A horn effect is also observed for chamfered pads which are used in practice to reduce the number and strength of unstable vibration modes. These results highlight the importance of optimising the pad shape to reduce acoustic radiation of unstable vibration modes.

  1. A Cause-Consequence Chart of a Redundant Protection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dan Sandvik; Platz, O.; Runge, B.


    A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy of compone......A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy...

  2. System Modeling and Operational Characteristic Analysis for an Orbital Friction Vibration Actuator Used in Orbital Vibration Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU, F.


    Full Text Available Orbital Friction Vibration Actuator (OFVA is a core component of Orbital Friction Welding (OFW, which is a novel apertureless welding technology utilizing friction heat to implement solid-state joining. In this paper, topology and operational principle of OFVA are introduced, the analytical formulas of the electromagnetic force for the x and y directions, which can drive the mover to generate a circular motion trajectory, are derived, and the characteristic of static electromagnetic force is predicted by analytical method and 2-D (two-dimensional FEM (finite element method, 3-D and measurement. The coupled magnetic field-circuit-motion simulation models which are driven by current and voltage source are established, respectively, and some of its operational characteristics are analyzed. Simulation and experiment validate theoretical analysis and the feasibility of the fabricated prototype, demonstrate the good performance of the OFVA, and provide valuable reference for engineering applications.

  3. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 23.1093... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Zaitsev


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is development and experimental verification special software of spectral analysis. Spectral analysis use of controlled vibrations objects. Spectral analysis of vibration based on use maximum-entropy autoregressive method of spectral analysis by the Berg algorithm. For measured signals use preliminary analysis based on regression analysis. This analysis of the signal enables to eliminate uninformative parameters such as – the noise and the trend. For preliminary analysis developed special software tools. Non-contact measurement of mechanical vibrations parameters rotating diffusely-reflecting surfaces used in circumstances where the use of contact sensors difficult or impossible for a number of reasons, including lack of access to the object, the small size of the controlled area controlled portion has a high temperature or is affected by strong electromagnetic fields. For control use offered laser measuring system. This measuring system overcomes the shortcomings interference or Doppler optical measuring systems. Such as measure the large amplitude and inharmonious vibration. On the basis of the proposed methods developed special software tools for use measuring laser system. LabVIEW using for developed special software. Experimental research of the proposed method of vibration signals processing is checked in the analysis of the diagnostic information obtained by measuring the vibration system grinding diamond wheel cold solid tungsten-containing alloy TK8. A result of work special software tools was complex spectrum obtained «purified» from non-informative parameters. Spectrum of the signal corresponding to the vibration process observed object. 

  5. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.


    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 hr. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  6. Specific features of modern voice protection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Ustinov


    Full Text Available Nowadays, speech technologies are among the most vibrant sectors of the world’s economy. Of high importance is the problem of ensuring the security of speech information (SI. Here we discuss SI protection systems within a modern communication model. The model is multimodal, multithreaded, and implies a large number of subscribers interacting via several communication lines. With this in mind, we perform a detailed analysis of threats to the confidentiality, integrity and accessibility of SI. Existing methods of counteraction against these threats are discussed, and shown to be insufficient to ensure the safety of voice messages (VM in full. Mean while, there are new threats to the integrity and accessibility of SI, the solutions for which are either do not exist, or only being developed. We propose our original approach to counter these threats. Steganography methods are the most promising for ensuring the integrity of the VM.  In particular, using audiomarkers allows one to reliably trace speaker’sidentity throughout the entire communication session. In order to counter the threats to SI availability due to the capacity of the communication channel and the limited volumes of VM data storage, it is necessary to improve existing adaptive speech compression algorithms, along with developing new ones. Furthermore, such algorithms must keep the specified level of speech intelligibility.

  7. Advanced materials for thermal protection system (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.


    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  8. Over-voltage protection system and method (United States)

    Chi, Song; Dong, Dong; Lai, Rixin


    An over-voltage protection system includes an electronic valve connected across two terminals of a circuit and an over-voltage detection circuit connected across one of the plurality of semiconductor devices for detecting an over-voltage across the circuit. The electronic valve includes a plurality of semiconductor devices connected in series. The over-voltage detection circuit includes a voltage divider circuit connected to a break-over diode in a way to provide a representative low voltage to the break-over diode and an optocoupler configured to receive a current from the break-over diode when the representative low voltage exceeds a threshold voltage of the break-over diode indicating an over-voltage condition. The representative low voltage provided to the break-over diode represents a voltage across the one semiconductor device. A plurality of self-powered gate drive circuits are connected to the plurality of semiconductor devices, wherein the plurality of self-powered gate drive circuits receive over-voltage triggering pulses from the optocoupler during the over-voltage condition and switch on the plurality of semiconductor devices to bypass the circuit.

  9. Distance Protection for Microgrids in Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Chengxi; Guerrero, Josep M.


    protection decreased. This paper adopts distance protection for one mid-voltage level microgrid in Aalborg, Denmark. Different operation modes of the network are analyzed and tested in the paper. The simulation results show that the variations of the fault currents seen by the forward relays are much larger...

  10. Protected areas system planning and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.


    The Vth World Parks Congress to be held in Durban, South Africa, September 8-17, 2003 will evaluate progress in protected areas conservation and stipulate strategic policies for the coming decade. Most countries of the world have at least a collection of protected areas, and have signed the

  11. Prediction des vibrations eoliennes d'un systeme conducteur-amortisseur avec une methode temporelle non lineaire (United States)

    Langlois, Sebastien

    Les vibrations eoliennes sont la cause principale de bris de conducteurs en fatigue des lignes aeriennes de transport d'energie electrique. Ces vibrations sont dues a des detachements tourbillonnaires produits dans le sillage du conducteur. Une methode commune de reduction des vibrations est l'ajout d'amortisseurs de vibrations pres des pinces de suspension. Contrairement aux essais en ligne experimentale, la modelisation numerique permet d'evaluer rapidement et a faible cout la performance d'un amortisseur de vibration sur une portee de ligne aerienne. La technologie la plus frequemment utilisee fait appel au principe de balance d'energie (PBE) en evaluant le niveau de vibrations pour lequel la puissance injectee par le vent est egale a la puissance dissipee par le conducteur et l'amortisseur. Les methodes actuelles pour la prediction des vibrations reposent sur des hypotheses simplificatrices quant a la modelisation de l'interaction conducteur-amortisseur. Une approche prometteuse pour la prediction des vibrations est l'utilisation d'un modele numerique temporel non lineaire qui permet de mieux representer la masse, la geometrie, la rigidite et l'amortissement du systeme. L'objectif principal de ce projet de recherche est de developper un modele numerique avec integration temporelle directe d'un conducteur et d'un amortisseur en vibration permettant de reproduire le comportement dynamique du systeme pour la gamme de frequence et d'amplitude typique des vibrations eoliennes des conducteurs. Un modele par elements finis d'un conducteur seul en vibration resolu par integration temporelle directe a d'abord ete developpe en considerant une rigidite de flexion variable. Comme une rigidite de flexion constante et egale a 50% de la rigidite de flexion maximale theorique ( EImax) est jugee adequate pour la modelisation du conducteur, c'est cette valeur qui a ete utilisee pour la suite du projet. Ensuite, des modeles non-lineaires pour deux types d'amortisseur de

  12. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly (United States)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.


    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  13. Vibration Propagation of Gear Dynamics in a Gear-Bearing-Housing System Using Mathematical Modeling and Finite Element Analysis (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.


    Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.

  14. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.


    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  15. Analysis of vibroprotection characteristics of pneumatic relaxation seat suspension with capability of vibration energy recuperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko Mikhail


    Full Text Available This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company. Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in Matlab/Simulink. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of transmission coefficient for standard and proposed suspensions were plotted for preliminary evaluation of vibration protection properties of seat suspension. Performed comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency characteristics shows that noticeable improvement of vibration protection properties of pneumatic relaxation suspension system with vibration energy recuperation in comparison with standard system both in region of resonance disturbances and in above-resonance region. Main ways for further improvement of vibration protection properties of proposed system were marked out.

  16. Multiple corrosion protection systems for reinforced concrete bridge components. (United States)


    Eleven systems combining epoxy-coated reinforcement with another corrosion protection system are evaluated using : the rapid macrocell, Southern Exposure, cracked beam, and linear polarization resistance tests. The systems include : bars that are pre...

  17. Field Balancing and Harmonic Vibration Suppression in Rigid AMB-Rotor Systems with Rotor Imbalances and Sensor Runout. (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao


    Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs), offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously.

  18. Environmental ground borne noise and vibration protection of sensitive cultural receptors along the Athens Metro Extension to Piraeus. (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos


    Attiko Metro S.A., the state company ensuring the development of the Athens Metro network, has recently initiated a new extension of 7.6 km, has planned for line 3 of Athens Metro from Haidari to Piraeus "Dimotikon Theatre" towards "University of Piraeus" (forestation), connecting the major Piraeus Port with "Eleftherios Venizelos" International Airport. The Piraeus extension consists of a Tunnel Boring Machine, 2 tracks and, tunnel sections, as well as 6 stations and a forestation (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) at the end of the alignment. In order to avoid the degradation of the urban acoustic environment from ground borne noise and vibration during metro operation, the assessment of the required track types and possible noise mitigation measures was executed, and for each section and each sensitive building, the ground borne noise and vibration levels will be numerically predicted. The calculated levels were then compared with ground borne noise and vibration level criteria. The necessary mitigation measures were defined in order to guarantee, in each location along the extension, the allowable ground borne Noise and Vibration max. levels inside nearby sensitive buildings taking into account alternative Transfer Functions for ground borne noise diffusion inside the buildings. Ground borne noise levels were proven to be higher than the criterion where special track work is present and also in the case of the sensitive receptor: "Dimotikon Theatre". In order to reduce the ground borne noise levels to allowable values in these sections, the installation of tracks and special track work on a floating slab was assessed and recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be shown...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be shown...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be shown...

  2. Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza


    New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

  3. StreamNet Query System: Protected Areas (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — Beginning in 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) directed extensive studies of existing habitat and has analyzed alternative means of protection. In...

  4. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.


    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  5. Measurement of Vibrations in Two Tower-Typed Assistant Personal Robot Implementations with and without a Passive Suspension System. (United States)

    Moreno, Javier; Clotet, Eduard; Tresanchez, Marcel; Martínez, Dani; Casanovas, Jordi; Palacín, Jordi


    This paper presents the vibration pattern measurement of two tower-typed holonomic mobile robot prototypes: one based on a rigid mechanical structure, and the other including a passive suspension system. Specific to the tower-typed mobile robots is that the vibrations that originate in the lower part of the structure are transmitted and amplified to the higher areas of the tower, causing an unpleasant visual effect and mechanical stress. This paper assesses the use of a suspension system aimed at minimizing the generation and propagation of vibrations in the upper part of the tower-typed holonomic robots. The two robots analyzed were equipped with onboard accelerometers to register the acceleration over the X, Y, and Z axes in different locations and at different velocities. In all the experiments, the amplitude of the vibrations showed a typical Gaussian pattern which has been modeled with the value of the standard deviation. The results have shown that the measured vibrations in the head of the mobile robots, including a passive suspension system, were reduced by a factor of 16.

  6. Measurement of Vibrations in Two Tower-Typed Assistant Personal Robot Implementations with and without a Passive Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno


    Full Text Available This paper presents the vibration pattern measurement of two tower-typed holonomic mobile robot prototypes: one based on a rigid mechanical structure, and the other including a passive suspension system. Specific to the tower-typed mobile robots is that the vibrations that originate in the lower part of the structure are transmitted and amplified to the higher areas of the tower, causing an unpleasant visual effect and mechanical stress. This paper assesses the use of a suspension system aimed at minimizing the generation and propagation of vibrations in the upper part of the tower-typed holonomic robots. The two robots analyzed were equipped with onboard accelerometers to register the acceleration over the X, Y, and Z axes in different locations and at different velocities. In all the experiments, the amplitude of the vibrations showed a typical Gaussian pattern which has been modeled with the value of the standard deviation. The results have shown that the measured vibrations in the head of the mobile robots, including a passive suspension system, were reduced by a factor of 16.

  7. Micro electro-mechanical system piezoelectric cantilever array for a broadband vibration energy harvester. (United States)

    Chun, Inwoo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho


    Limited energy sources of ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs) such as fuel cells and batteries have grave drawbacks such as the need for replacements and re-charging owing to their short durability and environmental pollution. Energy harvesting which is converting environmental mechanical vibration into electrical energy has been researched with some piezoelectric materials and various cantilever designs to increase the efficiency of energy-harvesting devices. In this study, we focused on an energy-harvesting cantilever with a broadband vibration frequency. We fabricated a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) cantilever array with various Si proof masses on small beams (5.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm). We obtained broadband resonant frequencies ranging between 127 Hz and 136 Hz using a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process. In order to obtain broadband resonant characteristics, the cantilever array was comprised of six cantilevers with different resonant frequencies. We obtained an output power of about 2.461 μW at an acceleration of 0.23 g and a resistance of 4 kΩ. The measured bandwidth of the resonant frequency was approximately 9 Hz (127-136 Hz), which is about six times wider than the bandwidth of a single cantilever.

