WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibrating quartz crystal

  1. Vibration Resistant Quartz Crystal Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    occurred and the ribbon eventually pulled edge metallization and quartz from the crystal mounting flat. LI P-I We attempted to anneal the ribbon ourselves...improvement in radiation resistance of the ’SC’ over the ’AT’. ,_/ __ In order to produce a successful SC crystal/ unit, i.e., one that exploits this...7--. .7 -- 1 x~ -7 7: Vida F4Y)A 3 -76 NN - -L3 43-i~ 3 ~ : . -- _____ ____ r ~ - - ____ _ _ _ _ 7-:7 7~ -4~l F-0 d-N I - - . - 7 71 --14A -77- :1

  2. The influence of vibrations on time reference signals generated using quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Marcu, Alina; Plotog, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    32.768 kHz low frequency crystals are found in a large part of today's embedded systems that use microcontrollers especially in battery supplied applications which need low power consumption1]. Their main role is to offer a stable time reference. There are situations in which time measurement is needed when the system works in a mechanically unstable environment (cars, industrial equipment). The paper presents the studies done on the behavior of 32.768 kHz quartz crystals that are part of embedded systems which operate in a vibrating environment, in terms of period and long-time jitter of the generated time reference signal. The investigations of this effect were done using a test bench especially designed for this purpose which can measure the presented parameters determined by controlled mechanical stimulus (waveform, amplitude and frequency of the vibrations).

  3. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  4. The application of second-order approximation of Taylor series in thickness shear vibration analysis of quartz crystal microbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng; Sun, Qing; Ma, Jianxun

    2015-04-01

    The inertia force caused by an additional mass layer is usually adopted to simulate the effective mechanical boundary condition in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which may yield incorrect results when the upper layer becomes relative thicker. Thus, a detail analysis of the thickness shear vibration in a QCM for detecting the characteristics of the upper isotropic layer is proceeded based on a second-order approximation of Taylor series. The result calculated by this method has a higher accuracy than that of inertial-force approximation. According to these outcomes, the free and forced vibration has been illustrated, as well as transient effects during the switching on/off processes or under a sudden fluctuation of the driving-voltage amplitude or frequency. It has been revealed by numerical simulation that the additional mass layer has a great influence on the mechanical performance of QCM, including the resonance frequency, amplitudes of displacement and admittance, response time of the transient processes, and so on. These findings can prove effective guidance for physical phenomenon explanations and experimental measurement in mass sensor devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of surface micro-beams with large deflection on the resonance frequency of a quartz crystal resonator in thickness-shear mode vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamic behavior of a quartz crystal resonator (QCR in thickness-shear vibrations with the upper surface covered by an array of micro-beams (MBs under large deflection. Through taking into account the continuous conditions of shear force and bending moment at the interface of MBs/resonator, dependences of frequency shift of the compound QCR system versus material parameter and geometrical parameter are illustrated in detail for nonlinear and linear vibrations. It is found that the frequency shift produces a little right (left translation for increasing elastic modulus (length/radius ratio of MBs. Moreover, the frequency right (left translation distance caused by nonlinear deformation becomes more serious in the second-order mode than in the first-order one.

  6. Piezoelectrically forced vibrations of rectangular SC-cut quartz plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P. C. Y.; Lin, W. S.

    1998-06-01

    A system of two-dimensional first-order equations for piezoelectric crystal plates with general symmetry and with electroded faces was recently deduced from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. Solutions of these equations for AT-cut plates of quartz were shown to give accurate dispersion curves without corrections, and the resonances predicted agree closely with the experimental data of Koga and Fukuyo [I. Koga and H. Fukuyo, J. Inst. Electr. Commun. Eng. Jpn. 36, 59 (1953)] and that of Nakazawa, Horiuchi, and Ito (M. Nakazawa, K. Horiuchi, and H. Ito, Proceedings of the 1990 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 547-555). In this article, these equations are employed to study the free as well as the forced vibrations of doubly rotated quartz plates. Solutions of straight-crested vibrational modes varying in the x1 and x3 directions of SC-cut quartz plates of infinite extent are obtained and from which dispersion curves are computed. Comparison of those dispersion curves with those from the three-dimensional equations shows that the agreement is very close without any corrections. Resonance frequencies for free vibrations and capacitance ratios for piezoelectrically forced vibrations are computed and examined for various length-to-thickness or width-to-thickness ratios of rectangular SC-cut quartz plates. The capacitance ratio as a function of forcing frequency is computed for a rectangular AT-cut quartz and compared with the experimental data of Seikimoto, Watanabe, and Nakazawa (H. Sekimoto, Y. Watanabe, and M. Nakazawa, Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 532-536) and is in close agreement.

  7. Quartz Crystal Based Microgravimetric Immunobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raman SURI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric crystal immunosensors have attracted considerable interest in the last few years since the monitoring of a specific substance is central in many applications. These sensors work on the principle of measuring a small change in resonant frequency of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal due to change in mass on the sensor surface. Because of their low cost and high Q-factors, these miniaturized sensors show fast response time, high sensitivity, and are suitable for mass production using standard fabrication techniques. Arrays of such sensors could be fabricated to cover ranges of a particular sensing property and have the potential for seamless integration with CMOS-based electronics. The present article demonstrates a type of piezoelectric crystal immunosensor using simple design of frequency oscillator and monitoring circuitry for biomedical applications. The basic criterion for immobilizing biomolecules (receptor etc. on sensor surface for immunoassay application is briefly discussed.

  8. Introduction of quartz vibrating beam accelerometer technology providing capability for low cost, fully digital navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, F. V.; Norling, B. L.

    The proprietary 'Accelerex' vibrating-beam accelerometer is based on a specialized dual-tine quartz crystal resonator whose vibrating beam crystal employs two slender beams in a double-ended tuning fork-resembling geometry. This configuration furnishes perfect resonator dynamic balance, thereby obviating coupling and energy loss to the connecting structure. The slender beams of the crystal change frequency as a function of force in a way resembling the strings of a musical instrument. The Tactical Grade Accelerex system is optimized for low-cost tactical navigation and flight-control applications.

  9. Note: sensitivity multiplication module for quartz crystal microbalance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Ioan; Silaghi, Andreea; Tunyagi, Arthur; Simon, Simion; Popescu, Octavian

    2014-02-01

    In this Note, a novel sensitivity multiplication module was added to classical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The purpose is to increase QCM frequency shift without changing nominal frequency of the quartz crystal resonator or nominal frequency value delivered to the frequency counter. Allan deviance measurement confirms that the multiplication of the frequency shift is limited by the quartz crystal loads with direct effect in quartz crystal quality factor and oscillator stability. An experimental implementation of this new sensitivity multiplication module that can increase up to six times the frequency shift of the QCM was experimentally investigated using different load conditions.

  10. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  11. Miniature Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Spacecraft and Missile Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uy, O

    1999-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) have been used for over 20 years as contamination monitors in spacecraft to measure film deposition on sensitive surfaces such as optical mirrors, thermal radiators, and solar arrays...

  12. Basic characteristics of quartz crystal sensor with interdigitated electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Muramatsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes basic characteristics of the quartz crystal sensor with interdigitated electrodes (IDE quartz crystal sensor which is for simultaneous monitoring of mass, viscosity, conductivity and dielectric changes of liquids or thin films. As the IDE quartz crystal sensor has three terminals for a pair of IDEs on the one side and a counter electrode on the other side, the resonance properties have been analyzed using the electrical equivalent circuit models and measured experimentally for all connecting types of electrode pairs. The IDE quartz crystal has shown clear resonance curves for calculating the resonance frequency and resonance resistance values as well as normal quartz crystal in the air and in contact with liquid. Small shifts in the resonance frequency and resonance resistance depending on the connecting types have been obtained and analyzed using the equivalent circuit models. We have found the integrated quartz crystal and IDE sensors could be monitored simultaneously by only one impedance analyzer. Finally, two types of measuring systems have been demonstrated for continuous measuring methods.

  13. Application of quartz crystal microbalance technology in tribological investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last fifteen years have seen considerable growth in the application of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to explore the tribological characteristics of materials. This article reviews some of the advances made in characterizing frictional properties of materials using the QCM, especially with di...

  14. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite, can be seen close-up in the black-and-white insets (cristobalite is on the left, and tridymite on the right). The main picture is an artist's concept of a young star and its swirling disk of planet-forming materials. Cristobalite and tridymite are thought to be two of many planet ingredients. On Earth, they are normally found as tiny crystals in volcanic lava flows and meteorites from space. These minerals are both related to quartz. For example, if you were to heat the familiar quartz crystals often sold as mystical tokens, the quartz would transform into cristobalite and tridymite. Because cristobalite and tridymite require rapid heating and cooling to form, astronomers say they were most likely generated by shock waves traveling through the planetary disks. The insets are Scanning Electron Microscope pictures courtesy of George Rossman of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  15. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one substance or a combination of substances. These substances include organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and a vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights.

  16. Characterization of authigenic idiomorphous lignite and saliniferous quartz crystals by inclusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruth, M.; Blankenburg, H.J.

    1992-12-01

    Classic microthermometry has been carried out on gas-fluid-inclusions in euhedral quartz crystals in a lignite at open cast mines Espenhain, Zwenkau and Cospuden to the south of Leipzig (called lignite quartz crystals and stub quartz crystals) and in a Stassfurt seam at the Southern Harz Potasch area (called saliniferous quartz crystals). The inclusions are classified after their shape homogenization temperatures and content of the solutions. 1. The isolated gas-fluid- and gas-fluid-solid-inclusions, with a regular shape are found in lignite quartz crystals and in saliniferous quartz crystals which probably formed in carnallitic saltrocks and kieseritic 'Hartsalz'. The inclusions of stub quartz crystals and the other saliniferous quartzes investigated are characterized by irregular thin shape. 2. By the aid of thermometry stub quartz crystals are classified into two quartz generations. The homogenization temperatures of gas-fluid-inclusions in lignite quartz crystals give a mean TH/F41[degree]C. The primary gas-fluid-inclusions of saliniferous quartz crystals can be distinguished such as: carnallitic saltrocks44[degree]C; kieseritic 'Hartsalz'76[degree]C; langbeinitic 'Hartsalz'85[degree]C; glaseritic 'Hartsalz'63[degree]C; polyhaliti 'Hartsalz'71[degree]C; anhydritic 'Hartsalz'61[degree]C; impoverishment44[degree]C. 3. Both generations of stub quartz crystals contain in their gas-fluid-inclusions NaCl-solutions. Highly saline MgCL[sub 2]-solutions were trapped in euhedral quartz crytals selected from lignite directly. The primary gas-fluid-inclusions of saliniferous quartz crystals accumulated highly saline CaCl[sub 2]/MgCl[sub 2]-solutions.

  17. Some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, H.; Parshad, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reports some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening. The present results show how the frequency shift in quartz crystals can be influenced by heat processing prior to irradiation and how this procedure can lead to radiation hardening for obtaining precise frequencies and time intervals from quartz oscillators in space.

  18. Using a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer for crystallization temperature estimation of the Palaeoproterozoic Suursaari quartz porphyry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Ehrlich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Suursaari volcanic sequence represents volcanic activity related to Wiborg Batholith rapakivi intrusions in the southern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The estimated pressure conditions for batholith granitic rocks are 1–5 kbar and crystallization temperatures range from 670 to 890 °C. To describe the temperature regime of the Suursaari volcanic system, a rock sample was taken from the Mäkiinpäällys Mountain outcrop and analysed with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sample spots were selected from quartz phenocrysts and groundmass. Quartz crystallization temperatures were calculated by the Ti-in-quartz method that takes into account rutile equilibrium and Ti activity in each phase. The calculated crystallization temperatures of the Suursaari quartz porphyry are in the range of 647–738 °C. The results show that the Suursaari quartz porphyry contains two generations of quartz which can be distinguished on the basis of crystallization temperatures: phenocrysts crystallized at higher and groundmass quartz at lower temperature.

  19. Next Generation AT-Cut Quartz Crystal Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Matko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Generally, AT-cut quartz crystals have a limited scope of use when it comes to high-precision measurement of very small impedance changes due to their nonlinear frequency-temperature characteristics in the range between 0 °C and 50 °C. The new method improving quartz oscillator frequency-temperature characteristic compensation is switching between two impedance loads. By modifying the oscillator circuit with two logic switches and two impedance loads, the oscillator can switch oscillation between two resonance frequencies. The difference in resonance frequencies compensates the frequency-temperature characteristics influence as well as the influence of offset and quartz crystal ageing. The experimental results show that the new approach using the switching method highly improves second-to-second frequency stability from ±0.125 Hz to ±0.00001 Hz and minute-to-minute frequency stability from 0.1 Hz to 0.0001 Hz, which makes the high-precision measurement of aF and fH changes possible.

  20. Next Generation AT-Cut Quartz Crystal Sensing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko

    2011-01-01

    Generally, AT-cut quartz crystals have a limited scope of use when it comes to high-precision measurement of very small impedance changes due to their nonlinear frequency-temperature characteristics in the range between 0 °C and 50 °C. The new method improving quartz oscillator frequency-temperature characteristic compensation is switching between two impedance loads. By modifying the oscillator circuit with two logic switches and two impedance loads, the oscillator can switch oscillation between two resonance frequencies. The difference in resonance frequencies compensates the frequency-temperature characteristics influence as well as the influence of offset and quartz crystal ageing. The experimental results show that the new approach using the switching method highly improves second-to-second frequency stability from ±0.125 Hz to ±0.00001 Hz and minute-to-minute frequency stability from 0.1 Hz to 0.0001 Hz, which makes the high-precision measurement of aF and fH changes possible. PMID:22163858

  1. Measuring the diffraction properties of an imaging quartz(211) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chen, H.; Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A dual goniometer X-ray system was used to measure the reflectivity curve for a spherically bent quartz(211) crystal. An analysis of the dual goniometer instrument response function for the rocking curve width measurement was developed and tested against the actual measurements. The rocking curve was measured at 4510.8 eV using the Ti Kα1 characteristic spectral line. The crystal is the dispersion element for a high resolution spectrometer used for plasma studies. It was expected to have a very narrow rocking curve width. The analysis showed that we could measure the upper bound for the rocking curve width of the Qz(211) crystal. The upper bound was 58 μrad giving a lower bound for the instrument resolving power E/ΔE = 34 000. Greatly improved insight into the dual goniometer operation and its limitations was achieved.

  2. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Operation and In Situ Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albyn, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) are commonly used to measure the rate of deposition of molecular species on a surface. The measurement is often used to select materials with a low outgassing rate for applications where the material has a line of sight to a contamination-sensitive surface. A quantitative, in situ calibration of the balance, or balances, using a pure material for which the enthalpy of sublimation is known, is described in this Technical Memorandum. Supporting calculations for surface dwell times of deposited materials and the effusion cell Clausing factor are presented along with examples of multiple QCM measurements of outgassing from a common source.

  3. Voltage-controlled narrowband and wide, variable-range four-segment quartz crystal oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Ruzaini; Satoh, Tomio; Akitsu, Tetsuya

    2012-03-01

    In this work, our goal is to develop a voltage-controlled variable-frequency quartz crystal oscillator with narrowband response, wide, variable frequency range and the capacity to oscillate across the series resonance frequency using a four-segment configuration of a quartz crystal oscillator. In conventional quartz oscillators, the quartz resonator is inserted in the feedback loop between the input and the output of the active circuit, providing sufficient gain and the phase relation. In the oscillator developed here, the quartz crystal resonator is inserted between the loop circuit and the ground potential. The performance of the voltage-controlled variable-frequency oscillator is demonstrated across the series resonance frequency.

  4. Electronic Nose using Gas Chromatography Column and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Agus Sujono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional electronic nose usually consists of an array of dissimilar chemical sensors such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM combined with pattern recognition algorithm such as Neural network. Because of parallel processing, the system needs a huge number of sensors and circuits which may emerge complexity and inter-channel crosstalk problems. In this research, a new type of odor identification which combines between gas chromatography (GC and electronic nose methods has been developed. The system consists of a GC column and a 10-MHz quartz crystal microbalance sensor producing a unique pattern for an odor in time domain. This method offers advantages of substantially reduced size, interferences and power consumption in comparison to existing odor identification system. Several odors of organic compounds were introduced to evaluate the selectivity of the system. Principle component analysis method was used to visualize the classification of each odor in two-dimensional space. This system could resolve common organic solvents, including molecules of different classes (aromatic from alcohols as well as those within a particular class (methanol from ethanol and also fuels (premium from pertamax. The neural network can be taught to recognize the odors tested in the experiment with identification rate of 85 %. It is therefore the system may take the place of human nose, especially for poisonous odor evaluations.

  5. Ab-initio molecular dynamics and vibrational Raman spectroscopy investigations of quartz polymorph at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediki, Hayet; Simon, Patrick; Hadjadj, Aomar; Krallafa, Abdelghani M.

    2017-09-01

    Quartz has found a wide range of applications over the past years. In the present work, the temperature dependence of microcrystalline quartz is investigated with Raman spectroscopy and DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. We aimed to determine the structure at short and medium range distances as a function of the increasing temperature. The dynamics and the structural changes are analysed in terms of time-dependent properties, and the vibrational analysis obtained from calculated dipole trajectory and vibrational density of states (VDOS). The computed data is compared to Raman and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The approach is of a particularly great interest when we focus on the structural behaviour, and the dynamical disorder observed and characterised through geometric and thermodynamic data. The calculations confirm that the infrared and Raman signature as a function of temperature provide a sensitive analysis of the structural behaviour of quartz.

  6. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Electronic Interfacing Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Alassi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensors are actively being implemented in various fields due to their compatibility with different operating conditions in gaseous/liquid mediums for a wide range of measurements. This trend has been matched by the parallel advancement in tailored electronic interfacing systems for QCM sensors. That is, selecting the appropriate electronic circuit is vital for accurate sensor measurements. Many techniques were developed over time to cover the expanding measurement requirements (e.g., accommodating highly-damping environments. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the various existing QCM electronic interfacing systems. Namely, impedance-based analysis, oscillators (conventional and lock-in based techniques, exponential decay methods and the emerging phase-mass based characterization. The aforementioned methods are discussed in detail and qualitatively compared in terms of their performance for various applications. In addition, some theoretical improvements and recommendations are introduced for adequate systems implementation. Finally, specific design considerations of high-temperature microbalance systems (e.g., GaPO4 crystals (GCM and Langasite crystals (LCM are introduced, while assessing their overall system performance, stability and quality compared to conventional low-temperature applications.

  7. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III chloride (MnTSPP used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA. Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR and respiratory pattern (RP. The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  8. Detection of Sarin with a Fluorinated Polymer-coated Quartz Crystal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) modified with a thin layer of fluorinated polymer was utilized to determine sarin. Determination was based on the frequency shifts due to the adsorption and desorption of the compound at the surface of a modified quartz crystal electrode. Fluorosiloxane was synthesized and deposited ...

  9. Detection of Sarin with a Fluorinated Polymer-coated Quartz Crystal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2007-09-07

    Sep 7, 2007 ... A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) modified with a thin layer of fluorinated polymer was utilized to determine sarin. Determination was based on the frequency shifts due to the adsorption and desorption of the compound at the surface of a modified quartz crystal electrode. Fluorosiloxane was synthesized ...

  10. Progresses on the theory and application of quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiangjun; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a nondestructive technique in investigating the physical properties of solid-liquid interfacial layer in situ. It has the capability of quantifying the extremely tiny force change occurring on the interface by measuring the frequency shift Δ f and the energy dissipation change Δ D (or the half-bandwidth variation Δ Γ ). The quantitative analysis of QCM results greatly depends on the theoretical models, whose development could generally expand the comprehension of the properties at the interfaces and the application of QCM. In the paper, the progresses on the theory and applications of QCM are reviewed. The commonly used theoretical models for a single layer in the gas/liquid phase are essential for QCM in the fields of biosensor application, surface chemistry study, and interfacial rheology, such as the adsorption of proteins, the polymer and surfactants, and the viscoelastic properties of the interfacial liquid layer. The advanced models, incorporating the effects of boundary slip, surface roughness, microstructure, and micro/nanoscale confinement, are helpful for a better understanding and description of how these factors influence the various interfacial processes occurring on the solid-liquid interface, e.g., interfacial rheology and adsorption. The establishments of nanocell and the corresponding theoretical model make QCM a potential technique in studying the dynamic behavior of micro/nanoscale flow coupling with various surface effects by connecting a micro/nanofluidic channel to the nanocell.

  11. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Emir Diltemiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (biosensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.. On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (biosensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology.

  12. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor using ionophore for ammonium ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yasuhiro; Takano, Kosuke; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2012-01-01

    Ionophore-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) ammonium ion sensors with a detection limit for ammonium ion concentrations as low as 2.2 microM were fabricated. Ionophores are molecules, which selectively bind a particular ion. In this study, one of the known ionophores for ammonium, nonactin, was used to detect ammonium ions for environmental in-situ monitoring of aquarium water for the first time. To fabricate the sensing films, poly(vinyl chloride) was used as the matrix for the immobilization of nonactin. Furthermore, the anionic additive, tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate potassium salt and the plasticizer dioctyl sebacate were used to enhance the sensor properties. The sensor allowed detecting ammonium ions not only in static solution, but also in flowing water. The sensor showed a nearly linear response with the increase of the ammonium ion concentration. The QCM resonance frequency increased with the increase of ammonium ion concentration, suggesting a decreasing weight of the sensing film. The detailed response mechanism could not be verified yet. However, from the results obtained when using a different plasticizer, nitrophenyl octyl ether, it is considered that this effect is caused by the release of water molecules. Consequently, the newly fabricated sensor detects ammonium ions by discharge of water. It shows high selectivity over potassium and sodium ions. We conclude that the newly fabricated sensor can be applied for detecting ammonium ions in aquarium water, since it allows measuring low ammonium ion concentrations. This sensor will be usable for water quality monitoring and controlling.

  13. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s–1000 s km3) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ∼760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies. PMID:22666359

  14. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Jr. , Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L. (OFM Res.); (Vanderbilt); (UC)

    2013-04-08

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  15. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  16. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: I. Fundamentals and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.

  17. Quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for rapid detection of aerosolized microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farka, Zdenĕk.; Kovár, David; Skládal, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) represent the current menace of the asymmetric war. The early detection of BWAs, especially in the form of bioaerosol, is a challenging task for governments all around the world. Label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor and electrochemical immunosensor were developed and tested for rapid detection of BWA surrogate (E. coli) in the form of bioaerosol. Two immobilization strategies for the attachment of antibody were tested; the gold sensor surface was activated by cysteamine and then antibody was covalently linked either using glutaraldehyde, or the reduced antibodies were attached via Sulfo-SMCC. A portable bioaerosol chamber was constructed and used for safe manipulation with aerosolized microorganisms. The dissemination was done using a piezoelectric humidifier, distribution of bioaerosol inside the chamber was ensured using three 12-cm fans. The whole system was controlled remotely using LAN network. The disseminated microbial cells were collected and preconcentrated using the wetted-wall cyclone SASS 2300, the analysis was done using the on-line linked immunosensors. The QCM immunosensor had limit of detection 1×104 CFU·L-1 of air with analysis time 16 min, the whole experiment including dissemination and sensor surface regeneration took 40 min. In case of blank (disseminated sterile buffer), no signal change was observed. The electrochemical immunosensor was able to detect 150 CFU·L-1 of air in 20 min; also in this case, no interferences were observed. Reference measurements were done using particle counter Met One 3400 and by cultivation method on agar plates. The sensors have proved to be applicable for rapid screening of microorganisms in air.

  18. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  19. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  20. Fast three-step method for shear moduli calculation from quartz crystal resonator measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, C; Lucklum, R; Hauptmann, P

    1999-01-01

    Quartz crystal resonator measurements can be used for polymer material characterization. The non-gravimetric regime of these resonators is exploited: the electrical response of polymer-coated quartz resonators depends on the polymer shear modulus. Previously reported methods employ an electrical admittance analysis together with difficult and time-consuming data fitting procedures to calculate the film shear modulus. This contribution presents a fast and accurate three-step method for the calculation of complex shear moduli of polymer films from quartz crystal resonator measurements. In the first step, the acoustic load impedance is calculated from the electrical admittance of the quartz crystal. The key point of this method is the application of a family of approximations for the calculation of the shear modulus from the acoustic load impedance in the second step. In the third step, the best approximation is improved further in an iterative procedure.

  1. Competitive Adsorption of Plasma Proteins Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Helena P; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Sommerfeld, Sven D; Brás, M Manuela; Migonney, Véronique; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Proteins that get adsorbed onto the surfaces of biomaterials immediately upon their implantation mediate the interactions between the material and the environment. This process, in which proteins in a complex mixture compete for adsorption sites on the surface, is determined by the physicochemical interactions at the interface. Competitive adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibronectin (Fn), and collagen type I (Col I), sequentially and from mixtures, was investigated so as to understand the performances of different surfaces used in biomedical applications. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation was used to monitor the adsorption of these proteins onto two materials used in functional bone replacement, a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and Ti6Al4V physisorbed with poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) [poly(NaSS)], and three controls, gold, poly(desaminotyrosyltyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) [poly(DTEc)], and polystyrene (PS). In experiments with individual proteins, the adsorption was the highest with Fn and Col I and the least with BSA. Also, protein adsorption was the highest on poly(NaSS) and Ti6Al4V and the least on poly(DTEc). In sequential adsorption experiments, protein exchange was observed in BSA + Fn, Fn + Col I, and BSA + Col I sequences but not in Fn + BSA and Col I + BSA because of the lower affinity of BSA to surfaces relative to Fn and Col I. Protein adsorption was the highest with Col I + Fn on hydrophobic surfaces. In experiments with protein mixtures, with BSA & Fn, Fn appears to be preferentially adsorbed; with Fn & Col I, both proteins were adsorbed, probably as multilayers; and with Col I & BSA, the total amount of protein was the highest, greater than that in sequential and individual adsorption of the two proteins, probably because of the formation of BSA and Col I complexes. Protein conformational changes induced by the adsorbing surfaces, protein-protein interactions, and affinities of proteins appear to be the important factors that

  2. A Dibutyl Phthalate Sensor Based on a Nanofiber Polyaniline Coated Quartz Crystal Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Ding, Pengfei; Hu, Ruifen; Zhang, Jianming; Ma, Xingfa; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer and additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polishes. Because it has been found to be a powerful reproductive and developmental toxicant, a sensor to monitor DBP in some working spaces and the environment is required. In this work polyaniline nanofibers were deposited on the electrode of a quartz crystal oscillator to form a Quartz Crystal Microbalance gas sensor. The coated quartz crystal and a non-coated quartz crystal were mounted in a sealed chamber, and their frequency difference was monitored. When DBP vapor was injected into the chamber, gas adsorption decreased the frequency of the coated quartz crystal oscillator and thereby caused an increase in the frequency difference between the two crystals. The change of the frequency difference was recorded as the sensor response. The sensor was extremely sensitive to DBP and could be easily recovered by N2 purging. A low measurement limit of 20 ppb was achieved. The morphologies of the polyaniline films prepared by different approaches have been studied by SEM and BET. How the nanofiber-structure can improve the sensitivity and stability is discussed, while its selectivity and long-term stability were investigated. PMID:23507822

  3. Quartz crystal microbalance gas sensor with nanocrystalline diamond sensitive layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Marián; Laposa, A.; Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, J.; Husák, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2591-2597 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gas sensor * nanocrystalline diamond * quartz resonator * thickness shear mode Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  4. Correct interpretation of diffraction properties of quartz crystals for X-ray optics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Gog, Thomas; Kim, Jungho; Kasman, Elina; Said, Ayman H.; Casa, Diego M.; Wieczorek, Michael; Hönnicke, Marcelo G.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2018-02-01

    Quartz has hundreds of strong Bragg reflections that may offer a great number of choices for making fixed-angle X-ray analyzers and polarizers at virtually any hard X-ray energies with selectable resolution. However, quartz crystals, unlike silicon and germanium, are chiral and may thus appear in two different forms of handedness that are mirror images. Furthermore, because of the threefold rotational symmetry along thecaxis, the {h1h2h3L} and {h2h1h3L} Bragg reflections may have quite different Darwin bandwidth, reflectivity and angular acceptance, although they have the same Bragg angle. The design of X-ray optics from quartz crystals therefore requires unambiguous determination of the orientation, handedness and polarity of the crystals. The Laue method and single-axis diffraction technique can provide such information, but the variety of conventions used in the literature to describe quartz structures has caused widespread confusion. The current studies give detailed guidelines for design and fabrication of quartz X-ray optics, with special emphasis on the correct interpretation of Laue patterns in terms of the crystallography and diffraction properties of quartz. Meanwhile, the quartz crystals examined were confirmed by X-ray topography to have acceptably low densities of dislocations and other defects, which is the foundation for developing high-resolution quartz-based X-ray optics.

  5. Development of a Flow Injection Based High Frequency Dual Channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is used in liquid for adsorption or desorption monitoring based bio- or chemical sensing applications, the frequency shift is not only determined by the surface mass change, but also by the change of liquid characteristics, such as density and viscosity, which are greatly affected by the liquid environmental temperature. A monolithic dual-channel QCM is designed and fabricated by arranging two QCM resonators on one single chip for cancelling the fluctuation induced by environmental factors. In actual applications, one QCM works as a specific sensor by modifying with functional membranes and the other acts as a reference, only measuring the liquid property. The dual-channel QCM is designed with an inverted-mesa structure, aiming to realize a high frequency miniaturized chip and suppress the frequency interference between the neighbored QCM resonators. The key problem of dual-channel QCMs is the interference between two channels, which is influenced by the distance of adjacent resonators. The diameter of the reference electrode has been designed into several values in order to find the optimal parameter. Experimental results demonstrated that the two QCMs could vibrate individually and the output frequency stability and drift can be greatly improved with the aid of the reference QCM.

  6. The quartz crystal microbalance in soft matter research fundamentals and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the physics of the second-generation quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a fundamental method of analysis for soft matter at interfaces.From a device for measuring film thickness in vacuum, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has in the past two decades evolved into a versatile instrument for analyzing soft matter at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces that found applications in diverse fields including the life sciences, material science, polymer research and electrochemistry. As a consequence of this success, the QCM is now being used by scientists with a wide variety

  7. Vibration-assisted machining of single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S. A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Vibration-assisted machining offers a solution to expanding needs for improved machining, especially where accuracy and precision are of importance, such as in micromachining of single crystals of metals and alloys. Crystallographic anisotropy plays a crucial role in determining on overall response to machining. In this study, we intend to address the matter of ultra-precision machining of material at the micron scale using computational modelling. A hybrid modelling approach is implemented that combines two discrete schemes: smoothed particle hydrodynamics and continuum finite elements. The model is implemented in a commercial software ABAQUS/Explicit employing a user-defined subroutine (VUMAT) and used to elucidate the effect of crystallographic anisotropy on a response of face centred cubic (f.c.c.) metals to machining.

  8. Communication: anti-icing characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces investigated by quartz crystal microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the anti-icing characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces with various morphologies by using quartz crystal microresonators. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) or ZnO nanorods were synthesized directly on gold-coated quartz crystal substrates and their surfaces were rendered hydrophobic via chemical modifications with octyltrichlorosilane (OTS), octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS), or octadecanethiol (ODT). Four different hydrophobic nanostructures were prepared on the quartz crystals: ODT-modified hydrophobic plain gold (C18-Au), an OTS-modified AAO nanostructure (C8-AAO), an ODS-modified AAO nanostructure (C18-AAO), and ODT-modified ZnO nanorods (C18-ZnO). The water contact angles on the C18-Au, C8-AAO, C18-AAO, and C18-ZnO surfaces were measured to be 91.4°, 147.2°, 156.3°, and 157.8°, respectively. A sessile water droplet was placed on each quartz crystal and its freezing temperature was determined by monitoring the drastic changes in the resonance frequency and Q-factor upon freezing. The freezing temperature of a water droplet was found to decrease with decreases in the water contact radius due to the decreases in the number of active sites available for ice nucleation.

  9. The calculation of active Raman modes of α-quartz crystal via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... Abstract. We obtained an approximation of the force field of α-quartz crystal using a new idea of applying density functional theory [J Purton, R Jones, C R A Catlow and M Leslie, Phys. Chem. Minerals 19, 392 (1993)]. Our calculations were based on B3LYP Hamiltonian [A N Lazarev and. A P Mirgorodsky ...

  10. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment II: Measuring Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Various water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol based experiments are used to demonstrate how the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique is used for measuring the viscosity of a system. The technique is very advantageous, as it is inexpensive and provides digital output.

  11. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The study explains the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, which is often used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment for measuring the mass of a system. QCM can be used as a mass sensor only when the measured mass is rigidly attached to the surface.

  12. Determination of Mass Sensitivity of Crystal Quartz Resonators at Students' Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Mazur, Piotr; Debowska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which students determine the mass sensitivity of three crystal quartz resonators, designed to be carried out in "Physics Laboratory II" at the Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw. The authors discuss the process of setting up the experiment and the results of the measurements.…

  13. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  14. Highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance based biosensor using Au dendrite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Naoto; Terasawa, Hideaki; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Ito, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    A Au dendrite structure was obtained by only electroplating under a suitable potential. A blanch like nanostructure was formed along the crystal orientation. In this study, we attempted to fabricate a Au dendrite structure on the electrode of a quartz crystal by electroplating to increase the specific surface area. We estimated the effective surface area by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and monitored the frequency shift induced by antigen–antibody interaction by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The dendrite structure with the largest surface area was formed under ‑0.95 V for 5 min. In the measurement of the antigen–antibody interaction, the frequency shifts of 40, 80, and 110 Hz were obtained with the dendrite structured QCM chips formed at the above potential for 1, 1.5, and 2.0 min, respectively. The sensitivity was improved compared with that QCM chip having a flat surface electrode.

  15. Quartz dissolution. I - Negative crystal experiments and a rate law. II - Theory of rough and smooth surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Bird, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The range of the measured quartz dissolution rates, as a function of temperature and pOH, extent of saturation, and ionic strength, is extended to cover a wider range of solution chemistries, using the negative crystal methodology of Gratz et al. (1990) to measure the dissolution rate. A simple rate law describing the quartz dissolution kinetics above the point of zero charge of quartz is derived for ionic strengths above 0.003 m. Measurements were performed on some defective crystals, and the mathematics of step motion was developed for quartz dissolution and was compared with rough-face behavior using two different models.

  16. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalibjian, R.

    1992-12-31

    The report describes a non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam . The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal.

  17. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  18. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  19. Amplitudons and phasons in the triple-k incommensurate phase of quartz-type crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Vallade, M.; Dvorak, V; Lajzerowicz, J.

    1987-01-01

    The spectrum of amplitudons and phasons has been calculated for a 3- k triangular incommensurate structure (such as it is found in quartz-type crystals) using a phenomenological model. Two excitations have acoustic-like dispersion curves (gapless phasons) and four excitations are optic-like, one of the latter corresponding to fluctuations of the sum of the phases of the three modulation waves. The stability of the 3-k incommensurate structure with respect to these excitations is discussed and...

  20. Rancang Bangun Mini System Spin Coating Untuk Pelapisan Sensor Qcm (Quartz Crystal Microbalance)

    OpenAIRE

    Hudha, Lalu Sahrul; Sakti, Setyawan; Masruroh, Masruroh

    2013-01-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) adalah salah satu sensor yang dapat mengukur massa per unit area dengan cara mengukur Perubahan frekuensi pada resonator kristal kuarsa. Tebal dan keseragaman lapisan yang melapisi QCM ini mempengaruhi sensitifitas dan kestabilan sensor QCM. Oleh karena itu, perlu dibuat suatu teknik pelapisan yang dapat menghasilkan lapisan yang diinginkan. Salah satunya adalah teknik spin atau yang bisa disebut sebagai spin coating. Oleh karena itu, telah dilakukan pembuata...

  1. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor for Stem Cell Selection and Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Ornella; Costanzo, Salvatore; Cercola, Rosaria; Zambrano, Gerardo; Mauro, Marco; Battaglia, Raffaele; Ferrini, Gianluca; Nastri, Flavia; Pavone, Vincenzo; Lombardi, Angela

    2017-11-28

    A cost-effective immunosensor for the detection and isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been developed. The recognition mechanism relies on anti-CD34 antibodies, DPSC-specific monoclonal antibodies that are anchored on the surface of the quartz crystals. Due to its high specificity, real time detection, and low cost, the proposed technology has a promising potential in the field of cell biology, for the simultaneous detection and sorting of stem cells from heterogeneous cell samples. The QCM surface was properly tailored through a biotinylated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The biotin-avidin interaction was used to immobilize the biotinylated anti-CD34 antibody on the gold-coated quartz crystal. After antibody immobilization, a cellular pellet, with a mixed cell population, was analyzed; the results indicated that the developed QCM immunosensor is highly specific, being able to detect and sort only CD34+ cells. Our study suggests that the proposed technology can detect and efficiently sort any kind of cell from samples with high complexity, being simple, selective, and providing for more convenient and time-saving operations.

  2. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor for Stem Cell Selection and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Maglio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective immunosensor for the detection and isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM has been developed. The recognition mechanism relies on anti-CD34 antibodies, DPSC-specific monoclonal antibodies that are anchored on the surface of the quartz crystals. Due to its high specificity, real time detection, and low cost, the proposed technology has a promising potential in the field of cell biology, for the simultaneous detection and sorting of stem cells from heterogeneous cell samples. The QCM surface was properly tailored through a biotinylated self-assembled monolayer (SAM. The biotin–avidin interaction was used to immobilize the biotinylated anti-CD34 antibody on the gold-coated quartz crystal. After antibody immobilization, a cellular pellet, with a mixed cell population, was analyzed; the results indicated that the developed QCM immunosensor is highly specific, being able to detect and sort only CD34+ cells. Our study suggests that the proposed technology can detect and efficiently sort any kind of cell from samples with high complexity, being simple, selective, and providing for more convenient and time-saving operations.

  3. Functional Durability of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for the Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Liquids from Poultry Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    .... A rapid, sensitive (350 +/- 150 cells ml/cm) quartz crystal microbalance biosensor, layered with heat-treated anti-Salmonella-phospholipid monolayers by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, has been evaluated by immersion testing in chicken exudate...

  4. INTERFACE LAYER TO IMPROVE POLYSTYRENE ATTACHMENT ON A QUARTZ CRYSTAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Susana Llanes

    Full Text Available Technologies for thin film deposition have been used to improve the functionalization of quartz crystal resonators (QCR; such technologies, for example, are spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB film preparation. These experiments are required because the film uniformity and homogeneity over the quartz crystal resonator are fundamental for its applications as chemical and biological sensors. Film deposition of polystyrene (PS particles, as well as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, was performed in solvents such as cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofuran (THF, dimethylformamide and chloroform at different concentrations using the spin coating procedure on wafer targets. The film quality was determined by optical microscopy, ellipsometry, and profilometry. Additionally, films on wafers or QCR with gold surface have been prepared by spreading the mentioned substances on an aqueous subphase and transferring it by dipping from the subphase surface onto the target. For LB film preparation arachidic acid and PS particles have been used. Prepared mono- or multilayered films of these substances on wafer or gold quartzes have been controlled additionally by IR-spectrometry. The resonant behavior of QCR before and after surface coating has been measured with a network analyzer. In combination with a graphical user interface the data could be easily recorded and visualized.

  5. Contact mechanics studies of polymer gels with the quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunalee, Frank Nelson

    This thesis examines the surfaces of polymer gels using a novel technique that combines the contact mechanics approach of Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR) with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Polymer gels are well-suited for a variety of applications, but their surface compositions often depend on their environmental surroundings due to the activity of the gel solvent. The JKR technique is sensitive to bulk mechanical properties and surface adhesive forces, while the QCM is sensitive to surface mechanical properties. In this thesis, the combined JKR-QCM technique is used to study the surfaces of polymer gels. In a typical JKR-QCM experiment, a hemispherical gel is brought into and out of contact with the QCM surface at a controlled velocity, and the resulting load, displacement, contact area, and complex resonant frequency of the QCM are measured. It is shown that the changes in complex resonant frequency of the QCM in such an experiment are related to the material's surface mechanical properties, which include its high frequency viscosity. Existing QCM theory is not intended to account for a changing interfacial contact area, which is a common feature in JKR experiments. Equations are presented to account for variable coverage of the QCM by considering the radial sensitivity profile across the quartz crystal. QCM theory is also modified for experiments involving a growing contact area between a viscoelastic material and the crystal surface when submerged in a liquid. JKR-QCM studies of a model polymer gel, composed of a physically crosslinked triblock copolymer swollen by mineral oil, reveal a concentrated oil layer at the gel's surface that is transferred to the quartz crystal after loading and subsequent detachment of the gel. The same features are noted for the model gel submerged in water. A different model gel, composed of a chemically crosslinked polymer swollen by water, reveals evidence of a surface water layer when brought into contact with a

  6. Mobility and H2O loss from fluid inclusions in natural quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audétat, Andreas; Günther, Detlef

    Petrographic observations on quartz crystals from the Mole Granite (Australia) and other localities shed new light on the mechanisms of post-entrapment modification of fluid inclusions. These modifications include migration away from pseudosecondary trails, changes in fluid salinity and density, shape distortion and the formation of ``sweat-haloes'' around strongly deformed inclusions. Increases in fluid salinity, which usually are associated with inclusion migration, indicate water-losses of up to 50%. However, LA-ICP-MS-analysis of unmobilized and mobilized inclusions of the same trail reveals basically unchanged ratios of major - and trace element cations, with the exception of Li, which seems to be incorporated into the crystal lattice during migration. Despite the fact that all these modifications are closely related to deformation processes, they occur not only in mechanically deformed quartz, but also in free-standing crystals. In the latter samples, stress has been generated internally as a result of brazil-twinned growth and compositional zonation. These observations and their interpretation leads to a list of practical criteria that should help in differentiating between reliable and suspect fluid inclusions in other samples.