  8. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string using a magnetorheological damper (United States)

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth [Houston, TX; Burgess, Daniel E [Portland, CT; Barbely, Jason R [East Islip, NY


    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a magnetorheological fluid valve assembly having a supply of a magnetorheological fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil for inducing a magnetic field that alters the resistance of the magnetorheological fluid to flow between the first and second chambers, thereby increasing the damping provided by the valve. A remnant magnetic field is induced in one or more components of the magnetorheological fluid valve during operation that can be used to provide the magnetic field for operating the valve so as to eliminate the need to energize the coils during operation except temporarily when changing the amount of damping required, thereby eliminating the need for a turbine alternator power the magnetorheological fluid valve. A demagnetization cycle can be used to reduce the remnant magnetic field when necessary.

  9. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Centrifugal Pump System Using Vibration Signal and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Xue


    Full Text Available This paper proposed an intelligent diagnosis method for a centrifugal pump system using statistic filter, support vector machine (SVM, possibility theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST on the basis of the vibration signals, to diagnose frequent faults in the centrifugal pump at an early stage, such as cavitation, impeller unbalance, and shaft misalignment. Firstly, statistic filter is used to extract the feature signals of pump faults from the measured vibration signals across an optimum frequency region, and nondimensional symptom parameters (NSPs are defined to represent the feature signals for distinguishing fault types. Secondly, the optimal classification hyperplane for distinguishing two states is obtained by SVM and NSPs, and its function is defined as synthetic symptom parameter (SSP in order to increase the diagnosis’ sensitivity. Finally, the possibility functions of the SSP are used to construct a sequential fuzzy diagnosis for fault detection and fault-type identification by possibility theory and DST. The proposed method has been applied to detect the faults of the centrifugal pump, and the efficiency of the method has been verified using practical examples.

  10. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems. (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José


    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  11. Overvoltage protection system for wireless power transfer systems (United States)

    Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Tang, Lixin; White, Clifford P.


    A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching between the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.

  12. Note: A kinematic shaker system for high amplitude, low frequency vibration testing. (United States)

    Swaminathan, Anand; Poese, Matthew E; Smith, Robert W M; Garrett, Steven L


    This note describes a shaker system capable of high peak-velocity, large amplitude, low frequency, near-sinusoidal excitation that has been constructed and employed in experiments on the inhibition of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using acceleration modulation. The production of high peak-velocity vibration is of interest in parametric excitation problems of this type and reaches beyond the capabilities of standard electromagnetic shakers. The shaker system described employs a kinematic linkage to two counter-rotating flywheels, driven by a variable-speed electrical motor, producing peak-to-peak displacements of 15.24 cm to a platform mounted on two guide rails. In operation, this shaker has been demonstrated to produce peak speeds of up to 3.7 m/s without failure.

  13. Vibration Analysis and Parameter Design of Two Degree of Freedom System Using Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yeongmin; Lee, Jongsoo [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Today, we are using computer simulations in various engineering disciplines to reduce the time and cost of product development. The scope of simulations is increasingly complex and diverse for different fields such as mechanical, electrical, thermal, and fluid. Thus, it is necessary to use integrated simulations. In order to overcome these problems, a language has been developed to effectively describe and implement simulations is Modelica. To model and simulate a system, physical models can be broadly divided into causal and acausal models. The most important feature of Modelica is acausal programming. In this study, we will introduce simple concepts and explain about the usage of Modelica. Furthermore, we will explain the vibration analysis of a two degree-of-freedom system and the design of appropriate parameters by using Modelica.

  14. Vibration Control of Double-Beam System with Multiple Smart Damping Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Pisarski


    Full Text Available A control method to stabilize vibration of a double cantilever system with a set of smart damping blocks is designed and numerically evaluated. The externally controlled magnetorheological sheared elastomer damping block is considered, but other smart materials can be used as well. The robust bang-bang control law for stabilization the bilinear system is elaborated. The key feature of the closed loop controller is the efficiency for different types of initial excitement. By employing the finite element model, the performance of the controller is validated for strong wind blow load and concentrated impact excitement of the particular point of one of the beams. For each of the excitations, the closed loop control outperforms the optimal passive damping case by over 27% for the considered energy metric.

  15. Random Vibration Analysis of the Tip-tilt System in the GMT Fast Steering Secondary Mirror (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Ho-Sang; Lee, Chan-Hee; Lee, Won Gi


    A random vibration analysis was accomplished on the tip-tilt system of the fast steering secondary mirror (FSM) for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). As the FSM was to be mounted on the top end of the secondary truss and disturbed by the winds, dynamic effects of the FSM disturbances on the tip-tilt correction performance was studied. The coupled dynamic responses of the FSM segments were evaluated with a suggested tip-tilt correction modeling. Dynamic equations for the tip-tilt system were derived from the force and moment equilibrium on the segment mirror and the geometric compatibility conditions with four design parameters. Statically stationary responses for the tip-tilt actuations to correct the wind-induced disturbances were studied with two design parameters based on the spectral density function of the star image errors in the frequency domain. Frequency response functions and root mean square values of the dynamic responses and the residual star image errors were numerically calculated for the off-axis and on-axis segments of the FSM. A prototype of on-axis segment of the FSM was developed for tip-tilt actuation tests to confirm the ratio of tip-tilt force to tip-tilt angle calculated from the suggested dynamic equations of the tip-tilt system. Tip-tilt actuation tests were executed at 4, 8 and 12 Hz by measuring displacements of piezoelectric actuators and reaction forces acting on the axial supports. The derived ratios of rms tip-tilt force to rms tip-tilt angle from tests showed a good correlation with the numerical results. The suggested process of random vibration analysis on the tip-tilt system to correct the wind-induced disturbances of the FSM segments would be useful to advance the FSM design and upgrade the capability to achieve the least residual star image errors by understanding the details of dynamics.

  16. Method for Vibration Response Simulation and Sensor Placement Optimization of a Machine Tool Spindle System with a Bearing Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongrui Cao


    Full Text Available Bearing defects are one of the most important mechanical sources for vibration and noise generation in machine tool spindles. In this study, an integrated finite element (FE model is proposed to predict the vibration responses of a spindle bearing system with localized bearing defects and then the sensor placement for better detection of bearing faults is optimized. A nonlinear bearing model is developed based on Jones’ bearing theory, while the drawbar, shaft and housing are modeled as Timoshenko’s beam. The bearing model is then integrated into the FE model of drawbar/shaft/housing by assembling equations of motion. The Newmark time integration method is used to solve the vibration responses numerically. The FE model of the spindle-bearing system was verified by conducting dynamic tests. Then, the localized bearing defects were modeled and vibration responses generated by the outer ring defect were simulated as an illustration. The optimization scheme of the sensor placement was carried out on the test spindle. The results proved that, the optimal sensor placement depends on the vibration modes under different boundary conditions and the transfer path between the excitation and the response.

  17. Novel Directional Protection Scheme for the FREEDM Smart Grid System (United States)

    Sharma, Nitish

    This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

  18. Prevention and the child protection system. (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane


    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for ongoing services. Preventive services delivered by CPS to high-risk families, says Waldfogel, typically include case management and supervision. The families may also receive one or more other preventive services, including individual and family counseling, respite care, parenting education, housing assistance, substance abuse treatment, child care, and home visits. Researchers generally find little evidence, however, that these services reduce the risk of subsequent maltreatment, although there is some promising evidence on the role of child care. Many families receive few services beyond periodic visits by usually overburdened caseworkers, and the services they do receive are often poor in quality. Preventive services for lower-risk families often focus on increasing parents' understanding of the developmental stages of childhood and on improving their child-rearing competencies. The evidence base on the effectiveness of these services remains thin. Most research focuses on home-visiting and parent education programs. Studies of home visiting have provided some promising evidence. Little is as yet known about the effects of parent education. Waldfogel concludes that researchers have much more to learn about what services CPS agencies should expand to do a better job of preventing maltreatment. Some families, especially those with mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence problems, are at especially high risk, which suggests that more effective treatment services for such parents could help. Very young children, too, are at high risk, suggesting a potentially important role for child care-one area where the

  19. Power supply devices and systems of relay protection

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, Vladimir


    Power Supply Devices and Systems of Relay Protection brings relay protection and electrical power engineers a single, concentrated source of information on auxiliary power supply systems and devices. The book also tackles specific problems and solutions of relay protection power supply systems and devices, which are often not dealt with in the literature. The author, an experienced engineer with more than 100 patents, draws on his own experience to offer practical, tested advice to readers. A Guide to Relay Protection Power Supply for Engineers and Technicians The first chapter reviews the ele

  20. Evaluation of the Autoparametric Pendulum Vibration Absorber for a Duffing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamın Vazquez-Gonzalez


    Full Text Available In this work we study the frequency and dynamic response of a damped Duffing system attached to a parametrically excited pendulum vibration absorber. The multiple scales method is applied to get the autoparametric resonance conditions and the results are compared with a similar application of a pendulum absorber for a linear primary system. The approximate frequency analysis reveals that the nonlinear dynamics of the externally excited system are suppressed by the pendulum absorber and, under this condition, the primary Duffing system yields a time response almost equivalent to that obtained for a linear primary system, although the absorber frequency response is drastically modified and affected by the cubic stiffness, thus modifying the jumps defined by the fixed points. In the absorber frequency response can be appreciated a good absorption capability for certain ranges of nonlinear stiffness and the internal coupling is maintained by the existing damping between the pendulum and the primary system. Moreover, the stability of the coupled system is also affected by some extra fixed points introduced by the cubic stiffness, which is illustrated with several amplitude-force responses. Some numerical simulations of the approximate frequency responses and dynamic behavior are performed to show the steady-state and transient responses.

  1. Analysis of the Effects of Surface Pitting and Wear on the Vibrations of a Gear Transmission System (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Townsend, D. P.


    A comprehensive procedure to simulate and analyze the vibrations in a gear transmission system with surface pitting, 'wear' and partial tooth fracture of the gear teeth is presented. An analytical model was developed where the effects of surface pitting and wear of the gear tooth were simulated by phase and magnitude changes in the gear mesh stiffness. Changes in the gear mesh stiffness were incorporated into each gear-shaft model during the global dynamic simulation of the system. The overall dynamics of the system were evaluated by solving for the transient dynamics of each shaft system simultaneously with the vibration of the gearbox structure. In order to reduce the number of degrees-of-freedom in the system, a modal synthesis procedure was used in the global transient dynamic analysis of the overall transmission system. An FFT procedure was used to transform the averaged time signal into the frequency domain for signature analysis. In addition, the Wigner-Ville distribution was also introduced to examine the gear vibration in the joint time frequency domain for vibration pattern recognition. Experimental results obtained from a gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center were used to evaluate the analytical model.

  2. Preparing the Machine Protection System for the 2011 run


    Uythoven, J


    The expected performance of the Machine Protection System for 2011 is presented. An overview of the foreseen modifications to the machine protection system components during the Christmas stop and the required time for recommissioning is given. The possible impact of the MPS on the operational parameters of the LHC, like beam intensity, beta*, emittance and maximum beam energy, are discussed.

  3. Decentralized Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Medium Voltage Maritime Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede


    control unit. The new adaptive protection method is based on communication between the overcurrent relays and the equipment that could affect the protection system, such as circuit breakers and generators. Using PSCAD, the proposed method is implemented in a test medium voltage maritime power system...

  4. Design and Experimental Characterization of a Vibration Energy Harvesting Device for Rotational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutao Yan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vibration based electromagnetic power generator to transfer energy from stationary to rotating equipment, which can be a new attempt to substitute slip ring in rotational systems. The natural frequencies and modes are simulated in order to have a maximum and steady power output from the device. Parameters such as piezoelectric disk location and relative motion direction of the magnet are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that the position that is close to the fixed end of the cantilever and the relative motion along the long side gives higher power output. Moreover, the capability of the energy harvester to extract power from lower energy environment is experimentally validated. The voltage and power output are measured at different excitation frequencies.

  5. Dynamics of vibration isolation system with rubber-cord-pneumatic spring with damping throttle (United States)

    Burian, Yu A.; Silkov, M. V.