  7. Combining atomic force microscope and quartz crystal microbalance studies for cell detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Oliver; Bindeus, Roland; Dickert, Franz L.

    2003-11-01

    The adhesion of microorganisms on a patterned polyurethane surface was studied simultaneously online and in situ with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The specific interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and their fingerprints formed by molecular imprinting results in a typical Sauerbrey behaviour, when adhesion events are observable with an AFM. The sensor response due to adsorption of Gram positive Leuconostoc oenus, however, shows non-Sauerbrey behaviour. Bacteria, naturally being smaller than yeast cells, were 'invisible' to liquid phase AFM-measurements, which is due to a weaker surface interaction. Thus, AFM measurements give a hint for unusual frequency enhancements in QCM microorganism measurements.

  8. A Semi-Analytical Solution for the Thickness-Vibration of Centrally Partially-Electroded Circular AT-Cut Quartz Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dai, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Xintao; Qian, Zhenghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibration frequencies and modes for the thickness-shear vibrations of infinite partially-electroded circular AT-cut quartz plates are obtained by solving the two-dimensional (2D) scalar differential equation derived by Tiersten and Smythe. The Mathieu and modified Mathieu equations are derived from the governing equation using the coordinate transform and the collocation method is used to deal with the boundary conditions. Solutions of the resonant frequencies and trapped modes are validated by those results obtained from COMSOL software. The current study provides a theoretical way for figuring out the vibration analysis of circular quartz resonators. PMID:28783124

  9. Effect of a Non-Newtonian Load on Signature S2 for Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is increasingly used for monitoring the interfacial interaction between surfaces and macromolecules such as biomaterials, polymers, and metals. Recent QCM applications deal with several types of liquids with various viscous macromolecule compounds, which behave differently from Newtonian liquids. To properly monitor such interactions, it is crucial to understand the influence of the non-Newtonian fluid on the QCM measurement response. As a quantitative indicator of non-Newtonian behavior, we used the quartz resonator signature, S2, of the QCM measurement response, which has a consistent value for Newtonian fluids. We then modified De Kee’s non-Newtonian three-parameter model to apply it to our prediction of S2 values for non-Newtonian liquids. As a model, we chose polyethylene glycol (PEG400 with the titration of its volume concentration in deionized water. As the volume concentration of PEG400 increased, the S2 value decreased, confirming that the modified De Kee’s three-parameter model can predict the change in S2 value. Collectively, the findings presented herein enable the application of the quartz resonator signature, S2, to verify QCM measurement analysis in relation to a wide range of experimental subjects that may exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, including polymers and biomaterials.

  10. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutionsmore than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor isbecoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such asbiosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specificinterfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule orcell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymercharacterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriateevaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved andto be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCMsystem is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to thespecific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions stronglyaffects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequatesensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have beenimplemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application isimportant and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and foravoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presentsa comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystalmicrobalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles:network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. Theelectronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail,with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used inapplications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensorresponse is necessary.

  11. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Maria E., E-mail: maria.yakovleva@gmail.com [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Moran, Anthony P. [Department of Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Safina, Gulnara R. [Department of Analytical and Marine Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wadstroem, Torkel [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Danielsson, Bengt [Acromed Invest AB, Magistratsvaegen 10, 226 43 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-23

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  12. Quartz crystal microbalance with coupled spectroscopic ellipsometry-study of temperature-responsive polymer brush systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Stefan; Koenig, Meike; Rodenhausen, Keith Brian; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Oertel, Ulrich; Schubert, Mathias; Stamm, Manfred; Uhlmann, Petra

    2017-11-01

    Using a combined setup of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring together with spectroscopic ellipsometry, the thermo-responsive behavior of two different brush systems (poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) and poly(2-oxazoline)s) was investigated and compared to the behavior of the free polymer in solution. Poly(2-oxazoline)s with three different hydrophilicities were prepared by changing the content of a hydrophilic comonomer. While both polymer types exhibit a sharp, discontinuous thermal transition in solution, in the brush state the transition gets broader in the case of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) and is transformed into a continuous transition for poly(2-oxazoline)s. The position of the transition in solution is influenced by the degree of hydrophilicity of the poly(2-oxazoline). The difference in areal mass detected by quartz crystal microbalance and by spectroscopic ellipsometry, has been attributed to the chain segment density profile of the polymer brushes. Applying this density profile information, for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) two different swelling stages could be identified, while for poly(2-oxazoline) the transition between a parabolic and more step-wise profile is found continuous. The different swelling characteristics were attributed to the different miscibility behavior types, with the brush state acting similar to a crosslinked system.

  13. Detection of Fibrinogen and Coagulation Factor VIII in Plasma by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM biosensor with nanogram sensitivity has been constructed through a reasonable designing and biological processing of the piezoelectric quartz crystals. Due to its highly sensitivity, real time detection and low cost, the proposed QCM biosensor has a promising potential in blood coagulation research. In the current study, the QCM biosensor was used to determine the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT for 120 anticoagulated plasma specimens. A good linear relationship was found in a double-logarithmic plot of APTT versus fibrinogen concentration in the range of 1.58–6.30 g/L. For factor VIII, the detection range by the QCM biosensor is 0.0185–0.111 mg/L. The QCM biosensor results were compared with those obtained by commercial optical coagulometry and a good agreement (correlation coefficient is 0.949 for fibrinogen, and 0.948 for factor VIII was reached. Furthermore, the QCM determination can be completed within 10 min. Our study suggested that the proposed QCM biosensor could provide for more convenient and time saving operations, which may be useful in clinical situations for rapid monitoring of anticoagulant therapy using small volume (20 μL plasma specimens.

  14. Real-time monitoring of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation using a quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, K; Kinsinger, N; Ayala, P; Qi, F; Shi, W; Myung, N V

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known etiological agent in dental caries, to attach and form a biofilm is an important key to its virulence. The effects of various environmental factors (i.e. sucrose concentration, flow rate and temperature as well as genetic manipulations) on the capability of S. mutans (UA 140) to attach, form and detach were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance. The biofilm growth rate was much slower than that of planktonic growth. Greater availability of sucrose contributed to biofilms with less lag time, lower doubling times and earlier detachment. Flow rate experiments showed that as the shear stress was reduced, the maximum mass accumulated also decreased. However, the detachment process was independent of shear force, perhaps indicative of quorum sensing. Increasing the incubation temperature from 37 to 40 degrees C extended the lag period and inhibited the ability of the biofilm to attach readily. Absence of either the ciaH, luxS, gtfB or gtfC genes also greatly affected the ability of the S. mutans to adhere to a surface in comparison to the wild type. Quartz crystal microbalance results indicate that the gtfC gene possibly has a greater contribution to biofilm attachment than the gtfB gene, that the presence of the luxS gene is critical for attachment and that the ciaH gene primarily affects the initial reversible attachment of the biofilm. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  16. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    86, No. 3. — journal of. March 2016 physics pp. 719–722. Comments on: “Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties of semi-organic nonlinear optical materials” ... and urea ligands, the title paper by Gunasekaran et al [1] reporting on the growth of the so-called urea thiourea mercuric chloride ...

  17. Radiation stimulated effects in crystals of quartz and berlinit with different type and degree of perfection structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Z D

    2001-01-01

    of structure. The effectiveness of creation of additional defects near defects of one type is increased with growth of concentration of other types of structure violations. It was established that in crystals of quartz and berlinit alpha-beta-transition during neutron irradiation occurs through formation of seeds of beta-phase. It was shown that the grown layer with beta-phase inherited also neutron induced defects of alpha-phase as well as defects related to beta-phase of quartz. The structure of amorphous phase formed around seeds of beta-phase differs from quartz glass structure. The formation of regions with structure closed to quartz glass structure occurs after definite neutron fluence values. In quartz crystals there are several defect centers emitting in red spectral range. The processes of impact and non-impact production of point defects, mechanisms of structure transformations in quartz and berlinit crystals irradiated by various types of radiation with over- and sub- threshold energy were studied....

  18. Quantitative detection of Amino Acid, Organic Acid and Sugar using an Electrode-separated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Toshiaki; Yamamura, Satoshi; Arikawa, Yukihiko

    An electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal (electrode-separated PQC) is constructed with no electrode attached to either side of the quartz plate, but electrodes are separately inserted in the electrolyte solution on both sides of the quartz plate, and are connected to an oscillator. The frequency shifts due to the solution properties and the mass change on the quartz plate is just the same as for a normal piezoelectric quartz crystal (normal PQC) having two electrodes. The electrode-separated PQC will be more useful than the normal PQC because it can be made smaller, higher frequency, and then cheaper. Amino acid, organic acid and sugar are important substances in the alcoholic beverage made by fermentation, such as sake. The Amino acids were determined using electrode-separated PQC coated with chitosan in copper (II) solution. Formation of complex with chitosan on the quartz plate, Cu(II) and amino acid in the sample solution induced the frequency shift of PQC. On the other hand, using non-coated electrode-separated PQC, concentration of organic acid and sugar in the liquid were determined, because the frequency of the crystal filled with the liquid containing organic acid and sugar was shifted with the viscosity and conductivity, respectively.

  19. A STUDY OF THE PRESSURE SOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF QUARTZ CRYSTALS AT HIGH pH AND UNDER HIGH STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUNG-HAE CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite is generally used as a buffer material in high-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and consists of 50% quartz by weight. Quartz strongly affects the behavior of bentonite over very long periods. For this reason, quartz dissolution experiment was performed under high-pressure and high-alkalinity conditions based on the conditions found in a high-level radioactive waste disposal facility located deep underground. In this study, two quartz dissolution experiments were conducted on 1 quartz beads under low-pressure and high-alkalinity conditions and 2 a single quartz crystal under high-pressure and high-alkalinity conditions. Following the experiments, a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM was used to observe the surfaces of experimental samples. Numerical analyses using the finite element method (FEM were also performed to quantify the deformation of contact area. Quartz dissolution was observed in both experiments. This deformation was due to a concentrated compressive stress field, as indicated by the quartz deformation of the contact area through the FEM analysis. According to the numerical results, a high compressive stress field acted upon the neighboring contact area, which showed a rapid dissolution rate compared to other areas of the sample.

  20. Terahertz Vibrations and Hydrogen-Bonded Networks in Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masae Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of terahertz technology in the last few decades has made it possible to obtain a clear terahertz (THz spectrum. THz vibrations clearly show the formation of weak bonds in crystals. The simultaneous progress in the code of first-principles calculations treating noncovalent interactions has established the position of THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool for detecting the weak bonding in crystals. In this review, we are going to introduce, briefly, the contribution of weak bonds in the construction of molecular crystals first, and then, we will review THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool for detecting the formation of weak bonds and will show the significant contribution of advanced computational codes in treating noncovalent interactions. From the second section, following the Introduction, to the seventh section, before the conclusions, we describe: (1 the crystal packing forces, the hydrogen-bonded networks and their contribution to the construction of organic crystals; (2 the THz vibrations observed in hydrogen-bonded molecules; (3 the computational methods for analyzing the THz vibrations of hydrogen-bonded molecules; (4 the dispersion correction and anharmonicity incorporated into the first-principles calculations and their effect on the peak assignment of the THz spectrum (5 the temperature dependence; and (6 the polarization dependence of the THz spectrum.

  1. Interferometer with bismuth silicon oxide crystal for vibration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Feng, Qibo; Liang, Yunfeng

    2016-09-01

    We present a small-amplitude, high-frequency vibration measurement system. This system is based on the reflective holographic grating in a crystal of bismuth silicon oxide without applying an external electric field. A quarter-wave plate is applied in the reference beam path, with a polarizer after the crystal, to fulfill the quadrature condition when no electric field is applied to the crystal. A reflection configuration is used to obtain a good overlapping of the interference beams, which increases the beam coupling. The factors that affect the diffraction efficiency, including the signal-to-reference-beam intensity ratio and the recording angle, has been investigated. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical results, and the optimal conditions are obtained. The results of comparisons of our system with the vibrometer TEMPO show that the nanometer vibrations of a piezoelectric transducer can be reliably detected.

  2. Radiation Studies on Aluminum-Related Defect Centers in Quartz Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Byong

    Scope and Method of Study. Quartz crystals are used for precision frequency control devices in aerospace electronic systems. Irradiation at room temperature destroys the Al-M^+ centers in quartz and produces a mixture of the Al-hole and Al-OH^ - centers. These Al-related defects, both growth and radiation-induced defects, play an important role in the performance of quartz resonators. A series of room temperature irradiations, subsequent low temperature irradiations, and initial low temperature irradiations were performed on unswept, Na^+-, Li^+ -, and H^+-swept samples of AT-, BT-, or SC-cut resonator using ^{60}Co gamma source or Van de Graaff electrostatic electron accelerator to destroy Al-M^+ centers and produce radiation-induced defects such as Al-hole centers. To monitor such defects, acoustic loss versus temperature measurements were made using Log-decrement technique or Transmission technique. Findings and Conclusions. The 53K loss peak, which is caused by the Al-Na^+ center, is reduced by ionizing room temperature irradiation. And the removal of the 53K loss peak causes a positive frequency shift. The 100K and 23K loss peaks are produced by room temperature and subsequent low temperature irradiations in most samples and also by initial low temperature irradiation only in H^+-swept sample. Both peaks cause the negative frequency shift. However, the production behavior of the 23K peak is different from that of the 100K peak. Consequently the 100K loss peak is caused by the Al-hole center but the 23K peak is not. New 107K loss peak is found in Li^+-swept sample according to initial low temperature irradiation.

  3. An erosion sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance for quantitative determination of the cleaning efficiency in an ultrasonic vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, M; Koch, C; Dreyer, T

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning vessels cannot be measured directly in an easy way. In the presented work, a sensor is developed which quantitatively measures the ablation of a test layer. The sensor element is a quartz crystal which is coated with a sacrificial layer. Small changes in mass of this layer can be measured by a frequency shift of the crystal oscillation. For measurements, a 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal was used in a cleaning vessel working at 44.9 kHz. To determine the frequency shift by the ablation of the test layer, the quartz crystal was driven by a frequency generator sweeping the frequency in the range of the resonance frequency and a characteristic frequency was determined. The test layer which was applied to the quartz crystal consisted of silica microparticles suspended in varnish. In a preliminary experiment using a commercial cleaner it could be shown that significant changes in resonance frequency by cavitation effect could be detected. The initial frequency shift of the sacrificial layer is reproducible within 10%. The test layer can be adapted to the conditions of the cleaning vessel. By changing the electrical input power of the vessel, a threshold in the cavitation erosion was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Sol-gel-derived Thin Films as Gas Sensor for NO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O’Shea

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibilities and properties of Indium tin oxide (ITO-covered quartz crystal as a NOx toxic gas-sensor. The starting sol-gel solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride dissolved in acetylacetone and tin chloride dissolved in ethanol (0-20% by weight. The ITO thin films were deposited on the gold electrodes of quartz crystal by spin-coating technique and subsequently followed a standard photolithography to pattern the derived films to ensure all sensors with the same sensing areas. All heat treatment processes were controlled below 500°C in order to avoid the piezoelectric characteristics degradation of quartz crystal (Quartz will lose its piezoelectricity at ~573°C due to the phase change from α to β. The electrical and structural properties of ITO thin films were characterized with Hall analysis system, TG/DTA, XRD, XPS, SEM and etc. The gas sensor had featured with ITO thin films of ~100nm as the receptor to sense the toxic gas NO and quartz crystal with frequency of 10MHz as the transducer to transfer the surface reactions (mass loading, etc into the frequency shift. A homemade setup had been employed to measure the sensor response under the static mode. The experimental results had indicated that the ITO-coated QCM had a good sensitivity for NO gas, ~12Hz/100ppm within 5mins. These results prove that the ITO-covered quartz crystals are usable as a gas sensor and as an analytical device.

  5. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  6. Polythiophene synthesis coupled to quartz crystal microbalance and Raman spectroscopy for detecting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Momo, R P; Lagarde, F; Daniel, Ph; Pilard, J F; Durand, M J; Thouand, G

    2012-12-01

    A simple electrochemical procedure was used for the synthesis of a polythiophene containing para-benzenesulfonyl chloride groups. The obtained polymer was shown to be very reactive and directly able to covalently bind nucleophile biomolecules. Protein A and a specific antibody were then successively immobilized on the conductive polymer through a covalent bonding of Protein A with the as-prepared linker for bacteria trapping purpose. All reactions were controlled in situ by cyclic voltammetry, quartz crystal microbalance and Raman spectroscopy. The results were compared to those previously obtained on gold surface modified with the same chemical linker. The conductive polymer led to a very high rate of antibody recognition compared to the gold surface and to literature, probably due to a large available surface obtained after polymerization. One example of pathogenic bacteria "Salmonella enterica paratyphi" detection was successfully tested on the substrates. The presented results are promising for the future design of simple and inexpensive immunocapture-based sensors.

  7. A highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a nanofibrous membrane coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran; Pan, Fukui

    2010-02-05

    A novel humidity sensor was fabricated by electrospinning deposition of nanofibrous polyelectrolyte membranes as sensitive coatings on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results of sensing experiments indicated that the response of the sensors increased by more than two orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 6 to 95% at room temperature, exhibiting high sensitivity, and that, in the range of 20-95% RH, the Log(Deltaf) showed good linearity. The sensitivity of fibrous composite polyacrylic acid (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes was two times higher than that of the corresponding flat films at 95% RH. Compared with fibrous PAA/PVA membranes, the nanofibrous PAA membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced humidity sensitivity due to their high PAA content and large specific surface area caused by the formation of ultrathin nanowebs among electrospun fibers. Additionally, the resultant sensors exhibited a good reversible behavior and good long term stability.

  8. Detection of parathion and patulin by quartz-crystal microbalance functionalized by the photonics immobilization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Carrieri, Raffaele; Morra, Luigi; Lahoz, Ernesto; Gesuele, Felice; Altucci, Carlo; Velotta, Raffaele

    2015-05-15

    Oriented antibodies are tethered on the gold surface of a quartz crystal microbalance through the photonics immobilization technique so that limit of detection as low as 50 nM and 140 nM are achieved for parathion and patulin, respectively. To make these small analytes detectable by the microbalance, they have been weighed down through a "sandwich protocol" with a second antibody. The specificity against the parathion has been tested by checking the immunosensor response to a mixture of compounds similar to parathion, whereas the specificity against the patulin has been tested with a real sample from apple puree. In both cases, the results are more than satisfactory suggesting interesting outlook for the proposed device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Piezoelectric quartz crystal sensors applied for bioanalytical assays and characterization of affinity interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skládal Petr

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents piezoelectric quartz crystals as transducers suitable for development of different types of bioanalytical assays. The components of measuring systems for piezosensors are described together with providers of commercial equipment. The piezoelectric biosensors are summarized for determination of viruses, bacterial and other cells, proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules as drugs, hormones and pesticides. In addition to mass changes, some agglutination assays employing viscosity effects are addressed. Finally, the direct label-free and real-time monitoring of affinity interactions using piezosensors is presented. The theoretical background for determination of appropriate kinetic rate and equilibrium constants is shown and the approach is demonstrated on the interaction of antibody with the corresponding antigen (protein secalin. Several examples of affinity studies are provided, including interactions of proteins (antibody and antigens, receptors and ligands, nucleic acids (hybridization, intercalation of metal complexes, lipids and saccharide-based layers.

  10. Investigating calcite growth rates using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Stack, Andrew G.; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lammers, Laura N.; Hu, Yandi

    2018-02-01

    Calcite precipitation plays a significant role in processes such as geological carbon sequestration and toxic metal sequestration and, yet, the rates and mechanisms of calcite growth under close to equilibrium conditions are far from well understood. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used for the first time to measure macroscopic calcite growth rates. Calcite seed crystals were first nucleated and grown on sensors, then growth rates of calcite seed crystals were measured in real-time under close to equilibrium conditions (saturation index, SI = log ({Ca2+}/{CO32-}/Ksp) = 0.01-0.7, where {i} represent ion activities and Ksp = 10-8.48 is the calcite thermodynamic solubility constant). At the end of the experiments, total masses of calcite crystals on sensors measured by QCM-D and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were consistent, validating the QCM-D measurements. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were compared with reported macroscopic growth rates measured with auto-titration, ICP-MS, and microbalance. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were also compared with microscopic growth rates measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with rates predicted by two process-based crystal growth models. The discrepancies in growth rates among AFM measurements and model predictions appear to mainly arise from differences in step densities, and the step velocities were consistent among the AFM measurements as well as with both model predictions. Using the predicted steady-state step velocity and the measured step densities, both models predict well the growth rates measured using QCM-D and AFM. This study provides valuable insights into the effects of reactive site densities on calcite growth rate, which may help design future growth models to predict transient-state step densities.

  11. Experimental Study of the Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Abrasive Waterjet Micromachining the Quartz Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongguo Hou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic vibration is used to enhance the capability of the abrasive water micromachining glass. And, the ultrasonic vibration is activated on the abrasive waterjet nozzle. The quality of the flow is improved, and the velocity of the abrasive is increased because of the addition of the ultrasonic energy. The relevant experimental results indicate that the erosion depth and the material volume removal of the glass are obviously increased when ultrasonic vibration is working. As for the influence of process parameters on the material removal of the glass such as vibration amplitude, system pressure, distance of the standoff, and abrasive size, the experimental results indicate that the system pressure and vibration contribute greatly to the glass material removal. Also, the erosion depth and the volume of material removal are increased with the increase in the vibration amplitude and system pressure. There are some uplifts found at the edge of erosion pit. Then, it can be inferred that the plastic method is an important material removal method during the machining process of ultrasonic vibration-assisted abrasive waterjet.

  12. Quantitative Rheometry of Thin Soft Materials using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadman, Kazi; Wiener, Clinton G; Weiss, R A; White, Christopher C; Shull, Kenneth R; Vogt, Bryan D

    2018-02-23

    In the inertial limit, the resonance frequency of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is related to the coupled mass on the quartz sensor through the Sauerbrey expression that relates the mass to the change in resonance frequency. However, when the thickness of the film is sufficiently large, the relationship becomes more complicated and both the frequency and damping of the crystal resonance must be considered. In this regime, a rheological model of the material must be used to accurately extract the adhered film's thickness, shear modulus, and viscoelastic phase angle from the data. In the present work we examine the suitability of two viscoelastic models, a simple Voigt model (Physica Scripta 1999, 59, 391-396) and a more realistic power-law model (Langmuir 2015, 31, 4008), to extract the rheological properties of a thermo-responsive hydrogel film. By changing temperature and initial dry film thickness of the gel, the operation of QCM was traversed from the Sauerbrey limit, where viscous losses do not impact the frequency, through the regime where the QCM response is sensitive to vis- coelastic properties. The density-shear modulus and the viscoelastic phase angle from the two models are in good agreement when the shear wavelength ratio, d/ln, is in the range of 0.05- 0.20, where d is the film thickness and ln is the wavelength of the mechanical shear wave at the nth harmonic. We further provide a framework for estimating the physical properties of soft materials in the megahertz regime by using the physical behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes. This provides the user with an approximate range of allowable film thicknesses for accurate viscoelastic analysis with either model, thus enabling better use of the QCM-D in soft materials research.

  13. Biomimetic piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with chloramphenicol-imprinted polymer sensing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebarvia, Benilda S; Ubando, Isaiah E; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of banned antibiotic like chloramphenicol is significant for customer protection and safety. The presence of residual antibiotics in foods and food products of animal origin could pose as health hazards and affect food quality for global acceptance. In this study, the potential of a chloramphenicol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coupled with a piezoelectric quartz crystal was explored. The MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization at 60 °C. Methacrylic acid was used as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as crosslinker, and chloramphenicol as the template. Template removal on the resulting polymer was done by extraction using methanol-acetic acid. Characterization of the MIP and NIP were conducted by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These further supported the imprinting and rebinding process of chloramphenicol to the polymer matrix. The chloramphenicol sensor was devised by spin-coating onto one side of the 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal the MIP suspension in polyvinylchloride-tetrahydrofuran (6:2:1 w/w/v) solution. Optimization of sensor response was performed by varying the type of cross-linker, amount of MIP sensing layer, curing time, and pH. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity of about 73 Hz/log (conc., µg mL(-1)) and good repeatability (rsd<10%). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.9901) between frequency shift and chloramphenicol concentration in the range of 1×10(-6) up to 1×10(-1) µg/mL was obtained. The sensor response was highly selective to chloramphenicol than with other compounds of similar chemical structures. Acceptable percent recovery was obtained for real sample analysis using the sensor. The proposed sensor could be a promising low cost and highly sensitive approach for residual chloramphenicol quantification in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) studies of the viscoelastic response from a continuously growing grafted polyelectrolyte layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunér, Gunnar; Thormann, Esben; Dedinaite, Andra

    2013-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) was grown from substrates by photopolymerization, and the grafting process was monitored in situ by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) measurements in a 1:1 v/v mixture of water/ethanol. The polymerization process was monitored into the thick film region, wher...

  15. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Investigation of the Structure of Adsorbed Soybean Oil and Methyl Oleate onto Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of soybean oil (SBO) and methyl oleate (MO) onto steel was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Adsorption of both SBO and MO increased with increasing concentrations. At full surface coverage, SBO and MO formed rigid thin films and ach...

  16. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions...

  17. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-11-15

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 {mu}m. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 {mu}m thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 {mu}m thick

  18. Nonlinear Elastic Behavior of Piezoelectric Trigonal Crystals: Measurements on Quartz and Lithium-Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul Jerry

    The ultrasonic harmonic generation technique previously used to measure third-order elastic (TOE) constants of crystals of cubic symmetry has been extended to measurement of crystals of trigonal symmetry. The theory for nonpiezoelectric trigonal crystals of J. Philip {Technical Report No. 22, Office of Naval Research, Contract No. N00014 -81-K-0229 (to be published in 1983)} has been combined with the piezoelectric theory of McMahon {J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1007 (1968)} to determine the effective TOE constants in a piezoelectric solid, and correction has been made in McMahon's expression. Measurements in weakly piezoelectric quartz have produced values of C(,111) and C(,333) which agree within experimental uncertainty with values of R. N. Thurston, H. J. McSkimin and P. Andreatch, Jr. {J. Appl. Phys. 37, 267 (1966)} and R. Stern and R. T. Smith {J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 640 (1968)} after corrections have been made for the effect of diffraction on the data. Measurements in strongly piezoelectric LiNbO(,3) have resulted in values which agree reasonably well with those of J. Philip and M. A. Breazeale {Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 2 (1982) } but disagree with those of C. Y. Nakagawa, K. Yamanouchi and K. Shibayama {J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3969 (1973) }. There is indication of some sample dependence of the values of both the second-order elastic constants as well as the third-order elastic constants of LiNbO(,3) samples currently available. In the course of measurement of the TOE constants a negative nonlinearity parameter was observed for the Piezoelectric {100} direction in quartz. This peculiarity is impossible for thermodynamic reasons in fluids, but has been observed once previously in fused silica {J. Bains and M. A. Breazeale, J. Acoust, Soc. Am. 57, 745 (1975)}. The nonlinearity parameter appears to be positive for the piezoelectric {001 } direction in LiNbO(,3). The data presented are for the "piezoelectrically stiffened" TOE constants; however, there are

  19. Phase transition of pNIPAM grafted on plasma-activated PEO monitored in-situ by quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, P; Bretagnol, F; Mannelli, I; Gillil, D; Rauscher, H; Rossi, F [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: hubert.rauscher@jrc.it

    2008-03-15

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) layers were grafted on plasma-activated poly(ethylene oxide)-like substrate. Analysis by ToF-SIMS confirmed the presence of a pNIPAM film, which shows a phase transition temperature at 28 - 32 deg. C with hysteresis, as determined in-situ by quartz crystal microbalance. During the transition, the frequency of the pNIPAM coated quartz sensor exhibits a pronounced and unexpected minimum while the dissipation changes monotonously. This peculiar behaviour is explained by temporary formation of water-rich regions, which may cause delayed release and uptake of water during the collapse and re-swelling of the layer.

  20. An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

    2012-01-01

    The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material.

  1. Weak antibody-cyclodextrin interactions determined by quartz crystal microbalance and dynamic/static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Elisabeth; Dixit, Nitin; Besheer, Ahmed; Kalonia, Devendra; Winter, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    In a quest to elucidate the mechanism by which hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) stabilizes antibodies against shaking stress, two heavily debated hypotheses exist, namely that stabilization is due to HPβCD's surface activity, or due to specific interactions with proteins. In a previous study by Serno et al. (Pharm. Res. 30 (2013) 117), we could refute the first hypothesis by proving that, although HPβCD is slightly surface active, it does not displace the antibody at the air-water interface, and accordingly, its surface activity is not the underlying stabilizing mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of interactions between HPβCD and monoclonal antibodies as the potential stabilization mechanism using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and static as well as dynamic light scattering. In the presence of HPβCD, the adsorption of IgG antibodies in the native state (IgG A) and the unfolded state (IgG A and IgG B) on gold-coated quartz crystals was studied by QCM. Results show that HPβCD causes a reduction in protein adsorption in both the folded and the unfolded states, probably due to an interaction between the protein and the cyclodextrin, leading to a reduced hydrophobicity of the protein and consequently a lower extent of adsorption. These results were supported by investigation of the interaction between the native protein and HPβCD using static and dynamic light scattering experiments, which provide the protein-protein interaction parameters, B22 and kD, respectively. Both B22 and kD showed an increase in magnitude with increasing HPβCD-concentrations, indicating a rise in net repulsive forces between the protein molecules. This is further evidence for the presence of interactions between HPβCD and the studied antibodies, since an association of HPβCD on the protein surface leads to a change in the intermolecular forces between the protein molecules. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the previously observed

  2. Preparation and characterization of ethylenediamine and cysteamine plasma polymerized films on piezoelectric quartz crystal surfaces for a biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutlu, Selma [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: smselma@hacettepe.edu.tr; Coekeliler, Dilek [Plasma Aided Bioengineering and Biotechnology Research Group(PABB), Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Shard, Alex [Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Goktas, Hilal [Physics Department, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Ozansoy, Berna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Mutlu, Mehmet [Plasma Aided Bioengineering and Biotechnology Research Group(PABB), Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-30

    This paper describes a method for the modification of quartz crystal surfaces to be used as a transducer in biosensors that allow recognition and quantification of certain biomolecules (antibodies, enzymes, proteins, etc). Quartz crystal sensors were modified by a plasma based electron beam generator in order to detect the level of the toxin histamine within biological liquids (blood, serum) and food (wine, cheese, fish etc.). Cysteamine and ethylenediamine were used as precursors in the plasma. After each modification step, the layers on the quartz crystal were characterized by frequency measurements. Modified surfaces were also characterized by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the surfaces after each modification. Finally, the performance of the sensors were tested by the response to histamine via frequency shifts. The frequency shifts of the sensors prepared by plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine and cysteamine were approximately 3230 Hz and 5630 Hz, respectively, whereas the frequency change of the unmodified crystal surface was around 575 Hz.

  3. A Study of Drop-Microstructured Surface Interactions during Dropwise Condensation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junwei; Charmchi, Majid; Sun, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) on hydrophobic surfaces is attracting attention for its great potential in many industrial applications, such as steam power plants, water desalination, and de-icing of aerodynamic surfaces, to list a few. The direct dynamic characterization of liquid/solid interaction can significantly accelerate the progress toward a full understanding of the thermal and mass transport mechanisms during DWC processes. This work reports a novel Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based method that can quantitatively analyze the interaction between water droplets and micropillar surfaces during different condensation states such as filmwise, Wenzel, and partial Cassie states. A combined nanoimprinting lithography and chemical surface treatment approach was utilized to fabricate the micropillar based superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces on the QCM substrates. The normalized frequency shift of the QCM device together with the microscopic observation of the corresponding drop motion revealed the droplets growth and their coalescence processes and clearly demonstrated the differences between the three aforementioned condensation states. In addition, the transition between Cassie and Wenzel states was successfully captured by this method. The newly developed QCM system provides a valuable tool for the dynamic characterization of different condensation processes. PMID:27739452

  4. Label-Free Detection of Gliadin in Food by Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Based Immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Riccardo; Terracciano, Irma; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Ricci, Sara; Cardi, Teodoro; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Velotta, Raffaele

    2017-02-15

    Gluten is a protein composite found in wheat and related grains including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids. Gluten matrix is a biomolecular network of gliadins and glutenins that contribute to the texture of pastries, breads, and pasta. Gliadins are mainly responsible for celiac disease, one of the most widespread food-related pathologies in Western world. In view of the importance of gliadin proteins, by combining the quartz crystal microbalance technology, a cheap and robust piezoelectric transducer, with the so-called photonic immobilization technique, an effective surface functionalization method that provides spatially oriented antibodies on gold substrates, we realized a sensitive and reliable biosensor for quantifying these analytes extracted from real samples in a very short time. The resulting immunosensor has a limit of detection of about 4 ppm and, more remarkably, shows excellent sensitivity in the range 7.5-15 ppm. This feature makes our device reliable and effective for practical applications since it is able to keep low the influence of false positives.

  5. Biomimetic receptors for bioanalyte detection by quartz crystal microbalances - from molecules to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Usman; Qian, Jianjin; Can, Serpil; Dickert, Franz L

    2014-12-05

    A universal label-free detection of bioanalytes can be performed with biomimetic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coatings prepared by imprinting strategies. Bulk imprinting was used to detect the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) known as estradiols. The estrogen 17β-estradiol is one of the most potent EDCs, even at very low concentrations. A highly sensitive, selective and robust QCM sensor was fabricated for real time monitoring of 17β-estradiol in water samples by using molecular imprinted polyurethane. Optimization of porogen (pyrene) and cross-linker (phloroglucinol) levels leads to improved sensitivity, selectivity and response time of the estradiol sensor. Surface imprinting of polyurethane as sensor coating also allowed us to generate interaction sites for the selective recognition of bacteria, even in a very complex mixture of interfering compounds, while they were growing from their spores in nutrient solution. A double molecular imprinting approach was followed to transfer the geometrical features of natural bacteria onto the synthetic polymer to generate biomimetic bacteria. The use of biomimetic bacteria as template makes it possible to prepare multiple sensor coatings with similar sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, cell typing, e.g., differentiation of bacteria strains, bacteria growth profile and extent of their nutrition, can be monitored by biomimetic mass sensors. Obviously, this leads to controlled cell growth in bioreactors.

  6. Biomimetic Receptors for Bioanalyte Detection by Quartz Crystal Microbalances — From Molecules to Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Latif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A universal label-free detection of bioanalytes can be performed with biomimetic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coatings prepared by imprinting strategies. Bulk imprinting was used to detect the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs known as estradiols. The estrogen 17β-estradiol is one of the most potent EDCs, even at very low concentrations. A highly sensitive, selective and robust QCM sensor was fabricated for real time monitoring of 17β-estradiol in water samples by using molecular imprinted polyurethane. Optimization of porogen (pyrene and cross-linker (phloroglucinol levels leads to improved sensitivity, selectivity and response time of the estradiol sensor. Surface imprinting of polyurethane as sensor coating also allowed us to generate interaction sites for the selective recognition of bacteria, even in a very complex mixture of interfering compounds, while they were growing from their spores in nutrient solution. A double molecular imprinting approach was followed to transfer the geometrical features of natural bacteria onto the synthetic polymer to generate biomimetic bacteria. The use of biomimetic bacteria as template makes it possible to prepare multiple sensor coatings with similar sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, cell typing, e.g., differentiation of bacteria strains, bacteria growth profile and extent of their nutrition, can be monitored by biomimetic mass sensors. Obviously, this leads to controlled cell growth in bioreactors.

  7. Biomimetic Receptors for Bioanalyte Detection by Quartz Crystal Microbalances — From Molecules to Cells †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Usman; Qian, Jianjin; Can, Serpil; Dickert, Franz L.

    2014-01-01

    A universal label-free detection of bioanalytes can be performed with biomimetic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coatings prepared by imprinting strategies. Bulk imprinting was used to detect the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) known as estradiols. The estrogen 17β-estradiol is one of the most potent EDCs, even at very low concentrations. A highly sensitive, selective and robust QCM sensor was fabricated for real time monitoring of 17β-estradiol in water samples by using molecular imprinted polyurethane. Optimization of porogen (pyrene) and cross-linker (phloroglucinol) levels leads to improved sensitivity, selectivity and response time of the estradiol sensor. Surface imprinting of polyurethane as sensor coating also allowed us to generate interaction sites for the selective recognition of bacteria, even in a very complex mixture of interfering compounds, while they were growing from their spores in nutrient solution. A double molecular imprinting approach was followed to transfer the geometrical features of natural bacteria onto the synthetic polymer to generate biomimetic bacteria. The use of biomimetic bacteria as template makes it possible to prepare multiple sensor coatings with similar sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, cell typing, e.g., differentiation of bacteria strains, bacteria growth profile and extent of their nutrition, can be monitored by biomimetic mass sensors. Obviously, this leads to controlled cell growth in bioreactors. PMID:25490598

  8. Long Memory from Sauerbrey Equation: A Case in Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance in terms of Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sauerbrey equation is a useful empirical model in material science to represent the dynamics of frequency change denoted by Δf in an area, denoted by A, of the electrode in terms of the increment of the mass, which is denoted by Δm, loaded on the surface of the crystal under a certain resonant frequency f0. For the purpose of studying Δf from the point of view of time series, we first propose two types of the modified representations of the Sauerbrey equation by taking time as an argument to represent Δf as a function expressed by x(t,f0,A,Δm, where t is time. Usually, Δf is studied experimentally for the performance evaluation of the tested quartz used in ammonia sensors. Its properties in time series, however, are rarely reported. This paper presents the fractal properties of Δf. We will show that Δf is long range dependent (LRD. Consequently, it is heavy tailed according to the Taqqu's theorem. The Hurst parameter (H of Δf approaches one, implying its strong long memory, providing a new explanation of the repeatability of the experiments and novel point of view of the dynamics of Δf relating to the Sauerbrey equation in material science.

  9. Effect of fluid motion on the impact erosion by a micro-particle on quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, D. H.; Qi, H.; Wen, D. H.; Zhang, L.; Yuan, Q. L.; Chen, Z. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) is a promising technology to process a variety of materials with advantages of high flexibility, no heat affected zone and high cutting efficiency. In this paper, the impressions generated on a quartz crystal specimen by the impacts of micro-particles laden in a water flow and the associated impact erosion mechanisms are presented and discussed in order to effectively and efficiently control the machining quality. Both brittle and ductile mode erosions coexist in the machining process due to the influence of the fluid motion on the trajectories of particles near the target surface. Large-scale craters produced by brittle conchoidal fractures associated with crashed zone, radial and lateral cracks, dominate the erosion process at large jet impact angles while small-scale craters involving micro-ploughing and micro-cutting are produced by the ductile mode erosion at small jet impact angles. The relation between the process parameters and the overall average volume of craters has also been quantitatively analyzed. A combination of small jet impact angle and abrasive particles and low water pressure is preferred for improving the surface quality after the ASJ machining process caused by the more formation of ductile mode induced craters on the target material, but it is at the sacrifice of the material removal rate as well.

  10. Effect of fluid motion on the impact erosion by a micro-particle on quartz crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive slurry jet (ASJ is a promising technology to process a variety of materials with advantages of high flexibility, no heat affected zone and high cutting efficiency. In this paper, the impressions generated on a quartz crystal specimen by the impacts of micro-particles laden in a water flow and the associated impact erosion mechanisms are presented and discussed in order to effectively and efficiently control the machining quality. Both brittle and ductile mode erosions coexist in the machining process due to the influence of the fluid motion on the trajectories of particles near the target surface. Large-scale craters produced by brittle conchoidal fractures associated with crashed zone, radial and lateral cracks, dominate the erosion process at large jet impact angles while small-scale craters involving micro-ploughing and micro-cutting are produced by the ductile mode erosion at small jet impact angles. The relation between the process parameters and the overall average volume of craters has also been quantitatively analyzed. A combination of small jet impact angle and abrasive particles and low water pressure is preferred for improving the surface quality after the ASJ machining process caused by the more formation of ductile mode induced craters on the target material, but it is at the sacrifice of the material removal rate as well.

  11. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Kusakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti or zirconia (ZrO2 was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. As proteins, fibronectin (Fn, a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb, a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2.

  12. Adsorption kinetics of cationic polyelectrolytes studied with stagnation point adsorption reflectometry and quartz crystal microgravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enarsson, Lars-Erik; Wågberg, Lars

    2008-07-15

    The effects of charge density, pH, and salt concentration on polyelectrolyte adsorption onto the oxidized surface of silicon wafers were studied using stagnation point adsorption reflectometry and quartz crystal microgravimetry. Five different polyelectrolytescationic polyacrylamides of four charge densities and one cationic dextranwere examined. The adsorption kinetics was characterized using each technique, and the adsorption kinetics observed was in line with the impinging jet theory and the theory for one-dimensional diffusion, respectively. The polyelectrolyte adsorption increased with pH as an effect of the increased silica surface charge. A maximum in the saturation adsorption for both types of polyelectrolytes was found at 10 mM NaCl concentration. A significant adsorption also occurred at 1 M NaCl, which indicated a significant nonionic contribution to the adsorption mechanism. The fraction of solvent in the adsorbed layer was determined to be 70-80% by combining the two analysis techniques. This indicated a loose structure of the adsorbed layer and an extended conformation at the surface, favoring loops and tails. However, considering the solution structure with a hydrodynamic diameter larger than 100 nm for the CPAM and a thickness of the adsorbed layer on the order of 10 nm, the results showed that the adsorption is accompanied by a drastic change in polymer conformation. Furthermore, this conformation change takes place on a time scale far shorter than seconds.

  13. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) affinity biosensor for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Ilaria; Minunni, Maria; Tombelli, Sara; Mascini, Marco

    2003-03-01

    A DNA piezoelectric sensor has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The probe sequences were internal to the sequence of the 35S promoter (P) and Nos terminator (T), which are inserted sequences in the genome of GMOs regulating the transgene expression. Two different probe immobilisation procedures were applied: (a) a thiol-dextran procedure and (b) a thiol-derivatised probe and blocking thiol procedure. The system has been optimised using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were then applied to samples of plasmidic and genomic DNA isolated from the pBI121 plasmid, certified reference materials (CRM), and real samples amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analytical parameters of the sensor have been investigated (sensitivity, reproducibility, lifetime etc.). The results obtained showed that both immobilisation procedures enabled sensitive and specific detection of GMOs, providing a useful tool for screening analysis in food samples.

  14. Detection of Liquid Penetration of a Micropillar Surface Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengtao; Su, Junwei; Shen, Mengyan; Ruths, Marina; Sun, Hongwei

    2017-01-17

    A quantitative characterization of the wetting states of droplets on hydrophobic textured surfaces requires direct measurement of the liquid penetration into surface cavities, which is challenging. Here, the use of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology is reported for the characterization of the liquid penetration depth on a micropillar-patterned surface. The actual liquid-air interface of the droplet was established by freezing the droplet and characterizing it using a cryogenically focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (cryo FIB-SEM) technique. It was found that a direct correlation exists between the liquid penetration depth and the responses of the QCM. A very small frequency shift of the QCM (1.5%) was recorded when the droplet was in the Cassie state, whereas a significant frequency shift was observed when the wetting state changed to the Wenzel state (where full liquid penetration occurs). Furthermore, a transition from the Cassie to the Wenzel state can be captured by the QCM technique. An acoustic-structure-interaction based numerical model was developed to further understand the effect of penetration. The numerical model was validated by experimentally measured responses of micropillar-patterned QCMs. The results also show a nonlinear response of the QCM to the increasing liquid penetration depth. This research provides a solid foundation for utilizing QCM sensors for liquid penetration and surface wettability characterization.

  15. Transient effects during erosion of WN by deuterium ions studied with the quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bernhard M.; Stadlmayr, Reinhard; Meisl, Gerd; Čekada, Miha; Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Transient effects during erosion of polycrystalline tungsten-nitride (WN) films by mono-energetic deuterium projectiles are studied using a quartz crystal microbalance technique. The evolution of the mass removal rate of a 360 nm thin WN film under 500 eV/D and 1000 eV/D bombardment is investigated at a temperature of 465 K in situ and in real-time as a function of the deuterium fluence. The measurements are performed at a typical flux of 1018 m-2 s-1. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the deuterium fluence is found. The mass loss is initially higher than for pure tungsten (W) and drops with fluence, finally reaching the same steady state value as for pure W sputtering. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a fluence of about 0.2 × 1023 D/m2 for 500 eV/D and 0.6 × 1023 D/m2 for 1000 eV/D. SDTrimSP simulations indicate a preferential removal of N and a corresponding W enrichment of the surface.

  16. Transient effects during erosion of WN by deuterium ions studied with the quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Bernhard M., E-mail: berger@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Fusion@ÖAW, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Stadlmayr, Reinhard [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Fusion@ÖAW, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Meisl, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Čekada, Miha [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aumayr, Friedrich, E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Fusion@ÖAW, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Transient effects during erosion of polycrystalline tungsten-nitride (WN) films by mono-energetic deuterium projectiles are studied using a quartz crystal microbalance technique. The evolution of the mass removal rate of a 360 nm thin WN film under 500 eV/D and 1000 eV/D bombardment is investigated at a temperature of 465 K in situ and in real-time as a function of the deuterium fluence. The measurements are performed at a typical flux of 10{sup 18} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the deuterium fluence is found. The mass loss is initially higher than for pure tungsten (W) and drops with fluence, finally reaching the same steady state value as for pure W sputtering. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a fluence of about 0.2 × 10{sup 23} D/m{sup 2} for 500 eV/D and 0.6 × 10{sup 23} D/m{sup 2} for 1000 eV/D. SDTrimSP simulations indicate a preferential removal of N and a corresponding W enrichment of the surface.

  17. Thermal desorption of methanol in hot cores. Study with a quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Ramón; Satorre, Miguel Ángel; Domingo, Manuel; Millán, Carlos; Luna-Ferrándiz, Ramón; Gisbert, Georgina; Santonja, Carmina

    2018-01-01

    The desorption process of methanol in the hot cores of massive young stars is addressed in this work. The study of pure methanol ice and when it is mixed or layered with water allows a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes which could have occurred during the formation of methanol and it is possible to infer the range of temperatures within which methanol can be found in the gas phase in these scenarios. The goal of this study was to model the desorption process of methanol as pure ice and mixed or layered with water under the conditions present in the early stages of hot cores whichcharacterize young star formation. The simulations of desorption of methanol, when it stands alone, performed in this work were compared to the values obtained by other authors to validate the method presented. In this work, the desorption of a water:methanol mixture under astrophysical conditions is also simulated. The theoretical results obtained for layered mixtures match with the temperatures at which an increase of the presence of methanol in the gas phase is detected when young massive mass stars are observed. This study has been performed using the frequency variation of a quartz crystal microbalance which provides a direct measure of the desorbing molecules during the experiments. This process was modelled using the Polanyi-Wigner equation and applied to astrophysical scenarios.

  18. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbo, Kazunari, E-mail: kshinbo@eng.niigata-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ohdaira, Yasuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Baba, Akira [Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyadera, Nobuo [Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 48 Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl{sub 2} was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam ({lambda} = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl{sub 2} as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  19. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagut, Y. J.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Arnau, A. [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); March, C.; Montoya, A. [Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigacion en Bioingenieria y Tecnologia Orientada al Ser Humano, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  20. A theophylline quartz crystal microbalance biosensor based on recognition of RNA aptamer and amplification of signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zong-Mu; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2013-04-21

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor for theophylline was developed by recognition of RNA aptamer and gold nanoparticle amplification technique. Firstly, a designed small single-stranded RNA, RNA1, was immobilized onto the QCM electrode through a thiol linker. Then, the complementary stranded RNA2, which can combine with RNA1 to form a double-stranded RNA with a recognition unit of theophylline, could be self-assembled on the QCM electrode surface through a hybrid reaction in the presence of theophylline. The recognition process could cause a frequency change of QCM to give the signal related to theophylline. When RNA2 was tethered to gold nanoparticles, the signal could be amplified to further enhance the sensitivity of the designed sensor. Under the optimal conditions, the QCM-based biosensor showed excellent sensitivity (limit of detection, 8.2 nM) and specificity with a dissociation constant of Kd = 5.26 × 10(-7) M. The sensor can be used to quantitatively detect theophylline in serum, suggesting that it can be applied in complex biological samples.

  1. Quantifying Ion Transport in Polymers Using Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Wang, Shaoyang

    For polymers in energy systems, one of the most common means of quantifying ion transport is that of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in which an alternating electric field is applied and the resultant impedance response is recorded. While useful, this approach misses subtle details in transient film swelling, effects of hydration or solvent shells around the transporting ion, and changes in mechanical properties of the polymer. Here we present electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCMD) monitoring as a means to quantify ion transport, dynamic swelling, and mechanical properties of polymers during electrochemical interrogation. We focus upon EQCMD characterization of the redox-active nitroxide radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA). Upon oxidation, PTMA becomes positively charged, which requires the transport of a complementary anion into the polymer for electroneutrality. By EQCMD, we quantify anion transport and resultant swelling upon oxidation, as well as decoupling of contributions attributed to the ion and the solvent. We explore the effect of different lithium electrolyte salts in which each salt gives different charge storage and mass transport behavior. This is attributed to varied polymer-dopant and dopant-solvent interactions. The work was supported by the Grant DE-SC0014006 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  2. Enzymatically synthesized polyaniline film deposition studied by simultaneous open circuit potential and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Norma; León-Silva, Ulises; Avalos, Tatiana; Nicho, M E; Serna, Sergio; Castillon, Felipe; Farias, Mario; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    The chemical and enzymatic deposition of polyaniline (PANI) films by in situ polymerization was studied and the resulting films were characterized. The film formation and polymerization processes were simultaneously monitored by the evolution of the open circuit potential and quartz-crystal microbalance measurements. Different substrates, such as Indium-Tin oxide electrodes and gold-coated quartz-crystal electrodes were used as substrates for PANI deposition. Electroactive PANI films were successfully deposited by in situ enzymatic polymerization at low oxidation potential. The electrogravimetric response of the enzymatically deposited PANI film was studied by cyclic voltammetry in monomer-free acidic medium. The morphology of the films was observed by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a granular structure in enzymatically deposited PANI. The PANI films were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. The simultaneous use of quartz crystal microbalance and open circuit potential is presented as a very useful technique to monitor enzymatic reactions involving oxidoreductases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vibrational properties of model monatomic crystals under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, George H.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1985-12-01

    The roles of the attractive and repulsive forces in controlling the vibrational properties of monatomic crystals are systematically evaluated as a function of compression. Face-centered-cubic, hexagonal, and body-centered-cubic structures are considered with Lennard-Jones and Buckingham-type interatomic potentials. At zero pressure, the phonon frequencies and their mode-Grüneisen parameters deviate strongly from those of a reference state where the atoms interact solely through the corresponding purely repulsive potential. In detail, the degree of deviation depends on the structure, relative range of the repulsive and attractive forces, and the vibrational wavelength. With increasing pressure, the phonon frequencies asymptotically approach values of the purely repulsive reference state. Higher-order properties such as the mode-Grüneisen parameters and their logarithmic volume derivatives approach the repulsive limiting values more rapidly than do the frequencies, provided the associated modes do not become unstable. The close-packed lattices are dynamically stable at all positive pressures and display only a small variation among different orders of the frequency spectra Debye moments. However, this variation can be quite large for any structure at strains near that where the lattice is dynamically unstable. We find that the thermal Grüneisen parameter decreases with pressure, but the commonly assumed power-law relation of the thermal Grüneisen parameter with volume is violated. Average anharmonic vibrational properties are well described by a cell model in these monatomic systems at both low and high pressures. In addition, a strong correlation is found between the static-lattice compressional properties and the average vibrational properties; free-volume relations give good estimates of the high-temperature thermal properties, especially at high pressures.

  4. Use of quartz crystal nanobalance to study the binding and stabilization of albumin and doxycycline on a thin layer of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Sharma, Chandra P.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the use of quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) to study the adsorption of two model molecules namely albumin and doxycycline by hydroxyapatite (HA). The work focuses on the deposition of a stable coating of HA on the quartz crystal, modification of the coating using doxycycline and its subsequent effects on albumin adsorption. The uniformity and thickness of the HA coating has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functional groups to ascertain the presence of the selected moieties have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the mass of albumin deposited on the surface of the HA coated quartz crystal functionalized with doxycycline shows a substantial increase when compared to the standard HA coated quartz crystal. The adsorbed albumin has also been found to be retained for an enhanced period of time. This surface immobilization of doxycycline and subsequent albumin adsorption seem to be a promising approach to confer biomaterials with antithrombogenic and antibacterial surfaces.

  5. Use of quartz crystal nanobalance to study the binding and stabilization of albumin and doxycycline on a thin layer of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, Sunita Prem [Biosurface Technology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Sharma, Chandra P., E-mail: sharmacp@sctmist.ac.in [Biosurface Technology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Sreenivasan, K. [Biosurface Technology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India)

    2011-12-15

    This study reports the use of quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) to study the adsorption of two model molecules namely albumin and doxycycline by hydroxyapatite (HA). The work focuses on the deposition of a stable coating of HA on the quartz crystal, modification of the coating using doxycycline and its subsequent effects on albumin adsorption. The uniformity and thickness of the HA coating has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functional groups to ascertain the presence of the selected moieties have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the mass of albumin deposited on the surface of the HA coated quartz crystal functionalized with doxycycline shows a substantial increase when compared to the standard HA coated quartz crystal. The adsorbed albumin has also been found to be retained for an enhanced period of time. This surface immobilization of doxycycline and subsequent albumin adsorption seem to be a promising approach to confer biomaterials with antithrombogenic and antibacterial surfaces.

  6. Quartz crystal microbalance and spectroscopy measurements for acid doping in polyaniline films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad M Ayad and Eman A Zaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the doping of thin polyaniline (PANI films, prepared by the chemical oxidation of aniline, with different acids. The initial step in the investigation is the preparation of PANI films from aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. This is followed by dedoping with ammonia to obtain a PANI base, which is subsequently doped with strong acids (e.g. hydrochloric, sulfuric, phosphoric and trichloroacetic acids and with a weak acid (acetic acid. The dopant weight fraction (w, which is connected with the gain of mass during the doping of PANI, was determined in situ using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. The behavior of PANI upon doping with different anions derived from strong acids indicates that both proton and the anion uptake into the polymer chains occur sharply, rapidly, completely, and reversibly. However the uptake in the case in acetic acid is characterized by slow diffusion. The doping was studied at different concentrations of acetic acid. A second cycle of dedoping–redoping was also performed. The kinetics of the doping reaction is dominated by Fickian diffusion kinetics. The diffusion coefficients (D of the dopant ions into the PANI chains were determined using the QCM and by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy in the range of (0.076–1.64× 10−15 cm2 s−1. It was found that D in the second cycle of doping is larger than that evaluated from the first cycle of doping for high concentrations of acetic acid. D for the diffusion and for the dopant ion expulsion from the PANI chains was also determined during the redoping process. It was found that D for acetic acid ions in the doping process is larger than that calculated for the dedoping process.

  7. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Study of Kinetics and Thermodynamics of IgG Adsorption on the Polystyrene Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Feng, Xi; Xie, Xiaomei; Wang, Caiyun; Zhang, Mengxue; Zhang, Xiaoyun

    2015-03-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is a common substrate material for protein adsorption on biosensors and bioassays. By employing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, we studied the kinetics and thermodynamics of anti-HBeAg adsorption on this substrate in situ. First, a thin PS film was deposited on the interface between the liquid and the quartz crystal wafer. Second, a solution containing anti-HBeAg was introduced into the holding tank. Third, we measured the change in the oscillation frequency of the quartz that was induced by the antibody-PS binding, which in turn depended on macroscopic parameters, such as antibody concentration and solution temperature, as well as on microscopic parameters, such as the diffusion type and the change in Gibb's free energy. The adsorption rate and capacity of anti-HBeAg on the PS surface were quantified and fitted using the conventional Langmuir model. It was shown that this model was applicable to protein-PS interface system. Approximately 250 nm2 of the surface area was occupied by a single antibody molecule at 298 K when the concentration was 90 μg/mL. The adsorption process might have been controlled by both liquid film and particle diffusions.

  8. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa S. R. Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella.

  9. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites thin films coated on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlong; Xie, Guangzhong; Zhou, Yong; Xie, Tao; Tai, HuiLing; Yang, Guangjin

    2014-08-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are sprayed on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for NO2 sensing. The thin films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The experimental results reveal that PVP/RGO sensor exhibits higher sensitivity and shorter recovery time than those of PVP. Besides, the response to 20 ppm NO2 is higher than other gases such as CO, CO2 and NH3 even at 100ppm. When the PVP/RGO sensor is exposed to these gases, the good selectivity to NO2 makes the sensor ideal for NO2 detection.

  10. A study on 2, 4, 6-trinitrotolurene (TNT) vapor detection by using a quartz crystal microbalance with 18-crown-6 ether film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetchakul, Toempong; Phuvanatai, Pavaris

    2017-07-01

    The application of 18-crown-6 ether film for 2, 4, 6-trinitrotolurene (TNT) vapor detection by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is studied. The film is coated on the quartz electrodes as sensitive material for capture TNT molecule. The parameters that are studied are concentration and mass or thickness of film. When the explosive adheres to surface of the crystal oscillator, the weight is changed and the resonance frequency of the crystal oscillator is shifted lower. The frequency shift (Δf) relates to concentration and mass or thickness. The high concentration and mass/thickness of film enhance the TNT detection.

  11. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björklund, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianbjorklund@gmail.com; Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  12. Fully automatic spray-LBL machine with monitoring the real time growth of multilayer films using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiratori S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A fully automatic spray-LBL machine with monitoring the real time growth of multilayer films using Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM techniques was newly developed. We established fully automatic spray layer-by-layer method by precisely controlling air pressure, solution flow, and spray pattern. The movement pattern towards the substrate during solution spraying allowed fabrication of a nano-scale, flat, thin film over a wide area. Optimization of spray conditions permitted fabrication of the flat film with high and low refractive indexes, and they were piled up alternatively to constitute a one-dimensional photonic crystal with near-infrared reflection characteristics. The heat shield effect of the near-infrared reflective film was also confirmed under natural sunlight. It was demonstrated that the fabrication using the automatic spray-LBL machine and real-time QCM monitoring allows the fabrication of optical quality thin films with precise thickness.

  13. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Cell adhesion on supported lipid bilayers functionalized with RGD peptides monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Ansha; Huang, Nan; Chen, Huadong; Zhou, Shuo; Xie, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Supported lipid bilayer (SLB) is one of the most widely used structures to mimic cell membranes. To study the cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-material interactions, supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) functionalized with RGD peptides (SLBs-RGD) were prepared by vesicle fusion on a SiO2 quartz crystal, and subsequently bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) adhesion was analyzed. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was utilized to detect the dynamic adsorption behavior of lipid vesicles and BMSCs in real time. Observations obtained by QCM-D signals are confirmed by conducting fluorescence microscopy. QCM-D measurements showed the SLB formation starts at the critical concentration of the vesicles. More BMSCs adhered on SLBs-RGD than on SLBs. With the presence of SLBs, the adhesion cells on SLBs surfaces had a rounded morphology, and cells on SLBs-RGD will take long time to rearrange their cytoskeleton, which led to incomplete spreading compared with SiO2. Differences in adhesion density and adhesion properties of the cells on the different substrates could be traced at the dissipation versus frequency (ΔD/Δf) plots. These results indicate that RGD in/on SLBs could provide anchorage sites for more cells adhesion. QCM-D is demonstrated to be a useful tool for evaluating the interactions between various biological and non-biological systems in situ and in real-time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A sensitive molecularly imprinted polymer based quartz crystal microbalance nanosensor for selective determination of lovastatin in red yeast rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Tanju; Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2015-10-15

    Lovastatin (LOV) is a statin, used to lower cholesterol which has been found as a hypolipidemic agent in commercial red yeast rice. In present study, a sensitive molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was prepared by fabricating a self-assembling monolayer formation of allylmercaptane on QCM chip surface for selective determination of lovastatin (LOV) in red yeast rice. To prepare molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, LOV imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methacryloylamidoaspartic acid) [p(HEMA-MAAsp)] nanofilm was attached on the modified gold surface of QCM chip. The non-modified and improved surfaces were characterized by using contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The imprinted QCM sensor was validated according to the ICH guideline (International Conference on Harmonisation). The linearity range was obtained as 0.10-1.25 nM. The detection limit of the prepared material was calculated as 0.030 nM. The developed QCM nanosensor was successfully used to examine red yeast rice. Furthermore, the stability and repeatability of the prepared QCM nanosensor were studied. The spectacular long-term stability and repeatability of the prepared LOV-imprinted QCM nanosensor make them intriguing for use in QCM sensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystal growth, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, linear and nonlinear optical properties of guanidinium phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Ivan; Matulková, Irena; Held, Peter; Kroupa, Jan; Němec, Petr; Li, Dongxu; Bohatý, Ladislav; Becker, Petra

    2017-07-01

    Of the three guanidinium phosphates GuH2PO4 (space group P21/c), Gu2HPO4·H2O (space group P 4 bar 21 c) and Gu3PO4· 3/2 H2O (space group Cc) crystal structures and a vibrational spectroscopy study are presented. Large single crystals of GuH2PO4 and Gu2HPO4·H2O are grown. Refractive indices and their dispersion in the wavelength range 365 nm - 1083 nm are determined and used for the analysis of phase matching conditions for collinear SHG in the case of the non-centrosymmetric crystals of Gu2HPO4·H2O. The crystals are not phase-matchable within their transmission range. Both independent components of the SHG tensor of Gu2HPO4·H2O, determined by the Maker fringe method, are given, with d14 = 0.23 pm/V and d36 = 0.22 pm/V. In addition, the thermal stability and the anisotropy of thermal expansion of GuH2PO4 and Gu2HPO4·H2O is reported.

  17. Vibrational Relaxation in Neat Crystals of Naphthalene by Picosecond CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesp, Ben H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1980-01-01

    Picosecond delayed CARS experiments on totally symmetric modes in naphthalene at 1.5 K are reported. The Raman lineshape of the vibrational excitons is lorentzian and vibrational relaxation can be surprisingly slow. The Raman lineshape of the Ag exciton level of the 766 cm-1 vibrational mode reveals

  18. Vacuum electrolysis of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James Claude

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure is directed to a method for processing quartz used in fabricating crystal resonators such that transient frequency change of resonators exposed to pulse irradiation is virtually eliminated. The method involves heating the crystal quartz in a hydrogen-free atmosphere while simultaneously applying an electric field in the Z-axis direction of the crystal. The electric field is maintained during the cool-down phase of the process.

  19. Propagation of thickness shear waves in a periodically corrugated quartz crystal plate and its application exploration in acoustic wave filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Cheng, Li

    2017-05-01

    The propagation of thickness shear waves in a periodically corrugated quartz crystal plate is investigated in the present paper using a power series expansion technique. In the proposed simulation model, an equivalent continuity of shear stress moment is introduced as an approximation to handle sectional interfaces with abrupt thickness changes. The Bloch theory is applied to simulate the band structures for three different thickness variation patterns. It is shown that the power series expansion method exhibits good convergence and accuracy, in agreement with results by finite element method (FEM). A broad stop band can be obtained in the power transmission spectra owing to the trapped thickness shear modes excited by the thickness variation, whose physical mechanism is totally different from the well-known Bragg scattering effect and is insensitive to the structural periodicity. Based on the observed energy trapping phenomenon, an acoustic wave filter is proposed in a quartz plate with sectional decreasing thickness, which inhibits wave propagation in different regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing the interactions of organic molecules, nanomaterials, and microbes with solid surfaces using quartz crystal microbalances: methodology, advantages, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rixiang; Yi, Peng; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2017-06-21

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) provide a new analytical opportunity and prospect to characterize many environmental processes at solid/liquid interfaces, thanks to their almost real-time measurement of physicochemical changes on their quartz sensor. This work reviews the applications of QCMs in probing the interactions of organic molecules, nanomaterials (NMs) and microbes with solid surfaces. These interfacial interactions are relevant to critical environmental processes such as biofilm formation, fate and transport of NMs, fouling in engineering systems and antifouling practices. The high sensitivity, real-time monitoring, and simultaneous frequency and dissipation measurements make QCM-D a unique technique that helps reveal the interaction mechanisms for the abovementioned processes (e.g., driving forces, affinity, kinetics, and the interplay between surface chemistry and solution chemistry). On the other hand, QCM measurement is nonselective and spatially-dependent. Thus, caution should be taken during data analysis and interpretation, and it is necessary to cross-validate the results using complementary information from other techniques for more quantitative and accurate interpretation. This review summarizes the general methodologies for collecting and analyzing raw QCM data, as well as for evaluating the associated uncertainties. It serves to help researchers gain deeper insights into the fundamentals and applications of QCMs, and provides new perspectives on future research directions.

  1. Melt-inclusion-hosted excess 40Ar in quartz crystals of the Bishop and Bandelier magma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, J.A.; McIntosh, W.C.; Dunbar, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar experiments on melt-inclusion-bearing quartz (MIBQ) from the Bishop and Bandelier Tuff Plinian deposits indicate high concentrations of excess 40Ar in melt inclusions. Two rhyolite glass melt inclusion populations are present in quartz; exposed melt inclusions and trapped melt inclusions. Air-abrasion mill grinding and hydrofluoric acid treatments progressively remove exposed melt inclusions while leaving trapped melt inclusions unaffected. Laser step-heating of MIBQ yields increasing apparent ages as a function of exposed melt inclusion removal, reflecting the higher nonatmospheric 40Ar concentrations hosted in trapped melt inclusions. Exposed melt inclusion-free MIBQ from the Bishop, Upper Bandelier, and Lower Bandelier Tufts yield total-gas ages of 3.70 ?? 1.00 Ma, 11.54 ?? 0.87 Ma, and 14.60 ?? 1.50 Ma, respectively. We interpret these old apparent ages as compelling evidence for the presence of excess 40Ar in MIBQ. Trapped melt inclusions in sanidine phenocrysts may contain excess 40Ar concentrations similar to those in MIBQ. This excess 40Ar has the potential to increase single-crystal laser-fusion ages of sanidine by tens of thousands of years, relative to the actual eruption age.

  2. Application of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance to the study of electrocatalytic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Jr., James S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The EQCM was used to study the deposition and composition of electrodeposited pure PbO2 and Bi-doped PbO2 active toward anodic oxygen-transfer reactions. Within the doped films, Bi is incorporated as Bi+5 in the form of BiO2A, where A is ClO4- or NO3-. For deposition of these 2 materials, changes in hydration between the Au oxide and the depositing film resulted in higher mass-to-charge ratios. XRD and XPS were used to study the films; the rutile structure of PbO2 is retained even with the Bi doping. The EQCM was also used to study the formation and dissolution of Au oxide and preoxide structures formed on the Au substrate electrodes in acidic media. The preoxide structures were AuOH and increased the surface mass. For the formation of stable Au films on quartz wafers, Ti interlayers between Au and quartz was found to be very effective.

  3. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han

    2015-10-27

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  4. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite ultra-thin layer on gold surface and its application for quartz crystal microbalance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkawa, Akira; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Yunoki, Shunji; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Junzo; Chakarov, Dinko; Kasemo, Bengt

    2006-11-01

    We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite layer shows a plate-like morphology and less than 20 nm in thickness. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The change of secondary structures of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surfaces depended on the adsorbed amounts of protein. The secondary structure of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surfaces changes with increasing coverage. This is explained by repulsion among fibrinogens, affecting water structure and thus the strength of fibrinogen interactions on the surface. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

  5. Modelling and Experiments on a Quartz Crystal Resonator Sensor for Conductivity Measurements of Low-Concentration Ionic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Cesar DE PAULA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of the electrical parameters of ionic solutions have different applications in industry and are particularly important in medical and biochemical studies, where ionic solutions are commonly used. This paper analyzes the effect of the conductivity of a low-concentration ionic solution on the resonant response of a Quartz Crystal Resonator (QCR sensor with asymmetric electrodes put in contact with the solution. A model of the QCR sensor is presented, and experimental results obtained with a 6-MHz sensor exposed to low-concentration solutions of NaCl in water are reported. The model and experimental results are in very good agreement throughout the explored conductivity range between around 10 and 200 mS/m.

  6. Influence of controlling vibrations on heat transfer in floating zone crystal growth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyushkin, A. I.

    The crystal growth processes of monocrystals are strongly vibrational sensitive systems and in particular it concerns to a floating zone method as presence of a free surface and two fronts of crystallization and melting that aggravate it The given work is devoted to numerical investigations of the influence of controlling vibrations on heat transfer during crystal growth by floating zone technique Normal and weightless environment conditions are considered Mathematical simulation is performed on the numerical solutions of basis unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flows and energy equation 2D axisymmetric geometry was used in model Marangoni convection and radiation condition on the curvature free surface were taken in account The calculations of the shape of a free surface of a liquid zone and influences on it of a corner of wetting force of weight and size of factor of a superficial tension are carried out The simulations of convective heat transfer for real curvature free surface of a liquid zone with and without the taking into account of the following factors parameters of radiation rotations natural and Marangoni convection and vibrations are carried out The given calculations are carried out for semiconductors melts with Prandtl number Pr 1 and for oxides Pr 1 The influence of vibrations of a crystal on melt flow and on the wide of dynamic and thermal boundary layers at melt-crystal interface is studied The action of vibrations on an enhancement of heat fluxes at the melt crystal interface is shown

  7. Effective antibodies immobilization and functionalized nanoparticles in a quartz-crystal microbalance-based immunosensor for the detection of parathion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Della Ventura

    Full Text Available Biosensor-based detection provides a rapid and low-cost alternative to conventional analytical methods for revealing the presence of the contaminants in water as well as solid matrices. Although important to be detected, small analytes (few hundreds of Daltons are an issue in biosensing since the signal they induce in the transducer, and specifically in a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance, is undetectable. A pesticide like parathion (M = 292 Da is a typical example of contaminant for which a signal amplification procedure is desirable.The ballasting of the analyte by gold nanoparticles has been already applied to heavy target as proteins or bacteria to improve the limit of detection. In this paper, we extend the application of such a method to small analytes by showing that once the working surface of a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM has been properly functionalized, a limit of detection lower than 1 ppb is reached for parathion. The effective surface functionalization is achieved by immobilizing antibodies upright oriented on the QCM gold surface by a simple photochemical technique (Photonic Immobilization Technique, PIT based on the UV irradiation of the antibodies, whereas a simple protocol provided by the manufacturer is applied to functionalize the gold nanoparticles. Thus, in a non-competitive approach, the small analyte is made detectable by weighing it down through a "sandwich protocol" with a second antibody tethered to heavy gold nanoparticles. The immunosensor has been proved to be effective against the parathion while showing no cross reaction when a mixture of compounds very similar to parathion is analyzed.The immunosensor described in this paper can be easily applied to any small molecule for which polyclonal antibodies are available since both the functionalization procedure of the QCM probe surface and gold nanoparticle can be applied to any IgG, thereby making our device of general application in terms of target analyte.

  8. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of island nuclei formed at the initial stage of quartz glass crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, D. V.; Zolotarev, V. M.; Colas, M.; Cornette, J.; Evdokimova, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Island nuclei formed on a polished quartz-glass surface upon heating to 1100°C have been investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The structural and chemical composition of islands is shown to be a central nucleus, a shell around the nucleus, and a thin peripheral ring closing this shell. The formation and growth of individual regions of an island nucleus are found to occur in several stages. The shell around the nucleus is mainly formed by α-SiO2 and α-cristobalite nanoparticles with a size ≥40 nm, whereas the α-SiO2 nanoparticles in the nucleus and peripheral ring are 2-15 nm in size.

  9. Soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto a steel surface investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy**1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States’ 2010 annual production of soybean oil exceeded 8 million metric tons, making a significant vegetable oil surplus available for new uses, particularly as a lubricant. Investigation of soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto steel using a quartz crystal microbalance with diss...

  10. A highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor based on magnetic bead-supported bienzymes catalyzed mass enhancement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rashida; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Rahman, Md Aminur

    2015-04-15

    A highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor based on magnetic bead-supported bienzyme catalyzed mass enhanced strategy was developed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) protein. The high sensitive detection was achieved by increasing the deposited mass on the QCM crystal through the enhanced precipitation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (CN) using higher amounts of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) bienzymes attached on the magnetic beads (MB). The protein A (PA) and capture antibody (monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody produced in mouse, Ab1)-based QCM probe and the detection antibody (anti-human IgG antibody produced in goat, Ab2)-based MB/HRP/GOx bienzymatic bioconjugates were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Under the optimized experimental condition, the linear range and the detection limit of hIgG immunosensor were determined to be 5.0pg/mL-20.0ng/mL and 5.0±0.18pg/mL, respectively. The applicability of the present hIgG immunosensor was examined in hIgG spiked human serum samples and excellent recoveries of hIgG were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion of inorganic crystals applied to some samples of Carpathian Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-10-15

    A new method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) in the visible range, based on a channeled spectrum obtained with a uniax inorganic crystal introduced between two crossed polarizers with its optical axis parallel to the light propagation direction is detailed in this paper. When the studied inorganic crystals are transparent, this method permits the estimation of the optical rotatory dispersion in the visible range, for which the cheap polarizers are available. The speed of the measurements is very high, because the estimations are made from the channeled spectrum obtained for a single arrangement of the optical components. By using a computer, ORD is quickly determined for the visible range. The results obtained by this method for some Carpathian Quartz samples are consistent with those from literature. The proposed method can be also applied in UV and IR spectral ranges, when the anisotropic layers are transparent and the linearly polarized radiations can be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yisong [University of California, Department of Applied Science (United States); Brecht, Eric [Montana State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Aznavour, Kristen [University of Southern California, Department of Chemistry (United States); Nix, Jay C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physical Biosciences Division (United States); Xiao, Yuming; Wang, Hongxin [University of California, Department of Applied Science (United States); George, Simon J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physical Biosciences Division (United States); Bau, Robert [University of Southern California, Department of Chemistry (United States); Keable, Stephen; Peters, John W. [Montana State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States); Jenney, Francis E. Jr. [Georgia Campus, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (United States); Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao, Jiyong [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Yoda, Yoshitaka [JASRI (Japan); Cramer, Stephen P., E-mail: spcramer@lbl.gov [University of California, Department of Applied Science (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We have applied {sup 57}Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the first time to study the dynamics of Fe centers in Iron-sulfur protein crystals, including oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus, and the MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Thanks to the NRVS selection rule, selectively probed vibrational modes have been observed in both oriented rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals. The NRVS work was complemented by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements on oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus. The EXAFS spectra revealed the Fe-S bond length difference in oxidized Pf Rd protein, which is qualitatively consistent with the crystal structure.

  13. Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongpeng; Yin, Xukun; Dong, Lei; Pei, Kailong; Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Zheng, Huadan; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Jia, Suotang; Tittel, Frank K.

    2017-03-01

    A dual-gas quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor system based on a frequency division multiplexing technique of a quartz tuning fork (QTF) was developed and experimentally demonstrated. Two beams from two independently modulated lasers are focused at two different positions between the QTF prongs to excite both the QTF fundamental and 1st overtone flexural modes simultaneously. The 2f-wavelength modulation technique is employed by applying two sinusoidal dithers, whose frequencies are equal to a half of the QTF fundamental and 1st overtone frequencies, respectively, to the currents of two excitation lasers. The resonance frequency difference between two flexural modes ensures that the correlated photoacoustic signals generated by different target gases do not interfere with each other. The proposed QEPAS methodology realizes a continuous real-time dual-gas monitoring with a simple setup and small sensor size compared with previous multi-gas QEPAS sensors.

  14. Molecular rotation-vibration dynamics of low-symmetric hydrate crystal in the terahertz region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojian; Wu, Hongya; Xi, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-16

    The rotational and vibrational dynamics of molecules in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal are investigated with terahertz dielectric spectra. It is shown that the relaxation-like dielectric dispersion in the low frequency region is related to the reorientation of water molecules under the driving of terahertz electric field, whereas the resonant dispersion can be ascribed to lattice vibration. It is also found that, due to the hydrogen-bond effect, the vibrational mode at about 1.83 THz along [-111] direction softens with decreasing temperature, that is, the crystal expands in this direction when cooled. On the contrary, the mode hardens in the direction perpendicular to [-111] during the cooling process. This contributes to the further understanding of the molecular structure and bonding features of hydrate crystals.

  15. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystals of urea thiourea mercuric sulphate (UTHS) and urea thiourea mercuric chloride (UTHC), semi-organic nonlinear optical materials, were grown by low-temperature solution growth technique by slow evaporation method using water as the solvent. Good quality single crystals were grown within three weeks.

  16. A model derived from hydrodynamic simulations for extracting the size of spherical particles from the quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Tabaei, Seyed R; Jackman, Joshua A; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-09-08

    One challenging aspect of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements is the characterization of adsorbed particles as the change in resonance frequency (Δf) is proportional not only to the inertia of the adsorbed layer but also to that of the hydrodynamically coupled fluid. Herein, by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations, we scrutinize Δf for sparsely deposited, rigid spherical particles that are firmly attached to an oscillating surface. The analysis is shown to be applicable to adsorbed, small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of controlled size under experimental conditions in which adhesion-induced vesicle deformation is negligible. The model supports a hydrodynamic explanation for the overtone dependence of Δf, and was fitted to experimental data concerning three monodisperse populations of SUVs with different average sizes ranging between 56 and 114 nm diameter. Using this procedure, we determined the average size of adsorbed vesicles to be within 16% of the size that was measured by dynamic light scattering experiments in bulk solution. In conclusion, this model offers a means to extract the particle size from QCM-D measurement data, with applications to biological and synthetic nanoparticles.

  17. In situ kinetic study of zinc sulfide activation using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fucheng; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2012-02-15

    We have studied the activation kinetics of zinc sulfide (ZnS) using silver as an activator by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The zinc sulfide coating on QCM-D sensor was shown to have similar crystallographic structure, composition, and surface properties as nature sphalerite through the characterization of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and xanthate adsorption measurement using QCM-D. The activation of ZnS sensor by silver was confirmed by the mass increase in ZnS sensor coupled with subsequent xanthate adsorption during QCM-D measurement, the change of surface wettability, and the presence of Ag(2)S on the surface. Two distinct stages on the silver uptake vs. time curve were identified and fitted well by a logarithmic function for the initial stage and a parabolic law in the later stage, which agrees with the two-stage zinc-silver reaction kinetics reported previously. Argon sputtering followed by XPS measurement on the ZnS surface demonstrated the penetration of silver into the bulk ZnS after activation. The present study is the first of its kind to apply the QCM-D technique to investigate sphalerite activation, which introduces a new in situ approach to investigate surface adsorption and activation in many mineral processes and surface modifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anion-Dependent Potential Precycling Effects on Lithium Deposition/Dissolution Reaction Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaran, Kumar Sai; Shibata, Sae; Omachi, Asami; Ohama, Ayano; Tomizawa, Eika; Kondo, Toshihiro

    2017-10-19

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance technique was employed to study the initial stage of the electrodeposition and dissolution of lithium utilizing three kinds of electrolyte solutions such as LiPF6, LiTFSI, or LiFSI in tetraglyme. The native-SEI (solid-electrolyte interphase) formed by a potential prescan before lithium deposition/dissolution in all three solutions. Simultaneous additional SEI (add-SEI) deposition and its dissolution with lithium deposition and dissolution, respectively, were observed in LiPF6 and LiTFSI. Conversely, the add-SEI dissolution with lithium deposition and its deposition with lithium dissolution were observed in LiFSI. Additional potential precycling resulted in the accumulation of a "pre-SEI" layer over the native-SEI layer in all of the solutions. With the pre-SEI, only lithium deposition/dissolution were significantly observed in LiTFSI and LiFSI. On the basis of the potential dependences of the mass and resistance changes, the anion-dependent effects of such a pre-SEI layer presence/absence on the lithium deposition/dissolution processes were discussed.

  19. Screening between normal and cancer human thyroid cells through comparative adhesion studies using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Chronaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D was used to distinguish the dynamic cell adhesion behavior of human normal (Nthy thyroid epithelial cells from poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma cells (ARO. The surfaces used to facilitate cell adhesion were bare titanium (Ti, gold (Au and fibrinogen-coated gold (Fg-Au. The pattern of cell adhesion for both cell lines was that the largest acoustic signals were observed on Ti, followed by Au and last by Fg-Au; in addition, ARO cells always produced smaller acoustic signals than Nthy cells on the same surface and for the same number of cells in suspension. Moreover, the calculated acoustic ratio of energy dissipation over frequency change suggests a higher ability of Nthy cells to spread and potentially form more attachment points on the surface than the ARO cells, something observed in SEM images. Finally, we demonstrated that the application of two surfaces for cell adhesion experiments, one of which is Au and the other either Ti or Fg-Au, can discriminate with accuracy between the two particular cell types and potentially form a platform for differentiation between normal and cancer thyroid cell types.

  20. Surface-initiated dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols: a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Qian, Chen; Roman, Maren; Glasser, Wolfgang G; Esker, Alan R

    2013-11-11

    This work highlights a real-time and label-free method to monitor the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols initiated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) physically immobilized on surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The dehydrogenative polymer (DHP) films are expected to provide good model substrates for studying ligninolytic enzymes. The HRP was adsorbed onto gold or silica surfaces or onto and within porous desulfated nanocrystalline cellulose films from an aqueous solution. Surface-immobilized HRP retained its activity and selectivity for monolignols as coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohol underwent dehydrogenative polymerization in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas sinapyl alcohol polymerization required the addition of a nucleophile. The morphologies of the DHP layers on the surfaces were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM). Data from QCM-D and AFM showed that the surface-immobilized HRP-initiated dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols was greatly affected by the support surface, monolignol concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and temperature.