    The study refers to the important area of applied mechanics; it is the theory of vibration isolation of vibroactive facilities. The design and the issues of mathematical modeling of pneumatic spring perspective design made on the basis of rubber-cord shell with additional volume connected with its primary volume by means of throttle passageway are considered in the text. Damping at the overflow of air through the hole limits the amplitude of oscillation at resonance. But in contrast to conventional systems with viscous damping it does not increase transmission ratio at high frequencies. The mathematical model of suspension allowing selecting options to reduce the power transmission ratio on the foundation, especially in the high frequency range is obtained

  6. The Equivalent Linearization Method with a Weighted Averaging for Analyzing of Nonlinear Vibrating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Anh

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the Equivalent Linearization Method (ELM with a weighted averaging, which is proposed by Anh (Anh, 2015, is applied to analyze some vibrating systems with nonlinearities. The strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillator with third, fifth, and seventh powers of the amplitude, the other strongly nonlinear oscillators and the cubic Duffing with discontinuity are considered. The results obtained via this method are compared with the ones achieved by the Min-Max Approach (MMA, the Modified Lindstedt - Poincare Method (MLPM, the Parameter - Expansion Method (PEM, the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The obtained results demonstrate that this method is very convenient for solving nonlinear equations and also can be successfully exerted to a lot of practical engineering and physical problems.

  7. Signal transmission by vibrational resonance in one-way coupled bistable systems. (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Zhan, Meng


    Low-frequency signal transmission in one-way coupled bistable systems subject to a high-frequency force is studied. Two cases including the high-frequency force on all sites (case 1) and only on the first site (case 2) are considered. In these two cases, vibrational resonance induced by the high-frequency force can play an active role to effectively improve the signal transmission, and undamped signal transmission can be found in a broad parameter region. The combinative action of injected low-frequency signal, high-frequency driving, and coupling is of importance. Our findings suggest that high-frequency signal could be properly used in low-frequency signal transmission, and especially the implementation of high-frequency force simply on the first site for case 2 is meaningful for its simplicity and high efficiency.

  8. Case study of system effects on high frequency vibration isolation in aircraft structure (United States)

    Simmons, William E.; Marshall, Steven E.

    In an attempt to improve isolator selection criteria for use in commercial airplanes, a modeling technique was developed. This technique was used to map the vibrational energy transfer from a resiliently mounted electric motor-driven hydraulic pump (or ACMP) to its foundation, a keel beam in the main wheelwell of a large airplane. The system level parameters that strongly influence mount transmissibility were investigated. Using common elastomeric material properties model, predictions were found to compare favorably to measured transmissibility data. The present study discusses the modeling technique and test data comparison, Potential improvements in isolator performance are evaluated. Isolator properties are then identified whch, when combined with transmissibility data, would enhance the isolator selection process.

  9. Dynamics and scaling properties for a one-dimensional impact system with two periodically vibrating walls (United States)

    Livorati, André L. P.


    We investigate the dynamics of a system composed of a particle suffering impacts between two heavy periodically vibrating walls. An original, nonlinear area preserving mapping is obtained. The control parameters of amplitude of perturbation and frequency of oscillation play an important role in the phase space, shaping the portion of chaotic seas, position of invariant curves and the amount of KAM islands. The study of the behavior of the root mean square velocity was made via analytical description and numerical simulations. We proposed scaling arguments to describe its dynamics and our results show remarkably good agreement between the theory and the simulations concerning a scaling invariance with respect to the control parameters. Also, an analysis of the diffusion coefficient confirms the validity of the scaling invariance, giving robustness to our modeling.

  10. Vibration exposure and prevention in Japan. (United States)

    Futatsuka, M; Ueno, T; Yamada, S


    Working conditions of vibration exposure have generally improved, but many difficult problems must be solved such as (1) hygienic improvements in a variety of vibrating tools; (2) improving working conditions, for example, by limiting the time of operation in spite of economic difficulties such as those faced by those who work on a piece rate basis; (3) gathering more complete information about the risk population because of the large number of self-employed in informal employment sectors; and (4) finding work places after rehabilitation for patients, particularly in mountainous rural areas or in small scale industries. Historical observation of vibration and preventive measures in Japanese national forests was presented on the basis of the results of a retrospective cohort study in Kyushu, Japan. Prevalence rate of VWF remarkably changed from 58.4% in the groups that began to operate chain saws in 1960 to only a few cases in the groups who started the operation after 1971. When we compare the relationships between the results of long term cohort study and the consequences of preventive measures of vibration syndrome, the most important factor is the decrease of vibration exposure (improvement in chain saws plus the time restriction system). The comprehensive prevention system used in Japanese national forests consists of the following: (1) Health care system; (2) Work regulation system; (3) System for improving mechanized tools; (4) Warming system to protect against cold conditions; and (5) Education and training system.

  11. System and method for quench protection of a superconductor (United States)

    Huang, Xianrui; Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba Haran; Bray, James William; Ryan, David Thomas


    A system and method for protecting a superconductor from a quench condition. A quench protection system is provided to protect the superconductor from damage due to a quench condition. The quench protection system comprises a voltage detector operable to detect voltage across the superconductor. The system also comprises a frequency filter coupled to the voltage detector. The frequency filter is operable to couple voltage signals to a control circuit that are representative of a rise in superconductor voltage caused by a quench condition and to block voltage signals that are not. The system is operable to detect whether a quench condition exists in the superconductor based on the voltage signal received via the frequency filter and to initiate a protective action in response.

  12. Protection for DC Distribution System with Distributed Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Xue


    Full Text Available DC distribution system has advantages of high power quality, large transmission capacity, high reliability, simple structure, economy and low energy consumption, and so forth. It has been a key part of smart grid nowadays. However, the development of DC distribution system is constrained by the lack of operational experience in DC system, the small interrupting capacity of DC circuit breaker (CB, and the lack of protection schemes for system itself. In this paper, protection for DC distribution system with distributed generator (DG is fully investigated and verified. Firstly, the electromagnetic transient model of DC distribution system with DG is presented. Simulation based on the electromagnetic transient model is carried out. Both the step response and the steady-state performance verify the accuracy of the model. Then the fault characteristic mechanism is analyzed, and the protection principles and scheme are investigated in detail, including voltage mutation principle as protection starting component, differential current protection principle for DC bus, and two-section current protection for distribution lines. Finally, transient responses with protection scheme are analyzed during faults. The results present that the protection principles and scheme are feasible for DC distribution system with DG.

  13. Model Indepedent Vibration Control


    Yuan, Jing


    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  14. Optimal placement of water-lubricated rubber bearings for vibration reduction of flexible multistage rotor systems (United States)

    Liu, Shibing; Yang, Bingen


    Flexible multistage rotor systems with water-lubricated rubber bearings (WLRBs) have a variety of engineering applications. Filling a technical gap in the literature, this effort proposes a method of optimal bearing placement that minimizes the vibration amplitude of a WLRB-supported flexible rotor system with a minimum number of bearings. In the development, a new model of WLRBs and a distributed transfer function formulation are used to define a mixed continuous-and-discrete optimization problem. To deal with the case of uncertain number of WLRBs in rotor design, a virtual bearing method is devised. Solution of the optimization problem by a real-coded genetic algorithm yields the locations and lengths of water-lubricated rubber bearings, by which the prescribed operational requirements for the rotor system are satisfied. The proposed method is applicable either to preliminary design of a new rotor system with the number of bearings unforeknown or to redesign of an existing rotor system with a given number of bearings. Numerical examples show that the proposed optimal bearing placement is efficient, accurate and versatile in different design cases.

  15. A Design Study Of A Wireless Power Transfer System For Use To Transfer Energy From A Vibration Energy Harvester (United States)

    Grabham, N. J.; Harden, C.; Vincent, D.; Beeby, S. P.


    A wirelessly powered remote sensor node is presented along with its design process. The purpose of the node is the further expansion of the sensing capabilities of the commercial Perpetuum system used for condition monitoring on trains and rolling stock which operates using vibration energy harvesting. Surplus harvested vibration energy is transferred wirelessly to a remote satellite sensor to allow measurements over a wider area to be made. This additional data is to be used for long term condition monitoring. Performance measurements made on the prototype remote sensor node are reported and advantages and disadvantages of using the same RF frequency for power and data transfer are identified.

  16. Radon and the system of radiological protection. (United States)

    Lecomte, J F


    At its meeting in Porto, Portugal, in November 2009, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) approved the formation of a new Task Group, reporting to Committee 4, to develop guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. This article describes the Task Group's draft report entitled "Radiological Protection against Radon Exposure" which has been posted on the ICRP website for public consultation between January and June 2012. In this report, the Commission provides updated guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. The report was developed considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about radon risk, and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. The report describes the characteristics of radon exposure, covering sources and transfer mechanisms, nature of the risk, exposure conditions, similarities with other existing exposure situations, and challenges to manage radon exposure. In order to control radon exposure, the Commission recommends an integrated approach that is focused as much as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs, regardless of the purpose of the building and the category of the occupants. This approach is based on the optimisation principle, and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplaces, and the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report emphasises the importance of preventive actions, and provides recommendations on how to control radon exposure in workplaces when workers' exposure can reasonably be regarded as being the responsibility of the operating management. In such a case, workers' exposures are considered to be occupational, and are controlled using the corresponding requirements on the basis of the optimisation principle, and application, as appropriate

  17. Survivability of series-parallel systems with multilevel protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korczak, Edward [Telecommunications Research Institute, Poligonowa St., 30, 04-051 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail:; Levitin, Gregory [Development and Technology Division, Reliability Department, Planning, Bait Amir, The Israel Electric Corporation Ltd, P.O. Box 10, Haifa 31000 (Israel)]. E-mail:; Haim, Hanoch Ben [Development and Technology Division, Reliability Department, Planning, Bait Amir, The Israel Electric Corporation Ltd, P.O. Box 10, Haifa 31000 (Israel)]. E-mail:


    In this paper, we consider vulnerable systems which can have different states corresponding to different combinations of available elements composing the system. Each state can be characterized by a performance rate, which is the quantitative measure of a system's ability to perform its task. Both the impact of external factors (attack) and internal causes (failures) affect system survivability, which is determined as the probability of meeting a given demand. In order to increase the system's survivability a multilevel protection can be applied to its subsystems. In such systems, the protected subsystems are destroyed by external impacts only if all of the levels of their protection are destroyed. The paper describes an algorithm for evaluating the survivability of series-parallel systems with arbitrary configuration of multilevel protection. The algorithm is based on a composition of Boolean and the Universal Generating Function techniques. The adaptation of the algorithm for numerical implementation is suggested. Illustrative examples are presented.

  18. Robust vibration control at critical resonant modes using indirect-driven self-sensing actuation in mechatronic systems. (United States)

    Hong, Fan; Pang, Chee Khiang


    This paper presents an improved indirect-driven self-sensing actuation circuit for robust vibration control of piezoelectrically-actuated flexible structures in mechatronic systems. The circuit acts as a high-pass filter and provides better self-sensing strain signals with wider sensing bandwidth and higher signal-to-noise ratio. An adaptive non-model-based control is used to compensate for the structural vibrations using the strain signals from the circuit. The proposed scheme is implemented in a PZT-actuated suspension of a commercial dual-stage hard disk drive. Experimental results show improvements of 50% and 75% in the vibration suppression at 5.4kHz and 21kHz respectively, compared to the conventional PI control. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of Shaft’s Bending on the Coupling Vibration of a Flexible Blade-Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-feng Li


    Full Text Available The influence of shaft bending on the coupling vibration of rotor-blades system is nonignorable. Therefore, this paper analyzed the influence of shaft bending on the coupling vibration of rotor-blades system. The vibration mode function of shaft under elastic supporting condition was also derived to ensure accuracy of the model as well. The influence of the number of blades, the position of disk, and the support stiffness of shaft on critical speed of system was analyzed. The numerical results show that there were two categories of coupling mode shapes which belong to a set where the blade’s first two modes predominate in the system: shaft-blade (SB mode and interblade (BB mode due to the coupling between blade and shaft. The BB mode was of repeated frequencies of (Nb-2 multiplicity for number blades, and the SB mode was of repeated frequencies of (2 multiplicity for number blades. What is more, with the increase of the number of blades, natural frequency of rotor was decreasing linearly, that of BB mode was constant, and that of SB mode was increasing linearly. Natural frequency of BB mode was not affected while that of rotor and SB mode was affected (changed symmetrically with the center of shaft by the position of disk. In the end, vibration characteristics of coupling mode shapes were analyzed.

  20. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  1. High Quality Factor 80 MHz Microelectromechanical Systems Resonator Utilizing Torsional-to-Transverse Vibration Conversion (United States)

    Kiso, Masaya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Fujiura, Hideaki; Miyauchi, Hideo; Niki, Kazuya; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichiro


    A silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonator utilizing torsional-to-transverse vibration conversion with quarter-wavelength torsional support beams is designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The resonant frequency for torsional modes mostly depends only on beam length, providing a large tolerance in the fabrication process. However, the following have remained critical issues: the increase in the quality factor (Q-factor) and the reduction in the motional resistance. We propose a new beam structure, in which the MEMS resonator utilizing torsional-to-transverse vibration conversion is anchored by four quarter-wavelength torsional support beams. First, the fabricated resonators are measured with a laser-Doppler (LD) vibrometer. The measured resonant frequency of 78.224 MHz has been in good agreement with the simulated one. The Q-factor has also been measured to be as high as 3.0×104 in vacuum. Then, the electrical characteristic is evaluated with an impedance analyzer. The Q-factor has been electrically measured to be as high as 3.1×104 in vacuum, which agrees well with the mechanically measured one of 3.0×104. The Q-factor has also been electrically measured to be as high as 1.3×104 at atmospheric pressure. In the measurement, a spring softening effect has been clearly observed. By increasing the DC bias voltage from 20 to 40 V, the resonant frequency has decreased by 640 Hz. The extracted motional resistance for a 0.1-µm-gap resonator has been greatly reduced to 0.039 MΩ at 5 V DC, owing to the narrow-gap effect, from that of a 0.25-µm-gap resonator. The tolerance in the fabrication process has also been evaluated and successfully verified from the measurement of the fabricated MEMS resonators.

  2. Precise Ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Clark, Stewart J.


    We use a combination of experimental THz time-domain spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional perturbative theory to accurately predict the terahertz vibrational spectrum of molecules in the crystalline phase. Our calculations show that distinct vibrational modes found in solid-state materials...

  3. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of three-dimensional train-bridge systems (United States)

    Zhang, Z. C.; Lin, J. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Howson, W. P.; Williams, F. W.


    This paper presents a new non-stationary random vibration technique for the analysis of three-dimensional, time-dependent, train-bridge systems that are subjected to excitations caused by track irregularities. It is based on the pseudo-excitation method (PEM), which was previously applicable only to time-invariant systems, but is extended herein and the result is strictly proven to be applicable to time-dependent systems. The analysis proceeds by taking time lags between the wheel excitations into account, in order that the effects of track irregularity can be regarded as a set of three-dimensional, uniformly modulated, multi-point, different-phase, non-stationary random excitations. This enables the random surface roughness of the track to be transformed using PEM into the superposition of a series of deterministic pseudo-harmonic surface irregularities. The precise integration method is then extended to compute the corresponding pseudo responses. By using these pseudo-responses, various non-stationary random responses, including the time-dependent PSD and RMS of the system, can be obtained conveniently and efficiently. Numerical examples show the effectiveness and accuracy of the present method by comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. Additionally, the characteristics of such non-stationary random responses are discussed.

  4. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan


    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  5. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkyu, E-mail:; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)


    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  6. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi


    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  7. Approach for a smart device for active vibration suppression as an add-on for robot-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perner, Marcus; Krombholz, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter [Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, Braunschweig (Germany)


    Robot-based systems are defined by the capabilities of links and joints that form the robot arm, the control including drive engines and the end effector. In particular, articulated robots have a serial structure. They have to carry the drive engine of each ongoing axis, which results in higher susceptibility to vibration. To compensate weak precision the German Aerospace Center (DLR) integrates a quality improving sensor system on the robot platform. A vibration monitoring system detects vibrations that affect the precision during motion tasks. Currently, higher precision is achieved by slowing down the speed in production. Therefore, a compromise is given between speed and precision. To push the limits for these two conflicting process properties, we propose an approach for an additional smart device to decouple the process-sensitive unit from disturbances arising through motion of the kinematic structure. The smart device enables active vibration suppression by use of a piezo-based actuator with a lever mechanism connected to a motion platform. The lever mechanism provides the required force and displacement adaption. The platform provides mounting and steering of the process-sensitive components. First, an insight into the automation task is given within this paper. Secondly, the system design is illustrated. Based on simulation results the characteristic of the proposed mechanism is shown. Besides the mechanical properties like stiffness and lever amplification, dynamical issues like the smallest eigenfrequency are discussed. To verify simulation results initial measurements are presented and discussed. The paper sums up with the discussion of an implementation of a closed-loop control system to achieve vibration-free and fast motion.



    Abakar J. Abakarov; Khadzhimurad M. Omarov


    Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to search for methods to improve the efficiency of the earthquake protection systems with rubber-metallic seismic insulating supports by combining them with dry friction and brittle uncoupling elements. Method The research is based on dynamic modelling methods. Results The computational dynamic model of the combined earthquake protection system and the system of differential equations of the seismic motion of a five-story frame building were compil...

  9. NSTX-U Digital Coil Protection System Software Detailed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) currently uses a collection of analog signal processing solutions for coil protection. Part of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) entails replacing these analog systems with a software solution running on a conventional computing platform. The new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will replace the old systems entirely, while also providing an extensible framework that allows adding new functionality as desired.

  10. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  11. Criminal law repercussions on the Civil Protection System (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Musso, L.


    The legal systems of our Countries provide the citizenship with a high level of protection. Personal safety and the protection of property are guaranteed by the State through organized structures among which we can include the Civil Protection. The progress of science and technology has greatly improved monitoring tools, currently used by the Civil Protection, which allow, to a certain extent, to predict and prevent risk and natural hazards. The assertion of an individual right, which in some cases has reached a constitutional rank, to benefit from Civil Protection services and the widespread perception throughout the citizenship of the competence of the system to prevent disasters, often causes people to take legal action against Civil Protection authorities should they fail in their duties to protect. However, the attempt of having both recognized an economic compensation for the suffered loss and the punishment of those whom misled, frequently undergoes criminal law. This process could have results that may jeopardize the effectiveness of Civil Protection service without meeting citizens’ demands. A dual effort is thus necessary in order to solve such a problem. On the one hand, an interdisciplinary knowledge needs to pervade criminal law in an attempt to relieve its self-referentiality and pretended supremacy. On the other hand an alternative, and more agile, system -such as civil or administrative law- has to be identified in order to respond to the legitimate requests for protection in the case of a faulty behaviour of the authorities.

  12. Random vibration analysis of axially compressed cylindrical shells under turbulent boundary layer in a symplectic system (United States)

    Li, Yuyin; Zhang, Yahui; Kennedy, David


    A random vibration analysis of an axially compressed cylindrical shell under a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is presented in the symplectic duality system. By expressing the cross power spectral density (PSD) of the TBL as a Fourier series in the axial and circumferential directions, the problem of structures excited by a random distributed pressure due to the TBL is reduced to solving the harmonic response function, which is the response of structures to a spatial and temporal harmonic pressure of unit magnitude. The governing differential equations of the axially compressed cylindrical shell are derived in the symplectic duality system, and then a symplectic eigenproblem is formed by using the method of separation of variables. Expanding the excitation vector and unknown state vector in symplectic space, decoupled governing equations are derived, and then the analytical solution can be obtained. In contrast to the modal decomposition method (MDM), the present method is formulated in the symplectic duality system and does not need modal truncation, and hence the computations are of high precision and efficiency. In numerical examples, harmonic response functions for the axially compressed cylindrical shell are studied, and a comparison is made with the MDM to verify the present method. Then, the random responses of the shell to the TBL are obtained by the present method, and the convergence problems induced by Fourier series expansion are discussed. Finally, influences of the axial compression on random responses are investigated.

  13. Foundations for Protecting Renewable-Rich Distribution Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brahma, Sukumar [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ranade, Satish [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    High proliferation of Inverter Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources (IIDERs) into the electric distribution grid introduces new challenges to protection of such systems. This is because the existing protection systems are designed with two assumptions: 1) system is single-sourced, resulting in unidirectional fault current, and (2) fault currents are easily detectable due to much higher magnitudes compared to load currents. Due to the fact that most renewables interface with the grid though inverters, and inverters restrict their current output to levels close to the full load currents, both these assumptions are no longer valid - the system becomes multi-sourced, and overcurrent-based protection does not work. The primary scope of this study is to analyze the response of a grid-tied inverter to different faults in the grid, leading to new guidelines on protecting renewable-rich distribution systems.

  14. Wind Farm Protection Systems: State of the Art and Challenges


    Kawady, Tamer A.; Mansour, Naema M.; Taalab, Abdel-Maksoud I.


    This chapter emphasized the basic outline of the common configuration of protective relays that are usually utilized with modern wind energy conversion systems. Electrical faults occurring into the different zones of wind farms were described. Accordingly, different problems arise with the simple and non-integrated protection schemes that are usually

  15. The Dutch system of legal protection in public procurement procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijck, Arthur


    The legal protection of entrepreneurs in public procurement procedures has been a point of concern to the European Union legislator, leading to the adoption of well-known the Remedies Directives. This article examines the conformity of the Dutch system of judicial protection in the procurement field

  16. Distance Protection of Cross-Bonded Transmission Cable-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; F. Jensen, Christian


    In this paper the problems of protecting a cross-bonded cable system using distance protection are analysed. The combination of the desire to expand the high voltage transmission grid and the public's opinion towards new installations of overhead lines (OHL), more and more transmission cable syst...

  17. Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machowski


    Full Text Available The paper discusses out-of-step protection systems such as: generator pole slip protections, out of step tripping protections, distance protections of step-up transformer, distance protections of transmission lines and transformers, power swing blocking, and special out-of-step protection. It is shown that all these protections make up a protection system, to which a setting concept uniform for the entire power system has to be applied. If a power system is inappropriately equipped with these protections, or their settings are inappropriate, they may operate unselectively, thus contributing to the development of power system blackouts. In the paper the concepts for a real power system are given for the two stages: target stage fully compliant with selectivity criteria, and transitional stage between the current and target stages.

  18. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana

    effective measures, because they are associated with large reactive power losses in the transmission system. Ordered reduction of wind generation is considered an effective measure to maintain voltage stability in the system. Reactive power in the system is released due to tripping of a significant amount...... (RAD) is connected to a central bus in the southern part of the 132-kV system, which is close to a large concentration of Wind turbines. The third PMU at Hovegård (HVE) is selected, because the bus terminates the interconnection to Sweden. Hovegård is geographically located near a number of power...

  19. Power supply risk assessment method for relay protection system faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyou Si


    Full Text Available The influence and the potential risk due to hidden faults of a relay protection system on power supply in distribution systems are paid more and more attention to. A probability analysis method is used to analyse fault characteristics and action mechanism of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems, and failure probability model of relay protection system is constructed and simplified. The effects of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems on the reduced power supply load power are analysed, and a probabilistic model for reduced power supply load power is constructed by three parts corresponding to dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation. A probability calculation method of power supply risk occurrence due to hidden faults of relay protecttion system is proposed considering the fault probability of the relay protection systems, the frequency of the hidden faults occurring in operation period, the reduced power supply load power or load power outage, and the connection mode of the in-lines, out-lines and transformers in a substation. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method for estimation of risk value probability of the relay protection systems is verified by two studied examples.

  20. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong


    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  1. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.


    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values

  2. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto

    of 17 months of work of the Joint Working Group B5/C6.26/CIRED “Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources”. The working group used the CIGRE report TB421 “The impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation”, published...... are listed (chapter 3). The first main part of the report starts with a summary of the backgrounds on DER and current practices in protection at the distribution level (chapter 4). This chapter contains an analysis of CIGRE TB421, protection relevant characteristics of DER, a review of current practices...

  3. Observer Based Optimal Vibration Control of a Full Aircraft System Having Active Landing Gears and Biodynamic Pilot Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yazici


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of an observed based optimal state feedback controller having pole location constraints for an active vibration mitigation problem of an aircraft system. An eleven-degree-of-freedom detailed full aircraft mathematical model having active landing gears and a seated pilot body is developed to control and analyze aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation, when the aircraft is taxiing. Ground induced vibration can contribute to the reduction of pilot’s capability to control the aircraft and cause the safety problem before take-off and after landing. Since the state variables of the pilot body are not available for measurement in practice, an observed based optimal controller is designed via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs approach. In addition, classical LQR controller is designed to investigate effectiveness of the proposed controller. The system is then simulated against the bump and random runway excitation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller provides significant improvements in reducing vibration amplitudes of aircraft fuselage and pilot’s head and maintains the safety requirements in terms of suspension stroke and tire deflection.

  4. Stereo-electronic, vibrational, and environmental contributions to polarizabilities of large molecular systems: a feasible anharmonic protocol. (United States)

    Egidi, Franco; Giovannini, Tommaso; Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Cappelli, Chiara; Barone, Vincenzo


    Reliable computations of linear and non-linear optical properties of molecular systems in condensed phases require a proper account of stereo-electronic, vibrational, and environmental effects. In the framework of density functional theory, these effects can be accurately introduced using second-order vibrational perturbation theory in conjunction with polarizable continuum models. We illustrate the combination of an anharmonic description of the ground-state potential energy surface with solvation effects treated with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) in the calculation of the electronic, zero-point, and pure vibrational polarizabilities of selected systems. The description of the solvation environment is enriched by taking into account the dynamical aspects of the solute-solvent interactions through the inclusion of both electronic and vibrational non-equilbrium effects, as well as the direct effect of the solvent on the electric field that generates the molecular response (local field effect). This treatment yields accurate results which can be directly compared with experimental findings without the need of empirical corrections.