  1. Thickness Dependent Effective Viscosity of a Polymer Solution near an Interface Probed by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiajie; Zhu, Tao; Sheng, Jie; Jiang, Zhongying; Ma, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    The solution viscosity near an interface, which affects the solution behavior and the molecular dynamics in the solution, differs from the bulk. This paper measured the effective viscosity of a dilute poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) solution adjacent to a Au electrode using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique. We evidenced that the effect of an adsorbed PEG layer can be ignored, and calculated the zero shear rate effective viscosity to remove attenuation of high shear frequency oscillations. By increasing the overtone n from 3 to 13, the thickness of the sensed polymer solution decreased from ~70 to 30 nm. The zero shear rate effective viscosity of the polymer solution and longest relaxation time of PEG chains within it decrease with increasing solution thickness. The change trends are independent of the relation between the apparent viscosity and shear frequency and the values of the involved parameter, suggesting that the polymer solution and polymer chains closer to a solid substrate have a greater effective viscosity and slower relaxation mode, respectively. This method can study the effect of an interface presence on behavior and phenomena relating to the effective viscosity of polymer solutions, including the dynamics of discrete polymer chains. PMID:25684747

  2. Enhanced Dibutyl Phthalate Sensing Performance of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Au-Decorated ZnO Porous Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihuan Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Noble metals addition on nanostructured metal oxides is an attractive way to enhance gas sensing properties. Herein, hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO porous microspheres decorated with cubic gold particles (Au particles were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Au-decorated ZnO was then utilized as the sensing film of a gas sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. This fabricated sensor was applied to detect dibutyl phthalate (DBP, which is a widely used plasticizer, and its coating load was optimized. When tested at room temperature, the sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 38.10 Hz/ppb to DBP in a low concentration range from 2 ppb to 30 ppb and the calculated theoretical detection limit is below 1 ppb. It maintains good repeatability as well as long-term stability. Compared with the undecorated ZnO based QCM, the Au-decorated one achieved a 1.62-time enhancement in sensitivity to DBP, and the selectivity was also improved. According to the experimental results, Au-functionalized ZnO porous microspheres displayed superior sensing performance towards DBP, indicating its potential use in monitoring plasticizers in the gaseous state. Moreover, Au decoration of porous metal oxide nanostructures is proved to be an effective approach for enhancing the gas sensing properties and the corresponding mechanism was investigated.

  3. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Hanna A; Kunze, Angelika; Carlsson, Nils; Altgärde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Nordén, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  4. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (Kd of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti, stainless steel (SUS, zirconia (ZrO2 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the Kd value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  5. Plasma proteins adsorption mechanism on polyethylene-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) surface by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Jinghua; Ji, Xiangling; Stagnaro, Paola

    2013-06-04

    Protein adsorption has a vital role in biomaterial surface science because it is directly related to the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting materials. In this study, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) with two different molecular weights was grafted on polyethylene as a model to elucidate the adsorption mechanisms of plasma protein through quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Combined with data from platelet adhesion, whole blood clotting time, and hemolysis rate, the blood compatibility of PE-g-mPEG film was found to have significantly improved. Two adsorption schemes were developed for real-time monitoring of protein adsorption. Results showed that the preadsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces of PE-g-mPEG films could effectively inhibit subsequent adsorption of fibrinogen (Fib). Nonspecific protein adsorption of BSA was determined by surface coverage, not by the chain length of PEG. Dense PEG brush could release more trapped water molecules to resist BSA adsorption. Moreover, the preadsorbed Fib could be gradually displaced by high-concentration BSA. However, the adsorption and displacement of Fib was determined by surface hydrophilicity.

  6. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A

    2014-04-18

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  7. Selective determination of ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and methyl ethyl ketone using quartz crystal nanobalance combined with principle component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohseni, A; Razzaghi, M A; Pourata, R; Rastgouye-Hojagan, M; Zavareh, S

    2009-07-15

    Quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) sensors are considered as powerful mass sensitive sensors to determine materials in the subnanogram level. In the current study a method based on QCN modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been developed to determine organic vapors (ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone). The frequency shift of QCN was found to be linear against analytes concentrations in the range between 4 to 35 mg/L for acetone vapor and 4-70 mg/L for 3 other vapors. The correlation coefficients for ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and methyl ethyl ketone were 0.9971, 0.9976, 0.9984 and 0.9927, respectively. The principal component analysis was also utilized to process the frequency response data of the organic vapors. Using principal component analysis, it was found that over 95% of the data variance could still be explained by use of two principal components (PC1 and PC2). Subsequently, the successful discrimination of ethyl acetate and other compounds was possible through the principal component analysis of the transient responses of the PEG-modified QCN sensor.

  8. Study of the Interaction of Trastuzumab and SKOV3 Epithelial Cancer Cells Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmlund, Louise; Käck, Camilla; Aastrup, Teodor; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods founded upon whole cell-based assays are of importance in early stage drug development and in fundamental studies of biomolecular recognition. Here we have studied the binding of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on human ovary adenocarcinoma epithelial cancer cells (SKOV3) using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology. An optimized procedure for immobilizing the cells on the chip surface was established with respect to fixation procedure and seeding density. Trastuzumab binding to the cell decorated sensor surface was studied, revealing a mean dissociation constant, KD, value of 7 ± 1 nM (standard error of the mean). This study provides a new perspective on the affinity of the antibody-receptor complex presented a more natural context compared to purified receptors. These results demonstrate the potential for using whole cell-based QCM assay in drug development, the screening of HER2 selective antibody-based drug candidates, and for the study of biomolecular recognition. This real time, label free approach for studying interactions with target receptors present in their natural environment afforded sensitive and detailed kinetic information about the binding of the analyte to the target. PMID:25763651

  9. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (K(d)) of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), zirconia (ZrO2) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the K(d) value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  10. Microscopic insight into role of protein flexibility during ion exchange chromatography by nuclear magnetic resonance and quartz crystal microbalance approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dongxia; Ge, Jia; Huang, Yongdong; Zhao, Lan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-03-18

    Driven by the prevalent use of ion exchange chromatography (IEC) for polishing therapeutic proteins, many rules have been formulated to summarize the different dependencies between chromatographic data and various operational parameters of interest based on statically determined interactions. However, the effects of the unfolding of protein structures and conformational stability are not as well understood. This study focuses on how the flexibility of proteins perturbs retention behavior at the molecular scale using microscopic characterization approaches, including hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange detected by NMR and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results showed that a series of chromatographic retention parameters depended significantly on the adiabatic compressibility and structural flexibility of the protein. That is, softer proteins with higher flexibility tended to have longer retention times and stronger affinities on SP Sepharose adsorbents. Tracing the underlying molecular mechanism using NMR and QCM indicated that an easily unfolded flexible protein with a more compact adsorption layer might contribute to the longer retention time on adsorbents. The use of NMR and QCM provided a previously unreported approach for elucidating the effect of protein structural flexibility on binding in IEC systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Nucleic Acid Biosensor Array Using Au Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Fu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a critical pathogen of nosocomial blood infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM nucleic acid biosensor array using Au nanoparticle signal amplification was developed to rapidly detect S. epidermidis in clinical samples. The synthesized thiolated probes specific targeting S. epidermidis 16S rRNA gene were immobilized on the surface of QCM nucleic acid biosensor arrays. Hybridization was induced by exposing the immobilized probes to the PCR amplified fragments of S. epidermidis, resulting in a mass change and a consequent frequency shift of the QCM biosensor. To further enhance frequency shift results from above described hybridizations, streptavidin coated Au nanoparticles were conjugated to the PCR amplified fragments. The results showed that the lowest detection limit of current QCM system was 1.3×103 CFU/mL. A linear correlation was found when the concentration of S. epidermidis varied from 1.3×103 to 1.3×107 CFU/mL. In addition, 55 clinical samples were detected with both current QCM biosensor system and conventional clinical microbiological method, and the sensitivity and specificity of current QCM biosensor system were 97.14% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the current QCM system is a rapid, low-cost and sensitive method that can be used to identify infection of S. epidermidis in clinical samples.

  12. Sensing Performance Analysis on Quartz Tuning Fork-Probe at the High Order Vibration Mode for Multi-Frequency Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-frequency scanning near-field optical microscopy, based on a quartz tuning fork-probe (QTF-p sensor using the first two orders of in-plane bending symmetrical vibration modes, has recently been developed. This method can simultaneously achieve positional feedback (based on the 1st in-plane mode called the low mode and detect near-field optically induced forces (based on the 2nd in-plane mode called the high mode. Particularly, the high mode sensing performance of the QTF-p is an important issue for characterizing the tip-sample interactions and achieving higher resolution microscopic imaging but the related researches are insufficient. Here, we investigate the vibration performance of QTF-p at high mode based on the experiment and finite element method. The frequency spectrum characteristics are obtained by our homemade laser Doppler vibrometer system. The effects of the properties of the connecting glue layer and the probe features on the dynamic response of the QTF-p sensor at the high mode are investigated for optimization design. Finally, compared with the low mode, an obvious improvement of quality factor, of almost 50%, is obtained at the high mode. Meanwhile, the QTF-p sensor has a high force sensing sensitivity and a large sensing range at the high mode, indicating a broad application prospect for force sensing.

  13. Sensing Performance Analysis on Quartz Tuning Fork-Probe at the High Order Vibration Mode for Multi-Frequency Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Gao, Fengli; Li, Xide

    2018-01-24

    Multi-frequency scanning near-field optical microscopy, based on a quartz tuning fork-probe (QTF-p) sensor using the first two orders of in-plane bending symmetrical vibration modes, has recently been developed. This method can simultaneously achieve positional feedback (based on the 1st in-plane mode called the low mode) and detect near-field optically induced forces (based on the 2nd in-plane mode called the high mode). Particularly, the high mode sensing performance of the QTF-p is an important issue for characterizing the tip-sample interactions and achieving higher resolution microscopic imaging but the related researches are insufficient. Here, we investigate the vibration performance of QTF-p at high mode based on the experiment and finite element method. The frequency spectrum characteristics are obtained by our homemade laser Doppler vibrometer system. The effects of the properties of the connecting glue layer and the probe features on the dynamic response of the QTF-p sensor at the high mode are investigated for optimization design. Finally, compared with the low mode, an obvious improvement of quality factor, of almost 50%, is obtained at the high mode. Meanwhile, the QTF-p sensor has a high force sensing sensitivity and a large sensing range at the high mode, indicating a broad application prospect for force sensing.

  14. Hydrothermal Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric α-Quartz Phase of AO2 (A = Ge, Si and MXO4 (M = Al, Ga, Fe and X = P, As: A Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Cambon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quartz is the most frequently used piezoelectric material. Single crystals are industrially grown by the hydrothermal route under super-critical conditions (150 MPa-623 K. This paper is an overview of the hydrothermal crystal growth of the AO2 and MXO4 α-quartz isotypes. All of the studies on the crystal growth of this family of materials enable some general and schematic conclusions to be made concerning the influence of different parameters for growing these α-quartz-type materials with different chemical compositions. The solubility of the material is the main parameter, which governs both thermodynamic parameters, P and T, of the crystal growth. Then, depending on the chemistry of the α-quartz-type phase, different parameters have to be considered with the aim of obtaining the basic building units (BBU of the crystals in solution responsible for the growth of the α-quartz-type phase. A schematic method is proposed, based on the main parameter governing the crystal growth of the α-quartz phase. All of the crystal growth processes have been classified according to four routes: classical, solute-induced, seed-induced and solvent-induced crystal growth.

  15. Excess vibrational modes of a crystal in an external non-affine field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 7. Excess vibrational ... While the former couples to external stress with familiar consequences, the response of a crystal when nonaffine displacements are enhanced using the thermodynamically conjugate field, is relatively less studied. We examine this ...

  16. Electrical Characterization of a Thiol SAM on Gold as a First Step for the Fabrication of Immunosensors based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhamed A. Maaref

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to develop a robust biosensor based on quartz crystal microbalance technique for antigen detection, a control of the steps of the surface functionalization has been performed by impedance spectroscopy. The gold electrode is functionalized with the self-assembled monolayer technique. The high insulating properties of the acidic thiol monolayer has been characterized with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The modified surface is activated with N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS and 1-(3-(dimethylaminopropyl-3-ethylcarbodimide hydrochloride(EDC cross-linker for antibody coupling. The non-specific sites are blocked with bovin serum albumine molecules. Different concentrations of antigen can be detected with a good reversibility in real time with the quartz crystal microbalance.

  17. Detection of a complementary couple of single-stranded DNAs by use of a quartz crystal device for determination of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Kichiro; Kuwahara, Takashi; Shimomura, Masato

    2011-02-01

    Preliminary experiments were carried out for the DNA detection targeting a complementary couple of single-stranded DNAs originating from Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The target DNAs were detected successfully with a quartz crystal unit bearing probe DNAs, based on the oscillation frequency decrease due to hybridization of the probe and target DNAs. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Dan [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom); Lange, Sigrun [University College London School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom); Inal, Jameel, E-mail: j.inal@londonmet.ac.uk [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Microvesiculating cells record loss of mass on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. • Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance microvesicles are measured at 0.24 pg. • The QCM-D reveals loss in viscoelastic properties in microvesiculating cells. - Abstract: Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60 min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250 nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7 min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20 Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36 × 10{sup 6} MVs, was calculated to be 23 ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24 pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5 × 10{sup 7} MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235 pg per MV.

  19. Study of fibrinogen adsorption on hydroxyapatite and TiO2 surfaces by electrochemical piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Zhang, Youyu; Liu, Meiling; Ye, Min; Zhang, YuQin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-07-30

    The electrochemical piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance (EQCI), a combined technique of piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance (PQCI), electrochemical impedance (EI), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total internal reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were used to in situ study the adsorption process of fibrinogen onto the surface of biomaterials-TiO2 and hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH, HAP). The equivalent circuit parameters, the resonance frequencies and the half peak width of the conductance spectrum of the two biomaterial-modified piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) resonances as well as the FTIR-ATR spectra of fibrinogen during fibrinogen adsorption on TiO2 and HAP particles modified electrode surface were obtained. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism of fibrinogen were investigated and discussed as well. The results suggested that two consecutive steps occurred during the adsorption of fibrinogen onto TiO2 and hydroxyapatite (HAP) surface. The fibrinogen molecules were firstly adsorbed onto the surface, and then the rearrangement of adsorbed fibrinogen or multi-layered adsorption occurred. The FTIR-ATR spectroscopy investigations showed that the secondary structure of fibrinogen molecules was altered during the adsorption and the adsorption kinetics of fibrinogen related with the variety of biomaterials. These experimental results suggest a way for enriching biological analytical science and developing new applications of analytical techniques, such as PQCI, EI, and FTIR-ATR.

  20. Broadband 120 MHz Impedance Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM with Calibrated Resistance and Quantitative Dissipation for Biosensing Measurements at Higher Harmonic Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kasper

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an impedance quartz crystal microbalance (QCM approach with the ability to simultaneously record mass changes and calibrated energy dissipation with high sensitivity using an impedance analyzer. This impedance QCM measures frequency shifts and resistance changes of sensing quartz crystals very stable, accurately, and calibrated, thus yielding quantitative information on mass changes and dissipation. Resistance changes below 0.3 Ω were measured with corresponding dissipation values of 0.01 µU (micro dissipation units. The broadband impedance capabilities allow measurements between 20 Hz and 120 MHz including higher harmonic modes of up to 11th order for a 10 MHz fundamental resonance frequency quartz crystal. We demonstrate the adsorbed mass, calibrated resistance, and quantitative dissipation measurements on two biological systems including the high affinity based avidin-biotin interaction and nano-assemblies of polyelectrolyte layers. The binding affinity of a protein-antibody interaction was determined. The impedance QCM is a versatile and simple method for accurate and calibrated resistance and dissipation measurements with broadband measurement capabilities for higher harmonics measurements.

  1. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  2. Improving the sensitivity of electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for copper(II ions by immobilization of the N-2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropylsilane group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Dosil P. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with a chemically modified surface was proposed. The modification was carried out by a silanization procedure with N-2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, yielding the immobilised N-2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropylsilane group over the surface of a 3.5 MHz piezoelectric quartz crystal. A flow cell was manufactured with poly(methyl methacrylate and brass, instead of noble metals, for the electrodes. In this cell, the solution touches only one side of the crystal and the related electrode is coated with a polyester film, which prevents corrosion and does not disturb the oscillation process. This innovation reduces the cost of the cell and renders an electronics non DCcoupled to the solution. The modified crystal proved to be more sensitive to copper(II ions than magnesium(II, nickel(II, zinc(II, and cobalt(II. For 100muL sample injections, the limit of detection for copper(II was 6 mumol L-1, which is an impressive result when compared with that for an unmodified crystal.

  3. A novel quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polymers for simultaneous detection of clenbuterol and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Zheng, Jianwu; Qin, Peng; Han, Tao; Zhao, Dayun

    2017-05-15

    For the rapid and robust detection of both parent clenbuterol (CLB) and its metabolites in swine urine samples, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array for CLB detection based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed in this investigation. At first, clenbuterol and the structural analogs of its metabolites, 4-Aminohippuric acid (AHA) and 4-hydroxymandelic acid (HMA), were chosen as molecular templates. Through computational molecular modeling, the optimum ratio between the functional monomer and molecular template was selected. The surface imprinting method was applied to modify QCM electrode surface to graft a thin MIP film. The grafting polymer was characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. After then, an array system composed of three sensors was employed to test the responses with different solutions and the principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to analyze the corresponding data. As a result, for the designed sensor to clenbuterol, a linear equation y=100.07x-722.96 (R 2 =0.9928) was found between the sensor frequency shift ΔF and negative logarithm of clenbuterol concentration (-lgC). The limitation of detection (LOD) was 3.0ng/mL, which is lower than the Codex Alimentarius Commission regulations residue limit 10μg/L. The corresponding data of the three template solutions were analyzed by PCA, obtaining 100% recognition. The result demonstrated the feasibility that the developed method could be applied to detect whether the livestock was feed with CLB nutrient redistribution agent by checking the urine samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modifying the response of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance hydrocarbon sensor with functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ranwala, Nilukshi; Boyd, Leigh; Baker, Murray; Ross, Andrew

    2011-09-15

    This report compares the performance of polymer and carbon nanotube-polymer composite membranes on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene) in aqueous solutions. Several different polymers (polystyrene, polystyrene-co-butadiene, polyisobutylene and polybutadiene) and types of functionalized carbon nanotubes (multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes) were investigated at varying carbon nanotube (CNT) loading levels and film thicknesses. In a majority of instances, the difference in response between membranes comprising pure polymer and membranes containing 10% (w/w) carbon nanotubes were not statistically significant. However, a notable exception is the decreasing sensitivity towards p-xylene with increasing carbon nanotube content in a polybutadiene film. This variation in sensitivity can be attributed to a change in the sorption mechanism from absorption into the polymer phase to adsorption onto the carbon nanotube sidewalls. With much thicker coatings of 10% (w/w) carbon nanotube in polybutadiene, the sensitivity towards toluene was higher compared to the pure polymer. The increased toluene sensitivity may be partially attributed to an increase in the sorption capacity of a carbon nanotube polymer composite film relative to its corresponding pure polymer film. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements were performed to understand the mechanism of sorption and these studies showed that the addition of functionalized CNT to the polymer increases the absorption of certain types of hydrocarbons. This study demonstrates that carbon nanotubes can be incorporated into a polymer-coated QCM sensor and that composite films may be used to modify the QCM response and selectivity during the analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Platelet aggregation monitoring with a newly developed quartz crystal microbalance system as an alternative to optical platelet aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Stefan; Müller, Lothar; Drechsel, Hartmut; Wandel, Michael; Northoff, Hinnak; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P; Gehring, Frank K

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a new test system for the monitoring of platelet aggregation during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) procedures. Even though extensive progress has been made in improving the haemocompatibility of extracorporeal circulation devices, activation of blood coagulation, blood platelets and inflammatory responses are still undesired outcomes of cardiopulmonary bypass. This study deals with an approach towards a platelet aggregation measuring system using a newly developed quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) system. Since QCM is a rarely used technique in the field of blood analytics, the challenge was to transfer the well established methods of aggregometry to the new test system. In a QCM system, either bare gold or fibrinogen-coated sensors were incubated with ADP or arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated platelet rich plasma. For negative controls the GPIIb/IIIa inhibitory antibody abciximab (Reopro®) was used as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. During incubation, the frequency shifts of the sensors were recorded. The results gained from the QCM system were compared to results gained by optical platelet aggregometry (born aggregometry). For additional visualization of platelet adhesion to the sensor surfaces, fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used. The QCM sensor was able to detect platelet aggregation in both uncoated and fibrinogen coated sensors. The measuring curves of aggregation measurements and controls were clearly distinguishable from each other in terms of frequency shifts and kinetics. For aggregation measurements and inhibited controls the therapeutic diagnosis of platelet function is identical between aggregometer and QCM data. In future, QCM based measuring devices may become an alternative to established point of care methods for rapid bedside testing of platelet aggregation.

  6. Electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer films of a bis-terthiophene dendron: folic acid quartz crystal microbalance sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Dahlia C; Pernites, Roderick B; Ponnapati, Ramakrishna R; Del Mundo, Florian R; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2011-02-01

    A folic acid sensor was prepared via an electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (E-MIP) film of a bis-terthiophene dendron on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) electrodeposition of the imprinted polymer film was monitored by electrochemical QCM or E-QCM, enabling in situ monitoring and characterization of E-MIP film formation and the viscoelastic behavior of the film. A key component of the E-MIP process is the use of a bifunctional monomer design to precomplex with the template and function as a cross-linker. The complex was electropolymerized and cross-linked by CV to form a polythiophene matrix. Stable cavities were formed that specifically fit the size and shape of the folic acid template. The same substrate surface was used for folic acid sensing. The predicted geometry of the 1:2 folic acid/terthiophene complex was obtained through semiempirical AM1 quantum calculations. The analytical performance, expressed through the figures of merit, of the sensor in aqueous solutions of the analyte was investigated. A relatively good linearity, R(2) = 0.985, was obtained within the concentration range 0-100 μM folic acid. The detection limit was found to be equal to 15.4 μM (6.8 μg). The relative cross selectivity of the folic acid imprinted polymer against the three molecules follows this trend: pteroic acid (= 50%) > caffeine (= 41%) > theophylline (= 6%). The potential and limitations of the E-MIP method were also discussed.

  7. Real-time analysis of dual-display phage immobilization and autoantibody screening using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Kaushik; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Vermeeren, Veronique; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Wagner, Patrick; Somers, Veerle; Michiels, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, phage display technology has been used for the display of target-specific biomarkers, peptides, antibodies, etc. Phage display-based assays are mostly limited to the phage ELISA, which is notorious for its high background signal and laborious methodology. These problems have been recently overcome by designing a dual-display phage with two different end functionalities, namely, streptavidin (STV)-binding protein at one end and a rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigenic target at the other end. Using this dual-display phage, a much higher sensitivity in screening specificities of autoantibodies in complex serum sample has been detected compared to single-display phage system on phage ELISA. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel, rapid, and sensitive dual-display phage to detect autoantibodies presence in serum samples using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring as a sensing platform. The vertical functionalization of the phage over the STV-modified surfaces resulted in clear frequency and dissipation shifts revealing a well-defined viscoelastic signature. Screening for autoantibodies using antihuman IgG-modified surfaces and the dual-display phage with STV magnetic bead complexes allowed to isolate the target entities from complex mixtures and to achieve a large response as compared to negative control samples. This novel dual-display strategy can be a potential alternative to the time consuming phage ELISA protocols for the qualitative analysis of serum autoantibodies and can be taken as a departure point to ultimately achieve a point of care diagnostic system.

  8. Dispersant adsorption and viscoelasticity of alumina suspensions measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and in situ dynamic rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmqvist, Lisa; Holmberg, Krister

    2008-09-16

    Adsorption behavior and water content of adsorbed layers of four dispersants for aqueous ceramic processing were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) on alumina surfaces. The dispersants were a poly(acrylic acid), a lignosulfonate, and two hydrophilic comb copolymers with nonionic polyoxyethylene chains of different molecular weights. A Voigt model was applied to analyze the viscoelastic behavior of the adsorbed dispersant layers. The results from QCM-D were compared with viscoelastic properties determined by in situ dynamic rheology measurements of highly concentrated alumina suspensions during slip casting. The QCM-D results showed that both the poly(acrylic acid) and the lignosulfonate adsorbed in low amounts and in a flat conformation, which generated thin, highly rigid layers less than 1 nm thick. The water content of these layers was found to be around 30% for the lignosulfonate and 35% for the poly(acrylic acid). High casting rate and strength in terms of storage modulus were observed in the final consolidate of the suspensions with the two polyelectrolytes. In contrast, the high molecular weight comb copolymer adsorbed in a less elastic layer with a thickness of about 6 nm, which is enough to provide steric stabilization. The viscous behavior of this layer was attributed to high water content, which was calculated to be around 90%. Such a water-rich layer gives a lubrication effect, which allows for reorientation of particles during the consolidation process, resulting in a high final strength of the ceramic material. During consolidation, the suspension showed a slow casting rate, most likely due to rearrangement facilitated by the lubricating layer. The short-chain comb copolymer adsorbed in a 1.5 nm thick, rigid layer and gave low final strength to the consolidated suspension. It is likely that the poor consolidation behavior is caused by flocculation due to insufficient stabilization of the dispersion.

  9. Sugar acetates as CO2-philes: molecular interactions and structure aspects from absorption measurement using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shao-Ling; Wu, You-Ting; Hurrey, Michael L; Wallen, Scott L; Grant, Christine S

    2010-03-25

    Sugar acetates, recognized as attractive CO(2)-philic compounds, have potential uses as pharmaceutical excipients, controlled release agents, and surfactants for microemulsion systems in CO(2)-based processes. This study focuses on the quantitative examination of absorption of high pressure CO(2) into these sugar derivatives using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a detector. In addition to the absorption measurement, the QCM is initially found to be able to detect the CO(2)-induced deliquescence of sugar acetates, and the CO(2) pressure at which the deliquescence happens depends on several influencing factors such as the temperature and thickness of the film. The CO(2) absorption in alpha-D-glucose pentaacetate (Ac-alpha-GLU) is revealed to be of an order of magnitude larger in comparison with its anomer Ac-beta-GLU, whereas alpha-D-galactose pentaacetate (Ac-alpha-GAL) absorbs CO(2) less than Ac-alpha-GLU due to the steric-hindrance between the acetyl groups on the anomeric and C4 carbons, implying the significant importance of the molecular structure and configuration of sugar acetates on the absorption. The effects of molecular size and acetyl number of sugar acetates on the CO(2) absorption are evaluated and the results indicate that the conformation and packing of crystalline sugar acetate as well as the accessibility of the acetyls are also vital for the absorption of CO(2). It is additionally found that a CO(2)-induced change in the structure from a crystalline system to an amorphous system results in an order of magnitude increase in CO(2) absorption. Further investigation illustrates the interaction strength between sugar acetates and CO(2) by calculating the thermodynamic parameters such as Henry's law constant, enthalpy and entropy of dissolution from the determined CO(2) absorption. Experiments and calculations demonstrate that sugar acetates exhibit high CO(2) absorption, as at least comparable to ionic liquids. Since the ionic liquids have

  10. Exploration of LiO2 by the method of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance in TEGDME based Li-O2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong; Tong, Shengfu; Qiu, Feilong; Jiang, Jie; Feng, Ningning; Zhang, Xueping; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-10-01

    We confirmed the existence of LiO2 by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) in TEGDME based Li-O2 batteries. Our results indicated that Li2O2 is generated through stepwise electrochemical reactions rather than disproportionation. We report for the first time that the formed Li2O2 oxidizes to LiO2 at relative negative potential and O2 at positive potential respectively. Our conclusions were based on both experimental observations and quantitative analysis. This may enlighten us to reconsider the Li-O2 batteries mechanisms in a quantitative way.

  11. DFT study of the molecular and crystal structure and vibrational analysis of cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Dodoff, N.; Kovacheva, D.

    2017-04-01

    DFT and periodic-DFT (PAW-PBE method, code VASP) calculations have been performed to study the structural and vibrational characteristics of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) at molecular and outside molecular level. To estimate the effect of the intermolecular interactions in crystal on the structural and vibrational properties of cisplatin, three theoretical models are considered in the present study: monomer (isolated molecule), hydrogen bonded dimer and periodic solid state structures. The work focused on the role of the theoretical models for correct modeling and prediction of geometrical and vibrational parameters of cisplatin. It has been found that the elaborate three-dimensional intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in the crystalline cisplatin significantly influences the structural and vibrational pattern of cisplatin and therefore the isolated cisplatin molecule is not the correct computational model regardless of the theoretical level used. To account for the whole intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in direction of both a and c axis and for more reliable calculations of structural and vibrational parameters periodic DFT calculations were carried out in the full crystalline periodic environment with the known lattice parameters for each cisplatin polymorph phase. The model calculations performed both at molecular level and for the periodic structures of alpha and beta cisplatin polymorph forms revealed the decisive role of the extended theoretical model for reliable prediction of the structural and vibrational characteristics of cisplatin. The powder diffraction pattern and the calculated IR and Raman spectra predicted beta polymorph form of our cisplatin sample freshly synthesized for the purposes of the present study using the Dhara's method. The various rotamers realized in the polymorph forms of cisplatin were explained by the low population of the large number of rotamers in solution as well as with the high rotamer

  12. Single crystal XRD, vibrational and quantum chemical calculation of pharmaceutical drug paracetamol: A new synthesis form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, R; Gunasekaran, M; Kumar, S Suresh; Athimoolam, S; Sridhar, B

    2015-01-01

    The common house hold pharmaceutical drug, paracetamol (PAR), has been synthesized from 4-chloroaniline as a first ever report. After the synthesis, good quality single crystals were obtained for slow evaporation technique under the room temperature. The crystal and molecular structures were re-determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The vibrational spectral measurements were carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy in the range of 4000-400 cm(-1). The single crystal X-ray studies shows that the drug crystallized in the monoclinic system polymorph (Form-I). The crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O classical hydrogen bonds. The ac diagonal of the unit cell features two chain C(7) and C(9) motifs running in the opposite directions. These two chain motifs are cross-linked to each other to form a ring R4(4)(22) motif and a chain C2(2)(6) motif which is running along the a-axis of the unit cell. Along with the classical hydrogen bonds, the methyl group forms a weak C-H⋯O interactions in the crystal packing. It offers the support for molecular assembly especially in the hydrophilic regions. Further, the strength of the hydrogen bonds are studied the shifting of vibrational bands. Geometrical optimizations of the drug molecule were done by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) using the B3LYP function and Hartree-Fock (HF) level with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The optimized molecular geometry and computed vibrational spectra are compared with experimental results which show significant agreement. The factor group analysis of the molecule was carried out by the various molecular symmetry, site and factor group species using the standard correlation method. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The chemical softness, chemical hardness, electro-negativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of the molecule were found out first

  13. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Dan; Lange, Sigrun; Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Inal, Jameel

    2014-10-24

    Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36×10(6)MVs, was calculated to be 23ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5×10(7)MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235pg per MV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Calculation of Elastic Flexural Vibrations of Whisker Crystals Irradiated with Nanosecond Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebodayev, M. I.

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of the linear thermal elasticity theory a dynamic thermoelastic bending of a whisker crystal is considered under conditions of its irradiation with a high-current electron beam of nanosecond duration. It is shown that the characteristic time of leveling the temperature of superthin pin-type rod nonuniformely heated over its thickness is comparable with the period of the fundamental wave of flexural vibrations. This gives rise to a considerable decrease in the bending amplitude, which is concurrent with the heat conduction processes.

  15. Structural, quantum chemical, vibrational and thermal studies of a hydrogen bonded zwitterionic co-crystal (nicotinic acid: pyrogallol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, E. Arockia Jeya Yasmi; Kumar, S. Suresh; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, a new co-crystal of nicotinic acid with pyrogallol (NICPY) has been grown in the zwitterionic form and the corresponding structural, vibrational, thermal, solubility and anti-cancer characteristics have been reported. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the structural molecular packing of the crystal stabilized through N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The stabilization energy of the hydrogen bond motifs were calculated in the solid state. Vibrational spectral studies such as Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman were adopted to understand the zwitterionic co-crystalline nature of the compound, which has been compared with theoretically calculated vibrational frequencies. The thermal stability of the grown co-crystal was analyzed by TG/DTA study. The solubility of the NICPY co-crystal was investigated in water at different temperature and compared with that of the nicotinic acid, which is the parent compound of NICPY co-crystal. The grown crystals were treated with human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) to analyze the cytotoxicity of NICPY crystals and compared with the parent compound, which shows that NICPY has moderate activity against human cervical cancer cell line.

  16. Determination of SiO2 Raman spectrum indicating the transformation from coesite to quartz in Gföhl migmatitic gneisses in the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomoyuki KOBAYASHI; Takao HIRAJIMA; Yoshikuni HIROI; Martin SVOJTKA

    2008-01-01

    .... The Raman spectrum is composed of the intense vibrations of quartz at 464, 393 and 266 cm-1 of quartz and the weak vibration of coesite at 521 cm-1 is obtained from the quartz proximal to the relict...

  17. Affinity Interaction between Hexamer Peptide Ligand HWRGWV and Immunoglobulin G Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei

    Immunoglobulins (Ig), also referred to as antibodies, act as protective agents against pathogens trying to invade an organism. Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), as the most prominent immunoglobulin presented in serum and other human fluids, has broad applications in fields like immunotherapy and clinical diagnostics. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A and Streptococcus Protein G are the most common affinity ligands for IgG purifaction and detection. However, drawbacks associated with these two protein ligands have motivated searches for alternative affinity ligands. The hexamer peptide ligand HWRGWV identified from a one-bead-one-peptide combinatorial library synthesized on chromatography resins has demonstrated high affinity and specificity to the Fc fragment of hIgG. A chromatography resin with HWRGWV can purify human IgG (hIgG) from complete minimum essential medium (cMEM) with purities and yields as high as 95%, which are comparable to using Protein A as affinity ligand (4). As a short peptide ligand, HWRGWV can be produced at relatively low costs under good manufacturing practices (GMP) conditions, it is highly robust, less immunogenic and allows for milder elution conditions for the bound antibody (3, 5). Although this short peptide ligand has exhibited promising properties for IgG capture and purification, limited information is available on the intrinsic mechanisms of affinity interaction between the peptide ligand and target protein. In this study, the affinity interaction between hIgG and peptide ligand immobilized on solid surfaces was studied by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Compared with previous methods employed for the peptide characterization, QCM and SPR can provide direct measurements of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and rates of adsorption, allowing a complete kinetic and thermodynamics analyses of the ligand-target interactions. New methods were developed to modify gold and silica surfaces of QCM and SPR

  18. Low-cost, in-liquid measuring system using a novel compact oscillation circuit and quartz-crystal microbalances (QCMs as a versatile biosensor platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beißner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quartz-crystal microbalances (QCMs are commercially available mass sensors which mainly consist of a quartz resonator that oscillates at a characteristic frequency, which shifts when mass changes due to surface binding of molecules. In addition to mass changes, the viscosity of gases or liquids in contact with the sensor also shifts the resonance but also influences the quality factor (Q-factor. Typical biosensor applications demand operation in liquid environments leading to viscous damping strongly lowering Q-factors. For obtaining reliable measurements in liquid environments, excellent resonator control and signal processing are essential but standard resonator circuits like the Pierce and Colpitts oscillator fail to establish stable resonances. Here we present a low-cost, compact and robust oscillator circuit comprising of state-of-the-art commercially available surface-mount technology components which stimulates the QCMs oscillation, while it also establishes a control loop regulating the applied voltage. Thereby an increased energy dissipation by strong viscous damping in liquid solutions can be compensated and oscillations are stabilized. The presented circuit is suitable to be used in compact biosensor systems using custom-made miniaturized QCMs in microfluidic environments. As a proof of concept we used this circuit in combination with a customized microfabricated QCM in a microfluidic environment to measure the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP in buffer (PBS down to concentrations as low as 5 µg mL−1.

  19. Results from a Novel Method for Corrosion Studies of Electroplated Lithium Metal Based on Measurements with an Impedance Scanning Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to study the chemical stability of electrodeposited lithium on a copper metal substrate via measurements with a fast impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is presented. The corrosion of electrochemically deposited lithium was compared in two different electrolytes, based on lithium difluoro(oxalato borate (LiDFOB and lithium hexafluorophosphate, both salts being dissolved in solvent blends of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. For a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy images of electrodeposited lithium were also consulted. The results of the EQCM experiments were supported by AC impedance measurements and clearly showed two different corrosion mechanisms caused by the different salts and the formed SEIs. The observed mass decrease of the quartz sensor of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte is not smooth, but rather composed of a series of abrupt mass fluctuations in contrast to that of the lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte. After each slow decrease of mass a rather fast increase of mass is observed several times. The slow mass decrease can be attributed to a consolidation process of the SEI or to the partial dissolution of the SEI leaving finally lithium metal unprotected so that a fast film formation sets in entailing the observed fast mass increases.

  20. Temperature Dependence of the Resistivity and Seebeck Coefficient of Individual Single-Crystal Bismuth Nanowires of 345-nm and 594-nm Diameters Encased in a Quartz Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mioko; Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Temperature dependence measurements of resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient were performed using individual bismuth nanowires of 345-nm and 594-nm diameters encased in a quartz template. Each nanowire was confirmed as a single crystal by Laue measurement, and an advanced mean free path model was utilized to explain both temperature dependencies. The model successfully explains the dependence over 100 K, which occurs because the carrier mobility is restricted by boundary scattering at the nanowire surface considering the crystal orientation along the wire length direction, band structure, and isotropic Fermi surface. However, it is difficult to determine the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the low-temperature region, in which a much higher temperature coefficient is indicated, especially at temperatures lower than 50 K. Although we calculated the temperature dependence of the resistivity with the influence of p-type contamination in the nanowire because a positive Seebeck coefficient at low temperatures was observed, an explanation of the resistivity in the low-temperature region has not been developed. Therefore, a hypothesis was introduced in which the hole mobility was not restricted in the nanowire, and the hole mobility was estimated by the mobility ratio from the Seebeck coefficient, the measured resistivity, and the electron mobility using the model. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the resistivity can be explained over the entire temperature region. This result suggests that the scattering mechanism between holes and electrons in the nanowire differs and depends on the crystal orientation in the low-temperature region.

  1. Self-assembly and recrystallization of bacterial S-layer proteins of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis on silicone, mica and quartz crystal supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda; Caneva Soumetz, Federico; Giulianelli, Massimo; Pastorino, Laura; Herrera, Oscar; Sbrana, Francesca; Raiteri, Roberto; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    The Oriented architecture of macromolecules plays a critical role in many aspects of Nanobiotechnology such as in the development of biosensors. To this regard, S-layers which constitute the outermost cell envelope component of many prokaryotic organisms, represent unique self assembled systems with the capability to rearrange into monomolecular and oriented arrays. These properties can be exploited to promote their crystallization on surfaces (e.g. silicone) which is pivotal for the subsequent immobilization of macromolecules and development of new biosensors. In this work the crystallization of bacterial S-layers obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus CCM2177 on silicone, mica and quartz crystal surfaces were investigated. The SDS page results of S-layers isolated from the above mentioned bacteria put in evidence that their molecular weight (MW) was around 120 KDa and, as reported in the literature, slightly higher for those extracted by Bacillus thuringiensis. In addition, results showed that S-layers isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis form large crystalline domains on mica after 5 min whereas those extracted from Bacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 form a compact monolayer on silicone after 2 h. Results in this work put in evidence the possibility to use these substrates for the fabrication of sensitive biosensors.

  2. Dependence on the electric power of the immersion-angle dependence of the resonant-frequency shift of a quartz crystal microbalance in a liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Yasuhiro; Kurosawa, Shigeru; Kanazawa, K Keiji

    2007-04-18

    We have investigated the immersion-angle dependence of the series resonant-frequency shift, DeltaF, of the quartz crystal microbalance, QCM, in a Newtonian liquid from the point of view of the supplied electric power level. In the low electric power levels, the immersion-angle dependence and the transition phenomenon of the DeltaF are observed. However, when the higher electric power levels are supplied to the QCM, the region of the transition phenomenon of the DeltaF decreases rapidly with an increase in the electric power level and disappears above 1.5 dBm. That is, above 1.5 dBm, the DeltaF values have only the values of 90 degrees immersion angle in all immersion angles. We suggest that the electric power is very important factor for the DeltaF in a liquid.

  3. Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey, using headspace-solid-phase microextraction coupled with a polyoxometalate-coated piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Marta I S; Gamelas, José A F; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey provide an indication of overheating under inappropriate storage conditions or aging. Conventional methods for determining HMF are cumbersome and require expensive equipment or hazardous reagents. Hence the aim of this study was to propose a new analytical tool for HMF determination in honey, using a low cost acoustic wave sensor. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of honey samples were extracted, using the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and HMF was quantified, using a piezoelectric quartz crystal with gold electrodes coated with a layer of decamolybdodivanado phosphoric acid, sensitive to HMF. The reliability of the proposed method was confirmed after comparing the results of HMF quantification with those obtained by the conventional spectrophotometric White method, and no statistical differences were found (α=0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of precursor infiltration into polymer thin films via atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padbury, Richard P.; Jur, Jesse S., E-mail: jsjur@ncsu.edu [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Previous research exploring inorganic materials nucleation behavior on polymers via atomic layer deposition indicates the formation of hybrid organic–inorganic materials that form within the subsurface of the polymer. This has inspired adaptations to the process, such as sequential vapor infiltration, which enhances the diffusion of organometallic precursors into the subsurface of the polymer to promote the formation of a hybrid organic–inorganic coating. This work highlights the fundamental difference in mass uptake behavior between atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ methods. In particular, in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry is used to compare the mass uptake behavior of trimethyl aluminum in poly(butylene terephthalate) and polyamide-6 polymer thin films. The importance of trimethyl aluminum diffusion into the polymer subsurface and the subsequent chemical reactions with polymer functional groups are discussed.

  5. Synthesis and binding affinity analysis of α1-2- and α1-6-O/S-linked dimannosides for the elucidation of sulfur in glycosidic bonds using quartz crystal microbalance sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Oscar; Wu, Bin; Thota, Niranjan

    2017-01-01

    The role of sulfur in glycosidic bonds has been evaluated using quartz crystal microbalance methodology. Synthetic routes towards α1-2- and α1-6-linked dimannosides with S- or O-glycosidic bonds have been developed, and the recognition properties assessed in competition binding assays...