  5. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calado


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  6. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator. (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria


    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  7. Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI): A control and data acquisition system for scanning laser vibrometers (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Brown, Donald E.; Shaffer, Thomas A.


    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from scanning laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor, but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. The sensor itself is not part of the VPI system. A graphical interface program, which runs on a PC under the MS-DOS operating system, functions in an interactive mode and communicates with the DSP and I/O boards in a user-friendly fashion through the aid of pop-up menus. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or 'full field.' In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and is stored by the PC. The position of the measuring point (adjusted by mirrors in the sensor) is controlled via a mouse input. The mouse input is translated to output voltages by the D/A converter on the I/O board to control the mirror servos. In the 'full field' mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selectable rectangular area. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms 'full field' velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage on the PC.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-ping Zeng


    Full Text Available The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived according to energy principle. By regarding rail irregularity as a series of multipoint, different-phase random excitations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are obtained by pseudoexcitation method. Taking a nine-span simply supported beam bridge traveled by a train consisting of 8 vehicles as an example, the vertical random vibration responses of the system are investigated. Firstly, the suitable number of discrete frequencies of rail irregularity is obtained by numerical experimentations. Secondly, the reliability and efficiency of pseudoexcitation method are verified through comparison with Monte Carlo method. Thirdly, the random vibration characteristics of train-slab track-bridge interaction system are analyzed by pseudoexcitation method. Finally, applying the 3σ rule for Gaussian stochastic process, the maximum responses of train-slab track-bridge interaction system with respect to various train speeds are studied.

  9. Protecting HVAC systems from bio-terrorism. (United States)

    Arterburn, Tom


    The FBI, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, issued an advisory to state and local law enforcement authorities and the public asking to remain especially alert to any unusual activities around ventilation systems. It noted that while the Bureau possessed no specific threats regarding the release of toxic chemicals into air handling systems, building owners and managers should be well-aware of the potential for contamination of such systems. This article presents recommendations of air-handling experts and associations for operators to consider.

  10. Comparison of analysis and vibration test results for a multiple supported piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.


    The behavior of a nuclear power plant piping system subjected to high level vibrational excitation is investigated experimentally and analytically. The objective is to evaluate the piping analysis method employed in the SMACS computer code. Experimental data are obtained from the Large Shaker Experiments (SHAG) conducted at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, in which the dynamic behavior of an in-plant piping system with various support configurations was investigated. Comparisons of calculational results with measured data indicate that the adequacy of the prediction depends primarily on the modeling of boundary conditions and dynamic supports. Treating the latter as rigid and using building motion as input, in general, results in under prediction of piping response. On the other hand when accelerations on the pipe side of the dynamic support attachment are used as input, piping response is highly overpredicted. Also modeling wall/floor component attachments as fixed usually leads to underprediction of amplitude as well as differences in the frequency content of response. 9 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Application of Higher Order Hamiltonian Approach to the Nonlinear Vibration of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper implements the higher order Hamiltonian method to analyze an electrostatically actuated nonlinear micro beam-based micro electro mechanical oscillator. First, second and third approximate solutions are obtained, and the frequency responses of the system are compared with energy balance method solution and previously solved Variational Approach (VA and exact solution. After driving the equation of motion based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Galerkin method has been used to simplify the nonlinear equation of motion. Higher order Hamiltonian approach has been used to solve the problem and introduce a design strategy. Phase plane diagram of electrostatically actuated micro beam has plotted to show the stability of presented nonlinear system and natural frequencies are calculated to use for resonator design. According to the numerical results, the second approximate is more acceptable and results show that one could obtain a predesign strategy by prediction of effects of mechanical properties and electrical coefficients on the stability and free vibration of common electrostatically actuated micro beam.

  12. Vibration control of a class of semiactive suspension system using neural network and backstepping techniques (United States)

    Zapateiro, M.; Luo, N.; Karimi, H. R.; Vehí, J.


    In this paper, we address the problem of designing the semiactive controller for a class of vehicle suspension system that employs a magnetorheological (MR) damper as the actuator. As the first step, an adequate model of the MR damper must be developed. Most of the models found in literature are based on the mechanical behavior of the device, with the Bingham and Bouc-Wen models being the most popular ones. These models can estimate the damping force of the device taking the control voltage and velocity inputs as variables. However, the inverse model, i.e., the model that computes the control variable (generally the voltage) is even more difficult to find due to the numerical complexity that implies the inverse of the nonlinear forward model. In our case, we develop a neural network being able to estimate the control voltage input to the MR damper, which is necessary for producing the optimal force predicted by the controller so as to reduce the vibrations. The controller is designed following the standard backstepping technique. The performance of the control system is evaluated by means of simulations in MATLAB/Simulink.

  13. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Kevin M


    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Any payment system must establish a connection between the entity and the revenue performance of employees between the financial balance of the entity and needs to satisfy some needs of the individuals. A goal is not always easy to follow is to establish fairness in the workplace in relation to the report results. Even if the system is a fair wage, it is necessary that employees perceive and understand this. German economic success was achieved thanks to a competent management and an effort from employees, which is characterized by more order, competent and highly skilled, resulting in a competition between the management and the german economy. German management uses the tools of the pay system and the welfare system.

  15. Efficiency of protection of mine hoisting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, N.I.


    The paper evaluates investigations into factors which influence hoisting safety in underground coal mines. The investigations were carried out by Donetskugleavtomatika. Hoisting systems in coal mines are reviewed: skip and cage hoisting, multirope hoisting, single-rope hoisting, hoisting systems with two skips or cages, hoisting with a counterbalance. Effects of skip or cage mass, hoisting speed, brake system, properties of a braking system and direction of hoisting on braking efficiency and braking distance are analyzed. Mathematical formulae for calculating safe braking distance are derived. Regulations on safe braking in vertical shafts in coal mines are critically evaluated. Recommendations for improved regulations are made. Examples of using the derived formulae for accurate determination of braking distance of a skip or a cage under the most difficult conditions are discussed. Effects of improved calculation methods on hoisting safety in coal mines are also evaluated. (In Russian)

  16. Monitoring, control and protection of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Häger, Ulf; Voropai, Nikolai


    This book presents new tools and methods for monitoring, control and protection of large scale power systems, adapting Smart Grid technologies based on wide area data exchange in combination with modern measurement devices and advanced network controllers.

  17. Protecting our transportation systems : an information security awareness overview (United States)


    With the growing reliance on information systems within the global economy, it has become necessary to protect the availability, integrity, and confidentiality of information. As the surface transportation industry enters the information era through ...

  18. An Alternative Ice Protection System for Turbine Engine Inlets Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a dual approach to the development and certification of an alternative system for ice protection of turbine engine inlets. It combines a new...

  19. Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM): 3D MAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D MAT Project seeks to design and develop a game changing Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) technology tailored to meet the needs of the Orion Multi-Purpose...

  20. An Alternative Ice Protection System for Turbine Engine Inlets Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation combines a new generation low power ice protection system with a novel path to certification that is based upon requirements that turbine engines be...

  1. CNSS: Interagency Partnering to Protect Our National Security Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimes, John G


    .... The CNSS performs the vital function of mobilizing the full, interagency National Security Community for the protection of telecommunications and information systems that support U.S. national security...

  2. The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System: Functional Aspects and Therapeutic Implications is the first comprehensive publication to signal the protective role of a distinct part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), providing readers with early insight into a complex system which...... will become of major medical importance in the near future. Focusing on recent research, The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System presents a host of new experimental studies on specific components of the RAS, namely angiotensin AT2 receptors (AT2R), the angiotensin (1-7) peptide with its receptor...... Mas, and the enzyme ACE 2, which exert significant beneficial, health-promoting actions by counterbalancing the well-known harmful arm of the RAS with its classical angiotensin AT1 receptor. This innovative concept of the protective arm of the RAS, examined in this reference, represents...

  3. In Situ Diagnostic Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low-profile, embedded sensors are proposed for condition monitoring and health management (HM) of thermal protection systems. The sensors will be fabricated using a...

  4. Nonablative lightweight thermal protection system for Mars Aeroflyby Sample collection mission (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Takuya; Ogasawara, Toshio; Fujita, Kazuhisa


    In this study, the concept of a nonablative lightweight thermal protection system (NALT) were proposed for a Mars exploration mission currently under investigation in Japan. The NALT consists of a carbon/carbon (C/C) composite skin, insulator tiles, and a honeycomb sandwich panel. Basic thermal characteristics of the NALT were obtained by conducting heating tests in high-enthalpy facilities. Thermal conductivity values of the insulator tiles as well as the emissivity values of the C/C skin were measured to develop a numerical analysis code for predicting NALT's thermal performance in flight environments. Finally, a breadboard model of a 600-mm diameter NALT aeroshell was developed and qualified through vibration and thermal vacuum tests.

  5. Coupling system dynamics and contact behaviour: Modelling bearings subjected to environmental induced vibrations and ‘false brinelling’ degradation (United States)

    Massi, Francesco; Rocchi, J.; Culla, A.; Berthier, Y.


    During the last decades the increase in power of mechanical systems and the demand for increasing service life leads mechanical components of a system to work in extreme conditions. Moreover, actual mechanical systems include surfaces in sliding contact that are subjected to wear if exposed to high vibration. In fact, the vibration of components in contact results in large oscillations of the local contact stresses, due to the local deformation of the components at the contact interfaces. To approach correctly tribological problems, the coupling between the scale of the mechanism (system dynamics) and the scale of the contact needs to be accounted for. This paper presents an analysis concerning the influence of the vibrations induced by aircraft engines on the contact stresses of rolling bearings of the bleed system valves. To study the wear, resulting from false brinelling at the contact surfaces between balls and races of the bearings, it is then necessary to determine the forces due to the system vibrations and acting at the bearing connections with the structure. In order to perform a numerical transient analysis of the system dynamics a nonlinear simplified model of the valve (mechanism scale) is developed. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental tests. The time behaviour of the global forces on the bearings, and the respective displacements between the contact surfaces, are then used as inputs for a finite element model of the bearings (contact scale). The model is used to calculate and analyze the behaviour in time of the local contact constraints between race and balls. This analysis, developed in the framework of a European project, is an example of the proposed general approach to contact problems, by coupling the analysis of the mechanism and contact scales.

  6. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.


    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

  7. The High Precision Vibration Signal Data Acquisition System Based on the STM32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hui-Ling


    Full Text Available Vibrating wire sensors are a class of sensors that are very popular used for strain measurements of structures in buildings and civil infrastructures. The use of frequency, rather than amplitude, to convey the signal means that vibrating wire sensors are relatively resistant signal degradation from electrical noise, long cable runs, and other changes in cable resistance. This paper proposed a high precision vibration signal acquisition with storage function based on STM32 microcontroller in order to promote safety in engineering construction. The instrument designed in this paper not only can directly collect vibrating signals, but also store data into SD card and communicate with computer so as to realize the real-time monitoring from point to point.

  8. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Centrifugal Pump System Using Vibration Signal and Support Vector Machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xue, Hongtao; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng


    ...), possibility theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) on the basis of the vibration signals, to diagnose frequent faults in the centrifugal pump at an early stage, such as cavitation, impeller unbalance, and shaft misalignment...

  9. 77 FR 7526 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard (United States)


    ... system condition that will affect reliable operation, and to initiate appropriate control circuit actions... reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System and will allow for differentiation between protective relays... relays that can affect the reliable operation of the Bulk- Power System, as discussed above, within these...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinovic


    Full Text Available All developed countries are in transition from the IT economy to a web economy - the biggest technological innovation that will have a long-term positive effect on the formation of the economic growth rate, the major structural changes and on the differentiated effects on the economic areas that are, at a faster or a slower rate, being included in this technological change. The electronic commerce or e-commerce has a huge potential for development. The electronic commerce between the companies (B-2-B is significantly greater compared to retail electronic commerce (B-2-C. In both spheres of trade, the Internet is used as a platform for the transfer of information and for concluding business deals. Market economy requires Accelerated Payment Processing which is achieved by introducing and improving the electronic payment procedures. There is an emphasized dichotomy between the two spheres of the payment system: large-value and small-value payments. The large value payment systems can be described as the arteries of the payment system, and the small-value transfer systems as a complex network of veins that bind the entire economy.

  11. Illustration of distributed generation effects on protection system coordination (United States)

    Alawami, Hussain Adnan

    Environmental concerns, market forces, and emergence of new technologies have recently resulted in restructuring electric utility from vertically integrated networks to competitive deregulated entities. Distributed generation (DG) is playing a major role in such deregulated markets. When they are installed in small amounts and small sizes, their impacts on the system may be negligible. When their penetration levels increase as well as their sizes, however, they may start affecting the system performance from more than one aspect. Power system protection needs to be re-assessed after the emergence of DG. This thesis attempts to illustrate the impact of DG on the power system protection coordination. It will study the operation of the impedance relays, fuses, reclosers and overcurrent relays when a DG is added to the distribution network. Different DG sizes, distances from the network and locations within the distribution system will be considered. Power system protection coordination is very sensitive to the DG size where it is not for the DG distance. DG location has direct impact on the operation of the protective devices especially when it is inserted in the middle point of the distribution system. Key Words, Distributed Generation, Impedance relay, fuses, reclosers, overcurrent relays, power system protection coordination.

  12. Implementation of FPGA-Based Diverse Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Soo Yun; Lee, Yoon Hee; Shon, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Obsolete analog and digital hardware platforms in NPPs are commonly replaced with programmable logic controller (PLC) and distributed control system (DCS). Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to obsolete hardware platforms. FPGAs are digital integrated circuits (ICs) that contain the configurable (programmable) blocks of logic along with configurable interconnections among these blocks. Designers can configure (program) such devices to perform a tremendous variety of tasks. FPGAs have been evolved from the technology of programmable logic device (PLD). Nowadays, they can contain millions of logic gates by nanotechnology and can be used to implement extremely large and complex functions that previously could be realized only using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). This paper presents the implementation of an FPGA-based diverse protection system (DPS) which executes the protective functions in NPP when the protective functions of the plant protection system (PPS) fails.

  13. Distributed Power-Generation Systems and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Yang, Dongsheng


    Continuously expanding deployments of distrib¬uted power-generation systems (DPGSs) are transforming the conventional centralized power grid into a mixed distributed electrical network. The modern power grid requires flexible energy utilization but presents challenges in the case of a high...... penetration degree of renewable energy, among which wind and solar photovoltaics are typical sources. The integration level of the DPGS into the grid plays a critical role in developing sustainable and resilient power systems, especially with highly intermittent renewable energy resources. To address...... the challenging issues and, more importantly, to leverage the energy generation, stringent demands from both utility operators and consumers have been imposed on the DPGS. Furthermore, as the core of energy conversion, numerous power electronic converters employing advanced control techniques have been developed...

  14. CRBRP sodium fire protection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttrey, K. E.


    A passive catch pan fire suppression deck system was designed. A large-scale sodium spray fire test showed that the effects of spray burning were being underestimated. A modified computer code indicated that for a design basis IHTS leak in CRBRP, the design allowables would be exceeded. A modified pipe insulation design was developed and tested. The tests and analysis indicate that the concrete temperatures, structural steel temperatures, building pressures, and aerosol releases are now all reduced to acceptable levels. (DLC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Nurulamin


    Full Text Available In the present work a review of the existing theories of chatter formation has been conducted and the weaknesses of the most widely accepted ‘Regenerative Chatter theory’ in explaining various phenomena related to chatter formation have been identified. An attempt has been made in this work to determine the common causes of chatter formation in different metal cutting operations, namely, turning, thread cutting and end milling conducted on plain carbon steel AISI 1040. Experimental investigations have been conducted during the above types of machining processes to identify the marks of instability and chatter on the formed chips. It has been identified that in all the three machining operations the chips formed show a common type of discreteness in the form of secondary saw teeth, which appear at the free edge of the chip. Mechanism of formation of these teeth has been studied and the frequencies of their formation have been determined for different cutting conditions. Apart from the secondary saw teeth primary saw teeth have also been identified at the main section of the chip and their frequencies were also determined. At the same time the natural vibrations of the main system components have been identified and the acceleration amplitudes at the prominent natural frequencies during actual machining were recoded using a dedicated vibration monitoring system. The frequencies of secondary chip serration and the natural frequencies of the system components were plotted against cutting speed. Acceleration amplitudes at the prominent natural frequencies were also plotted separately against cutting force. Based on comparison and analysis of these two frequency and amplitude graphs it was concluded that chatter (vibration with relatively high amplitude appears in the system when the frequency of secondary saw teeth approaches values equal to half or integer multiple of a prominent natural frequency of the system resulting in resonance. In the

  16. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.


    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  17. Extended theory of finite Fermi systems: collective vibrations in closed shell nuclei (United States)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.; Speth, J.; Tertychny, G.

    We review an extension of Migdal's Theory of Finite Fermi Systems which has been developed and applied to collective vibrations in closed shell nuclei in the past 10 years. This microscopic approach is based on a consistent use of the Green function method. Here one considers in a consistent way more complex 1p1h⊗phonon configurations beyond the RPA correlations. Moreover, these configurations are not only included in the excited states but also explicitly in the ground states of nuclei. The method has been applied to the calculation of the strength distribution and transition densities of giant electric and magnetic resonances in stable and unstable magic nuclei. Using these microscopic transition densities, cross sections for inelastic electron and alpha scattering have been calculated and compared with the available experimental data. The method also allows one to extract in a consistent way the magnitude of the strength of the various multipoles in the energy regions in which several multipoles overlap. We compare the microscopic transition densities, the strength distributions and the various multipole strengths with their values extracted phenomenologically.

  18. Extended theory of finite Fermi systems: collective vibrations in closed shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.; Speth, J.; Tertychny, G


    We review an extension of Migdal's Theory of Finite Fermi Systems which has been developed and applied to collective vibrations in closed shell nuclei in the past 10 years. This microscopic approach is based on a consistent use of the Green function method. Here one considers in a consistent way more complex 1p1h*phonon configurations beyond the RPA correlations. Moreover, these configurations are not only included in the excited states but also explicitly in the ground states of nuclei. The method has been applied to the calculation of the strength distribution and transition densities of giant electric and magnetic resonances in stable and unstable magic nuclei. Using these microscopic transition densities, cross sections for inelastic electron and alpha scattering have been calculated and compared with the available experimental data. The method also allows one to extract in a consistent way the magnitude of the strength of the various multipoles in the energy regions in which several multipoles overlap. We compare the microscopic transition densities, the strength distributions and the various multipole strengths with their values extracted phenomenologically.

  19. Harvesting microalgal biomass using a magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) system: filtration performance and energy consumption. (United States)

    Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J


    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged microfiltration to harvest both a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and a Chlorella vulgaris in a recently developed magnetically induced membrane vibrating (MMV) system. We assess the filtration performance by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM), fed-batch concentration filtrations and membrane fouling autopsy using two lab-made membranes with different porosity. The full-scale energy consumption was also estimated. Overall results suggest that the MMV offers a good fouling control and the process was proven to be economically attractive. By combining the membrane filtration (15× concentration) with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 25% w/v, the energy consumption to harvest P. tricornutum and C. vulgaris was, respectively, as low as 0.84 and 0.77kWh/m(3), corresponding to 1.46 and 1.39 kWh/kg of the harvested biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multilayer insulation thermal protection systems technology (United States)

    Hyde, E. H.


    A summary is presented of the work performed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and industry toward the development of flight-type multilayer insulation(MLI) systems. The MSFC MLI program is divided into three large categories: (1) the generation and compilation of MLI composite test data; (2) the analysis, design, and testing of heat flow through MLI applied to ducting, seams, electrical feedthroughs, structural supports, and the tank sidewall; and (3) the development, modification, and utilization of new testing procedures, tanks, and the test facilities. Numerous data have been generated, analyzed, and documented on different MLI composites.

  1. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.


    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM


    Zhi-ping Zeng; Zhi-wu Yu; Yan-gang Zhao; Wen-tao Xu; Ling-kun Chen; Ping Lou


    The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived ac...

  3. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System (United States)

    Wong-McSweeney, Daniel; Woodcock, James; Waddington, David; Peris, Eulalia; Koziel, Zbigniew; Moorhouse, Andy; Redel-Macías, María Dolores


    The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350) near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors. PMID:27983662

  4. Study of coupling between bending and torsional vibration of cracked rotor system supported by radial active magnetic bearings


    Ferfecki P.


    The coupling of bending and torsional vibration due to the presence of transverse fatigue crack in a rotor system supported by radial active magnetic bearings (AMB) is investigated. For this purpose the modified stiffness matrix with six degrees of freedom per node is used and takes into account all the coupling phenomena that exists in a cracked rotor. The partial opening and closing of crack is considered by means of status of stress intensity factor along the crack edge. The equation of mo...

  5. Molecular structure, interatomic interactions and vibrational analysis of 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane parent ring system (United States)

    Britvin, Sergey N.; Rumyantsev, Andrey M.; Zobnina, Anastasia E.; Padkina, Marina V.


    Molecular structure of 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, a parent ring of TAN1251 family of alkaloids, is herein characterized for the first time in comparison with the structure of nortropane (8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane), the parent framework of tropane ring system. The methods of study involve X-ray structural analysis, DFT geometry optimizations with infrared frequency calculations followed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and vibrational analysis of infrared spectrum.

  6. Identification of novel antigens that protect against systemic meningococcal infection. (United States)

    Sun, Yaohui; Li, Yanwen; Exley, Rachel M; Winterbotham, Megan; Ison, Catherine; Smith, Harry; Tang, Christoph M


    Systemic infection with Neisseria meningitidis leads to a devastating, septicaemic illness with a high mortality, particularly in children. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N. meningitidis serogroup B, the commonest isolate in developed countries. Here, we describe the identification of vaccine candidates that protect mice against lethal challenge with this bacterium. A total 11 meningococcal proteins that are necessary for establishing systemic infection were expressed as recombinant antigens and assessed for their ability to protect animals against live bacterial challenge; the lactate permease (LctP) and ExbB, which is required for iron acquisition, elicited protective immunity. Both LctP and ExbB are expressed by a wide range of pathogenic isolates of N. meningitidis. Targeting bacterial factors required for pathogenesis may lead to new vaccines to protect individuals from this important human pathogen.

  7. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

  8. Railway automatic safety protection system based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Hai Juan


    Full Text Available The automatic protection system of railway safety is designed for the railway construction workers to protect alarm, and the safety protection device by using GPS satellite positioning system to acquire location information of the operating point, through the CTC/TDCS system and computer monitoring system for the running of the train position and the arithmetic distance. Achieving timely and continuously forecasts about the distance of the train which is apart from the operating point to prompt the voice alarm of the approaching train. Using digital technology to realize the function of the traditional analog interphone, eliminates the quality problems of the call. With the GSM-R, mobile wireless transmission channel and terminal technology, it overcomes the restrictions of the analog interphone which influenced by communication distance and more problems of blind areas. Finally to achieve practical, convenient, applicable and adaptable design goals.

  9. Alternative High Performance Polymers for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Boghozian, Tane; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gonzales, Greg


    Ablative thermal protection systems are commonly used as protection from the intense heat during re-entry of a space vehicle and have been used successfully on many missions including Stardust and Mars Science Laboratory both of which used PICA - a phenolic based ablator. Historically, phenolic resin has served as the ablative polymer for many TPS systems. However, it has limitations in both processing and properties such as char yield, glass transition temperature and char stability. Therefore alternative high performance polymers are being considered including cyanate ester resin, polyimide, and polybenzoxazine. Thermal and mechanical properties of these resin systems were characterized and compared with phenolic resin.

  10. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children. (United States)

    Shilpapriya, Mangalampally; Jayanthi, Mungara; Reddy, Venumbaka Nilaya; Sakthivel, Rajendran; Selvaraju, Girija; Vijayakumar, Poornima


    Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel's behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001) compared to the injections without the use of vibe. The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.

  11. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Theoretical coupling longitudinal-transverse model and experimental verification of transverse vibration of rope for multi-rope friction hoisting system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Wu Ziming Kou


    .... The modified Galerkin's method was used to discretize partial differential Eqs. The mine hoisting system was used to the example to analysis the relation between the load, velocity and transverse vibration of rope...

  13. The vibration damping effectiveness of an active seat suspension system and its robustness to varying mass loading (United States)

    Maciejewski, I.; Meyer, L.; Krzyzynski, T.


    The paper describes the simulated dynamic response of an active vibro-isolating pneumatic suspension seat. Active control of the air-spring force is used to improve its vibro-isolation properties. For the active vibration isolating system described, a triple feedback loop control system was developed and analysed. The system robustness for different load masses was investigated using the verified active seat suspension model. The Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility factor (SEAT) and the maximum suspension deflection were used as the seat performance indices.

  14. Design and fabrication of self-powered micro-harvesters rotating and vibrated micro-power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, C T; Lin, Liwei; Chen, Ying-Chung


    Presents the latest methods for designing and fabricating self-powered micro-generators and energy harvester systems Design and Fabrication of Self-Powered Micro-Harvesters introduces the latest trends of self-powered generators and energy harvester systems, including the design, analysis and fabrication of micro power systems. Presented in four distinct parts, the authors explore the design and fabrication of: vibration-induced electromagnetic micro-generators; rotary electromagnetic micro-generators; flexible piezo-micro-generator with various widths; and PVDF electrospunpiezo-energy with

  15. Thermal protection for a self-sensing piezoelectric control system (United States)

    Simmers, Garnett E., Jr.; Sodano, Henry A.; Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J.