  6. New features of different frequency generating systems due to the use of electrodeless rigidly mounted VBA quartz crystal resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendly, A.; Graf, E.; Busca, G.; Brownsea, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The BVA 5 MHz crystal equipped frequency sources exhibit a new blend of performances such as 10 to 11 daily stability, 5x10-13 short term stability (1 to 30 s time intervals) and close to the carrier low phase noise (1 Hz : -120 dBc, 10 Hz : -140 dBc), whereby retaining the customary crystal oscillator benefits of small volume, high reliability and low price, as opposed to more sophisticated frequency generators which would be required to achieve comparable performances. Examples illustrating the impact of the Oscilloquartz BVA oven-controlled crystal oscillator in different frequency generating systems are presented: cesium frequency standards; hydrogen frequency standard; a precision distribution sub-system for satellite ground stations; and high hierarchy exchanges of digital networks, synchronized by the master-slave method are discussed.

  7. Vibrational properties of organic donor-acceptor molecular crystals: Anthracene-pyromellitic-dianhydride (PMDA) as a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Fonari, A.

    2015-12-10

    We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoreticalRaman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.

  8. Vibrational properties of organic donor-acceptor molecular crystals: Anthracene-pyromellitic-dianhydride (PMDA) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonari, A.; Corbin, N. S.; Coropceanu, V., E-mail: jean-luc.bredas@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: coropceanu@gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Vermeulen, D.; McNeil, L. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States); Goetz, K. P.; Jurchescu, O. D. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109-7507 (United States); Bredas, J. L., E-mail: jean-luc.bredas@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: coropceanu@gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center, Division of Physical Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-12-14

    We establish a reliable quantum-mechanical approach to evaluate the vibrational properties of donor-acceptor molecular crystals. The anthracene-PMDA (PMDA = pyromellitic dianhydride) crystal, where anthracene acts as the electron donor and PMDA as the electron acceptor, is taken as a representative system for which experimental non-resonance Raman spectra are also reported. We first investigate the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) included in a hybrid density functional has on the geometry, normal vibrational modes, electronic coupling, and electron-vibrational (phonon) couplings. The comparison between experimental and theoretical Raman spectra indicates that the results based on the αPBE functional with 25%-35% HFE are in better agreement with the experimental results compared to those obtained with the pure PBE functional. Then, taking αPBE with 25% HFE, we assign the vibrational modes and examine their contributions to the relaxation energy related to the nonlocal electron-vibration interactions. The results show that the largest contribution (about 90%) is due to electron interactions with low-frequency vibrational modes. The relaxation energy in anthracene-PMDA is found to be about five times smaller than the electronic coupling.

  9. Vibration energy harvester with sustainable power based on a single-crystal piezoelectric cantilever array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Kwon, Jong-Kee; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2012-08-01

    We designed and fabricated a bimorph cantilever array for sustainable power with an integrated Cu proof mass to obtain additional power and current. We fabricated a cantilever system using single-crystal piezoelectric material and compared the calculations for single and arrayed cantilevers to those obtained experimentally. The vibration energy harvester had resonant frequencies of 60.4 and 63.2 Hz for short and open circuits, respectively. The damping ratio and quality factor of the cantilever device were 0.012 and 41.66, respectively. The resonant frequency at maximum average power was 60.8 Hz. The current and highest average power of the harvester array were found to be 0.728 mA and 1.61 mW, respectively. The sustainable maximum power was obtained after slightly shifting the short-circuit frequency. In order to improve the current and power using an array of cantilevers, we also performed energy conversion experiments.

  10. Local vibration modes of shallow thermal donors in nitrogen-doped CZ silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N. [RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, 599-8570 (Japan) and Nitrogen Measurement WG, JEITA, Tokyo, 101-0062 (Japan)]. E-mail: inouen@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Nakatsu, M. [RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, 599-8570 (Japan); Ono, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Tokyo, 105-0003 (Japan); Nitrogen Measurement WG, JEITA, Tokyo, 101-0062 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    Local vibration mode (LVM) infrared absorption from shallow thermal donors (STD) composed of nitrogen-oxygen complexes in nitrogen-doped CZ silicon crystals was examined. The samples whose STD concentration had been determined were measured. The sample dependence of the peaks at 810 and 1018cm{sup -1} was similar to that of STD but the estimated concentration was slightly higher. New LVM peaks were found at 855, 973, 982, 1002cm{sup -1} and so on. Their magnitude and sample dependence agreed well with those of STD. Annealing temperature dependence of other samples supported the results. Annealing time dependence of STD concentration at 650 deg. C was examined. STD peaks at 250, 242 and those at 240, 234 and 238cm{sup -1} behaved differently, suggesting the presence of two kinds of STD origin.

  11. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite on arc-deposited TiO2 surfaces studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Mirjam; Butt, Umer; Shen, Zhijian; Bjöörn, Dorota

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of nucleation and growth kinetics of biomimetically deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) on crystalline TiO2 surfaces is important with respect to the application and performance of HA as functional implant coatings. Arc-evaporation was used to deposit TiO2 coatings dominated by anatase phase, rutile phase or their mixtures. Subsequent formation of HA from phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) was investigated in real-time using in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the presence, morphology and crystal structure of TiO2 coatings and the formed HA. Increasing temperature of the PBS, increasing flow rate and applying a higher ion concentration in solution were found to accelerate HA nucleation process and hence affect growth kinetics. Lower PBS temperature resulted in the formation of HA coatings with flake-like morphology and increasing HA porosity. All TiO2 coatings under study enabled HA formation at body temperature, while in contrast Ti reference surfaces only supported HA nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. QCM-D technique is a powerful tool for studying the impact of process parameters during biomimetic coating deposition on coating structure evolution in real time and provides valuable information for understanding, optimizing as well as tailoring the biomimetic HA growth processes.

  12. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite on arc-deposited TiO{sub 2} surfaces studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, Mirjam [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Butt, Umer [Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials and Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 114 18 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian [Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials and Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 114 18 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjöörn, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.bjoorn@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of nucleation and growth kinetics of biomimetically deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) on crystalline TiO{sub 2} surfaces is important with respect to the application and performance of HA as functional implant coatings. Arc-evaporation was used to deposit TiO{sub 2} coatings dominated by anatase phase, rutile phase or their mixtures. Subsequent formation of HA from phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) was investigated in real-time using in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the presence, morphology and crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} coatings and the formed HA. Increasing temperature of the PBS, increasing flow rate and applying a higher ion concentration in solution were found to accelerate HA nucleation process and hence affect growth kinetics. Lower PBS temperature resulted in the formation of HA coatings with flake-like morphology and increasing HA porosity. All TiO{sub 2} coatings under study enabled HA formation at body temperature, while in contrast Ti reference surfaces only supported HA nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. QCM-D technique is a powerful tool for studying the impact of process parameters during biomimetic coating deposition on coating structure evolution in real time and provides valuable information for understanding, optimizing as well as tailoring the biomimetic HA growth processes.

  13. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB, uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf. We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs (benign substances or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots

  14. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB), uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf). We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs) (benign substances) or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml) in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml) treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots was linearly SWCNT

  15. Tourmalines from the siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins, Gemeric unit, western Carpathians, Slovakia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačík, P.; Uher, P.; Dikej, J.; Puškelová, Ľ.

    2017-03-01

    Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in a large number of Cretaceous siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins in the Gemeric Unit, Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovakia, such as Dobšiná, Vlachovo, Rožňavské Bystré, Hnilčík, Rakovnica, Novoveská Huta, Gretla, Rudňany, and Bindt. In this study we combine by electron microprobe analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the range of tourmaline compositions in the deposits and constrain the mechanisms of its precipitation. Selected samples from the mentioned deposits belong mostly to the alkali group, schorl to dravite series, rarely dominant X-site vacant foititic tourmaline (Vlachovo and Bindt) and oxy-dravite compositions (Hnilčík) were detected. Rim zones of some schorlitic tourmalines show high concentrations of Ti (up to 2.35 wt.% TiO2, 0.30 apfu; Rožňavské Bystré). The chemical composition is mostly controlled by alkali-deficient X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe2+)-1 and proton-deficient AlO(Mg,Fe2+)-1(OH)-1 substitutions. Titanium is incorporated into the structure by Y Ti Y (Mg,Fe) Y Al-2, Y Ti Z Mg Y Al-1 Z Al-1, Y TiO( Y AlOH), and X Ca Y Ti Z MgO2 X □-1 Y,Z Al-2(OH)-2 substitutions. Along trace elements, Sr and V attain concentrations of 80-450 and 70-320 ppm, respectively. The unit-cell parameter a varies between 15.960 and 15.985 Å; variations in c are larger, between 7.177 and 7.236 Å indicating the presence of Fe3+ and Mg2+ at Z site. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown variable Fe3+ proportions (0.17-0.55 apfu) in all samples. The gathered dataset suggests some qualitative considerations on the mechanisms controlling tourmaline compositions at the regional scale. The highest Fe3+ concentrations occur in samples from Rudňany and Gretla in the external part of Gemeric unit, suggesting higher oxidation during longer transport of fluids. We propose that the determined XFe in the samples are correlated with the compositions of the host rocks, as

  16. A new two-dimensional theory for vibrations of piezoelectric crystal plates with electroded faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P. C. Y.; Yu, J. D.; Lin, W. S.

    1998-02-01

    A system of two-dimensional (2-D) governing equations for piezoelectric plates with general crystal symmetry and with electroded faces is deduced from the three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity by expansion in series of trigonometric functions of thickness coordinate. The essential difference of the present derivation from the earlier studies by trigonometrical series expansion is that the antisymmetric in-plane displacements induced by gradients of the bending deflection (the zero-order component of transverse displacement) are expressed by the linear functions of the thickness coordinate, and the rest of displacements are expanded in cosine series of the thickness coordinate. For the electric potential, a sine-series expansion is used for it is well suited for satisfying the electrical conditions at the faces covered with conductive electrodes. A system of approximate first-order equations is extracted from the infinite system of 2-D equations. Dispersion curves for thickness shear, flexure, and face-shear modes varying along x1 and those for thickness twist and face shear varying along x3 for AT-cut quartz plates are calculated from the present 2-D equations as well as from the 3-D equations, and comparison shows that the agreement is very close without introducing any corrections. Predicted frequency spectra by the present equations are shown to agree closely with the experimental data by Koga and Fukuyo [J. Inst. Elec. Comm. Engrs. of Japan 36, 59 (1953)] and those by Nakazawa, Horiuchi, and Ito [Proceedings of 1990 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, New York, 1990)].

  17. Quartz crystal microbalance study of ionic strength and pH-dependent polymer conformation and protein adsorption/desorption on PAA, PEO, and mixed PEO/PAA brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, M F; Demoustier-Champagne, S; Dupont-Gillain, C C

    2014-01-14

    The conformation of polymer chains grafted on a substrate influences protein adsorption. In a previous study, adsorption/desorption of albumin was demonstrated on mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, triggered by solutions of adequate pH and ionic strength (I). In the present work, homolayers of PEO or PAA are submitted to saline solutions with pH from 3 to 9 and I from 10(-5) to 10(-1) M, and their conformation is evaluated in real time using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Shrinkage/swelling of PAA chains and hydration and salt condensation in the brush are evidenced. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) onto such brushes is also monitored in these different saline solutions, leading to a deep understanding of the influence of polymer chain conformation, modulated by pH and I, on protein adsorption. A detailed model of the conformation of PEO/PAA mixed brushes depending on pH and I is then proposed, providing a rationale for the identification of conditions for the successive adsorption and desorption of proteins on such mixed brushes. The adsorption/desorption of albumin on PEO/PAA is demonstrated using QCM-D.

  18. Responses of platelets and endothelial cells to heparin/fibronectin complex on titanium: in situ investigation by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and immunochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Yang, Ping; Huang, Nan; Ding, Hongyan

    2013-08-01

    Platelet adhesion and endothelialization rates are frequently used to assess the biocompatibility of biomaterials, which are crucial steps for the development of blood-contacting implanted devices. Co-immobilization of heparin and fibronectin (Hep/Fn) on titanium (Ti) surface has been proven to inhibit platelet adhesion and enhance endothelialization in our previous study, however, the interaction mechanisms of platelet and endothelial cell (EC) with biomolecules immobilized surface at the early stage are still not clear. In this study, the adhesion behavior of EC and platelet on biomolecules immobilized surface was evaluated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in real time and immunofluorescence/optical measurement. And the possible underlying mechanism was probed using immunochemistry. The results showed that EC underwent attachment and spreading process on Hep/Fn (pH 4) immobilized surface similar to that on bare Ti surface, while platelet displayed much larger activation on bare Ti surface than that on Hep/Fn (pH 4) immobilized surface. However, the adhesion behaviors of platelets and EC reflected in Df plots were different. The study brings forth the detailed interaction between heparin and fibronectin and the interaction of EC and platelet with the biomolecules coated surface, which will be helpful for better understanding the interaction mechanism of cell-biomaterials interface and may potentially be useful for the development of new generation of cardiovascular biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the native and denatured herceptin by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and quartz crystal microbalance using a high-affinity single chain fragment variable recombinant antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Mernaugh, Ray; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2012-10-02

    Herceptin/Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1κ light chain antibody used to treat some forms of breast cancer. A phage-displayed recombinant antibody library was used to obtain a single chain fragment variable (scFv, designated 2B4) to a linear synthetic peptide representing Herceptin's heavy chain CDR3. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and piezoimmunosensor/quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assays were used to characterize 2B4-binding activity to both native and heat denatured Herceptin. The 2B4 scFv specifically bound to heat denatured Herceptin in a concentration dependent manner over a wide (35-220.5 nM) dynamic range. Herceptin denatures and forms significant amounts of aggregates when heated. UV-vis characterization confirms that Herceptin forms aggregates as the temperature used to heat Herceptin increases. QCM affinity assay shows that binding stoichiometry between 2B4 scFv and Herceptin follows a 1:2 relationship proving that 2B4 scFv binds strongly to the dimers of heat denatured Herceptin aggregates and exhibits an affinity constant of 7.17 × 10(13) M(-2). The 2B4-based QCM assay was more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA. Combining QCM with ELISA can be used to more fully characterize nonspecific binding events in assays. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of these results and the advantages of the use of QCM to characterize human therapeutic antibodies in samples are also discussed.

  20. Utilisation of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with Dissipation (QCM-D) for a Clauss Fibrinogen Assay in Comparison with Common Coagulation Reference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfrank, Stephanie; Drechsel, Hartmut; Sinn, Stefan; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of fibrinogen levels is one of the most important coagulation measurements in medicine. It plays a crucial part in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, often associated with time-critical conditions. The commonly used measurement is the Clauss fibrinogen assay (CFA) where plasma is activated by thrombin reagent and which is conducted by mechanical/turbidimetric devices. As quartz crystal microbalance sensors with dissipation (QCM-D) based devices have a small footprint, can be operated easily and allow measurements independently from sample transportation time, laboratory location, availability and opening hours, they offer a great opportunity to complement laboratory CFA measurements. Therefore, the objective of the work was to (1) transfer the CFA to the QCM-D method; (2) develop an easy, time- and cost-effective procedure and (3) compare the results with references. Different sensor coatings (donor’s own plasma; gold surface) and different QCM-D parameters (frequency signal shift; its calculated turning point; dissipation signal shift) were sampled. The results demonstrate the suitability for a QCM-D-based CFA in physiological fibrinogen ranges. Results were obtained in less than 1 min and in very good agreement with a standardized reference (Merlin coagulometer). The results provide a good basis for further investigation and pave the way to a possible application of QCM-D in clinical and non-clinical routine in the medical field. PMID:26927107

  1. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies on enzymatic specific activity and direct electrochemistry of immobilized glucose oxidase in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuhua; Xie, Qingji; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Qingfang; Ma, Ming; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique was utilized to monitor in situ the adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) and the mixture of GOD and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) onto Au electrodes with and without modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or SDBS/MWCNTs composite, and the relationship between enzymatic specific activity (ESA) and direct electrochemistry of the immobilized GOD was quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Compared with the bare gold electrode at which a little GOD was adsorbed and the direct electrochemistry of the adsorbed GOD was negligible, the amount and electroactivity of adsorbed GOD were greatly enhanced when the GOD was mixed with SDBS and then adsorbed onto the SDBS/MWCNTs modified Au electrode. However, the ESA of the adsorbed GOD was fiercely decreased to only 16.1% of the value obtained on the bare gold electrode, and the portion of adsorbed GOD showing electrochemical activity exhibited very low enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the electroactivity and ESA of immobilized GOD responded oppositely to the presence of MWCNTs and SDBS. The ESA results obtained from the EQCM method were well supported by conventional UV-vis spectrophotometry. The direct electrochemistry of redox proteins including enzymes as a function of their biological activities is an important concern in biotechnology, and this work may have presented a new and useful protocol to quantitatively evaluate both the electroactivity and ESA of trace immobilized enzymes, which is expected to find wider applications in biocatalysis and biosensing fields.

  2. Particle Characterization for a Protein Drug Product Stored in Pre-Filled Syringes Using Micro-Flow Imaging, Archimedes, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Songyan; Puri, Aastha; Li, Jinjiang; Jaiswal, Archana; Adams, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Micro-flow imaging (MFI) has been used for formulation development for analyzing sub-visible particles. Archimedes, a novel technique for analyzing sub-micron particles, has been considered as an orthogonal method to currently existing techniques. This study utilized these two techniques to investigate the effectiveness of polysorbate (PS-80) in mitigating the particle formation of a therapeutic protein formulation stored in silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. The results indicated that PS-80 prevented the formation of both protein and silicone oil particles. In the case of protein particles, PS-80 might involve in the interactions with the hydrophobic patches of protein, air bubbles, and the stressed surfaces of silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. Such interactions played a role in mitigating the formation of protein particles. Subsequently, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was utilized to characterize the interactions associated with silicone oil, protein, and PS-80 in the solutions. Based on QCM-D results, we proposed that PS-80 likely formed a layer on the interior surfaces of syringes. As a result, the adsorbed PS-80 might block the leakage of silicone oil from the surfaces to solution so that the silicone oil particles were mitigated at the presence of PS-80. Overall, this study demonstrated the necessary of utilizing these three techniques cooperatively in order to better understand the interfacial role of PS-80 in mitigating the formation of protein and silicone oil particles.

  3. Polyethylene glycol-stabilized lipid disks as model membranes in interaction studies based on electrokinetic capillary chromatography and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, Kati; Reijmar, Karin; Yohannes, Gebrenegus; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Edwards, Katarina; Jussila, Matti; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2011-07-01

    Distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol/distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol 5000 [PEG(5000)] lipid disks, mimicking biological membranes, were used as pseudostationary phase in partial filling electrokinetic capillary chromatography (EKC) to study interactions between pharmaceuticals and lipid disks. Capillaries were coated either noncovalently with a poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone)-based copolymer or covalently with polyacrylamide to mask the negative charges of the fused-silica capillary wall and to minimize interactions between positively charged pharmaceuticals and capillary wall. Although the noncovalent copolymer coating method was faster, better stability of the covalent polyacrylamide coating at physiological pH 7.4 made it more reliable in partial filling EKC studies. Migration times of pharmaceuticals were proportional to the amount of lipids in the pseudostationary phase, and partition coefficients were successfully determined. Because the capillary coatings almost totally suppressed the electroosmotic flow, it was not practical to use the EKC-based method for partition studies involving large molecules with low mobilities. Hence, the applicability of the biomembrane mimicking lipid disks for interactions studies with large molecules was verified by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Biotinylated lipid disks were then immobilized on streptavidin-coated sensor chip surface, and interactions with a high-molecular-mass molecule, lysozyme, were studied. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation were used to clarify the sizes of lipid disks used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Single crystal, vibrational and computational studies of Theophylline (a bronchodilator drug) and its chloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Novena, L.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Saminathan, K.; Sridhar, B.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal structure of Theophylline (TH) and Theophyillinium chloride monohydrate (THC) and its complete molecular structure analysis on theoretical and experimental methods is reported here. The hydrogen bonding studies were carried out as a special note of the present work. The electron density analyses of the compounds were also analyzed in view of the intermolecular interactions. Moreover, it is an ever first quantum chemical report of this drug (TH) and its chloride salt. In TH crystal, the water molecule connects the Theophylline molecules through Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond forming discrete D22(7) motif and dimeric ring R22(10) motif through Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. In THC, the two classical (Nsbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and one non-classical (Csbnd H⋯O) hydrogen bonds produce two pentameric chain C55 (16) and C55(17) motifs. These two chain motifs are interconnected by Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond and cross linked by Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to produce octametric ring R88(27) and R88(28) motifs. The solubility test is carried out to enhance the drug solubility and the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Experimentally obtained vibrational wavenumbers are compared with the spectra obtained theoretically for both the compound. The strong intensity bands and the shifting of bands due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds are also investigated. The Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic properties are calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock Theory (HF) using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

  5. Monochromatic x-ray backlighting of wire-array z-pinch plasmas using spherically bent quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinars, D. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Bennett, G. R.; Wenger, D. F.; Ruggles, L. E.; Vargas, M. F.; Porter, J. L.; Adams, R. G.; Johnson, D. W.; Keller, K. L.; Rambo, P. K.; Rovang, D. C.; Seamen, H.; Simpson, W. W.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, S. C.

    2003-03-01

    X-ray backlighting systems are being developed to diagnose z-pinch, inertial confinement fusion capsule, and complex hydrodynamics experiments on the 20 MA Sandia Z machine. The x-ray backlighter source is a laser-produced plasma created using the Z-Beamlet laser, a 2 TW, 2 kJ Nd:glass laser recently constructed at Sandia. As an alternative to point-projection radiography, we are investigating a different geometry [S. A. Pikuz et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 740 (1997)] that uses spherically bent crystal mirrors to simultaneously obtain high spatial resolution and a narrow spectral bandwidth. Backlighting systems using the Si Heα line (1.865 keV) and the Mn Heα line (6.15 keV) are discussed. These systems are capable of spatial resolutions in the 5-10 μm range, a field of view as large as 5 mm by 20 mm, and a spectral bandwidth comparable to the width of the emission line used for backlighting.

  6. Computationally-assisted approach to the vibrational spectra of molecular crystals: study of hydrogen-bonding and pseudo-polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Mariela M; Amado, Ana M; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J A

    2006-10-13

    A new computationally-assisted methodology (PiMM), which accounts for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the crystal, is applied to the complete assignment of the Raman and infrared vibrational spectra of room temperature forms of crystalline caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. The vibrational shifts due to crystal packing interactions are evaluated from ab initio calculations for a set of suitable molecular pairs, using the B3LYP/6-31G* approach. The proposed methodology provides an answer to the current demand for a reliable assignment of the vibrational spectra of these methyl-xanthines, and clarifies several misleading assignments. The most relevant intermolecular interactions in each system and their effect on the vibrational spectra are considered and discussed. Based on these results, significant insights are obtained for the structure of caffeine in the anhydrous form (stable at room temperature), for which no X-ray structure has been reported. A possible structure based on C((8))--H...N((9)) and C((1,3))--H...O intermolecular interactions is suggested.

  7. Computationally-Assisted Approach to the Vibrational Spectra of Molecular Crystals: Study of Hydrogen-Bonding and Pseudo-Polymorphism13

    OpenAIRE

    Nolasco, Mariela M.; Amado, Ana M.; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.

    2006-01-01

    A new computationally-assisted methodology (PiMM), which accounts for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the crystal, is applied to the complete assignment of the Raman and infrared vibrational spectra of room temperature forms of crystalline caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. The vibrational shifts due to crystal packing interactions are evaluated from ab initio calculations for a set of suitable molecular pairs, using the B3LYP/6-31G* approach.The proposed methodology provi...

  8. Electron irradiation damage effects in hydrothermal grown quartz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electron irradiation effects in synthetic quartz single crystals were investigated to determine the extent of damage of the crystals during transmission electron microscopy examination, as the rapid deterioration is of major concern. On exposure of the quartz crystals to electron flux of 3.0 x 108 e/cm2/s at 200 kV accelerating ...

  9. Semiclassical treatments for small-molecule dynamics in low-temperature crystals using fixed and adiabatic vibrational bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Craig T.; Cina, Jeffrey A.

    2007-09-01

    Time-resolved coherent nonlinear optical experiments on small molecules in low-temperature host crystals are exposing valuable information on quantum mechanical dynamics in condensed media. We make use of generic features of these systems to frame two simple, comprehensive theories that will enable the efficient calculations of their ultrafast spectroscopic signals and support their interpretation in terms of the underlying chemical dynamics. Without resorting to a simple harmonic analysis, both treatments rely on the identification of normal coordinates to unambiguously partition the well-structured guest-host complex into a system and a bath. Both approaches expand the overall wave function as a sum of product states between fully anharmonic vibrational basis states for the system and approximate Gaussian wave packets for the bath degrees of freedom. The theories exploit the fact that ultrafast experiments typically drive large-amplitude motion in a few intermolecular degrees of freedom of higher frequency than the crystal phonons, while these intramolecular vibrations indirectly induce smaller-amplitude—but still perhaps coherent—motion among the lattice modes. The equations of motion for the time-dependent parameters of the bath wave packets are fairly compact in a fixed vibrational basis/Gaussian bath (FVB/GB) approach. An alternative adiabatic vibrational basis/Gaussian bath (AVB/GB) treatment leads to more complicated equations of motion involving adiabatic and nonadiabatic vector potentials. Computational demands for propagation of the parameter equations of motion appear quite manageable for tens or hundreds of atoms and scale similarly with system size in the two cases. Because of the time-scale separation between intermolecular and lattice vibrations, the AVB/GB theory may in some instances require fewer vibrational basis states than the FVB/GB approach. Either framework should enable practical first-principles calculations of nonlinear optical

  10. Electronic dipole resonance in smoky quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.

    1967-01-01

    Microwave absorption in smoky quartz mono-crystal is ascribed to resonance transitions of trapped electrons between initially configurational degenerated states, which are Stark-splitted by a polarizing electric field.

  11. In situ monitoring of structural changes during formation of 30S translation initiation complex by energy dissipation measurement using 27-MHz quartz-crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuyuki, Yumi; Takahashi, Shuntaro; Okahata, Yoshio

    2014-06-03

    Ribosome is a bionanomachine that facilitates an orderly translation process during protein synthesis in living cells. Real-time monitoring of conformational changes in ribosomal subunits in aqueous solution is important to understand the regulatory mechanism of protein synthesis, because conformational changes in ribosome in E. coli have been predicted to operate the switch from translation initiation to an elongation process during translation. We performed an energy dissipation measurement by using a quartz-crystal microbalance-admittance (QCM-A) technique for in situ monitoring of conformational changes in pre-30S translation initiation complex in response to the binding of fMet-tRNA(fMet) in aqueous solution. The addition of fMet-tRNA(fMet) caused changes in the physical property (increased dehydration and elasticity) in 30S ribosomal subunit in the presence of mRNA and IF2/guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) on the QCM plate. Furthermore, two sequential changes triggered by the addition of fMet-tRNA(fMet) were observed in 30S ribosomal subunit bound to mRNA in the presence of IF2/GTP and IF3. These observations suggest that the structural changes in 30S ribosomal subunit caused by the binding of fMet-tRNA(fMet) with IF2/GTP in the presence of IF3 could act as a switch to regulate the orderly processing in the construction of translation initiation complex, because the structural distinction can be a guidepost in the process for the relevant biomolecules.

  12. Crystal structure, vibrational spectra and DFT studies of hydrogen bonded 1,2,4-triazolium hydrogenselenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Thirunarayanan, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2017-10-01

    The new hydrogen bonded molecular complex 1,2,4-triazolium hydrogenselenate (THS) is prepared by the reaction of 1H-1,2,4-triazole and selenic acid. This complex is stabilised by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attractive forces between 1H and 1,2,4-triazolium cations and hydrogen selenate anions. The XRD studies revealed that intermolecular proton transfer occur from selenic acid to 1H-1,2,4-triazole molecule, results in the formation of 1,2,4-triazolium hydrogenselenate which contains 1,2,4-triazolium cations and hydrogenselenate anions. The molecular structure of THS crystal has also been optimised by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and B3LYP/6-311++G** methods in order to find the whole characteristics of the molecular complex. The theoretical structural parameters such as bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle determined by DFT methods are well agreed with the XRD parameters. The atomic charges and thermodynamic properties are also calculated and analysed. The energies of frontier molecular orbitals HOMO, LUMO, HOMO-1, LUMO+1 and LUMO-HUMO energy gap are calculated to understand the kinetic stability and chemical reactivity of the molecular complex. The natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) has been performed in order to study the intramolecular bonding interactions and delocalisation of electrons. These intra molecular charge transfer may induce biological activities such as antimicrobials, antiinflammatory, antifungal etc. The complete vibrational assignments of THS have been performed by using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra.

  13. Fabrication of a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liqiang; Xing, Jianchun; Wang, Haoxu; Wu, Xuezhong

    2015-04-01

    A novel quartz micromachined gyroscope is proposed in this paper. The novel gyroscope is realized by quartz anisotropic wet etching and 3-dimensional electrodes deposition. In the quartz wet etching process, the quality of Cr/Au mask films affecting the process are studied by experiment. An excellent mask film with 100 Å Cr and 2000 Å Au is achieved by optimization of experimental parameters. Crystal facets after etching seriously affect the following sidewall electrodes deposition process and the structure's mechanical behaviours. Removal of crystal facets is successfully implemented by increasing etching time based on etching rate ratios between facets and crystal planes. In the electrodes deposition process, an aperture mask evaporation method is employed to prepare electrodes on 3-dimensional surfaces of the gyroscope structure. The alignments among the aperture masks are realized by the ABM™ Mask Aligner System. Based on the processes described above, a z-axis quartz gyroscope is fabricated successfully.

  14. Laser ultrasonic analysis of normal modes generated by a voltage pulse on an AT quartz sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Jozefien; Martinez, Loïc; Glorieux, Christ; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Ehssein, Chighali Ould; Serfaty, Stéphane

    2006-12-22

    Laser ultrasonic detection is a versatile and highly sensitive tool for the observation of surface waves. In the following study, laser ultrasonic detection is used for the experimental study of spurious normal vibration modes of a disk quartz sensor excited by a voltage pulse. The AT cut crystal (cut of the crystal relative to the the main crystallographic axis is 35.25 degrees) is optimal for generating mainly thickness-shear vibrations (central frequency 6 MHz) on the quartz surface. However, resulting from shear-to-longitudinal and shear-to-surface mode conversion, and from the weak coupling with the other crystallographic axes, other modes (thickness-compressional and bending modes) are always present in the plate response. Since the laser vibrometer is sensitive to normal displacements, the laser investigation shows waves that can be considered as unwanted for the AT quartz used as a shear sensor. The scanned three dimensional (3D) amplitude-space-time signals are carefully analysed using their representation in three dual Fourier domains (space-time, wave number-frequency). Results on the transient analysis of the waves, the normal bending modes and the dispersion curves are shown.

  15. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Crooke, Emma; Doherty, Cara M; Hill, Anita J; Myers, Matthew; Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew

    2011-10-03

    Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably responsible for variations in the QCM sensitivity at high hydrocarbon concentrations. The results suggest that polymer membrane conditioning in water is an issue that needs to be considered when performing QCM measurements in the aqueous phase. In addition, the study shows that the hydrocarbon

  16. Optical Absorption of Impurities and Defects in Semiconducting Crystals Electronic Absorption of Deep Centres and Vibrational Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pajot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This book outlines, with the help of several specific examples, the important role played by absorption spectroscopy in the investigation of deep-level centers introduced in semiconductors and insulators like diamond, silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide by high-energy irradiation, residual impurities, and defects produced during crystal growth. It also describes the crucial role played by vibrational spectroscopy to determine the atomic structure and symmetry of complexes associated with light impurities like hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, and as a tool for quantitative analysis of these elements in the materials.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra and theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry of a potential antimicrobial Meldrum's acid derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, M. J. M.; Freire, P. T. C.; Mendes Filho, J.; de Toledo, T. A.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; da Silva, L. E.; Bento, R. R. F.; Faria, J. L. B.; Pizani, P. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Coutinho, H. D. M.; Oliveira, M. T. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new derivative of Meldrum's acid 5-((5-chloropyridin-2-ylamino)methylene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (CYMM) of molecular formula C12H11ClN2O4 was synthesized and structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The vibrational properties of the crystal were studied by Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) techniques and theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry using Density functional theory (DFT) and Density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). A comparison with experimental spectra allowed the assignment of all the normal modes. The descriptions of the normal modes were carried by means of potential energy distribution (PED). Additionally, analysis of the antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance modulatory activity was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the CYMM.

  18. Regio-Regular Oligo and Poly(3-hexyl thiophene): Precise Structural Markers from the Vibrational Spectra of Oligomer Single Crystals.

    KAUST Repository

    Brambilla, Luigi

    2014-10-14

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. In this work, we report a comparative analysis of the infrared and Raman spectra of octa(3-hexylthiophene) (3HT)8, trideca(3-hexylthiophene) (3HT)13, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT recorded in various phases, namely, amorphous, semicrystalline, polycrystalline and single crystal. We have based our analysis on the spectra of the (3HT)8 single crystal (whose structure has been determined by selected area electron diffraction) taken as reference and on the results of DFT calculations and molecular vibrational dynamics. New and precise spectroscopic markers of the molecular structures show the existence of three phases, namely: hairy (phase 1), ordered (phase 2), and disordered/amorphous (phase 3). Conceptually, the identified markers can be used for the molecular structure analysis of other similar systems.

  19. Structural, vibrational and theoretical studies of anilinium trichloroacetate: new hydrogen bonded molecular crystal with nonlinear optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanak, H; Pawlus, K; Marchewka, M K; Pietraszko, A

    2014-01-24

    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of the potential nonlinear optical (NLO) material anilinium trichloroacetate. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the compound have been recorded together between 4000-80 cm(-1) and 3600-80 cm(-1) regions, respectively. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group of monoclinic system. The optimized molecular structure, vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities and Raman activities have been calculated by using density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) as higher basis set. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental data. DSC measurements on powder samples do not indicate clearly on the occurrence of phase transitions in the temperature 113-293 K. The Kurtz and Perry powder reflection technique appeared to be very effective in studies of second-order nonlinear optical properties of the molecule. The non-linear optical properties are also addressed theoretically. The predicted NLO properties of the title compound are much greater than ones of urea. In addition, DFT calculations of the title compound, molecular electrostatic potential, frontier orbitals and thermodynamic properties were also performed at 6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. For title crystal the SHG efficiency was estimated by Kurtz-Perry method to be d(eff)=0.70 d(eff) (KDP). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational, thermal behavior and UV spectroscopy of (2,6-diaminopyridinium) dihydrogen arsenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Emna; Ben Hassen, Chawki; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Daoud, Abdelaziz; Mhiri, Tahar; Boujelbene, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    A new organic dihydrogenomonoarsenate (C5H8N3)H2AsO4 was synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the centro-symmetric space group P21/n. Unit cell parameters are a = 10.124 (5)Ǻ, b = 6.648 (5)Ǻ, c = 13.900 (5)Ǻ, β = 105.532° with Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved and refined to R = 0.038 with 2001 independent reflections. Hirshfeld surfaces analysis were used to visualize the fidelity of the crystal structure which has been determined by X-ray data collection on single crystals (C5H8N3)H2AsO4. Due the strong hydrogen Osbnd H⋯O bond network connecting the H2AsO4 groups, the anionic arrangement must be described as infinite (H2AsO4)nn-of dimers chains spreading, in a zig zag fashion, parallel to the b direction. The organic groups (C5H8N3)+ are anchored between adjacent polyanions through multiple hydrogen bonds Nsbnd H⋯O. The thermal decomposition of precursors studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicate the existence of two mass loss regions correspond to degradation of the title compound. The existence of vibrational modes correspond to the organic and inorganic groups are identified by the infrared and Raman spectroscopy in the frequency ranges 500-4000 and 25-4000 cm-1, respectively.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectral analysis and Z-scan studies of a new organic crystal N,N‧dimethylurea ninhydrin: A scaled quantum mechanical force field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jerin Susan; Sajan, D.; Umadevi, T.; Chaitanya, K.; Sankar, Pranitha; Philip, Reji

    2015-10-01

    A new organic material, N,N‧dimethylurea ninhydrin (3a,8a-dihydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-1,3,3a,8a-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-d]imidazole-2,8-dione) (NDUN) was synthesized. Structural details were obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra is carried out with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. TG/DTA and 1H NMR studies were carried out. Linear optical properties were studied from UV-Vis spectra. From the open aperture Z-scan data, it is found that the molecule shows third order nonlinear optical behaviour due to two photon absorption (2PA) mechanism.

  2. Thickness-shear modes of an elliptical, contoured AT-cut quartz resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Rongxing; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Yang, Jiashi

    2013-06-01

    We study free vibrations of an elliptical crystal resonator of AT-cut quartz with an optimal ratio between the semi-major and semi-minor axes as defined by Mindlin. The resonator is contoured with a quadratic thickness variation. The scalar equation for thickness-shear modes in an AT-cut quartz plate by Tiersten and Smythe is used. Analytical solutions for the frequencies and modes to the scalar equation are obtained using a power series expansion that converges rapidly. The frequencies and modes are exact in the sense that they can satisfy the scalar differential equation and the free edge condition to any desired accuracy. They are simple and can be used conveniently for further studies on other effects on frequencies and modes of contoured resonators.

  3. Effects of air resistance on AT-cut quartz thickness-shear resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jiashi

    2013-02-01

    We study theoretically the effects of air resistance on an AT-cut quartz plate thickness-shear mode resonator. Mindlin's two-dimensional equations for coupled thickness-shear and flexural motions of piezoelectric plates are employed for the crystal resonator. The equations of a Newtonian fluid and the equations of linear acoustics are used for the shear and compressive waves in the air surrounding the resonator, respectively. Solutions for free and electrically forced vibrations are obtained. The impedance of the resonator is calculated. The effects of air resistance are examined. It is found that air viscosity causes a relative frequency shift of the order of ppm. When the material quality factor of quartz Q = 10(5), the air viscosity and compressibility both have significant effects on resonator impedance. For resonators with larger aspect ratios the effects of air resistance are weaker, and the effect of air compressibility is weaker than air viscosity.

  4. Crystal growth, vibrational, optical, thermal and theoretical studies of a nonlinear optical material: 2-Methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Sarada College for Women, Salem-16 (India); Guru Prasad, L. [Department of Science & Humanities, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur (India); Mathammal, R. [Department of Physics, Sri Sarada College for Women, Salem-16 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Single crystals of 2-methyl 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid with reasonable size have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method using ethanol as solvent. Quantum chemical calculation of 2-methyl 3,5-Dinitro benzoic acid was carried out by using DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded and indexed. Both the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectrum validates the presence of functional groups. Polarizability, first order hyperpolarizability and the electric dipole moment values have been computed theoretically. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift of the molecule was calculated and compared with experimental results. TG/DSC analysis has been employed to understand the thermal and physio-chemical stability of the title compound. Frequency conversion property of the crystal was tested by Kurtz and Perry method. Optical absorption behavior of the grown crystal was examined by recording the optical spectrum and band gap energy was also estimated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy shows the charge transfer nature of the molecule.

  5. Acoustic vibrations contribute to the diffuse scatter produced by ribosome crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polikanov, Yury S.; Moore, Peter B.

    2015-09-26

    The diffuse scattering pattern produced by frozen crystals of the 70S ribosome fromThermus thermophilusis as highly structured as it would be if it resulted entirely from domain-scale motions within these particles. However, the qualitative properties of the scattering pattern suggest that acoustic displacements of the crystal lattice make a major contribution to it.

  6. Linking crystal structure with temperature-sensitive vibrational modes in calcium carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-09-07

    We demonstrate a correlation between how an IR-active vibrational mode responds to temperature changes and how it responds to crystallinity differences. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to track changes in carbonate-related vibrational modes in three different CaCO3 polymorphs (calcite, aragonite, and vaterite) and CaMg(CO3)2 (dolomite) during heating. Of the three characteristic IR-active carbonate modes, the in-plane bending mode (ν4) shows the most pronounced changes with heating in polymorphs that have planar carbonate arrangements (calcite, aragonite, and dolomite). In contrast, this mode is virtually unchanged in vaterite, which has a canted arrangement of carbonate units. We correlate these trends with recent studies that identified the ν4 mode as most susceptible to changes related to crystallinity differences in calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate. Thus, our results suggest that studies of packing arrangements could provide a generalizable approach to identify the most diagnostic vibrational modes for tracking either temperature-dependent or crystallinity-related effects in IR-active solids.

  7. Sensor for monitoring the vibration of a laser beam based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey

    2010-12-06

    A continuous multiple exposure diffraction grating (CMEDG) is fabricated holographically on polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films using two-beam interference with multiple exposures. The grating is fabricated by exposing a PDLC film to 18 repeated exposure/non-exposure cycles with an angular step of ~10°/10° while it revolves a circle on a rotation stage. The structure of the sample thus formed is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and shows arc-ripples around the center. From the diffraction patterns of the formed grating obtained using a normally incident laser beam, some or all of the 18 recorded arc beams can be reconstructed, as determined by the probing location. Thus, it can be applied for use as a beam-vibration sensor for a laser.

  8. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: adenilson1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  9. Vibrational Spectra and Density functional calculation of Organic Nonlinear Optic Crystal p-Amino Acetanilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saja, D; Joe, I Hubert; Jayakumar, V S [Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram-695015, Kerala (India)

    2006-01-01

    The NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR spectral analysis of potential NLO material P-Amino Acetanilide is carried out by density functional computations. The optimized geometry shows that NH2 and NHCOCH3 groups substituted in para position of phenyl ring are non-planar which predicts maximum conjugation of molecule with donor and acceptor groups. Vibrational analysis reveals that simultaneous IR and Raman activation of the phenyl ring modes also provide evidence for the charge transfer interaction between the donors and the acceptor can make the molecule highly polarized and the intra molecular charge transfer interaction must be responsible for the NLO properties of PAA.