    Piezoelectric materials exhibit high electromechanical coupling that allows them to both generate an electrical signal when strained and, conversely, to produce a strain under an applied electric field. This coupling has led to the use of these materials for a variety of sensing and actuation purposes. One unique application of these materials is their use as self-sensing actuators where both the sensing and actuation functions are performed by a single patch of material. Since the actuation and sensing voltages both exist simultaneously in the piezoelectric material, a specially designed electric circuit, referred to as a bridge circuit, is required to realize the concept. Configuration of the material in this manner is advantageous for control systems due to the enhanced stability associated when collocated control is applied. While certain advantages result from this type of system, precise equilibrium of the bridge circuit is required to achieve stability. This equilibrium is easy to achieve in theory, but difficult in practice due to the thermal dependence of the piezoelectric material's dielectric constant. This study will investigate a novel method of accounting for these changes through the use of thermal switches to passively adjust the bridge circuit and maintain a balanced state. The proposed concept will be theoretically modeled and simulated in a vibration control application to identify the thermal range for stability with and without the array of switches. It will be shown that, through the use of nine thermal switches, the stable operating range can be increased by 95 °C while maintaining vibration control performance.

  16. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  17. Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco Martinez, Andrea

    This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant...... that child protection systems must respond to the unique situation of migrant children’s needs. Child protection and migration policies need to strike a balance between discouraging unsafe migration, which has the potential to expose children to violence, and ensuring that systems are in place for safe...... migration at all stages of their journey. It provides a set of specific policies to address the needs of unaccompanied migrant children in Mozambique....

  18. Vibrations of double-nanotube systems with mislocation via a newly developed van der Waals model (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan


    This study deals with transverse vibrations of two adjacent-parallel-mislocated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under various end conditions. These tubes interact with each other and their surrounding medium through the intertube van der Waals (vdW) forces, and existing bonds between their atoms and those of the elastic medium. The elastic energy of such forces due to the deflections of nanotubes is appropriately modeled by defining a vdW force density function. In the previous works, vdW forces between two identical tubes were idealized by a uniform form of this function. The newly introduced function enables us to investigate the influences of both intertube free distance and longitudinal mislocation on the natural transverse frequencies of the nanosystem which consists of two dissimilar tubes. Such crucial issues have not been addressed yet, even for simply supported tubes. Using nonlocal Timoshenko and higher-order beam theories as well as Hamilton's principle, the strong form of the equations of motion is established. Seeking for an explicit solution to these integro-partial differential equations is a very problematic task. Thereby, an energy-based method in conjunction with an efficient meshfree method is proposed and the nonlocal frequencies of the elastically embedded nanosystem are determined. For simply supported nanosystems, the predicted first five frequencies of the proposed model are checked with those of assumed mode method, and a reasonably good agreement is achieved. Through various studies, the roles of the tube's length ratio, intertube free space, mislocation, small-scale effect, slenderness ratio, radius of SWCNTs, and elastic constants of the elastic matrix on the natural frequencies of the nanosystem with various end conditions are explained. The limitations of the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory are also addressed. This work can be considered as a vital step towards better realizing of a more complex system that consists of

  19. Subsurface Intrusion Detection System (United States)


    fre­ quency seismic vibrations and can therefore detect even rela­ tively small vibrations associated with tunneling or other subsurface activity...may indicate a surreptitious attempt to cross the boundary protected by system 100. Activity in digging or moving within tunnel 160 creates seismic ...magnitude of seismic vibrations associated with subsurface activity indicative of unauthorized attempts to tunnel across the boundary protected by

  20. Vertical Random Vibration Analysis of Track-Subgrade Coupled System in High Speed Railway with Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Yang


    Full Text Available In order to reduce the ground-borne vibration caused by wheel/rail interaction in the ballastless track of high speed railways, viscoelastic asphalt concrete materials are filled between the track and the subgrade to attenuate wheel/rail force. A high speed train-track-subgrade vertical coupled dynamic model is developed in the frequency domain. In this model, coupling effects between the vehicle and the track and between the track and the subgrade are considered. The full vehicle is represented by some rigid body models of one body, two bogies, and four wheelsets connected to each other with springs and dampers. The track and subgrade system is considered as a multilayer beam model in which layers are connected to each other with springs and damping elements. The vertical receptance of the rail is discussed and the receptance contribution of the wheel/rail interaction is investigated. Combined with the pseudoexcitation method, a solution of the random dynamic response is presented. The random vibration responses and transfer characteristics of the ballastless track and subgrade system are obtained under track random irregularity when a high speed vehicle runs through. The influences of asphalt concrete layer’s stiffness and vehicle speed on track and subgrade coupling vibration are analyzed.

  1. A hybrid single-end-access MZI and Φ-OTDR vibration sensing system with high frequency response (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Xia, Lan; Cao, Chunqi; Sun, Zhenhong; Li, Yanting; Zhang, Xuping


    A hybrid single-end-access Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and phase sensitive OTDR (Φ-OTDR) vibration sensing system is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In our system, the narrow optical pulses and the continuous wave are injected into the fiber through the front end of the fiber at the same time. And at the rear end of the fiber, a frequency-shift-mirror (FSM) is designed to back propagate the continuous wave modulated by the external vibration. Thus the Rayleigh backscattering signals (RBS) and the back propagated continuous wave interfere with the reference light at the same end of the sensing fiber and a single-end-access configuration is achieved. The RBS can be successfully separated from the interference signal (IS) through digital signal process due to their different intermediate frequency based on frequency division multiplexing technique. There is no influence between these two schemes. The experimental results show 10 m spatial resolution and up to 1.2 MHz frequency response along a 6.35 km long fiber. This newly designed single-end-access setup can achieve vibration events locating and high frequency events response, which can be widely used in health monitoring for civil infrastructures and transportation.

  2. Localization of equipment for digital plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K. and others


    The objective of this project lies on the development of design requirements, establishment of structure and manufacture procedures, development of the software verification and validation(V and V) techniques of the digital plant protection system. The functional requirements based on the analog protection system and digital design requirements are introduced, the processor and system bus for safety grade equipment are selected and the interface requirements and the design specification have been developed in order to manufacture the quick prototype of the digital plant protection system. The selection guidelines of parts, software development and coding and testing for digital plant protection system have been performed through manufacturing the quick prototype based on the developed design specification. For the software verification and validation, the software review plan and techniques of verification and validation have been researched. The digital validation system is developed in order to verify the quick prototype. The digital design requirements are reviewed by the software safety plan and V and V plans. The formal methods for verifying the safety-grade software are researched, then the methodology of formal analysis and testing have been developed.

  3. Lightning Protection System to the Indian Satellite Launch Pad


    Nagabushana, GR; Thomas, Joy; Kumar, Udaya; Rao, Venkateshwara D; Rao, Panduranga PV


    Any satellite launch mission forms a complex and expensive process. Intensive care and precautions are to be taken for a safe and successful launch. Also, the satellite launch system forms a tall structure standing on a plane terrain. As a result, a lightning strike rate to it becomes more probable. Therefore, extensive care needs to be taken in shielding the launch system against natural lightning. Lightning protection systems built with differing principles have been in use at different lau...

  4. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption. (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui


    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection.

  5. Vacuum-packaged piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters: Damping contributions and autonomy for a wireless sensor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, R.; Renaud, M.; Kamel, T.M.; Nooijer, C. de; Jambunathan, M.; Goedbloed, M.; Hohlfeld, D.; Matova, S.; Pop, V.; Caballero, L.; Schaijk, R. van


    This paper describes the characterization of thin-film MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on aluminum nitride as piezoelectric material. A record output power of 85 μW is measured. The parasitic-damping and the energy-harvesting performances of unpackaged and packaged devices are investigated.

  6. Parametric Design and Multiobjective Optimization of Maglev Actuators for Active Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wu


    Full Text Available The microvibration has a serious impact on science experiments on the space station and on image quality of high resolution satellites. As an important component of the active vibration isolation platform, the maglev actuator has a large stroke and exhibits excellent isolating performance benefiting from its noncontact characteristic. A maglev actuator with good linearity was designed in this paper. Fundamental features of the maglev actuator were obtained by finite element simulation. In order to minimize the coil weight and the heat dissipation of the maglev actuator, parametric design was carried out and multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm was adopted. The optimized actuator has better mechanical properties than the initial one. Active vibration isolation platforms for different-scale payload were designed by changing the arrangement of the maglev actuators. The prototype to isolate vibration for small-scale payload was manufactured and the experiments for verifying the characteristics of the actuators were set up. The linearity of the actuator and the mechanical dynamic response of the vibration isolation platform were obtained. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  7. Fluid-Structure Interaction in Combustion System of a Gas Turbine—Effect of Liner Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.


    Prediction of mutual interaction between flow, combustion, acoustic, and vibration phenomena occurring in a combustion chamber is crucial for the reliable operation of any combustion device. In this paper, this is studied with application to the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. Very dangerous

  8. Development of flow separation control system to reduce the vibration of wind turbine blades (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung


    The size of wind turbine blade has been continuously increased. Large-scale wind turbine blades induce loud noise, vibration; and maintenance difficulty is also increased. It causes the eventual increases of the cost of energy. The vibration of wind turbine blade is caused by several reasons such as a blade rotation, tower shadow, wind shear, and flow separation of a wind turbine blade. This wind speed variation changes in local angle of attack of the blades and create the vibration. The variation of local angle of attack influences the lift coefficient and causes the large change of the lift. In this study, we focus on the lift coefficient control using a flow control device to reduce the vibration. DU35-A15 airfoil was employed as baseline model. A plasma actuator was installed to generate the upwind jet in order to control the lift coefficient. Wind tunnel experiment was performed to demonstrate of the performance of the plasma actuator. The results show the plasma actuator can induce the flow separation compared with the baseline model. In addition, the actuator can delay the flow separation depending on the input AC frequency with the same actuator configuration.

  9. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker


    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  10. Effect of the electromagnetic force on the power-train vibration of the in-wheel motor driving system with rubber bushings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan


    Full Text Available For an in-wheel motor driving system with rubber bushings, the driving motor is integrated into the wheel. A magnet gap deformation of the motor will be inevitably caused by the road excitation, which will produce an unbalanced electromagnetic force and influence the power-train vibration. Furthermore, the rim is flexibly connected to the motor rotor by rubber bushings, and a strong coupling and nonlinear vibration of the power-train in all directions can be demonstrated under the electromagnetic excitations. Thus, a 14-degree-of-freedom coupling vibration model of the power-train is first developed for the in-wheel motor driving system with rubber bushings, including the bushing and bearing models. Then, the mathematical model is deduced using a Lagrangian approach. Finally, based on the model, a coupling vibration analysis is conducted under different electromagnetic force excitations. The results indicate that there are coupling vibration components in the torsional direction, except the one-time rotating frequency; however, in the bending direction, the vibration response includes a one-time rotating frequency component and an excitation frequency component of the electromagnetic force. Furthermore, the results indicate that the bushing plays an important role in reducing the power-train vibration, which has a positive effect on the improving vehicle dynamics.

  11. The Quench Protection System for the LHC Test String 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Denz, R; Milani, D; Tegenfeldt, F


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) String programme has focussed over the years the efforts of many teams that have tested and validated their systems under operating conditions close to the final ones in the LHC machine tunnel and underground areas. During the various phases while commissioning or performing dedicated experiments, the Quench Protection System (QPS) has been tested and improved. A large variety of designs of the QPS equipment have been validated. The experience gained, especially concerning both the commissioning and the interaction with systems working within close interfaces (interlocks, powering, controls), is a valuable expertise to undertake the LHC challenge. In the LHC, the QPS will be the only system monitoring and protecting the superconducting elements: the integrity of all the superconducting magnets, bus bars and high-Tc superconducting current leads will depend on its reliable operation. A description of the system installed in String 2 will be given together with the principal simi...

  12. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.


    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  13. Active Wireless Temperature Sensors for Aerospace Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)


    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active wireless sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor sub-surface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuitry to enable acquisition and non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 2.54-cm square integrated circuit.

  14. Implementation Of Solid State Relays For Power System Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Verma


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper provides the implementation of solid state relays for enhancement of power system protection. Relays are an essential part of the power systems and are responsible for the control of any overload voltage or current and protection of the devices from these parameters. The main function of the relay is to constantly monitor the parameter to be controlled and if it exceeds the percentage range set by the controller then it sends a signal to the circuit breaker to break the connection and isolate the faulty part. Solid state relays are preferred over mechanical relays and in this paper relay functioning is done with the help of opto-coupler. Controlling of opto- coupler is done with the help of microcontroller. Circuit operates through Zero Voltage Switching leading to reduction in harmonics. The implementation of relay circuit offers minimal delay time which enables better time response for protection.

  15. Higher harmonic control analysis for vibration reduction of helicopter rotor systems (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.


    An advanced higher harmonic control (HHC) analysis has been developed and applied to investigate its effect on vibration reduction levels, blade and control system fatigue loads, rotor performance, and power requirements of servo-actuators. The analysis is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain unsteady aerodynamic model, based on the indicial response formulation, is used to calculate the airloads. The rotor induced inflow is computed using a free wake model. The vehicle trim controls and blade steady responses are solved as one coupled solution using a modified Newton method. A linear frequency-domain quasi-steady transfer matrix is used to relate the harmonics of the vibratory hub loads to the harmonics of the HHC inputs. Optimal HHC is calculated from the minimization of the vibratory hub loads expressed in term of a quadratic performance index. Predicted vibratory hub shears are correlated with wind tunnel data. The fixed-gain HHC controller suppresses completely the vibratory hub shears for most of steady or quasi-steady flight conditions. HHC actuator amplitudes and power increase significantly at high forward speeds (above 100 knots). Due to the applied HHC, the blade torsional stresses and control loads are increased substantially. For flight conditions where the blades are stalled considerably, the HHC input-output model is quite nonlinear. For such cases, the adaptive-gain controller is effective in suppressing vibratory hub loads, even though HHC may actually increase stall areas on the rotor disk. The fixed-gain controller performs poorly for such flight conditions. Comparison study of different rotor systems indicates that a soft-inplane hingeless rotor requires less actuator power at high speeds (above 130 knots) than an articulated rotor, and a stiff-inplane hingeless rotor generally requires more actuator power than an articulated or a soft-inplane hingeless rotor. Parametric studies for a hingeless rotor

  16. An Early Warning System from debris flows based on ground vibration monitoring data (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Coviello, Velio


    Among the different countermeasures that can be adopted for the mitigation of landslide hazard, Early Warning Systems (EWSs) are receiving an increasing attention. EWSs are the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals and communities threatened by a hazard to appropriately act, in sufficient time, to reduce the possibility of harm or loss (UNEP, 2012). An EWS from debris flows can be classified into two main categories: advance and event EWSs. Advance EWSs predict the occurrence of a debris flow by monitoring hydro-meteorological conditions that may lead to its initiation. Despite their widespread adoption, these latter systems are prone to false alarms because they are heavily affected by bias between regional rainfall threshold and local conditions. Event EWSs, on the contrary, detect the occurrence of a debris flow when the process is already in progress. They usually rely on the use of algorithms for processing in real time the monitoring data. Their effectiveness depends on the reliability of those algorithms, which require long development and testing phases. A specific testing field for event EWSs has been equipped in the Gadria instrumented basin, located in the Eastern Italian Alps. A specifically designed monitoring unit capable to record data from different type of sensors and to implement aboard warning algorithms has been installed along a straight reach of the torrent. A flashing light, installed on the bank of the torrent, has been wired to this unit. The flashing light is framed by a fixed video camera that also shoots the passage of debris flows in the torrent. This provides a visual verification of the efficacy of the algorithm under test, particularly useful to show to practitioners and administrators a clear demonstration of the warning outcome. In this work, we present the performance of a warning algorithm that has been experimented in the Gadria testing field in 2013

  17. Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao


    Full Text Available This research study focused on the effect of using damping chamber elements made from waste tires on railway noise reduction. First, the energy absorption characteristics of damping chamber elements with various gradation combinations and compaction indices were measured in the laboratory using compression testing. The laboratory compression results demonstrated that the optimal gradation combination of damping chamber elements is as follows: the content of fine rubber particles is 10%, the content of coarse granules is 90%, and the optimal compaction index is 0.98. Next, the findings from the laboratory compression-test studies were used to produce damping chamber elements that were applied to a full-scale modern track model in the laboratory. The measurements of the dynamic properties indicated that the damping chamber elements could significantly reduce the vibration levels of the rail head. Finally, the damping chamber elements, which had been proven effective through laboratory dynamic tests, were widely applied to test rail sections in the field. The field tests demonstrated that damping chamber elements can significantly increase the track vibration decay rate in the frequency range of 200–10000 Hz. Therefore, damping chamber elements made from waste tires are able to control rail vibration and noise in modern tram track systems.

  18. Programming microphysiological systems for children's health protection (SEBM meeting) (United States)

    Presentation: Programming microphysiological systems for children’s health protectionAuthors: Knudsen1 T, Klieforth2 B, and Slikker3 W Jr.1National Center for Computational Toxicology/EPA, Research Triangle Park NC2National Center for Environmental Research/EPA, Washington DC3Nat...

  19. Operating Systems-Functions, Protection and Security Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 4. Operating Systems - Functions, Protection and Security Mechanisms. M Suresh Babu. General Article Volume 7 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 60-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Integrated protection architectures for radars and communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M. van; Monni, S.; Vliet, F.E. van


    The protection of phased array T/R modules from high input power levels is an important aspect in reducing vulnerability of radars and communication systems RF electronics in modern military platforms. Different categories of threats can damage the sensitive electronics in the phased-array radar,

  1. Inducible protective processes in animal systems XIV: Cytogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inducible protective processes in animal systems XIV: Cytogenetic adaptive response induced by EMS or MMS in bone marrow cells of diabetic mouse. ... Parallelly controls were maintained. ... Conclusion: (1) Methylating agents are a more effective inducer of adaptive response than ethylating agents in diabetic mouse.

  2. 78 FR 77574 - Protection System Maintenance Reliability Standard (United States)


    ..., Countable Event, Protection System Maintenance Program, Segment, and Unresolved Maintenance Issue. Of these... Issues,'' which are defined as ``deficienc identified during a maintenance activity that cause the... maintenance issues; (E) the Violation Severity Level assignment for Requirement R1; and (F) definitions. A...

  3. 30 CFR 717.17 - Protection of the hydrologic system. (United States)


    ... of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to drainage from access and haul roads located... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.17 Protection of the hydrologic system. The permittee shall plan and conduct underground coal mining and...

  4. Technological measures of protection in the copyright system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja


    Full Text Available Digital exploitation of works often exceed the limit to which the holder can control the exploitation of their intellectual creations, and the protection provided by legal norms are, in the era of a fast exchange of information, may prove to be insufficiently effective. For these reasons, the rights holders are increasingly opting for preventive care through placement of physical obstacles to the exploitation of copyright works, generic called technological protection measures (known as digital right management (DRM. Simultaneously with the development of the application of these measures flows the process of finding ways to circumvent them. Therefore, the effectiveness of technological measures depends on exactly the question of their legal protection, which now exists in most of modern legal systems. However, in the normative solutions there are differences, which reflect the problems in finding adequate forms of protection. They mostly stem from the fact that the sanctioning of circumvention (or preparatory actions of technological measures put into the question the purpose of copyright protection in general. Hence, in this paper we tried to point out the normative solutions accepted in modern legal systems and practical implications of what they have. Conclusion that arises is that the legal shaping of technological measures is not completed and that further technological developments open new dilemmas.

  5. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  6. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system (United States)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.


    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  7. Topologically protected modes in non-equilibrium stochastic systems (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan


    Non-equilibrium driving of biophysical processes is believed to enable their robust functioning despite the presence of thermal fluctuations and other sources of disorder. Such robust functions include sensory adaptation, enhanced enzymatic specificity and maintenance of coherent oscillations. Elucidating the relation between energy consumption and organization remains an important and open question in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here we report that steady states of systems with non-equilibrium fluxes can support topologically protected boundary modes that resemble similar modes in electronic and mechanical systems. Akin to their electronic and mechanical counterparts, topological-protected boundary steady states in non-equilibrium systems are robust and are largely insensitive to local perturbations. We argue that our work provides a framework for how biophysical systems can use non-equilibrium driving to achieve robust function.

  8. Vision-based pedestrian protection systems for intelligent vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Geronimo, David


    Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in

  9. Optimal channel utilization and service protection in cellular communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk


    In mobile communications an efficient utilization of the channels is of great importance.In this paper we consider the basic principles for obtaining the maximum utilization, and we study strategies for obtaining these limits.In general a high degree of sharing is efficient, but requires service...... protection mechanisms for protecting services and subscriber groups.We study cellular systems with overlaid cells, and the effect of overlapping cells, and we show that by dynamic channel allocation we obtain a high utilization.The models are generalizations of the Erlang-B formula, and can be evaluated...

  10. Analysis of a battery management system (BMS) control strategy for vibration aged nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells


    Bruen, Thomas; Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James; Gama, Miguel; Chouchelamane, Gael


    Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO) were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles...

  11. Dependable Design Flow for Protection Systems using Programmable Logic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M


    Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) are becoming more prevalent in protection and safety-related electronic systems. When employing such programmable logic devices, extra care and attention needs to be taken. The final synthesis result, used to generate the bit-stream to program the device, must be shown to meet the design’s requirements. This paper describes how to maximize confidence using techniques such as Formal Methods, exhaustive Hardware Description Language (HDL) code simulation and hardware testing. An example is given for one of the critical functions of the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system, used in the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. CERN is also working towards an adaptation of the IEC- 61508 lifecycle designed for Machine Protection Systems (MPS), and the High Energy Physics environment, implementation of a protection function in FPGA code is only one small step of this lifecycle. The ultimate aim of this project is to cre...

  12. Simulation of vibrations in mine hoisting systems during starting and braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnarowski, J.; Meder, A.


    Mechanical vibrations of a skip used for hoisting coal and rocks in an underground coal mine were investigated by the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice using mathematical models and computerized simulation. The mathematical model used as a basis for computerized simulation considered variable length of hoisting ropes, effects of static loads on rope rigidity and elastic-damping properties of hoisting and balance ropes. Computerized simulation showed that modifying parameters of starting and braking permitted mechanical vibrations and dynamic loads on ropes to be considerably reduced without major hoisting time increase. Results of computerized simulation were verified by experiments under operational conditions in some coal mines. The experiments showed that simulation produced accurate results. 16 references.


    Rizzi, S. A.


    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor (Ometron Limited, Kelvin House, Worsley Bridge Road, London, SE26 5BX, England), but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. VPI's graphical user interface allows the operation of the program to be controlled interactively through keyboard and mouse-selected menu options. The main menu controls all functions for setup, data acquisition, display, file operations, and exiting the program. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or "full field". In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board at a user-defined rate for the selected number of samples. The position of the measuring point, adjusted by mirrors in the sensor, is controlled via a mouse input. In the "full field" mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selected rectangular area with up to 256 positions in both x and y directions. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms "full field" velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage. VPI is written in C language and Texas Instruments' TMS320C30 assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires 640K of RAM for execution, and a hard disk with 10Mb or more of disk space is recommended. The program also requires a mouse, a VGA graphics display, a Four Channel analog I/O board (Spectrum Signal Processing, Inc.; Westborough, MA), a break-out box and a Spirit-30 board (Sonitech

  14. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.


    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  15. Influence of vibration modes on control system stabilization for space shuttle type vehicles (United States)

    Greiner, H. G.


    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using conventional autopilot techniques to stabilize the vibration modes at the liftoff flight condition for two space shuttle configurations. One configuration is called the dual flyback vehicle in which both the orbiter and booster vehicles have wings and complete flyback capability. The other configuration is called the solid motor vehicle win which the orbiter only has flyback. The results of the linear stability analyses for each of the vehicles are summarized.

  16. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas. (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P


    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SIMA


    Full Text Available The system of social protection represents the set of actions, decisions and measures enterprised in society for the prevention, diminution or the removal of the consequences of some events considered as social risks. At present, the actions for social protection are conceived for ensuring a basic living standard for all people, regardless the means of which they dispose and has in view the social living conditions. The paper employs a quantitative and a qualitative analysis, using the data from governmental and non-governmental sources. The results reveal one of the lowest levels of expenses for social protection in the rural area, and the social assistance services in the rural area are also affected by the socio-economic context and by the general poverty both of the local budgets and of the State budget.

  18. Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Microgrids in Extensive Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jia, Chenxi


    is treated as a linear programming problem for the different operation states. In the control center, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is trained with real-time measurements to identify the states whether there is a fault on the line segment. Fault location is estimated further with the same...... measurements in another neural network model. Reconfigurations can be performed to modify the settings of the on-field relays to enhance the reliable operation for the different operational situations. The test results show that the adaptive overcurrent protection scheme with the assistance of estimation model......Microgrid is regarded as a new form to integrate the increasing penetration of distributed generation units (DGs) in the extensive distribution systems. This paper proposes an adaptive overcurrent protection strategy for a microgrid network. The protection coordination of the overcurrent relays...

  19. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors. (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J


    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  20. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.; Kawai, N.; Yasui, K.


    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.