  10. Algebraic Theory of Crystal Vibrations: Localization Properties of Wave Functions in Two-Dimensional Lattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dietz, B.; Iachello, F.; Macek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 246. ISSN 2073-4352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : algebraic models * graphene-like materials * striped structures * photonic crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2016

  11. Crystal structure of post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 reinvestigated: new insights into atomic thermal vibration behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakatsuka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, the post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 [calcium iridium(IV trioxide], have been grown from a CaCl2 flux at atmospheric pressure. The crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of IrO6 octahedral layers and CaO8 hendecahedral layers along [010]. Chains formed by edge-sharing of IrO6 octahedra (point-group symmetry 2/m.. run along [100] and are interconnected along [001] by sharing apical O atoms to build up the IrO6 octahedral layers. Chains formed by face-sharing of CaO8 hendecahedra (point-group symmetry m2m run along [100] and are interconnected along [001] by edge-sharing to build up the CaO8 hendecahedral layers. The IrO6 octahedral layers and CaO8 hendecahedral layers are interconnected by sharing edges. The present structure refinement using a high-power X-ray source confirms the atomic positions determined by Hirai et al. (2009 [Z. Kristallogr. 224, 345–350], who had revised our previous report [Sugahara et al. (2008. Am. Mineral. 93, 1148–1152]. However, the displacement ellipsoids of the Ir and Ca atoms based on the present refinement can be approximated as uniaxial ellipsoids elongating along [100], unlike those reported by Hirai et al. (2009. This suggests that the thermal vibrations of the Ir and Ca atoms are mutually suppressed towards the Ir...Ca direction across the shared edge because of the dominant repulsion between the two atoms.

  12. OH-point defects in quartz in B- and Li-bearing systems and their application to pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M. A.; Stalder, R.; Konzett, J.; Hauzenberger, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    OH incorporation in quartz in Al-, B- and Li-bearing systems (granitic systems containing tourmaline or spodumene) was studied experimentally in order to investigate the effect of pressure, temperature and chemical impurities on the generation of OH-defects. High-pressure experiments were carried out at pressures between 5 and 25 kbar and temperatures between 800 and 900 °C, and OH-contents in quartz were calculated from IR absorption spectra measured on oriented quartz crystals. IR absorption features were assigned to impurity substitutions, such as AlOH (3,420, 3,379 and 3,315 cm-1) and BOH (3,595 cm-1), LiOH (3,483 cm-1), and hydrogarnet substitution (4H)Si defects (3,583 cm-1). Results indicate a negative correlation of incorporated Al-specific OH-defect content versus pressure (630 ± 130 wt ppm H2O at 5 kbar to 102 ± 6 wt ppm H2O at 25 kbar), but no clear correlation of B-specific OH-defects with pressure. In runs initially containing spodumene, virtually OH-free quartzes were observed at pressures ≥10 kbar, where impurity cations compensate each other forming an anhydrous eucryptite-defect component. In contrast, at 5 kbar, both Li- ad Al-specific OH-defects are observed (corresponding to 470 ± 75 wt ppm H2O). Results from this study may therefore be used to monitor formation conditions of quartz in terms of pressure and trace metal saturation of the crystallizing petrological system. IR spectra obtained from natural quartz grains from a tourmaline-bearing pegmatite exhibit B- and Al-related OH-bands. The B-related OH-band is also exhibited in quartz from a tourmaline + spodumene-bearing pegmatite. Li- and Al-related OH-bands, however, are subordinate or not observed at all in the spodumene-bearing system, which suggests that OH-vibrations do not reflect absolute Li-contents in quartz due to efficient coupled substitution involving Al. Data from experimental runs and natural specimens indicate that the B-related OH-band can be used as a rough proxy for

  13. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies of polymerization and redox process of poly(1,8-diaminocarbazole) in protic and aprotic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skompska, Magdalena, E-mail: mskomps@chem.uw.edu.p [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul Pasteura 1, 02 093, Warsaw (Poland); Tarajko-Wazny, Agata [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul Pasteura 1, 02 093, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-01

    Electropolymerization and doping/undoping process of poly(1,8-diaminocarbazole) (PDACz) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with electrochemical quartz microbalance (EQCM), in aqueous solution of 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and in 0.1 M LiClO{sub 4} in acetonitrile. The results demonstrated that protonation of the polymer in HClO{sub 4} strongly influences the gravimetric response obtained during polymerization as well as the mechanism of redox process of the polymer in the monomer-free solution. The data are discussed in terms of the presence of protons and ClO{sub 4}{sup -} counter ions in the reduced (neutral) polymer matrix. In aprotic acetonitrile containing LiClO{sub 4} as the supporting electrolyte, the polymer doping/undoping occurs according to the simple mechanism with exchange of anions. The gravimetric results obtained in acidic aqueous solution allowed for some revision of the scheme of the redox process proposed by the authors in the previous paper.

  14. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  15. Density functional theory for prediction of far-infrared vibrational frequencies: molecular crystals of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, C.; Auchettl, R.; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Robertson, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state density functional theory code has been implemented for the structure optimization of crystalline methanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid and for the calculation of infrared frequencies. The results are compared to thin film spectra obtained from low-temperature experiments performed at the Australian Synchrotron. Harmonic frequency calculations of the internal modes calculated at the B3LYP-D3/m-6-311G(d) level shows higher deviation from infrared experiment than more advanced theory applied to the gas phase. Importantly for the solid-state, the simulation of low-frequency molecular lattice modes closely resembles the observed far-infrared features after application of a 0.92 scaling factor. This allowed experimental peaks to be assigned to specific translation and libration modes, including acetaldehyde and acetic acid lattice features for the first time. These frequency calculations have been performed without the need for supercomputing resources that are required for large molecular clusters using comparable levels of theory. This new theoretical approach will find use for the rapid characterization of intermolecular interactions and bonding in crystals, and the assignment of far-infrared spectra for crystalline samples such as pharmaceuticals and molecular ices. One interesting application may be for the detection of species of prebiotic interest on the surfaces of Kuiper-Belt and Trans-Neptunian Objects. At such locations, the three small organic molecules studied here could reside in their crystalline phase. The far-infrared spectra for their low-temperature solid phases are collected under planetary conditions, allowing us to compile and assign their most intense spectral features to assist future far-infrared surveys of icy Solar system surfaces.

  16. DFT computations on: Crystal structure, vibrational studies and optical investigations of a luminescent self-assembled material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, A; Ben Ahmed, A; Dammak, T; Belhouchet, M

    2018-02-15

    The current work undertakes the growth and the physicochemical properties of a novel green-yellow luminescence semi-organic material, the 3-picolylammonium bromide abbreviated (Pico-Br). In this paper, we report the X-ray diffraction measurements which show that the crystal lattice consists of distinct 3-picolylammonium cations and free bromide anions connected via NH⋯Br and NH⋯N hydrogen bonds leading to form a two dimensional frameworks. Molecular geometry compared with its optimized counterpart shows that the quantum chemical calculations carried out with density functional method (DFT) well produce the perceived structure by X-ray resolution of the studied material. To provide further insight into the spectroscopic properties, additional characterization of this material have been performed with Raman and infrared studies at room temperature. Theoretical computations have been computed using the (DFT) method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory implemented within Gaussian 03 program to study the vibrational spectra of the investigated molecule in the ground state. Optical absorption spectrum inspected by UV-visible absorption reveals the appearance of sharp optical gap of 280nm (4.42eV) as well as a strong green photoluminescence emission at 550nm (2.25eV) is detected on the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at room temperature. Using the TD/DFT method, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and the Mulliken atomic charges were calculated in order to get an insight into the material. Good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental ones was predicted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DFT computations on: Crystal structure, vibrational studies and optical investigations of a luminescent self-assembled material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, A.; Ben Ahmed, A.; Dammak, T.; Belhouchet, M.

    2018-02-01

    The current work undertakes the growth and the physicochemical properties of a novel green-yellow luminescence semi-organic material, the 3-picolylammonium bromide abbreviated (Pico-Br). In this paper, we report the X-ray diffraction measurements which show that the crystal lattice consists of distinct 3-picolylammonium cations and free bromide anions connected via Nsbnd H ⋯ Br and Nsbnd H ⋯ N hydrogen bonds leading to form a two dimensional frameworks. Molecular geometry compared with its optimized counterpart shows that the quantum chemical calculations carried out with density functional method (DFT) well produce the perceived structure by X-ray resolution of the studied material. To provide further insight into the spectroscopic properties, additional characterization of this material have been performed with Raman and infrared studies at room temperature. Theoretical computations have been computed using the (DFT) method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory implemented within Gaussian 03 program to study the vibrational spectra of the investigated molecule in the ground state. Optical absorption spectrum inspected by UV-visible absorption reveals the appearance of sharp optical gap of 280 nm (4.42 eV) as well as a strong green photoluminescence emission at 550 nm (2.25 eV) is detected on the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at room temperature. Using the TD/DFT method, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and the Mulliken atomic charges were calculated in order to get an insight into the material. Good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental ones was predicted.

  18. Synthesis and binding affinity analysis of α1-2- and α1-6-O/S-linked dimannosides for the elucidation of sulfur in glycosidic bonds using quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Oscar; Wu, Bin; Thota, Niranjan; Ge, Jian-Tao; Fauquet, Germain; Saur, Ann-Kathrin; Aastrup, Teodor; Dong, Hai; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

    2017-11-27

    The role of sulfur in glycosidic bonds has been evaluated using quartz crystal microbalance methodology. Synthetic routes towards α1-2- and α1-6-linked dimannosides with S- or O-glycosidic bonds have been developed, and the recognition properties assessed in competition binding assays with the cognate lectin concanavalin A. Mannose-presenting QCM sensors were produced using photoinitiated, nitrene-mediated immobilization methods, and the subsequent binding study was performed in an automated flow-through instrumentation, and correlated with data from isothermal titration calorimetry. The recorded Kd-values corresponded well with reported binding affinities for the O-linked dimannosides with affinities for the α1-2-linked dimannosides in the lower micromolar range. The S-linked analogs showed slightly disparate effects, where the α1-6-linked analog showed weaker affinity than the O-linked dimannoside, as well as positive apparent cooperativity, whereas the α1-2-analog displayed very similar binding compared to the O-linked structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hagopian, V

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with qu...

  20. Adsorption of bituminous components at oil/water interfaces investigated by quartz crystal microbalance: implications to the stability of water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goual, Lamia; Horváth-Szabó, Géza; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2005-08-30

    Silica-gel-coated QCM crystals oscillating in a thickness shear mode are used to measure adsorption of bituminous components in water-saturated heptol (1/1 vol ratio of a heptane/toluene mixture) at the oil/water interface. In addition to the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed film, the effects of the bulk liquid density and viscosity as well as the liquid trapped in interfacial cavities are taken into account for the calculation of adsorbed mass. Asphaltenes in heptol adsorb continuously at the oil/water interface, while resins (the surface-active species in maltenes) show adsorption saturation in the same solvent. For Athabasca bitumen in heptol, two adsorption regimes are observed depending on concentration. At low concentrations, a slow, non-steady-state, and irreversible adsorption takes place. At high concentrations, a steady-state adsorption with limited reversibility results in a quick adsorption saturation. The threshold concentration between these adsorption regimes is 1.5 wt % and 8 wt % for oil/water and oil/gold interfaces, respectively. The threshold concentration, the total adsorbed amount, and the flux of non-steady-state adsorption depend on the resin-to-asphaltene ratio. The threshold concentration is related to the earlier reported critical bitumen concentration characterizing the rigid-to-flexible transition of the interfacial film. We propose a new mechanism based on the change of the effective resin-to-asphaltene ratio with dilution to explain both the adsorption behavior and emulsion stability.

  1. Hydrogen bonding and vibrational properties of hydroxy groups in the crystal lattice of dioctahedral clay minerals by means of first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, V.; Timon, V.; Escamilla-Roa, E.; Hernández-Languna, A.; Sainz-Díaz, C. I.

    2004-10-01

    The hydroxy groups of the crystal lattice of dioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates were investigated by means of quantum-mechanical calculation. The standard Kohn-Sham self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) method was applied using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with numerical atomic orbitals and double-zeta polarized functions as basis set. Isomorphous cation substitution of different cations in the octahedral and tetrahedral sheet was included along with several interlayer cations reproducing experimental crystal lattice parameters. The effect of these substitutions and the interlayer charge on the hydroxyl group properties was also studied. These structures represent different cation pairs among Al3+, Fe3+ and Mg2+ in the octahedral sheet of clays joined to OH groups. The geometrical disposition of the OH bond in the crystal lattice and the hydrogen bonds and other electrostatic interactions of this group were analyzed. The frequencies of different vibrational modes of the OH group [ν(OH), δ(OH) and γ(OH)] were calculated and compared with experimental data, finding a good agreement. These frequencies depend significantly on the nature of cations which are joined with, and the electrostatic interactions with, the interlayer cations. Besides, hydrogen-bonding interactions with tetrahedral oxygens are important for the vibrational properties of the OH groups; however, also the electrostatic interactions of these OH groups with the rest of tetrahedral oxygens within the tetrahedral cavity should be taken into account. The cation substitution effect on the vibration modes of the OH groups was analyzed reproducing the experimental behaviour.

  2. Anisotropic annealing of fission fragments in synthetic quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    1999-01-01

    A study on the thermal annealing behavior of fission fragments in synthetic quartz crystals was performed for application of synthetic quartz to track detectors under high temperature circumstances: x-, y-, and z-cut quartz plates were exposed to fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and were annealed up to 750 deg. C. It was found that track retention depended on the crystallographic structure: the annealing temperature, where the number of etched tracks was sharply reduced, was 550 deg. C for the x- and y-cut plates and 750 deg. C for z-cut plates. Track sizes decrease and disperse with reductions in the track retention.

  3. A novel coordination polymer of 7-azaindole-3-carboxylic acid with sodium ions: crystal and molecular structures, vibrational spectra and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzyk-Ociepa, Barbara; Szmigiel, Ksenia; Petrus, Rafał; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Michalska, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional coordination polymer, catena-poly[(μ2-7-azaindole-3-carboxylato-O:N)-di-aqua-sodium], [Na(7AI3CAH)(H2O)2]n has been synthesized and investigated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The sodium complex crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group Pī with a = 7.2226 (4), b = 7.4342 (7), c = 8.8428 (8) Å, α = 103.568 (8), β = 93.425 (6), γ = 91.233 (6)°, V = 460.42 (7) A3 and Z = 2. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent, half occupied sodium cations surrounded by one 7AI3CAH anion and two water molecules. The O-deprotonated 7-azaindole-3-carboxylate ligand (7AI3CAH) bridges the adjacent Na ions via one oxygen atom of the carboxylate group and via the pyridine nitrogen atom of the 7-azaindole group, which is quite unusual. The sodium cations are six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry, where two apical positions are occupied by two water molecules. Extensive intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal structure of the complex. The infrared and Raman spectra of [Na(7AI3CAH)(H2O)2]n were recorded in the solid state. The theoretical wavenumbers, infrared intensities, Raman scattering activities and Raman intensities were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level for a theoretical model of the title compound including an inter ligand Nsbnd H⋯O(aqua) interaction. A detailed vibrational assignment has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution.

  4. Oriented single-crystal nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of [Fe(TPP)(MI)(NO)]: quantitative assessment of the trans effect of NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Nicolai; Sage, J Timothy; Silvernail, Nathan; Scheidt, W Robert; Alp, E Ercan; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong

    2010-08-02

    This paper presents oriented single-crystal Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) data for the six-coordinate (6C) ferrous heme-nitrosyl model complex [(57)Fe(TPP)(MI)(NO)] (1; TPP(2-) = tetraphenylporphyrin dianion; MI = 1-methylimidazole). The availability of these data enables for the first time the detailed simulation of the complete NRVS data, including the porphyrin-based vibrations, of a 6C ferrous heme-nitrosyl, using our quantum chemistry centered normal coordinate analysis (QCC-NCA). Importantly, the Fe-NO stretch is split by interaction with a porphyrin-based vibration into two features, observed at 437 and 472 cm(-1). The 437 cm(-1) feature is strongly out-of-plane (oop) polarized and shows a (15)N(18)O isotope shift of 8 cm(-1) and is therefore assigned to nu(Fe-NO). The admixture of Fe-N-O bending character is small. Main contributions to the Fe-N-O bend are observed in the 520-580 cm(-1) region, distributed over a number of in-plane (ip) polarized porphyrin-based vibrations. The main component, assigned to delta(ip)(Fe-N-O), is identified with the feature at 563 cm(-1). The Fe-N-O bend also shows strong mixing with the Fe-NO stretching internal coordinate, as evidenced by the oop NRVS intensity in the 520-580 cm(-1) region. Very accurate normal mode descriptions of nu(Fe-NO) and delta(ip)(Fe-N-O) have been obtained in this study. These results contradict previous interpretations of the vibrational spectra of 6C ferrous heme-nitrosyls where the higher energy feature at approximately 550 cm(-1) had usually been associated with nu(Fe-NO). Furthermore, these results provide key insight into NO binding to ferrous heme active sites in globins and other heme proteins, in particular with respect to (a) the effect of hydrogen bonding to the coordinated NO and (b) changes in heme dynamics upon NO coordination. [Fe(TPP)(MI)(NO)] constitutes an excellent model system for ferrous NO adducts of myoglobin (Mb) mutants where the distal histidine (His64

  5. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on PlatinumSingle-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation VibrationalSpectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratlie, Kaitlin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of cyclohexene, benzene, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene on platinum catalysts were monitored in situ via sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). SFG is a surface specific vibrational spectroscopic tool capable of monitoring submonolayer coverages under reaction conditions without gas-phase interference. SFG was used to identify the surface intermediates present during catalytic processes on Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystals and on cubic and cuboctahedra Pt nanoparticles in the Torr pressure regime and at high temperatures (300K-450K). At low pressures (<10-6 Torr), cyclohexene hydrogenated and dehydrogenates to form cyclohexyl (C6H11) and π-allyl C6H9, respectively, on Pt(100). Increasing pressures to 1.5 Torr form cyclohexyl, π-allyl C6H9, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, illustrating the necessity to investigate catalytic reactions at high-pressures. Simultaneously, GC was used to acquire turnover rates that were correlated to reactive intermediates observed spectroscopically. Benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111) and Pt(100) illustrated structure sensitivity via both vibrational spectroscopy and kinetics. Both cyclohexane and cyclohexene were produced on Pt(111), while only cyclohexane was formed on Pt(100). Additionally, π-allyl c-C6H9 was found only on Pt(100), indicating that cyclohexene rapidly dehydrogenates on the (100) surface. The structure insensitive production of cyclohexane was found to exhibit a compensation effect and was analyzed using the selective energy transfer (SET) model. The SET model suggests that the Pt-H system donates energy to the E2u mode of free benzene, which leads to catalysis. Linear C6 (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene) hydrocarbons were also investigated in the presence and absence of excess hydrogen on Pt

  6. The role of deformation on trace element solubility in quartz: Observations from naturally deformed quartz-rich rocks and experimentally deformed Ti-doped synthetic quartz aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachlas, W.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C.; Seaton, N. C.; Hirth, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in resolving the significance of trace element solubility (e.g., Ti) in quartz have largely focused on reconstructing the P-T-X conditions of equilibration. The calibration of Ti in quartz thermometry (TitaniQ) and the refined precision of analytical instrumentation for in-situ quantitative analysis make this a very effective technique for thermobarometric reconstructions of geologic events. However, the incorporation of trace impurities in the quartz lattice is likely to be affected by deformation, as crystal plasticity may influence the mobility of trace elements. To investigate the role of dynamic recrystallization on the accommodation of changing trace element solubility in quartz, this study combines measurements of trace element concentrations and distribution in naturally deformed quartz with high P-T deformation experiments of trace element doped synthetic quartz aggregates. Measurements of the trace element concentration of quartz from an extensional shear zone in the North American Cordillera provide insight to the behavior of trace elements during dynamic recrystallization associated with retrograde cooling and exhumation. Rutile-bearing quartzite mylonites from the Thor-Odin core complex, British Columbia, were selected for analysis based on the ability to determine Ti activity, the identification of a suitable protolith, and the existence of stable isotope thermometry that allows comparison with independent thermometers. High resolution quantitative analysis reveals systematic compositional variability: the interior of deformed quartz grains preserves a higher Ti concentration than the adjacent rim of the grain. This correlation between microstructural domain and trace element distribution suggests a relationship between the solubility of trace impurities and the mechanism of dynamic recrystallization in quartz. To experimentally investigate the role of deformation on the solubility of trace elements in quartz, synthetic quartz

  7. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance analysis of the oxygen reduction reaction on Pt-based electrodes. Part 1: Effect of adsorbed anions on the oxygen reduction activities of Pt in HF, HClO4, and H2SO4 solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Jun; Yano, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2011-05-17

    The effects of anion adsorption on the activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a Pt film electrode in electrolyte solutions (HClO(4) and HF at various concentrations) were analyzed using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and a rotating disk electrode (RDE). With an increasing HClO(4) concentration [HClO(4)], the onset potential for the Pt oxide formation in the voltammogram shifted in the positive direction, accompanied by a compression of the hydrogen adsorption/oxidation wave to less positive potentials. This is ascribed to a specific adsorption of the ClO(4)(-) anion, because the [HClO(4)] dependence of the mass change Δm detected by EQCM in the double-layer region was found to be fitted well by a Frumkin-Temkin adsorption isotherm. The potential dependencies of Δm in both 0.1 and 0.5 M HClO(4) solutions accord well with those of the ν(Cl-O) intensities observed by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the potential range from 0.3 to 0.6 V. The kinetically controlled current densities j(k) for the ORR at the Pt-RDE were found to decrease with increasing [HClO(4)], because of the blocking of the active sites by specifically adsorbed ClO(4)(-). The values of j(k) in the non-adsorbing 0.1 M HF electrolyte solution, however, were smaller than those in 0.1 M HClO(4). It was found that the low ORR activity could be ascribed to the low H(+) activity in the weak acid solution of HF. We, for the first time, detected a reversible mass change for one or more adsorbed oxygen species on the Pt-EQCM in O(2)-saturated and He-purged HF and HClO(4) solutions. The coverages of oxygen species θ(O) on Pt were found to increase in the O(2)-saturated solution. High values of θ(O) in O(2)-saturated 7 mM HF suggest that the ORR rate was limited by the very low H(+) activity in the solution, and the adsorbed oxygen species remained on the surface because of a slow consumption rate.

  8. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance analysis of the oxygen reduction reaction on Pt-based electrodes. Part 2: adsorption of oxygen species and ClO4(-) anions on Pt and Pt-Co alloy in HClO4 solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, J; Yano, H; Tryk, D A; Watanabe, M; Uchida, H

    2014-01-14

    To gain deeper insight into the role of adsorbed oxygenated species in the O2 reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics on platinum and platinum-cobalt alloys for fuel cells, we carried out a series of measurements with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and the rotating disk electrode (RDE) in acid solution. The effects of anion adsorption on the activities for the ORR were first assessed in HClO4 and HF electrolyte solutions at various concentrations. In our previous work (Part 1), we reported that the perchlorate anion adsorbs specifically on bulk-Pt, with a Frumkin-Temkin isotherm, that is, a linear relationship between Δm and log[HClO4]. Here, we find that the specific adsorption on the Pt-skin/Pt3Co alloy was significantly stronger than that on bulk-Pt, in line with its modified electronic properties. The kinetically controlled current density j(k) for the O2 reduction at the Pt-skin/Pt3Co-RDE was about 9 times larger than that of the bulk-Pt-RDE in 0.01 M HClO4 saturated with air, but the j(k) values on Pt-skin/Pt3Co decreased with increasing [HClO4] more steeply than in the case of Pt, due to the blocking of the active sites by the specifically adsorbed ClO4(-). We have detected reversible mass changes for one or more adsorbed oxygen-containing species (Ox = O2, O, OH, H2O) on the Pt-skin/Pt3Co-EQCM and Pt-EQCM in O2-saturated and He-purged 0.01 M HClO4 solutions, in which the specific adsorption of ClO4(-) anions was negligible. The coverages of oxygen species θ(Ox) on the Pt-skin/Pt3Co in the potential range from 0.86 to 0.96 V in the O2-saturated solution were found to be larger than those on pure Pt, providing strong evidence that the higher O2 reduction activity on the Pt3Co is correlated with higher θ(Ox), contrary to the conventional view.

  9. Gamma irradiation of quartz from Pannier basin, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cteiti@ipen.br, E-mail: prela@ipen.br; Guttler, Rainer A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2007-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation to induce or enhance color centers in gemstones is a widespread technique and applied worldwide on a industrial scale since at least 1970. The presence of defects and defect structures in quartz from a border region of southern Brazil and Uruguay are the reason for the creation of a new color variety of quartz called 'Prasiolite' in the gem trade. This quartz has a pleasant green color produced by gamma irradiation. The procedures of irradiation at IPEN show that the activation of these color producing defects can be monitored by detailed chemical and spectroscopic analysis. For the first time UV-VIS-NIR spectra of this new color variety of quartz are shown. They revealed special features of these quartz crystals coming from basaltic terranes of the Parana Basin. Contrary to most specimen of quartz from other parts of Brazil, they have such a high water and OH content that they resemble more chalcedony or opal, but not highly crystalline quartz specimens. The cause of the color are broken bonds of Si-OH defining the so-called dangling bonds. (author)

  10. [Study on the accuracy of pressure determined by raman spectra of quartz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Zheng, Hai-fei

    2010-08-01

    Quartz as a pressure gauge and its accuracy were studied by Raman spectroscopy at 25 degrees C and ambient pressure. The result shows that even at same temperature and pressure, the Si-O vibrational mode for different grains of quartz varies between 463.59 and 464.65 cm(-1), with (+/- 0.1- +/- 0.3) cm(-1) error. The maximum difference of various grains of quartz is up to 1.06 cm(-1), much higher than the measurement error. The authors believe that the variety is resulted from the stress in the internal grains of quartz, which formed during crushing quartz into small grain. Therefore, Raman spectrum for quartz has to be firstly measured as a reference of zero pressure at ambient pressure and temperature in the experimental study by using diamond anvil cell. In addition, wavenumber drift of the spectrometer and the unstable temperature will also cause remarkable error for measuring pressure.

  11. Diagenetic quartz and amorphous silica in New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, R.; Lindqvist, J.K. (Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Dunedin (New Zealand))

    1993-08-01

    New Zealand coal seams (Late Cretaceous-Miocene, lignite-semi-anthracite) contain numerous and varied occurrences of diagenetic quartz and amorphous silica. Early diagenetic silicifications include: sub-horizontal and laterally extensive, quartz-mineralized bands; micro- and megascopic, euhedral quartz crystals, dispersed or concentrated in layers; and silicified in situ tree stumps. Late diagenetic forms include: sub-horizontal, quartz-mineralized bands, mostly [lt] 1 m in length; and fracture-infillings. The origins of the silica remain uncertain but leached basement rocks and coal measure sediments, and siliceous phytoliths within the coal-forming plants, are possible sources. The silicification of coal seams may have significant implications for exploration, mining and geological studies. 39 refs., 5 figs., 4 plates.

  12. Catalyzed hydrogenation of nitrogen and ethylene on metal (Fe, Pt) single crystal surfaces and effects of coadsorption: A sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Staffan Per Gustav [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure catalytic reactions and associated processes, such as adsorption have been studied on a molecular level on single crystal surfaces. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy together with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were used to investigate the nature of species on catalytic surfaces and to measure the catalytic reaction rates. Special attention has been directed at studying high-pressure reactions and in particular, ammonia synthesis in order to identify reaction intermediates and the influence of adsorbates on the surface during reaction conditions. The adsorption of gases N2, H2, O2 and NH3 that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH2 (~3325 cm-1) and NH (~3235 cm-1) under high pressure of ammonia (200 Torr) on the clean Fe(111) surface. Addition of 0.5 Torr of oxygen to 200 Torr of ammonia does not significantly change the bonding of dissociation intermediates to the surface. However, it leads to a phase change of nearly 180° between the resonant and non-resonant second order non-linear susceptibility of the surface, demonstrated by the reversal of the SFG spectral features. Heating the surface in the presence of 200 Torr ammonia and 0.5 Torr oxygen reduces the oxygen coverage, which can be seen from the SFG spectra as another relative phase change of 180°. The reduction of the oxide is also supported by Auger electron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the phase change of the spectral features could serve as a sensitive indicator of the chemical environment of the adsorbates.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Monodisperse Single-Crystalline Alpha-Quartz Nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Jiang, Ying-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Uniformly-sized, single-crystal alpha-quartz nanospheres have been synthesized at 200°C and 15atm under continuous stirring starting from uniform, amorphous Stöber silica colloids and using NaCl and alkali hydroxide as mineralizers. Quartz nanosphere size is controlled by the colloid particle size via direct devitrification. Uniform, high-purity nanocrystalline quartz is important for understanding nanoparticle toxicology and for advanced polishing and nanocomposite fabrication. PMID:21629887

  14. Probing crystal structure and mesoscale assembly of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls, tunicate tests, and bacterial films using vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Seong H

    2014-06-14

    This study reports that the noncentrosymmetry and phase synchronization requirements of the sum frequency generation (SFG) process can be used to distinguish the three-dimensional organization of crystalline cellulose distributed in amorphous matrices. Crystalline cellulose is produced as microfibrils with a few nanometer diameters by plants, tunicates, and bacteria. Crystalline cellulose microfibrils are embedded in wall matrix polymers and assembled into hierarchical structures that are precisely designed for specific biological and mechanical functions. The cellulose microfibril assemblies inside cell walls are extremely difficult to probe. The comparison of vibrational SFG spectra of uniaxially-aligned and disordered films of cellulose Iβ nanocrystals revealed that the spectral features cannot be fully explained with the crystallographic unit structure of cellulose. The overall SFG intensity, the alkyl peak shape, and the alkyl/hydroxyl intensity ratio are sensitive to the lateral packing and net directionality of the cellulose microfibrils within the SFG coherence length scale. It was also found that the OH SFG stretch peaks could be deconvoluted to find the polymorphic crystal structures of cellulose (Iα and Iβ). These findings were used to investigate the cellulose crystal structure and mesoscale cellulose microfibril packing in intact plant cell walls, tunicate tests, and bacterial films.

  15. Quartz resonator processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  16. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaolo, A.; Patimisco, P.; Dong, L.; Geras, A.; Scamarcio, G.; Starecki, T.; Tittel, F. K.; Spagnolo, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor (QEPAS) based on a custom-made quartz tuning fork (QTF) to operate in both the fundamental and the first overtone vibrational mode resonances. The QTF fundamental mode resonance falls at ˜3 kHz and the first overtone at ˜18 kHz. Electrical tests showed that the first overtone provides a higher quality factor and increased piezoelectric current peak values, with respect to the fundamental flexural mode. To evaluate the QTF acousto-electric energy conversion efficiency, we operated the QEPAS in the near-IR and selected water vapor as the target gas. The first overtone resonance provides a QEPAS signal-to-noise ratio ˜5 times greater with respect to that measured for the fundamental mode. These results open the way to employing QTF overtone vibrational modes for QEPAS based trace gas sensing.

  17. Speciation and phase separation of water in quartz (A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation, supersaturation and phase separation of water in hydrothermal grown (synthetic) quartz cryst-als have been examined as fundamental issues determining clustering, nucleation and bubble formation, which have profound influence on hydrolytic weakening, dislocation-bubble interactions and high temperature ...

  18. Vibrational dynamics of CO at single-crystal platinum electrodes in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremans, A.; Tadjeddine, A.; Zheng, W.-Q.; Le Rille, A.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Thiry, P. A.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational dynamics of CO at two electrochemical interfaces is studied as a function of the electrode potential, for {CO}/{Pt(100) } in 0.1M aqueous H 2SO 4 and {CO}/{Pt(110) } in 0.05M C 16H 36ClNO 4 acetonitrile electrolyte. The measured lifetime of ˜1.7 ps is in line with those previously determined for dry CO-metal interfaces. The lifetime appears to be independent of the electrolyte composition, and unaffected by an electrode-potential variation as large as 2 V achieved for the non-aqueous electrolyte experiment. These measurements suggest that the 2π∗ CO acceptor orbital involved in the substrate/adsorbate charge transfer process is much broader than 0.8 eV.

  19. Synthesis, XRD single crystal structure analysis, vibrational spectral analysis, molecular dynamics and molecular docking studies of 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarau Devi, A.; Aswathy, V. V.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Ravindran, Reena; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2017-11-01

    The vibrational spectra and corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole is reported. Single crystal XRD data of the title compound is reported and the orientation of methoxy group is cis to nitrogen atom of the thiazole ring. The phenyl ring breathing modes of the title compound are assigned at 1042 and 731 cm-1 theoretically. The charge transfer within the molecule is studied using frontier molecular orbital analysis. The chemical reactivity descriptors are calculated theoretically. The NMR spectral data predicted theoretically are in good agreement with the experimental data. The strong negative region spread over the phenyl rings, nitrogen atom and oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group in the MEP plot is due to the immense conjugative and hyper conjugative resonance charge delocalization of π-electrons. Molecule sites prone to electrophilic attacks have been determined by analysis of ALIE surfaces, while Fukui functions provided further insight into the local reactivity properties of title molecule. Autoxidation properties have been investigated by calculation of bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of hydrogen abstraction, while BDEs of the rest of the single acyclic bonds were valuable for the further investigation of degradation properties. Calculation of radial distribution functions was performed in order to determine which atoms of the title molecule have pronounced interactions with water molecules. The title compound forms a stable complex with aryl hydrocarbon receptor and can be a lead compound for developing new anti-tumor drug. Antimicrobial properties of the title compound was screened against one bacterial culture Escherchia coli and four fungal cultures viz., Aspergillus niger, Pencillum chrysogenum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhyzopus stolonifer.

  20. Noninvasive Vibrational Mode Spectroscopy of Ion Coulomb Crystals through Resonant Collective Coupling to an Optical Cavity Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan; Albert, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    We report on a novel noninvasive method to determine the normal mode frequencies of ion Coulomb crystals in traps based on the resonance enhanced collective coupling between the electronic states of the ions and an optical cavity field at the single photon level. Excitations of the normal modes...... are observed through a Doppler broadening of the resonance. An excellent agreement with the predictions of a zero-temperature uniformly charged liquid plasma model is found. The technique opens up for investigations of the heating and damping of cold plasma modes, as well as the coupling between them....

  1. Vibrational excitations in the paired phases of a two-dimensional electron crystal in a perpendicular magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, R.; Polini, M.; Carnevale, V.; Tosi, M.P

    2003-08-01

    We evaluate the elementary excitations of both spin-singlet and spin-triplet paired crystalline phases of a two-dimensional system of electrons in a perpendicular magnetic field. We use the harmonic Hamiltonian derived from a truncation of the intercell interactions at dipolar terms and treat it within a circular-cell approximation. At this level the excitations are of two types, i.e. a discrete spectrum of localized vibrorotational modes and a continuum of dispersive magneto-oscillations. The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the intracell dynamics depend on a single parameter, which contains the electron density and the magnetic length, and are exhibited as functions of this parameter for various sets of values of the radial and angular-momentum quantum numbers. The propagating excitations describe collective oscillations of the centre of mass of the electron pairs and derive, as in the usual unpaired crystal phase, from the magnetic-field-induced shifts of plasmons and transverse phonons of the crystal in zero field. Several illustrations of their dispersion curves are given. Possible extensions of the theory to include anharmonicity and higher intercell couplings are briefly discussed.

  2. Chiral habit selection on nanostructured epitaxial quartz films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Picas, Laura; Sanchez, Clément; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the crystallization of enantiomorphically pure systems can be relevant to diverse fields such as the study of the origins of life or the purification of racemates. Here we report on polycrystalline epitaxial thin films of quartz on Si substrates displaying two distinct types of chiral habits that never coexist in the same film. We combine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis and computer-assisted crystallographic calculations to make a detailed study of these habits of quartz. By estimating the surface energies of the observed crystallites we argue that the films are enantiomorphically pure and we briefly outline a possible mechanism to explain the habit and chiral selection in this system.

  3. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  4. Syntheses, crystal structures, NMR spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy of Sr(PO{sub 3}F).H{sub 2}O and Sr(PO{sub 3}F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantz, Stephan G.; Hoeppe, Henning A. [Lehrstuhl fuer Festkoerperchemie, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Wuellen, Leo van; Fischer, Andreas [Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Physik und Materialwissenschaften, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Libowitzky, Eugen [Institute for Mineralogy and Crystallography, Faculty of Geosciences, Geography and Astronomy, University of Vienna (Austria); Baran, Enrique J. [Centro de Quimica Inorganica (CEQUINOR/CONICET, UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Weil, Matthias [Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Division Structural Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    Single crystals of Sr(PO{sub 3}F).H{sub 2}O {P2_1/c, Z = 4, a = 7.4844(2) Aa, b = 7.0793(2) Aa, c = 8.4265(2) Aa, β = 108.696(1) , V = 422.91(2) Aa"3, 2391 F_o"2, 70 parameters, R_1[F"2 > 2σ(F"2)] = 0.036; wR_2(F"2 all) = 0.049, S = 1.054} were grown from an aqueous solution by a metathesis reaction. The structure comprises [SrO{sub 8}] polyhedra and PO{sub 3}F tetrahedra that form a layered arrangement parallel to (100). The topotactic dehydration of this phase proceeds between 80 and 140 C to afford Sr(PO{sub 3}F). The monazite-type crystal structure of Sr(PO{sub 3}F) was elucidated from the X-ray powder data by simulated annealing [P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4, a = 6.71689(9) Aa, b = 7.11774(11) Aa, c = 8.66997(13) Aa, β = 128.0063(7) , V = 326.605(8) Aa{sup 3}, R{sub p} = 0.010, R{sub wp} = 0.015, R{sub F} = 0.030]. During dehydration, the structure of Sr(PO{sub 3}F) .H{sub 2}O collapses along [100] from a layered arrangement into a framework structure, accompanied by a change of the coordination number of the Sr{sup 2+} ions from eight to nine. The magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and vibrational spectroscopy data of both phases are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Relationship of Technological Properties with Dynamic Recrystallization of Quartz on the Example of Objects of the Karelian-Kola Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamnitskaya, Lubov; Rakov, Leonid; Bubnova, Tatyana; Shchiptsov, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Despite the significant reserves of quartz raw materials, there is a deficit of high purity quartz. It is due to the strict technical requirements imposed by standards for this type of raw materials and technological properties of quartz, which are determined by the features of the crystal structure. The crystalline structure is of particular importance for the technological properties of quartz, since such important characteristics as the limit of raw material enrichment, dissolution rate in acid, melting point of quartz, etc., are determined. The formation of the crystal structure of quartz under natural conditions is associated with the successive dynamic recrystallization of the mineral. The degree of dynamic recrystallization of quartz reflects the distribution of dispersed impurities. If it is weakly manifested, the dispersed impurities are not displaced from one zone to another, and all quartz microblocks contain approximately the same concentration. In this case, more or less uniform dissolution of various regions of quartz is observed, and the pattern of distribution of submicroscopic inhomogeneities is monotonic. If intensive dynamic recrystallization of quartz takes place, then it causes a significant redistribution of the scattered impurities. Then the treatment in HF leads to the appearance of a contrast pattern of the distribution of submicroscopic inhomogeneities. The details of the crystal structure of quartz in this work were investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method using the ER-420 “Bruker” spectrometer. In the selected samples of quartz, the concentrations of isomorphic impurities Al and Ti were measured, and the degree of crystallinity D of the mineral was estimated from the EPR spectra of each of them. Thus, the technological properties of quartz are determined by various geological processes. The results of the studies show that when evaluating the prospects of quartz raw materials, it is necessary to take into

  6. Synthesis and deformation of a Ti doped quartz aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachlas, William O.; Hirth, Greg; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-04-01

    A primary advantage of studying mylonites for thermobarometric reconstructions of tectonic events is that it enables direct comparison of P-T estimates with the mechanics of quartz deformation. Quartz is a common phase in crustal mylonites and is a particularly sensitive recorder of metamorphic and rheologic conditions in shear zones, owing to its responsiveness to dynamic recrystallization, involvement in metamorphic reaction, and propensity for dissolution and precipitation. The signature of its trace element chemistry, particularly Ti, can reflect involvement from each of these processes. The concentration of Ti in mylonites is typically heterogeneous at the thin section scale, providing a rich record of the different factors that influence the incorporation of Ti in quartz. Observations of quartz in deformed mylonite and undeformed protolith from an extensional shear zone in the North American Cordillera (Shuswap Complex, Canada) show that an originally uniform Ti distribution was modified during deformation to form zoned crystals in which the core preserves a higher Ti concentration than the rim. The zoned Ti concentration likely records a continuum of deformation conditions during extension-related exhumation, and this presents a challenge in resolving the effect of deformation on the equilibrium solubility of Ti in quartz in natural settings. By conducting deformation experiments on synthetic quartz aggregates with known Ti concentration at a constant, elevated temperature and pressure under high strain conditions, we investigate the influence of progressive dynamic recrystallization on Ti solubility in quartz. This study applies a novel doping technique that enables the synthesis of a large population of quartz crystals with a precisely controlled Ti concentration and distribution. This produces a sample that most closely replicates the protolith of extensional shear zones that typically develop under retrograde conditions. This strategy can be used to

  7. The crystal structure, electrostatic properties, and thermal vibrations of some hydrated spermine compounds using neutron and x-ray diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina Elizabeth

    Spermine phosphate hexahydrate crystallizes in space group P21/a with unit cell dimensions a = 7.931(1) A, b = 23.158(5) A, c = 6.856(2) A, and b = 113.44(2)° at 125 K with unit cell contents ([C10H 30N4]2+4 4[HPO4] -2·12H2O). The packing of spermines and monohydrogen phosphates in this crystal structure has features which may be relevant to the binding of spermine to DNA. Another important structural feature is the presence of channels containing water that is H-bonded as in ice-Ih with disordered protons. The channels occur between sheets of spermine long chains and are also bordered by H-bonded monohydrogen phosphate chains. Using neutron diffraction data, the H-bonding scheme of these water chains proposed on the basis of an earlier X-ray study is now confirmed. Nuclear positions, anisotropic m.s. displacements, an overall scale factor, and two extinction parameters ( r and g) were refined using full-matrix least-squares giving values of R(Fo2) = 0.09, Rw(Fo 2) = 0.11 and S = 1.02. Thermal vibrational analysis revealed that the backbone of the spermine cation can be described as a single rigid segment with a substantial libration of 27 deg2 around the spermine molecular long axis. The charge density distribution in the crystal structure of spermine phosphate hexahydrate ([C10H30N4] +4 2[HPO4]-2·6H2O) has been determined from X-ray diffraction data MoKa at 125 K using 13,984 reflections with sin/l≤1. 51 A-1. Least-squares structure refinement assuming Stewart's rigid pseudoatom model (variables included electron populations for multipole terms extending to octapoles for C, N, O, and P and up to dipoles for H) gave R(F2) = 0.042, Rw(F2) = 0.071 and S = 1.06. The electron density and its Laplacian have been determined at the (3, -1) or bond-critical points. The crystal structure of spermine dihydrate (C10H26N 4·2H2O), or possibly sperminium dihydroxide, has been determined for the non-hydrogen atoms. Spermine dihydrate crystallizes in space group P1¯ with

  8. Is quartz a potential indicator of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism? Laser Raman spectroscopy of quartz inclusions in ultrahigh-pressure garnets

    OpenAIRE

    Korsakov, Andrey V.; Perraki, Maria; Zhukov, Vladimir P.; De Gussem, Kris; Vandenabeele, Peter; Tomilenko, Anatoly A.

    2009-01-01

    Laser Raman microspectroscopy was applied to quartz inclusions in coesite- and diamond-grade metapelites from the Kokchetav ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) complex, Northern Kazakhstan, and diamond-grade eclogite xenoliths from the Mir kimberlite pipe, Yakutiya, Russia to assess the quantitative correlation between the Raman frequency shift and metamorphic pressure. Quartz crystals sealed in garnets have a higher frequency shift than those in the matrix. Residual pressures retained by q...

  9. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes and electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Development of a new measuring method for electrochemical investigations on electrodes with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM); Elektrochemische Charakterisierung von Elektrolyten und Elektroden fuer Lithium-Ionen-Batterien. Entwicklung einer neuen Messmethode fuer elektrochemische Untersuchungen an Elektroden mit der EQCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosbauer, Dominik Johann

    2010-11-09

    In this work the conductivities of four different lithium salts, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiDFOB, and LiBOB in the solvent mixture EC/DEC (3/7) were investigated. Furthermore, the influence of eight ionic liquids (ILs) as additives on the conductivity and electrochemical stability of lithium salt-based electrolytes was studied. The investigated salts were the well-known lithium LiPF6 and LiDFOB. Conductivity studies were performed over the temperature range (238.15 to 333.15) K. The electrochemical stabilities of the solutions were determined at aluminum electrodes. The salt solubility of LiBF4 and LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) was measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a method developed in our group. Moreover, a method to investigate interactions between the electrolyte and electrode components with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was developed. First, investigations of corrosion and passivation effects on aluminum with different lithium salts were performed and masses of deposited products estimated. Therefore, the quartzes were specially prepared with foils. Active materials of cathodes, in this work lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), were also investigated with the EQCM by a new method. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden die Leitfaehigkeiten von vier unterschiedlichen Salzen, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiDFOB und LiBOB in dem Loesemittelgemisch EC/DEC (3/7) untersucht. Des Weiteren wurde der Einfluss von acht Ionischen Fluessigkeiten (ILs) als Additive fuer Lithium-Elektrolyte auf die elektrochemische Stabilitaet und die Leitfaehigkeit studiert. Die untersuchten Salze waren LiPF6 und LiDFOB. Die Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen wurden in einem Temperaturbereich von (238,15 bis 333,15) K durchgefuehrt. Die elektrochemischen Stabilitaeten der Elektrolyte fanden an Aluminium statt. Mit einer an der Arbeitsgruppe entwickelten neuen Methode wurden zudem die Salzloeslichkeiten von LiBF4 und LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) mit der Quarzmikrowaage (QCM) bestimmt. Weiterhin wurden

  10. [Role of calcium activated-potassium channels in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sun, Jingzhi; Yang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium activated-potassium channels (KCa) in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz. The experiments were conducted on a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) in vitro, where crystal silica (100 üg/ml) and amorphous silica (100 üg/ml) were used as the test substances and the cells without any treatment as negative controls. At first the effects of two kinds of quartz were compared. Then KCa special inhibitors (Paxilline for BK, Tram-34 for IK, Apamin for SK) were added in different doses to the in vitro test system with 100 üg/ml crystal quartz as matrix, to observe the function of such channels. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were tested. Comparing to the negative control group, cell viability reduced, LDH leakage, IL-1β and TNF-α release increased significantly in the amorphous quartz group, furthermore, the effects by crystal quartz were much more serious than those by amorphous quartz, with a statistical significance (P quartz group, IK blockers (Tram-34) led to increase in cell viability significantly, with a statistical significance (P quartz in the rat alveolar macrophages cell line in vitro, which might serve as a signal in the early regulation of inflammatory responses by quartz.

  11. Quartz tuning forks with novel geometries for optoacoustic gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, V.; Sampaolo, A.; Patimisco, P.; Dong, L.; Gupta, Y.; Yu, Y.; Geras, A.; Giglio, M.; Calabrese, P. P.; Starecki, T.; Scamarcio, G.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-02-01

    We report the successful realization of quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic (QEPAS) sensors employing quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with novel geometrical parameters. We investigated the influence of QTF sizes on the main resonator parameters, in order to identify the best design parameters optimizing the QTF figures of merit for optoacoustic gas sensing. To evaluate the QTF acousto-electric energy conversion efficiency, we operated the QEPAS sensors in the near- IR and selected water vapor as the target gas. QTFs are forced to resonate at both the fundamental and the first overtone vibrational mode frequencies. Our results shows that two QTF designs exhibit an higher quality factor (and consequently an higher QEPAS signal) when operating on the first overtone mode with respect to the fundamental one.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, and vibrational spectroscopic and UV-visible studies of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoua, Saida; Krimi, Saida [LPCMI, Faculte des Sciences Aien Chok, UH2C, Casablanca (Morocco); Pechev, Stanislav; Gravereau, Pierre; Chaminade, Jean-Pierre [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87, Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac (France); Couzi, Michel [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence (France); El Jazouli, Abdelaziz, E-mail: eljazouli_abdelaziz@yahoo.fr [LCMS, URAC 17, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, UH2MC, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2013-02-15

    A new member of the A{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate family, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction. Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma ( Music-Sharp-Sign 62), with the unit cell parameters a=16.3398(3), b=5.3872(1), c=9.8872(2) A, Z=4 and V=870.33(3) A{sup 3}. The structure parameters were refined to a final R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0194/0.0441 for 1650 observed reflections. The 2D framework of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure consists of P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and MnO{sub 5} units. The corner-shared MnO{sub 5} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units are alternately arranged along the b axis to form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium atoms are located between the sheets in 9- and 10-fold coordinated sites. The infrared and Raman vibrational spectra have been investigated. A factor group analysis leads to the determination of internal modes of (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) groups. UV-visible spectrum consists of weak bands, between 340 and 700 nm, assigned to the forbidden d-d transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ion, and of a strong band around 250 nm, attributed to the O--Mn charge transfer. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}: The 2D structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} is built from P{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate groups and MnO{sub 5} square pyramids which share corners and form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains along b axis. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form wavy (MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sup 2-} sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium ions are located between these sheets in the inter-layers space, in zigzag positions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new diphosphate, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally

  13. Laser welding of fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  14. Albite [yields] jadeite + quartz transformation in rock: Mechanism and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, S.R.; Kirby, S.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Hacker, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on the calcite [yields] aragonite transformation using fully dense marble revealed significant differences from earlier experiments on powders and single-crystals. The reaction rate is retarded by a factor of > 1,000 and reaction mechanisms and resultant textures are considerably more complex. Stimulated by this, the authors conducted a study of the albite [yields] jadeite + quartz/coesite transformation in a fully dense albitite. Again the results are in marked contrast with previous powder-based studies of this archetypal metamorphic reaction. Solid cores of albitite were held at temperatures of 500-1,200 C and at pressure oversteps of 500 MPa into the jadeite + quartz stability field for 1--8 days in piston-cylinder apparatus. Samples that were dried in vacuum transformed appreciably only at temperatures in excess of 1,000 C. At all grain boundaries there is subequal transformation to micron-scale intergrowths of jadeite + quartz. Samples that were vacuum-impregnated with 1 wt% water contain jadeite + quartz to temperatures as low as 600 C. In contrast to the dried samples, transformation is much less homogeneous. The jadeite + quartz intergrowths do not form rows of subparallel crystals on grain boundaries, but rather are flower-shaped clusters that radiate outward from single nucleation sites at 3-grain edges and 4-grain corners. Compared to powders, pressure oversteps a factor of 10 greater are necessary to induce equivalent reaction in albitite. The sluggishness of this reaction has important implications for the evolution of the lower continental crust and subducting oceanic crust in terms of their (1) seismic velocity profiles, (2) petrological evolution, and (3) buoyancy forces, stresses and vertical crustal movements connected with densification and dilatational reactions.

  15. Investigations on Local Quartz Sand for Application in Glass Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Chetanachan, Prukswan; Wathanakul, Pornsawat; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2009-03-01

    Silica or glass sand is a special type of quartz sand that is suitable for glass-making, because of its high silica content, and its low content of iron oxide and other compounds. In Thailand, deposits of quartz sand are found as the beach and the river sands in many areas; eastern, southern, northeastern and northern. In this work, grain-size distribution and chemical analyses were carried out on 10 sand samples taken from various localities in Thailand such as Chanthaburi, Trat, Rayong, Chumphon, Nakhon Si, Pattani, Phuket, Songkhla, Nong Khai, and Tak provinces. The geological resources show that most of them are the surface-to-near-surface glass sand deposits. The sand grains in most deposits were mainly angular-to-rounded, except in some areas of either angular or rounded grains. Chemical analysis showed that the sands contained more than 95wt% silica and low content of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The concentration levels of these components in the samples confirm with internationally acceptable standard for glass production. The quartz sand dressing plants that used the spiral classifier to improve the properties of the quartz sands to meet the standard specifications are mostly located in the eastern area. It can be concluded that most of the quartz sand deposits in Thailand investigated show well-sorted grain-size with considerable purity, i.e. high-grade quality. The advanced works resulted in that these raw quartz sands can be used as raw material for fabrication of soda-lime, lead crystal, and lead-free high refractive index glasses. The colorless and various colored glass products have been satisfactorily used in the domestic art and glass manufactures.

  16. Laser direct synthesis of graphene on quartz

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Dapeng; Mitchell, James I.; Tansarawiput, Chookiat; Nam, Woongsik; Qi, Minghao; Ye, Peide D.; Xu, Xianfan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a laser-based technique to directly synthesize few layer graphene on quartz substrates without using any metal catalyst. In our approach, a photoresist S-1805 (from Shipley Comp.) film coated on quartz wafers was heated, and then decomposed, by irradiation of a continuous-wave laser. The carbon atoms from the photoresist were dissolved in the molten quartz, and then extracted to form graphene when the temperature of the quartz was decreased. Raman spectroscopy shows the as-prod...

  17. SIMS Investigations on Growth and Sector Zoning in Natural Hydrothermal Quartz: Isotopic and Trace Element Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, E.; Vennemann, T. W.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Meisser, N.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust and is found in virtually every geological context. Despite its ubiquity and the detailed studies on the conditions of quartz crystallization, some questions concerning its growth and sector zoning with regard to trace element incorporation and oxygen isotope fractionations and the implications thereof for interpretations on the conditions of formation remain (e.g., Jourdan et al., 2009). This study presents new in-situ measurements of trace element and oxygen isotope ratios on natural hydrothermal quartz from an extensional gold-bearing quartz vein in the western Swiss Alps. The temperature of formation of the veins is estimated by quartz-hematite oxygen isotope thermometry to be about 360°C. A detailed SEM-CL study of this sample shows cyclic lamellar growth, alternating with phases of dissolution that are directly followed by macro-mosaic growth of the quartz, before returning to a cyclic lamellar growth again. Trace element concentrations (measured for Na, K, Li, Al, and Ti) notably showed Al/Si variations of three orders of magnitude and coupled Al and Li variations, likely substituting for Si in different growth zones with lower values in macro-mosaic zones precipitating after the period of dissolution. The oxygen isotope composition of the crystal, in contrast, is homogeneous through all growth zones (δ18O values between 15.6‰ and 16.2‰) indicating that the fluid must have been buffered by the host-rock and/or the source of the fluid remained the same despite the period of quartz dissolution. Furthermore, the temperature during crystallization of the quartz crystal has likely also remained similar. The fact that no variations are measured in oxygen isotope compositions but some variations in trace element contents may suggest that changes in pressure were important during the formation of this quartz crystal. Give the pressure effects on the solubility of quartz (Fournier and Potter, 1982), both

  18. Optical Detection Technique Using Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongpeng; Zhang, Dongdong; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Huadan; Liu, Yanyan; Yin, Wangbao; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Suotang

    2015-06-01

    A new optical detection approach based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) to detect gases is developed. The new method not only employs a modulated laser to excite acoustic wave, as the general QEPAS does, but also adds an extra laser beam without modulation as the detection source to transform the prong vibration into a laser intensity change. Due to the mechanical vibration of the prongs, the intensity of the reflection laser beam is modulated. Thus, the information of the target gas (composition, concentration, etc.) is obtained by demodulating the reflected light. The achieved sensitivity of is inter-compared to the sensitivity of the conventional QEPAS. Further developments of the new optical detection approach are also discussed in detail.

  19. Quartz phenocrysts preserve volcanic stresses at Long Valley and Yellowstone calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K. S.; Leonhardi, T. C.; Manga, M.; Tamura, N.; Stan, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Magmatic processes and eruptions are the consequence of stresses active in volcanic environments. Few techniques are presently available to quantify those stresses because they operate in subsurface and/or hazardous environments, and thus new techniques are needed to advance our understanding of key processes. Here, we provide a dataset of volcanic stresses that were imparted to quartz crystals that traveled through, and were hosted within, pyroclastic and effusive eruptions from Long Valley and Yellowstone calderas. We measured crystal lattice deformation with submicron spatial resolution using the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction beamline (12.3.2) at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Quartz from all units produces diffraction patterns with residual strains locked in the crystal lattice. We used Hooke's Law and the stiffness constants of quartz to calculate the stresses that caused the preserved residual strains. At Long Valley caldera, quartz preserves stresses of 187±80 MPa within pumice clasts in the F1 fall unit of the Bishop Tuff, and preserves stresses of 120±45 MPa from the Bishop Tuff welded ignimbrite. At Yellowstone caldera quartz preserves stresses of 115±30 and 140±60 MPa within pumices from the basal fall units of the Mesa Falls Tuff and the Tuff of Bluff Point, respectively. Quartz from near-vent and flow-front samples from Summit Lake lava flow preserves stresses up to 130 MPa, and show no variation with distance travelled. We believe that subsurface processes cause the measured residual stresses, but it remains unclear if they are relicts of fragmentation or from the magma chamber. The residual stresses from both Long Valley and Yellowstone samples roughly correlate to lithostatic pressures estimated for the respective pre-eruption magma storage depths. It is possible that residual stress in quartz provides a new geobarometer for crystallization pressure. Moving forward, we will continue to perform analyses and

  20. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.

    2015-04-01

    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  1. Crystal structure, vibrational spectra, optical and DFT studies of bis (3-azaniumylpropyl) azanium pentachloroantimonate (III) chloride monohydrate (C6H20N3)SbCl5·Cl·H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Houssem Eddine; Kamoun, Slaheddine

    2017-09-01

    The crystal structure of (C6H20N3)SbCl5·Cl·H2O is built up of [NH3(CH2)3NH2(CH2)3NH3]3 + cations, [SbCl5]2 - anions, free Cl- anions and neutral water molecules connected together by Nsbnd H ⋯ Cl, Nsbnd H ⋯ O and Osbnd H ⋯ Cl hydrogen bonds. The optical band gap determined by diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) is 3.78 eV for a direct allowed transition. Optimized molecular geometry, atomic Mulliken charges, harmonic vibrational frequencies, HOMO-LUMO and related molecular properties of the (C6H20N3)SbCl5·Cl·H2O compound were calculated by Density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with GenECP sets. The calculated structural parameters (bond lengths and angles) are in good agreement with the experimental XRD data. The vibrational unscaled wavenumbers were calculated and scaled by a proper scaling factor of 0.984. Acceptable consistency was observed between calculated and experimental results. The assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) software. The HOMO-LUMO study was extended to calculate various molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electro-chemical potential, electronegativity and global electrophilicity of the given molecule.

  2. Fracture flow due to hydrothermally induced quartz growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Tobias; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Wendler, Frank; Enzmann, Frieder; Blum, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Mineral precipitations are a common feature and limitation of initially open, permeable rock fractures by forming sealing structures or secondary roughness in open voids. Hence, the objective of this numerical study is the evaluation of hydraulic properties of fractures sealed by hydrothermally induced needle and compact quartz growth. Phase-field models of progressive syntaxial and idiomorphic quartz growth are implemented into a fluid flow simulation solving the Navier-Stokes equation. Flow simulations for both quartz types indicate an obvious correlation between changes in permeability, fracture properties (e.g. aperture, relative roughness and porosity) and crystal growth behavior, which also forms distinct flow paths. Thus, at lower sealing stages initial fracture permeability significantly drops down for the 'needle fracture' forming highly tortuous flow paths, while the 'compact fracture' records a considerably smaller loss. Fluid flow in both sealing fractures most widely is governed by a ;parallel plate;-like cubic law behavior. However, the 'needle fracture' also reveals flow characteristics of a porous media. A semi-theoretical equation is introduced that links geometrical (am) with hydraulically effective apertures (ah) and the relative fracture roughness. For this purpose, a geometry factor α is introduced being α = 2.5 for needle quartz and α = 1.0 for compact quartz growth. In contrast to most common ah-am-relationships this novel formulation not only reveals more precise predictions for the needle (RMSE = 1.5) and the compact fractures (RMSE = 3.2), but also exhibit a larger range of validity concerning the roughness of the 'needle' (σ/am = 0-2.4) and the 'compact fractures' (σ/am = 0-1.8).

  3. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, David A; Troll, Valentin R; Deegan, Frances M; Jolis, Ester M; Smith, Victoria C; Whitehouse, Martin J; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Bindeman, Ilya N

    2017-01-25

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ(18)O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ(18)O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ(18)O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ(18)O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ(18)O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  4. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  5. The hydrolytic weakening effect in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, B. E.

    Experiments on single crystals of quartz have shown that an order of magnitude increase in the fugacity of H2O is associated with about an order of magnitude decrease in the flow strength at a given temperature and pressure. The classical interpretation of this hydrolytic weakening effect is that H2O groups are incorporated into the quartz structure as Si-OH.HO-Si groups. Then, in order to move a dislocation, OH.HO bonds need to be broken rather than Si-O bonds. The rate controlling process is envisaged as the diffusion of the (OH)-defect to or with the dislocation core. This paper discusses the manner in which charged hydrogen- or hydroxyl-defects alter the concentrations of other charged defects such as kinks and jogs on dislocations or vacancies and interstitials and so have an influence on the deformation rate. As an example, an increase in the concentration of negatively charged (OH)-defects leads to an increase in the concentration of positively charged kinks on dislocations thus increasing the strain rate. Other deformation mechanisms involving diffusion of oxygen and silicon with or without climb of dislocations or motion of kinks are also investigated and are shown to be capable of explaining the observed effect. This defect chemistry interpretation is consistent with the classical interpretation but also proposes other mechanisms where the direct diffusion of (OH)-defects plays no role in the process. As an example, an increase in the concentration of negatively charged (OH)-defects increases both the concentration of positively charged jogs and positively charged silicon interstitials in such a way as to explain the magnitude of the hydrolytic weakening effect. As such, the rate controlling process is the climb of dislocations controlled by silicon diffusion, not the diffusion of (OH)-defects. Although several different mechanisms are capable of explaining the hydrolytic weakening effect, many have different dependencies upon the activity of oxygen so

  6. Development of Quartz Fiber Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD40 \\\\ \\\\ Very Forward Calorimeters (VFCs) in LHC detectors should cover the pseudorapidity range from $\\eta$~=~2.5 to at least $\\eta$~=~5 in order to compute missing transverse energy and for jet tagging. Operation at such high rapidity requires the use of a calorimetry technique that is very radiation resistant, fast and insensitive to radioactivity (especially to neutrons). This can be accomplished through the Quartz-Calorimeter~(Q-Cal) concept of embedding silica core fibers, that resist to the Gigarad radiation level, into an absorber. In this calorimeter the shower particles produce light through the Cherenkov effect generating a signal less than 10~ns in duration. Unique to this new technology the visible energy of hadronic showers has a transverse dimension nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional calorimeters, enabling precise spatial resolution, sharper isolation cuts and better jet recognition against the minimum bias events background. Last but not least, most radioactive ...

  7. Pyrrole Hydrogenation over Rh(111) and Pt(111) Single-Crystal Surfaces and Hydrogenation Promotion Mediated by 1-Methylpyrrole: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, Christopher J.; Bieri, Marco; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-03-04

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of pyrrole over both Pt(111) and Rh(111) single-crystal surfaces at Torr pressures (3 Torr pyrrole, 30 Torr H{sub 2}) to form pyrrolidine and the minor product butylamine. Over Pt(111) at 298 K it was found that pyrrole adsorbs in an upright geometry cleaving the N-H bond to bind through the nitrogen evidenced by SFG data. Over Rh(111) at 298 K pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry relative to the surface through the p-aromatic system. A pyrroline surface reaction intermediate, which was not detected in the gas phase, was seen by SFG during the hydrogenation over both surfaces. Significant enhancement of the reaction rate was achieved over both metal surfaces by adsorbing 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. SFG vibrational spectroscopic results indicate that reaction promotion is achieved by weakening the bonding between the N-containing products and the metal surface because of lateral interactions on the surface between 1-methylpyrrole and the reaction species, reducing the desorption energy of the products. It was found that the ring-opening product butylamine was a reaction poison over both surfaces, but this effect can be minimized by treating the catalyst surfaces with 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. The reaction rate was not enhanced with elevated temperatures, and SFG suggests desorption of pyrrole at elevated temperatures.

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Crystal Structures, Lattice Vibrations, and Band Structures of Monazite-Type PbCrO4, PbSeO4, SrCrO4, and SrSeO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, Daniel; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Hernández, Placida; Proctor, John E; Sapiña, Fernando; Bettinelli, Marco

    2015-08-03

    The crystal structures, lattice vibrations, and electronic band structures of PbCrO4, PbSeO4, SrCrO4, and SrSeO4 were studied by ab initio calculations, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical-absorption measurements. Calculations properly describe the crystal structures of the four compounds, which are isomorphic to the monazite structure and were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Information is also obtained on the Raman- and IR-active phonons, with all of the vibrational modes assigned. In addition, the band structures and electronic densities of states of the four compounds were determined. All are indirect-gap semiconductors. In particular, chromates are found to have band gaps smaller than 2.5 eV and selenates higher than 4.3 eV. In the chromates (selenates), the upper part of the valence band is dominated by O 2p states and the lower part of the conduction band is composed primarily of electronic states associated with the Cr 3d and O 2p (Se 4s and O 2p) states. Calculations also show that the band gap of PbCrO4 (PbSeO4) is smaller than the band gap of SrCrO4 (SrSeO4). This phenomenon is caused by Pb states, which, to some extent, also contribute to the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. The agreement between experiments and calculations is quite good; however, the band gaps are underestimated by calculations, with the exception of the bang gap of SrCrO4, for which theory and calculations agree. Calculations also provide predictions of the bulk modulus of the studied compounds.

  9. Crystallization of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, Glenna L; Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Perrot, Alexandre; Gich, Martí; Gàzquez, Jaume; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan; Favre, Luc; Grosso, David; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément

    2015-03-11

    Complex 3D macrostructured nanoparticles are transformed from amorphous silica into pure polycrystalline α-quartz using catalytic quantities of alkaline earth metals as devitrifying agent. Walls as thin as 10 nm could be crystallized without losing the architecture of the particles. The roles of cation size and the mol% of the incorporated devitrifying agent in crystallization behavior are studied, with Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) all producing pure α-quartz under certain conditions.

  10. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  11. [Study on Mineralogical Characteristics of Quartz and Calcite from Feieling Skarn-Type Pb-Zn Deposit in Southwest Margin of Yunkai Massif].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-yu; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Li, Hong-zhong; Niu, Jia; Zhang, Jie-tang; He, Jun-guo; Zhou, Yong-zhang; Yang, Zhi-jun

    2015-09-01

    The Feieling Pb-Zn deposit of skarn-type is located the in Southwest margin of Yunkai massif, China. This ore deposit can be divided into wall rock near ore, concealed rock mass, endoskarn, exoskarn and orebody. The Raman and FTIR spectrum are conducted to study the mineralogical characteristics of quartz and calcite from five types of rocks from Feieling skarn-type deposit. The analysis shows that the quartz included in the near ore wall rock, endoskarn and exoskarn, comparing with recrystallized quartz of concealed rock mass, has a tend to change into low symmetry quartz in varying degrees. The crystalinity and order degree of quartz from near ore wall rock to concealed rock mass and to endoskarn are becoming higher, but that of quartz from different exoskarn samples display no regular. The origin or the quartz microstructure changes may be related to the multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization process. The quartz, included in near ore wall rock, endoskarn and exoskarn, become easier to recrystallize and adjust microstructure under the influence of the multi-stage hydrothermal and temperature effect. In anyone sample, the earlier crystalline calcite, showing subhedral-euhedral crystal, display higher crystalinity and order degree. On the contrary, the later crystalline calcite, showing xenomorphic crystal, display lower crystalinity and order degree. Calcite crystal of exoskarn rock contains some silica impurity, while endoskarn and orebody rock is pure. The purity of calcite crystal may relate to Multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization process. At the early and late skarn stage, active silica-containing fluid is easier to join into calcite, which is under higher temperature environments. On the contrary, at the late quartz-surfide stage, the later crystalized calcite displays higher purity, which is under lower temperature environments. Therefore, spectral characteristics of quartz and calcite reflect multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization

  12. Mineralogy, morphology, and textural relationships in coatings on quartz grains in sediments in a quartz-sand aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Kent, Douglas B.; Elbert, David C.; Shi, Zhi; Davis, James A.; Veblen, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of coatings on quartz grains and bulk sediments from an aquifer on Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA were carried out using a variety of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Previous studies demonstrated that coatings on quartz grains control the adsorption properties of these sediments. Samples for TEM characterization were made by a gentle mechanical grinding method and focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The former method can make abundant electron-transparent coating assemblages for comprehensive and quantitative X-ray analysis and the latter technique protects the coating texture from being destroyed. Characterization of the samples from both a pristine area and an area heavily impacted by wastewater discharge shows similar coating textures and chemical compositions. Major constituents of the coating include Al-substituted goethite and illite/chlorite clays. Goethite is aggregated into well-crystallized domains through oriented attachment resulting in increased porosity. Illite/chlorite clays with various chemical compositions were observed to be mixed with goethite aggregates and aligned sub-parallel to the associated quartz surface. The uniform spatial distribution of wastewater-derived phosphorus throughout the coating from the wastewater-contaminated site suggests that all of the coating constituents, including those adjacent to the quartz surface, are accessible to groundwater solutes. Both TEM characterization and chemical extraction results indicate there is a significantly greater amount of amorphous iron oxide in samples from wastewater discharge area compared to those from the pristine region, which might reflect the impact of redox cycling of iron under the wastewater-discharge area. Coating compositions are consistent with the moderate metal and oxy-metalloid adsorption capacities, low but significant cation exchange capacities, and control of iron(III) solubility by goethite observed in reactive transport

  13. Mineralogy, morphology, and textural relationships in coatings on quartz grains in sediments in a quartz-sand aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Kent, Douglas B; Elbert, David C; Shi, Zhi; Davis, James A; Veblen, David R

    2011-06-01

    Mineralogical studies of coatings on quartz grains and bulk sediments from an aquifer on Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA were carried out using a variety of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Previous studies demonstrated that coatings on quartz grains control the adsorption properties of these sediments. Samples for TEM characterization were made by a gentle mechanical grinding method and focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The former method can make abundant electron-transparent coating assemblages for comprehensive and quantitative X-ray analysis and the latter technique protects the coating texture from being destroyed. Characterization of the samples from both a pristine area and an area heavily impacted by wastewater discharge shows similar coating textures and chemical compositions. Major constituents of the coating include Al-substituted goethite and illite/chlorite clays. Goethite is aggregated into well-crystallized domains through oriented attachment resulting in increased porosity. Illite/chlorite clays with various chemical compositions were observed to be mixed with goethite aggregates and aligned sub-parallel to the associated quartz surface. The uniform spatial distribution of wastewater-derived phosphorus throughout the coating from the wastewater-contaminated site suggests that all of the coating constituents, including those adjacent to the quartz surface, are accessible to groundwater solutes. Both TEM characterization and chemical extraction results indicate there is a significantly greater amount of amorphous iron oxide in samples from wastewater discharge area compared to those from the pristine region, which might reflect the impact of redox cycling of iron under the wastewater-discharge area. Coating compositions are consistent with the moderate metal and oxy-metalloid adsorption capacities, low but significant cation exchange capacities, and control of iron(III) solubility by goethite observed in reactive transport

  14. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-12-21

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr(2+) act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth.

  15. Material removal mechanism and material removal rate model of polishing process for quartz glass using soft particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Defu; Chen, Guanglin; Hu, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Fiber arrays are used to connect arrayed waveguide chips. The end-faces of fiber array components are multi-materials non-uniform surfaces. Their low polishing quality has become a bottleneck that restricts coupling performance of integrated photo-electronic devices. The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is normally used to improve the polishing quality of the end-faces of fiber array components. It is very important to optimize process parameters by researching the mechanical behavior of nanoparticles and material microstructure evolution on the CMP interfaces. Based on the elastic and hyper-elastic contact of the soft polishing particle with quartz glass and polishing pad, the material removal mechanism at molecular scale of polishing process for quartz glass using soft polishing particles is investigated, and the material removal rate model is also derived by using Arrhenius theory and molecule vibration theory. Theoretical and experimental results show that the material is mainly removed by the interfacial tribo-chemical effect between polishing particle and quartz glass during CMP process. The depth of a single particle embedding into the quartz glass is at molecular scale, and the superficial molecules of quartz glass are removed by chemical reactions because of enough energy obtained. The material removal rate of quartz glass during CMP process is determined by the polishing pressure, the chemical reagents and its concentration, and the relative movement speed between the quartz glass workpiece and the polishing pad.

  16. Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petra, N.; Zweck, J.; Kosterev, A. A.; Minkoff, S. E.; Thomazy, D.

    2009-03-01

    Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensors are based on a recent approach to photoacoustic detection which employs a quartz tuning fork as an acoustic transducer. These sensors enable detection of trace gases for air quality monitoring, industrial process control, and medical diagnostics. To detect a trace gas, modulated laser radiation is directed between the tines of a tuning fork. The optical energy absorbed by the gas results in a periodic thermal expansion which gives rise to a weak acoustic pressure wave. This pressure wave excites a resonant vibration of the tuning fork thereby generating an electrical signal via the piezoelectric effect. This paper describes a theoretical model of a QEPAS sensor. By deriving analytical solutions for the partial differential equations in the model, we obtain a formula for the piezoelectric current in terms of the optical, mechanical, and electrical parameters of the system. We use the model to calculate the optimal position of the laser beam with respect to the tuning fork and the phase of the piezoelectric current. We also show that a QEPAS transducer with a particular 32.8 kHz tuning fork is 2-3 times as sensitive as one with a 4.25 kHz tuning fork. These simulation results closely match experimental data.

  17. Vibrational Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  18. Crystal structure, vibrational and optical properties of N-(3-ammoniumpropyl)-1,3 diammoniumpropane hexabromobismuthate monohydrate: [C6H20N3]BiBr6 H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfaleh, N.; Kamoun, S.

    2014-10-01

    The chemical preparation, the main structural, vibrational and optical features are given for a new zero dimensional alkyl tri-ammonium bismuth halogenide. (C6H20N3)BiBr6 · H2O crystallize in triclinic system, space group P1bar. The crystal structure consists of discrete ionic pairs of N-(3-ammoniumpropyl)-1,3 diammoniumpropane cations, hexabromobismuthate anions and neutral water molecules linked via simple and bifurcated N-H⋯Br(OW) and O(W)-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds. Infrared and Raman spectra of (C6H20N3)BiBr6 H2O were recorded at 298 K and discussed. The assignment of the observed IR and Raman lines was performed by comparison with the homologous compounds. Optical properties are investigated by optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The optical absorption spectra reveal the appearance of sharp optical gaps of 3.10 eV as well as two strong green-yellow photoluminescence emissions are observed at room temperature.

  19. Application of Ti-in-quartz solubility as a thermobarometer in rutile-free rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Application of Ti-in-quartz solubility as a thermobarometer (TitaniQ; Thomas et al. 2010) may profoundly influence interpretations of crustal rocks. Complex Ti zoning patterns observed in cathodoluminescence (CL) images of crystals can be associated with changes in P-T conditions that prevailed during quartz crystallization. In rocks lacking rutile application of TitaniQ is challenging because Ti activity (aTiO2) during quartz crystallization must be constrained. Many felsic rocks contain minerals in which Ti is an essential stoichiometric constituent (e.g. ilmenite) that will buffer aTiO2 at a fixed value. To use Ti-in-quartz solubility in rocks lacking rutile (or sphene) the P-T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility must be combined with an independent constraint on either P or T to estimate quartz crystallization conditions. Values for aTiO2 in melts can be calculated using (1) melt compositions and the rutile-saturation model of Hayden et al. (2007), (2) melt compositions and the MELTS algorithms to yield rutile affinity (i.e. degree of saturation) and liquidus T (TL; Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Asimov and Ghiorso, 1998), and (3) mineral reaction equilibria, such as 2FeTiO3=TiO2+Fe2TiO4, measured mineral compositions, tabulated thermodynamic data, and an input temperature constrained by phase equilibria (or MELTS). The rutile-saturation model was calibrated at 10 kbar only, and intended for applications in which alternatives for calculating aTiO2 are unavailable. This should not be used for quantitative interpretations concerning rocks formed at other pressures because it is likely that Ti solubility in a melt is strongly pressure dependent. Consequently, the 10 kbar rutile-saturation model will underestimate the Ti required for rutile saturation at lower pressures, thereby yielding impossible aTiO2 values that exceed unity. We used a range of published rhyolite melt and Fe-Ti oxide compositions as inputs for aTiO2 calculations using MELTS and mineral reaction

  20. Effect of high gamma-doses in the sensitization of natural quartz for thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, H.J.; Guzzo, P.L.; Brito, S.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50740-540 Recife PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Sensitization is an important effect in radiation dosimetry using thermoluminescent (TL materials where the enhancement of sensitivity is a desirable feature. Until known, the investigation of sensitization in quartz has been restricted to its first glow peak appearing around 110 C. In addition, the sensitization process has been essentially produced by heat-treatments in powdered quartz. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitization process in the second glow peak of crystalline quartz using high doses of gamma irradiation. For this, five lots of samples were prepared from quartz single crystals issued from different geologies in Brazil. Chips of 5 x 5 x 1 mm{sup 3} (60 mg) were cut and lapped parallel to the (0001) plane. The specimens were initially irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of {sup 137} Cs in the range of 10 mGy to 10 Gy in order to determine its TL response curve. After that, the specimens were submitted to successive high doses of gamma-irradiation with {sup 60} Co from 25 kGy to 350 kGy. After each irradiation, the TL response curves to gamma radiation of {sup 137} Cs were determined for each quartz lot irradiated in the range of 2 to 20 mGy. The TL measurements were carried out with a 2800M Victoreen reader using the step mode. The step parameters were set in 10 s from 30 to 160 C (first region) and in 20 s from 160 to 320 C (second region). The absolute TL signal used to obtain the calibration curves represented the sum of electric charges under the glow peak appearing in the second region. The results showed that the TL response of the quartz studied increased with the dose sensitization, so that the TL response for 10mGy of {sup 137} Cs radiation varied from 0.05 nC/mg for the quartz without sensitization to 10 nC/mg after a sensitization with 50 kGy of gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co. The effect of sensitization with high doses of gamma irradiation was clearly observed for three quartz lots and it was observed that the high

  1. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E; Gnecco, E.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superim...

  2. Molecularly Imprinted Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor (QCM for Bilirubin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Çiçek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the preparation of a QCM sensor for the detection of bilirubin in human plasma. Bilirubin-imprinted poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester (PHEMATrp nanofilm (MIP on the gold surface of a QCM chip was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique. Meanwhile, the non-imprinted PHEMATrp (NIP nanofilm was synthesized by the same experimental technique to examine the imprinting effect. Characterization of MIP and NIP nanofilms on the QCM chip surface was achieved by atomic force microscopy (AFM, ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR and contact angle measurements (CA. The observations indicated that the nanofilm was almost in a monolayer. Thereinafter, the imprinted and the non-imprinted QCM chips were connected to the QCM system to investigate kinetic and affinity properties. In order to examine the selectivity of the MIP-PHEMATrp nanofilm, competitive adsorption of bilirubin with cholesterol and estradiol was performed. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ values were calculated as 0.45 μg/mL and 0.9 μg/mL, respectively.

  3. Crystal Structure, Vibrational Spectroscopy and ab Initio Density Functional Theory Calculations on the Ionic Liquid forming 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}amide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Riisager, Anders; Nguyen van Buu, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The salt 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}amide, [((CH3)(2)N)(2)C=NH2](+)[N(SO2-CF3)(2)](-) or [tmgH][NTf2], easily forms an ionic liquid with high SO2 absorbing capacity. The crystal structure of the salt was determined at 120(2) K by X-ray diffraction. The structure...

  4. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis. PMID:24686729

  5. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Patimisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  6. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-03-28

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  7. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  8. Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Brian; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) textures in quartz reveal successive histories of the physical and chemical fluctuations that accompany crystal growth. Such CL textures reflect trace element concentration variations that can be mapped by electron microprobe or laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element maps in hydrothermal quartz from four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Ag, porphyry-Cu, and MVT Pb-Zn) reveal correlations among trace elements and between trace element concentrations and CL textures. The distributions of trace elements reflect variations in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz precipitation. These maps show that Al is the most abundant trace element in hydrothermal quartz. In crystals grown at temperatures below 300 °C, Al concentrations may vary by up to two orders of magnitude between adjacent growth zones, with no evidence for diffusion. The monovalent cations Li, Na, and K, where detectable, always correlate with Al, with Li being the most abundant of the three. In most samples, Al is more abundant than the combined total of the monovalent cations; however, in the MVT sample, molar Al/Li ratios are ~0.8. Antimony is present in concentrations up to ~120 ppm in epithermal quartz (~200–300 °C), but is not detectable in MVT, Carlin, or porphyry-Cu quartz. Concentrations of Sb do not correlate consistently with those of other trace elements or with CL textures. Titanium is only abundant enough to be mapped in quartz from porphyry-type ore deposits that precipitate at temperatures above ~400 °C. In such quartz, Ti concentration correlates positively with CL intensity, suggesting a causative relationship. In contrast, in quartz from other deposit types, there is no consistent correlation between concentrations of any trace element and CL intensity fluctuations.

  9. Thermal neutron diffusion cooling in wet quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: krzysztof.drozdowicz@ifj.edu.pl; Krynicka, E. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Crakcw (Poland); Dabrowska, J. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-07-15

    The thermal neutron diffusion parameters of a rock material depend on the rock matrix itself and on the water content. The effect has been studied in quartz by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the variable buckling experiment for nine series of samples. A hyperbolic dependence of the density-removed diffusion cooling coefficient on the water content shows a variability of this parameter by two orders of magnitude. The function obtained for wet quartz is compared with the analogous dependence for wet dolomite.

  10. Quartz-superconductor quantum electromechanical system

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, M. J.; Emzir, M. F.; Milburn, G. J.; Jerger, M.; Goryachev, M.; Tobar, M. E.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyse a quantum electromechanical system composed of a monolithic quartz bulk acoustic wave (BAW) oscillator coupled to a superconducting transmon qubit via an intermediate LC electrical circuit. Monolithic quartz oscillators offer unprecedentedly high effective masses and quality factors for the investigation of mechanical oscillators in the quantum regime. Ground-state cooling of such mechanical modes via resonant piezoelectric coupling to an LC circuit, which is itself sid...

  11. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Patimisco; Gaetano Scamarcio; Tittel, Frank K.; Vincenzo Spagnolo

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimen...

  12. Synthesis, crystal growth, thermal studies and scaled quantum chemical studies of structural and vibrational spectra of the highly efficient organic NLO crystal: 1-(4-Aminophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Lynnette [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Alappuzha 690110, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, C.M.S College, Kottayam 686001, Kerala (India); Sajan, D., E-mail: dsajand@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Alappuzha 690110, Kerala (India); Shettigar, Venkataraya [Department of Physics, Gokhale Centenary College, Ankola 581 314, Karnataka (India); Chaitanya, K. [Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of MOE, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Misra, Neeraj [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 22607 (India); Sundius, Tom [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Němec, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Hlavova 8, 128 40 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15

    A new chalcone derivative, 1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one (DMAC) was synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the sample were recorded in the region 3700–100 cm{sup −1} and 4000–400 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following structure optimizations and force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Normal coordinate calculations were performed using the DFT force field, corrected by a recommended set of scaling factors, yielding fairly good agreement between the observed and calculated wavenumbers. DMAC is thermally stable up to 220.0 °C and optically transparent in the visible region. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential surfaces (ESP). The SHG efficiency of DMAC is observed to be 10 times that of standard urea crystal of identical particle size. - Highlights: • A chalcone derivative, DMAC has been synthesized and crystals are grown. • FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, thermogravimetric and UV–Vis studies were carried out. • SHG effect from a centrosymmetric crystal has been reported.

  13. Quartz-coesite-stishovite relations in shocked metaquartzites from the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, John G.; Boonsue, Suporn

    2018-01-01

    Coesite and stishovite are developed in shock veins within metaquartzites beyond a radius of 30 km from the center of the 2.02 Ga Vredefort impact structure. This work focuses on deploying analytical field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, and Raman spectrometry to better understand the temporal and spatial relations of these silica polymorphs. α-Quartz in the host metaquartzites, away from shock veins, exhibits planar features, Brazil twins, and decorated planar deformation features, indicating a primary (bulk) shock loading of >5 quartz. It is also developed in the matrix of the shock veins, where it is typically of smaller size (quartz. Stishovite also occurs as more blebby, subhedral to anhedral grains in the vein matrix (typically quartz clasts. This is followed by (2) arrival of the main shock front, which shocks to 35 GPa. This generates coesite in the clasts and in the matrix. (3) On initial shock release, the coesite partly reverts to a less dense SiO2 phase, which is now represented by microcrystalline quartz. (4) With continued release, stishovite forms euhedral needle clusters at solid-liquid interfaces and as anhedral crystals in the matrix. (5) With decreasing pressure-temperature, the matrix completes crystallization to yield a microcrystalline quasi-igneous texture comprising quartz-coesite-stishovite-kyanite-biotite-alkali feldspar and accessory phases. It is possible that the shock vein represents the locus of a thermal spike within the bulk shock, in which case there is no requirement for additional pressure (i.e., the bulk shock was ≃35 GPa). However, if that pressure was not realized from the main shock, then supplementary pressure excursions within the vein would have been required. These could have taken the form of localized reverberations from wave trapping, or implosion processes, including pore collapse, phase change-initiated volume reduction, and melt cavitation.

  14. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  15. Flux-Grown Piezoelectric Materials: Application to α-Quartz Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Armand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the slow-cooling method in selected MoO3-based fluxes, single-crystals of GeO2 and GaPO4 materials with an α-quartz-like structure were grown at high temperatures (T ≥ 950 °C. These piezoelectric materials were obtained in millimeter-size as well-faceted, visually colorless and transparent crystals. Compared to crystals grown by hydrothermal methods, infrared and Raman measurements revealed flux-grown samples without significant hydroxyl group contamination and thermal analyses demonstrated a total reversibility of the α-quartz ↔ β-cristobalite phase transition for GaPO4 and an absence of phase transition before melting for α-GeO2. The elastic constants CIJ (with I, J indices from 1 to 6 of these flux-grown piezoelectric crystals were experimentally determined at room and high temperatures. The ambient results for as-grown α-GaPO4 were in good agreement with those obtained from hydrothermally-grown samples and the two longitudinal elastic constants measured versus temperature up to 850 °C showed a monotonous evolution. The extraction of the ambient piezoelectric stress contribution e11 from the CD11 to CE11 difference gave for the piezoelectric strain coefficient d11 of flux-grown α-GeO2 crystal a value of 5.7(2 pC/N, which is more than twice that of α-quartz. As the α-quartz structure of GeO2 remained stable up to melting, a piezoelectric activity was observed up to 1000 °C.

  16. The effect of cobalt substitution in crystal structure and vibrational modes of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders obtained by polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.D.P.; Silva, F.C. [Departamento de Química, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Sinfrônio, F.S.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Paschoal, A.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Silva, E.N. [Departamento de Física, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Paschoal, C.W.A., E-mail: paschoal@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 94720-1760 Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 94720-7300 Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • We synthesized mixed spinels by polymeric precursor method. • We investigated the structural and vibrational properties of the mixed. • We investigated the synthesis condition effects in these properties. • We proposed a complete phonon description for CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels. -- Abstract: In this work Co–Cu mixed spinel Co{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were obtained by polymeric precursors method at several annealing temperatures between 700 and 1200 °C. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, confirming the ideal inverse spinel structure for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample and the tetragonal distorted inverse spinel structure for CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. Based on FWHM evaluation, we estimated that crystallite sizes varies between 27 and 37 nm for the non-substituted samples. The optical-active modes were determined by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The phonon spectra showed a local tetragonal distortion for mixed samples.

  17. Structural, vibrational and optical properties of a new self assembled organic–inorganic nanowire crystal (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N){sub 2}[BiBr{sub 5}]. A Density Functional Theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammak, Hajer, E-mail: hajerdm@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée (LPA), Université de Sfax, Faculté des Sciences, BP1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Triki, Smail [UMR CNRS 6521, Chimie, Electrochimie Moléculaires, Chimie Analytique, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, BP 809, 29285 Brest Cedex (France); Mlayah, Adnen [Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales, CNRS-Université Paul Sabatier, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Cedex 4 (France); Abid, Younes; Feki, Habib [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée (LPA), Université de Sfax, Faculté des Sciences, BP1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-10-15

    Single crystal and thin films of a new organic–inorganic hybrid material (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N){sub 2}[BiBr{sub 5}] were synthesized by the slow evaporation method at room temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements. The crystal structure was determined in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The structure is built up from BiBr{sub 6} octahedra sharing two cis-bromine atoms and forming infinite [BiBr{sub 5}]{sub n} zig-zag chains surrounded by organic cations. Such a one-dimensional (1D) structure may be regarded as quantum wires system in which the [BiBr{sub 5}]{sub n} inorganic chains act as semiconductor wires and the (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N) organic cations act as insulator barriers. The cohesion of the structure is achieved by an extensive network of N–H…Br hydrogen bonds. The Raman and Infrared spectra where interpreted by analogy with the homologous materials and by calculation of normal mode frequencies using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The optimized geometry and the calculated frequencies are in good agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • A new luminescent organic-inorganic material (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N){sub 2}BiBr{sub 5} was synthesized. • Vibrational properties were studied by Raman and IR spectroscopy. • The UV–vis spectrum shows three absorption peaks at 3.01, 3.73 and at 4.4 eV. • This compound shows a strong blue emission at 2.71 eV.

  18. Crystal structure characteristics, dielectric loss, and vibrational spectra of Zn-rich non-stoichiometric Ba[(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-x Zn x ]O3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhu; Xing, Chao; Qiao, Hengyang; Chen, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Dong, Helei; Shi, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Zn-Rich non-stoichiometric Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-x Zn x O3 (BZNZ) (x  =  0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04) ceramics were prepared by the solid-state reaction method at 1500 °C for 2 h. The crystal structures and morphologies were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The vibration modes were obtained by Raman scattering spectroscopy and Fourier transform far-infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy. Rietveld refinement was performed for the XRD data. The relationship between crystal structures, dielectric properties, and phonon modes was analyzed in detail. XRD results show that the main phase is Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3. The Raman results displayed that the ordering structure of BZNZ transformed from 1:2 to 1:1 when x changed from 0.02 to 0.04, and the dielectric losses have a positive correlation with the full width at half maximum values of the A 1g(O) and E g(O) modes. The FTIR spectra were analyzed by the Kramers-Krönig method to obtain the real parts (ɛ‧) and the imaginary parts (ɛ″) of the dielectric constant. When x  =  0.02, the sample possesses uniform grains with clear boundaries and the lowest dielectric loss value (tanδ  =  5.5  ×  10‒4) due to the largest packing fraction.

  19. Changes in OSL properties of quartz by preheating: an interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanian, E. E-mail: crpaa@montaigne.u-bordeaux.fr; Guibert, P.; Roque, C.; Bechtel, F.; Schvoerer, M

    2000-12-15

    A study of OSL variation with preheat temperature showed, in a majority of cases, that OSL recorded at room temperature, increases above 200 deg. C before the normal drainage at higher temperature. To explain this behaviour, an alternative interpretation to the common 'electronic thermal transfer' mechanism is suggested, supported by a study of hydrothermally grown quartz crystals. This interpretation involves impurities in substitution of Si{sup 4+}, specially Al{sup 3+}, which are associated with species like, in the case of quartz, hydrogen (H{sup +}, in fact, OH{sup -}) and alkali ions (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}). These monovalent ions usually act as charge compensators and are mobile during heating. As a consequence of the mobility and a possible irreversible exchange between compensators, the number of radiative recombination centres associated with the OSL trap(s), observable within the detection spectral window used (250-400 nm), increases during preheating. This phenomenon could lead to a wrong ED determination.

  20. Growth of multicrystalline silicon ingot with both enhanced quality and yield through quartz seeded method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huali; You, Da; Huang, Chunlai; Wu, Yihua; Xu, Yan; Wu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    An effective method for ingot quality control in directional solidification by using artificially designed quartz coating as seed is demonstrated in this paper. Quartz powders sprayed at the bottom of the crucible provided numerous nucleation points for the silicon grain growth. The quartz seeded growth ingot showed a large number of small and uniform silicon grains at the bottom, although the grain size increased with crystal growth. Comparatively less dislocation agglomerates and multiplication rate through bottom to top were observed through photoluminescence (PL) analysis. Crystals produced by quartz seeded method showed a higher and more uniform minority carrier lifetime distribution compared to that produced from normal method without seed, and shorter low lifetime area length at the bottom compared to that produced from mc-Si seed-assisted growth method, indicating larger production yield under the same feedstock charging weight. An enhanced average solar cell conversion efficiency of as high as 0.52% in absolute value was obtained compared to that made from seedless method under the same cell manufacture process line, very close to that made from mc-Si seed-assisted growth method.

  1. Crystal face temperature determination means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  2. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  3. Study on vacuum packaging reliability of micromachined quartz tuning fork gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Maoyan; Zhang, Lifang

    2017-09-01

    Packaging technology of the micromachined quartz tuning fork gyroscopes by vacuum welding has been experimentally studied. The performance of quartz tuning fork is influenced by the encapsulation shell, encapsulation method and fixation of forks. Alloy solder thick film is widely used in the package to avoid the damage of the chip structure by the heat resistance and hot temperature, and this can improve the device performance and welding reliability. The results show that the bases and the lids plated with gold and nickel can significantly improve the airtightness and reliability of the vacuum package. Vacuum packaging is an effective method to reduce the vibration damping, improve the quality factor and further enhance the performance. The threshold can be improved nearly by 10 times.

  4. Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K; Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Dong, Lei; Geras, Antonina; Starecki, Tomasz; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-21

    A detailed investigation of a set of custom quartz tuning forks (QTFs), operating in the fundamental and first overtone flexural modes is reported. Support losses are the dominant energy dissipation processes when the QTFs vibrate at the first overtone mode. These losses can be decreased by increasing the ratio between the prong length and its thickness. The QTFs were implemented in a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based sensor operating in the near-IR spectral range and water vapor was selected as the gas target. QTF flexural modes having the highest quality factor exhibit the largest QEPAS signal, demonstrating that, by optimizing the QTF prongs sizes, overtone modes can provide a higher QEPAS sensor performance with respect to using the fundamental mode.

  5. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leu-enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities......, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at room temperature. The species of LeuE-present in non-polar solvents is the neutral non-ionic species with the NH2 and CO2H groups, in contrast...... to the zwitterionic neutral species with the NH3+ and CO2- groups which predominates in aqueous solution and in the crystal. All of our attempts to find the zwitterionic species in the isolated state failed, with the result that a hydrogen atom from the positively charged N-terminus ammonium group transferred either...

  6. Determination of the Components of the Gyration Tensor of Quartz by Oblique Incidence Transmission Two-Modulator Generalized Ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga, O. [Universitat de Barcelona; Canillas, A. [Universitat de Barcelona; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The two independent components of the gyration tensor of quartz, g{sub 11} and g{sub 33}, have been spectroscopically measured using a transmission two-modulator generalized ellipsometer. The method is used to determine the optical activity in crystals in directions other than the optic axis, where the linear birefringence is much larger than the optical activity.

  7. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  8. OH defects in quartz in granitic systems doped with spodumene, tourmaline and/or apatite: experimental investigations at 5-20 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, C.; Stalder, R.; Hauzenberger, C. A.

    2016-11-01

    The incorporation of OH defects in quartz as a function of Li content in the bulk system and pressures was investigated. Quartz crystals were grown in water-saturated granitic systems, containing various amounts Li, B and P, supplied as accessory phases such as spodumene, tourmaline or apatite in the starting mixtures. High pressure experiments were performed at temperatures between 900 and 1100 °C, and pressures between 5 and 20 kbar with a piston cylinder apparatus, and the synthesized quartz crystals were analyzed by IR spectroscopy, electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS spectroscopy. All IR absorption spectra revealed absorption features that can be assigned to AlOH (3313, 3379 and 3431 cm-1) and (4H)Si defects (3585 cm-1), whereas quartz grown in the Li and B systems exhibited two additional bands related, respectively, to LiOH (3483 cm-1) and BOH defects (3596 cm-1). It was further observed that LiOH incorporation increases with higher spodumene content in the starting material and decreases with pressure, until no LiOH defects are observed at pressure higher than 15 kbar. Specifically, the most pronounced reduction of LiOH defects occurs in a rather narrow pressure interval (10-15 kbar) close to the high-quartz/low-quartz transition. However, the link between the transition and the defect incorporation remains unclear. Li total concentrations always exceed the Li-coupled LiOH defects, suggesting the simultaneous presence of dry AlLi defects. Results of this study suggest that LiOH defects are detectable only in quartz crystals grown from middle and upper crustal sections (such as hydrothermal quartz) and not in quartz from deep roots of orogenic granitoids.

  9. Application of The Titanium-In-Quartz Thermobarometer to Eclogites from The Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengün, Firat; Zack, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Eclogites crop out in the Çamlica metamorphics and beneath the Çetmi melange as a tectonic slice in the Biga Peninsula in northwest Turkey. The Çamlica metamorphics occur in the westernmost part of the Biga Peninsula and are tectonically separated from the Denizgoren ophiolite in the west by the Ovacik fault. The Çetmi melange found on the southern part of the Biga Peninsula is mainly composed of various types of blocks within a detritic matrix. The high-P assemblages in eclogite consist of omphacite + garnet + epidote + glaucophane + quartz + phengite. Typical accessory minerals are rutile, zircon and sphene. Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer (TitaniQ) was applied on eclogites from the Biga Peninsula. The P-T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility can be combined with P-T dependencies of Zr-in-rutile solubility to estimate pressure and temperature of crystallization. Titanium concentrations in quartz from the Çamlica metamorphics range from 0.26 to 0.91 ppm. Zirconium concentrations in rutile range from 26 to 64 ppm. However, Ti contents in quartz from the Çetmi melange vary from 0.47 to 2.19 ppm. Zr contents in rutile range between 50 and 150 ppm. Regional high-P metamorphism with peak conditions of 551 ± 5 oC and 21.5 ± 0.3 kbar in eclogite from the Çamlica region and 624 ± 17 oC and 22.6 ± 1.6 kbar in eclogite from the Çetmi region. Ti- in-quartz thermobarometer gives precise and comprehensible pressure and temperature values when using the Zr-in-rutile thermobarometer, which could be an advantage over classical methods.

  10. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  11. Thermoelastic investigation of a quartz tuning fork used in infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spajer, M., E-mail: michel.spajer@univ-fcomte.fr; Cavallier, B.; Euphrasie, S.; Matten, G.; Vacheret, X.; Vairac, P.; Vernier, D. [Institut FEMTO-ST, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, 32 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-25044 Besançon cedex (France); Jalocha, A. [CILAS, Département de Photonique, 8 avenue Buffon, BP 6319, F-45000 Orléans (France)

    2013-11-11

    The performances of quartz tuning forks (QTF) used in infrared spectroscopy for pollutant detection are investigated. The transduction between light and QTF vibration is elucidated, thanks to QTF encapsulation under vacuum. From the sensitivity enhancement which is obtained, we conclude that their interaction is photo-thermoelastic rather than photo-thermoacoustic. A mapping of the local sensitivity of the QTF is obtained by scanning its faces with the excitation probe beam. The comparison between the signal mapping and the theoretical strain mapping indicates that the most efficient areas of the QTF correspond to the areas where the strain or stress is the highest.

  12. Geology of the Quartz Creek Pegmatite District, Gunnison County Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer H.; Trites, A.F.

    1952-01-01

    The Quartz Creek pegmatite district includes an area about 29 square miles in the vicinity of Quartz Creek in Gunnison County,. Colo. This area contains 1,803 pegmatites that are intruded into pre-Cambrian rocks.

  13. In-situ Studies of the Reactions of Bifunctional and Heterocyclic Molecules over Noble Metal Single Crystal and Nanoparticle Catalysts Studied with Kinetics and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, Christopher J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-06-30

    Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in combination with gas chromatography (GC) was used in-situ to monitor surface bound reaction intermediates and reaction selectivities for the hydrogenation reactions of pyrrole, furan, pyridine, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal over Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111), and platinum nanoparticles under Torr reactant pressures and temperatures of 300K to 450K. The focus of this work is the correlation between the SFG-VS observed surface bound reaction intermediates and adsorption modes with the reaction selectivity, and how this is affected by catalyst structure and temperature. Pyrrole hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Rh(111) single crystals at Torr pressures. It was found that pyrrole adsorbs to Pt(111) perpendicularly by cleaving the N-H bond and binding through the nitrogen. However, over Rh(111) pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry binding through the {pi}-aromatic orbitals. A surface-bound pyrroline reaction intermediate was detected over both surfaces with SFG-VS. It was found that the ring-cracking product butylamine is a reaction poison over both surfaces studied. Furan hydrogenation was studied over Pt(111), Pt(100), 10 nm cubic platinum nanoparticles and 1 nm platinum nanoparticles. The product distribution was observed to be highly structure sensitive and the acquired SFG-VS spectra reflected this sensitivity. Pt(100) exhibited more ring-cracking to form butanol than Pt(111), while the nanoparticles yielded higher selectivities for the partially saturated ring dihydrofuran. Pyridine hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The α-pyridyl surface adsorption mode was observed with SFG-VS over both surfaces. 1,4-dihydropyridine was seen as a surface intermediate over Pt(100) but not Pt(111). Upon heating the surfaces to 350K, the adsorbed pyridine changes to a flat-lying adsorption mode. No evidence was found for the pyridinium cation. The hydrogenation of the

  14. Vibration measurements of high-heat-load monochromators for DESY PETRA III extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, Paw, E-mail: paw.kristiansen@fmb-oxford.com [FMB Oxford Ltd, Unit 1 Ferry Mills, Oxford OX2 0ES (United Kingdom); Horbach, Jan; Döhrmann, Ralph; Heuer, Joachim [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-05-09

    Vibration measurements of a cryocooled double-crystal monochromator are presented. The origins of the vibrations are identified. The minimum achieved vibration of the relative pitch between the two crystals is 48 nrad RMS and the minimum achieved absolute vibration of the second crystal is 82 nrad RMS. The requirement for vibrational stability of beamline optics continues to evolve rapidly to comply with the demands created by the improved brilliance of the third-generation low-emittance storage rings around the world. The challenge is to quantify the performance of the instrument before it is installed at the beamline. In this article, measurement techniques are presented that directly and accurately measure (i) the relative vibration between the two crystals of a double-crystal monochromator (DCM) and (ii) the absolute vibration of the second-crystal cage of a DCM. Excluding a synchrotron beam, the measurements are conducted under in situ conditions, connected to a liquid-nitrogen cryocooler. The investigated DCM utilizes a direct-drive (no gearing) goniometer for the Bragg rotation. The main causes of the DCM vibration are found to be the servoing of the direct-drive goniometer and the flexibility in the crystal cage motion stages. It is found that the investigated DCM can offer relative pitch vibration down to 48 nrad RMS (capacitive sensors, 0–5 kHz bandwidth) and absolute pitch vibration down to 82 nrad RMS (laser interferometer, 0–50 kHz bandwidth), with the Bragg axis brake engaged.

  15. Dedicated finite elements for electrode thin films on quartz resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sonal A; Yong, Yook-Kong; Tanaka, Masako; Imai, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    The accuracy of the finite element analysis for thickness shear quartz resonators is a function of the mesh resolution; the finer the mesh resolution, the more accurate the finite element solution. A certain minimum number of elements are required in each direction for the solution to converge. This places a high demand on memory for computation, and often the available memory is insufficient. Typically the thickness of the electrode films is very small compared with the thickness of the resonator itself; as a result, electrode elements have very poor aspect ratios, and this is detrimental to the accuracy of the result. In this paper, we propose special methods to model the electrodes at the crystal interface of an AT cut crystal. This reduces the overall problem size and eliminates electrode elements having poor aspect ratios. First, experimental data are presented to demonstrate the effects of electrode film boundary conditions on the frequency-temperature curves of an AT cut plate. Finite element analysis is performed on a mesh representing the resonator, and the results are compared for testing the accuracy of the analysis itself and thus validating the results of analysis. Approximations such as lumping and Guyan reduction are then used to model the electrode thin films at the electrode interface and their results are studied. In addition, a new approximation called merging is proposed to model electrodes at the electrode interface.

  16. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The green colour is sometimes due to the presence of secondary epi- dote and chlorite. Very fine-grained green quartz similar to colloidal quartz is also observed in places. Quartz grains occurring within grey-coloured giant veins are highly strained in nature. A number of thin (up to 10cm; figure 3c) sub- vertical, milky white ...

  17. Quartz exposure and increased respiratory symptoms among coal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quartz has been an inevitable composition of different type of coal mined. The quartz exposures among coalmine workers has been attributed to activities such as cutting the adjacent rock, the roof, the floor and the intrusions. Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the associations between quartz exposures and ...

  18. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked.

  19. A Z-Axis Quartz Cross-Fork Micromachined Gyroscope Based on Shear Stress Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liqiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Haoxu; Su, Jianbin; Dong, Peitao

    2010-01-01

    Here we propose a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope. The sensor has a simple cross-fork structure in the x-y plane of quartz crystal. Shear stress rather than normal stress is utilized to sense Coriolis’ force generated by the input angular rate signal. Compared to traditional quartz gyroscopes, which have two separate sense electrodes on each sidewall, there is only one electrode on each sidewall of the sense beam. As a result, the fabrication of the electrodes is simplified and the structure can be easily miniaturized. In order to increase sensitivity, a pair of proof masses is attached to the ends of the drive beam, and the sense beam has a tapered design. The structure is etched from a z-cut quartz wafer and the electrodes are realized by direct evaporation using the aperture mask method. The drive mode frequency of the prototype is 13.38 kHz, and the quality factor is approximately 1,000 in air. Therefore, the gyroscope can work properly without a vacuum package. The measurement ability of the shear stress detection design scheme is validated by the Coriolis’ force test. The performance of the sensor is characterized on a precision rate table using a specially designed readout circuit. The experimentally obtained scale factor is 1.45 mV/°/s and the nonlinearity is 3.6% in range of ±200 °/s. PMID:22294887

  20. Oxygen isotopic ratios in quartz as an indicator of provenance of dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M L

    1977-01-01

    Quartz was isolated in the long range aerosol size range (fine silt, 1-10 ..mu..m in diameter) from atmospheric aerosols, wind-erosive soils, soil silts, shales, and Pacific pelagic sediments of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, to trace their provenance or origin, as part of a study of dust mineral sequestering of /sup 137/Cs and other products of nuclear fission. The oxygen isotopic ratio (/sup 18/O//sup 16/O) was determined by mass spectrometry. The provenance has been established for this fine silt fraction which reflects the relative proportion of two classes of quartz source: (a) weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks (high temperature origin and low /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratio) and (b) of quartz crystallized in cherts and overgrowths (low temperature origin and high /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratio). This quartz mixing ratio is a basic model or paradigm. Analyses of present day atmospheric aerosols and eolian-derived soils, Pacific pelagic sediments, and now-raised Phanerozoic marine sediments show that the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have separate large-scale reservoirs of the fine grain sizes that contribute to aerosol dusts. These can be identified by distinctive values of /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios of the quartz therein. The difference in quartz delta/sup 18/O value in parts per thousand per ml (/sup 0///sub 00/ of about 12 +- 2 /sup 0///sub 00/ in Southern Hemisphere mixed detrital sediments and about 19 +- 2 /sup 0///sub 00/ in those of the Northern Hemisphere (for constant size, the 1-10 ..mu..m size fraction) results from the presence of a considerably larger proportion of quartz having low-temperature origin and higher delta/sup 18/O values (chert, silica overgrowths, etc.) in the Northern Hemisphere reservoirs. The early paleoclimatic and paleogeochemical differences remain the control of the North-South Hemisphere difference in delta/sup 18/O values in long-range aerosol sized quartz.

  1. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  2. The CMS forward calorimeter with quartz fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Part of the forward hadron calorimeter for the CMS experiment at the LHC is seen here. The calorimeter will be placed at the ends of the experiment barrel to measure the energy of particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions. In consists of an iron absorber and specially designed radiation-hard quartz so that it survives the high radiation levels produced by collisions.

  3. Liquinert quartz crucible for the growth of multicrystalline Si ingots

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Kozo; Horioka, Yukichi; Sakuragi, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    The growth of a multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot for solar cell applications was attempted using a Liquinert quartz crucible. A mc-Si ingot was also grown in a quartz crucible coated with Si3N4 powder for comparison with that from the Liquinert quartz crucible. The mc-Si ingot grown in the Liquinert quartz crucible had a shinier surface which has few impurity particles and higher minority carrier lifetime than the mc-Si ingot grown in a quartz crucible coated with Si3N4 powder. These re...

  4. Comparison of High Temperature Crystal Lattice and Bulk Thermal Expansion Measurements of LGT Single Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucage, Timothy R [University of Maine; Beenfeldt, Eric P [University of Maine; Speakman, Scott A [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio [University of Maine

    2006-01-01

    Among the langasite family of crystals (LGX), the three most popular materials are langasite (LGS, La3Ga5SiO14), langatate (LGT, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) and langanite (LGN, La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14). The LGX crystals have received significant attention for acoustic wave (AW) device applications due to several properties, which include: (1) piezoelectric constants about two and a half times those of quartz, thus allowing the design of larger bandwidth filters; (2) existence of temperature compensated orientations; (3) high density, with potential for reduced vibration and acceleration sensitivity; and (4) possibility of operation at high temperatures, since the LGX crystals do not present phase changes up to their melting point above 1400degC. The LGX crystals' capability to operate at elevated temperatures calls for an investigation on the growth quality and the consistency of these materials' properties at high temperature. One of the fundamental crystal properties is the thermal expansion coefficients in the entire temperature range where the material is operational. This work focuses on the measurement of the LGT thermal expansion coefficients from room temperature (25degC) to 1200degC. Two methods of extracting the thermal expansion coefficients have been used and compared: (a) dual push-rod dilatometry, which provides the bulk expansion; and (b) x-ray powder diffraction, which provides the lattice expansion. Both methods were performed over the entire temperature range and considered multiple samples taken from <001> Czochralski grown LGT material. The thermal coefficients of expansion were extracted by approximating each expansion data set to a third order polynomial fit over three temperature ranges reported in this work: 25degC to 400degC, 400degC to 900degC, 900degC to 1200degC. An accuracy of fit better than 35ppm for the bulk expansion and better than 10ppm for the lattice expansion have been obtained with the aforementioned polynomial fitting. The

  5. Study on the origin of 1/f noise in quartz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthal, F.; Devel, M.; Imbaud, J.; Bourquin, R.; Ghosh, S.; Cibiel, G.

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic frequency fluctuations with a 1/f power spectral density limit the short-term stability in quartz crystal ultra-stable oscillators. The physical origin of this 1/f noise remains not clearly explained. In this paper, a review of an experimental study on numerous ultra-stable quartz crystal resonators is presented. A comparison with past measurements is given. A theoretical approach, based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, is used in order to put numerical constraints on a model of 1/f noise caused by an internal (or structural) dissipation proportional to the amplitude and not to the speed, in the limit of low frequencies. The order of the magnitude of the noise is then discussed using a candidate physical process. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results show that internal damping of thickness fluctuations by any internal friction force proportional to strain and independent of frequency may not be the dominant noise mechanism for the best SC-cut quartz resonators. Finally, we conclude on the work that could be done to solve the remaining open problems.

  6. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Viola, Giulio; Menegon, Luca; Sørensen, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein with a random CPO, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by optical microscopy, SEM imaging and EBSD to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low greenschist facies conditions at the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is located in a high strain zone at the front of an imbricate stack of Caledonian age along the northwesternmost edge of the Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed within the Nussirjavrri Fault Zone (NFZ), an out-of-sequence thrust with a phyllonitic core characterized by a ramp-flat-ramp geometry, NNW plunging stretching lineations and top-to-the SSE thrusting kinematics. Deformation conditions are typical of the frictional-viscous transition. The phyllonitic core formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation, related to the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage, was accommodated within the vein initially by basal slip of suitably oriented quartz crystals, which produced e.g. undulose extinction, extinction bands and bulging grain boundaries. In the case of misoriented quartz crystals, however, glide-accommodated dislocation creep resulted soon inefficient and led to localized dislocation tangling and strain hardening. In response to 1) hardening, 2) progressive increase of fluid pressure within the actively deforming vein and 3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the surrounding weak, foliated phyllonitic fault core, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific lattice planes oriented optimally with respect to the imposed stress field. Microfaulting generated small volumes of gouge along

  7. Development of Quartz Friction Gauge on Board Balloon and Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Takumi; Murata, Isao; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    The on-board small vacuum gauge developed in this study is the quartz friction gauge, which is based on the principle that the resonance impedance of a quartz oscillator varies with the pressure of ambient gas. The gauge has a wide measuring range (105-10-2 Pa), which corresponds to the atmospheric pressure from the ground to an altitude of about 100 km. The sensor part and data processing part weigh 136 g and 210 g, respectively. In addition, the gauge can operate at a power consumption level of less than 1W. The gauge is suited for high altitude balloon experiments where the weight of on-board instruments must be kept to a minimum. The tuning-fork-shaped quartz oscillator in the gauge is widely used for wrist watches and has high resistance to vibration and shock, and thus the gauge is applicable to sounding rocket experiments that require on-board instruments with high resistance to the environment.

  8. Manufacturing polycrystalline pellets of natural quartz for applications in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Junior, Alvaro Barbosa de; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Department of Nuclear Energy; Barros, Thiago Fernandes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Department of Mining Engineering

    2012-07-15

    This paper describes the manufacturing process of quartz-pellets and shows their potential use as thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for those applications where low-levels of ionising radiation are present. Two batches of cold-pressed pellets were produced and their resistance were evaluated by vibration tests and weight-loss measurements. The batch manufactured with 75 Multiplication-Sign 150 Micro-Sign m particles showed enough resistance to be employed as TLD. The dosimetric properties of the 310 Degree-Sign C peak appearing in the glow curves of these pellets were characterized together with commercial TLD-100 units using {gamma}- and X-ray beams with different energies. The uncertainties related to reproducibility and stability of the TL signal were better than 10%. The sensitivity and the linearity of the TL response of quartz-pellets were better than that measured for TLD-100 for doses ranging from 0.5 to 200mGy. The energy dependence of the quartz-pellets was higher than that of TLD-100 but it cannot be considered a restriction to their use in clinical procedures and industrial applications. (author)

  9. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  10. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  11. Experimental diagenesis of quartz with petroleum; Diagenese experimentale du quartz en presence d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teinturier, St.

    2002-11-01

    Quartz cementation has a great impact on petroleum reservoir quality by controlling the porosity and thus the gas or oil storage. However, the possible cementation of quartz during petroleum emplacement is still debated. In most cases, the reconstitution and the understanding of diagenetic processes is based on fluid inclusions studies. However, many questions concerning the representativeness and the reading of the fluid inclusions still remains misunderstood. The experiments were carried out in a silica{+-}water{+-}salts{+-}oil{+-}gas system with the objective to simulate the siliceous diagenesis of natural petroleum reservoirs and to better understand the mechanisms of fluid inclusions formation and quartz cementation in a water and/or petroleum system. Calibration curves have been established using Raman micro-spectroscopy and synthetic reference inclusions to calculate the methane content of aqueous inclusions in the H{sub 2}O-CH{sub 4}-NaCl system. A quantitative procedure for FT-IR micro-spectrometry has been developed to obtain, from individual petroleum fluid inclusions, mole % concentrations of methane, alkanes and carbon dioxide as constraints to thermodynamic modelling. Synthetic aqueous inclusions were created within quartz micro-fractures, with methane (from 150 deg C-200 bar), with petroleum (from 184 deg C-163 bar) and inside quartz overgrowth with the presence of hydrocarbons (from 277 deg C-300 bar). Synthetic petroleum inclusions were created with different water/oil ratios (W/O) within quartz micro-fractures (0quartz overgrowth (10

  12. Identifying well-bleached quartz using the different bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Masuda, N.

    2012-01-01

    When dating older sedimentary deposits using quartz, there are no unambiguous methods for identifying the presence of incomplete bleaching. Current statistical analysis of dose distributions depends entirely on the assumption that incomplete bleaching and mixing are the main causes of any excess...... dispersion in the distribution; the only existing way to test this assumption is using independent age control. Here we suggest a new approach to this question, based on the differential bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals. We first present data that confirm the differences...... in relative bleaching rates of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 50 °C by infrared light (IR50) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 290 °C by infrared light after a stimulation at 50 °C (pIRIR290), and use recently deposited samples to determine...

  13. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  14. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based Trace Gas Sensors Using Different Quartz Tuning Forks

    OpenAIRE

    Yufei Ma; Guang Yu; Jingbo Zhang; Xin Yu; Rui Sun; Tittel, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is reported. A 1.395 ?m continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonant frequency (f0 ) of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kH...

  15. Comparison of thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (ESEM-CL) properties between hydrothermal and metamorphic quartzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topaksu, M., E-mail: mtopaksu@adiyaman.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Topak, Y. [Adiyaman University, Vocational High School, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Goeksu, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    This paper reports on the Thermoluminescence (TL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky quartz specimens from Hakkari in Turkey, labeled THQ, and Madrid in Spain, labeled SHQ, and metamorphic quartz from Madrid, in Spain, labeled SMQ. Both hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples display similar UV-IR CL spectra consisting of five groups of components centered at 330 nm and 380 nm linked to [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers, 420 nm due to intrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and impurities which modify the crystal structure, 480 nm associated with [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers of substitutional Al{sup 3+}, and a red broad band related to the hydroxyl defects in the quartz lattice as precursors of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) and substitutional point defects. The Turkish quartz specimen exhibits higher CL intensity in the UV region (up to 330 nm) than the Spanish specimens probably linked to the presence of Ca (0.95% in THQ and less than 0.1% in SHQ and SMQ). At wavelengths greater than 330 nm, SMQ (formed at high pressure 6000 bars and temperatures over 500-600 Degree-Sign C) shows higher intensity than the hydrothermal (growth at 2000 bars and temperatures 200-300 Degree-Sign C) samples associated with the formation process. The natural blue TL glow curves of both THQ and SHQ display a weaker TL intensity than the SMQ, attributable to the Al (0.32%), Ti (0.14%), K (0.01%) and Zr (76 ppm) content. It is shown that mineralogical formation, crystallinity index and the content of the impurities seem to be the main parameters of influence in the shape intensity of the CL and TL glow curve emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported on the TL and CL emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky and metamorphic quartz specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples displayed similar UV-IR CL spectra. Black

  16. Fe(III) hydroxide nucleation and growth on quartz in the presence of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III): metal hydrolysis and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chong; Hu, Yandi

    2015-01-06

    Fe(III) hydroxide nanoparticles are an essential carrier for aqueous heavy metals. Particularly, iron hydroxide precipitation on mineral surfaces can immobilize aqueous heavy metals. Here, we used grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) to quantify nucleation and growth of iron hydroxide on quartz in 0.1 mM Fe(NO3)3 solution in the presence of Na(+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), or Cr(3+) at pH = 3.7 ± 0.1. In 30 min, the average radii of gyration (R(g)) of particles on quartz grew from around 2 to 6 nm in the presence of Na(+) and Cu(2+). Interestingly, the particle sizes remained 3.3 ± 0.3 nm in the presence of Pb(2+), and few particles formed in the presence of Cr(3+). Quartz crystal microbalance dissipation (QCM-D) measurements showed that only Cr(3+) adsorbed onto quartz, while Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) did not. Cr(3+) adsorption changed the surface charge of quartz from negative to positive, thus inhibiting the precipitation of positively charged iron hydroxide on quartz. Masses and compositions of the precipitates were also quantified. This study provided new insights on interactions among quartz, iron hydroxide, and metal ions. Such information is helpful not only for environmental remediation but also for the doping design of iron oxide catalysts.

  17. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randive Kirtikumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  18. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randive, Kirtikumar; Hurai, Vratislav

    2015-09-01

    Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  19. Production of quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Basegmez, Suzan; Beaumont, Willem; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; De Paula Carvalho, W; Çerçi, Salim; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Dogangün, O; Dumanoglu, Isa; d'Enterria, David; Erchov, Y; Eskut, Eda; Figueiredo, D; Girgis, Semiray; Göttlicher, P; Gouskos, Loukas; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Khein, Lev; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Lebeau, Michel; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Muhl, Carsten; Musienko, Yuri; Ochesanu, Silvia; Onengüt, G; Onengut, G Jr; Ozdemir, Kadri; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Polatoz, A; Ripert, Marion; Shileev, K; Sogut, Kenan; Tiflov, B TaliV; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Uzun, Dilber

    2008-01-01

    Light transmission rate performance of $102$ irradiated quartz samples was measured to select the best quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR calorimeter. All the produced quartz plates were originally used in a previous CERN experiment, DELPHI. Three different doses of $^{60}$Co source were used with the collaboration of PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.) to study the transmission rate performance of the quartz samples after irradiation for different incident light, ranging from $250$ to $700$ nm in $5$ nm increasing steps. All samples show different decrease in the rate with wavelength for different doses. Three different steps were followed before irradiation to find out the best way of cleaning the original DELPHI Cu/Cr tracks on the samples. Results of these measurements presented here correspond to the quartz plates that will be used in one hadronic sector of CASTOR calorimeter until end of 2008. For the full calorimeter new quartz plates will be installed. We also present the light transmi...

  20. Luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz as a result of annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Mejdahl, V.

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz extracted from (for example) bricks needs to account for strong OSL sensitivity changes that are known to occur depending on the previous thermal treatment of the sample. Non-heated quartz exhibits OSL orders...... of magnitude less per unit radiation than that for heated material. The reason these temperature-induced sensitivity changes occur in quartz is presently not well understood. This phenomenon is also seen in the related area of luminescence dating in which sedimentary quartz and quartz from heated...... archaeological samples show very different OSL sensitivities. In this paper we report on studies of the effect of high temperature annealing on the OSL and phototransferred TL (PTTL) signals from sedimentary and synthetic quartz. A dramatic enhancement of both OSL and PTTL sensitivity was found especially...

  1. Acoustic Tests of Lorentz Symmetry Using Quartz Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a test of Lorentz symmetry based on new, compact, and reliable quartz oscillator technology. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the matter and photon sector of the standard model extension generate anisotropies in particles’ inertial masses and the elastic constants of solids, giving rise to measurable anisotropies in the resonance frequencies of acoustic modes in solids. A first realization of such a “phonon-sector” test of Lorentz symmetry using room-temperature stress-compensated-cut crystals yields 120 h of data at a frequency resolution of 2.4×10^{−15} and a limit of c[over ˜]_{Q}^{n}=(−1.8±2.2×10^{−14}  GeV on the most weakly constrained neutron-sector c coefficient of the standard model extension. Future experiments with cryogenic oscillators promise significant improvements in accuracy, opening up the potential for improved limits on Lorentz violation in the neutron, proton, electron, and photon sector.

  2. A Novel Wireless and Temperature-Compensated SAW Vibration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW based temperature-compensated vibration sensor utilizing a flexible Y-cut quartz cantilever beam with a relatively substantial proof mass and two one-port resonators is developed. One resonator acts as the sensing device adjacent to the clamped end for maximum strain sensitivity, and the other one is used as the reference located on clamped end for temperature compensation for vibration sensor through the differential approach. Vibration directed to the proof mass flex the cantilever, inducing relative changes in the acoustic propagation characteristics of the SAW travelling along the sensing device, and generated output signal varies in frequency as a function of vibration.  A theoretical mode using the Rayleigh method was established to determine the optimal dimensions of the cantilever beam. Coupling of Modes (COM model was used to extract the optimal design parameters of the SAW devices prior to fabrication. The performance of the developed SAW sensor attached to an antenna towards applied vibration was evaluated wirelessly by using the precise vibration table, programmable incubator chamber, and reader unit.  High vibration sensitivity of ~10.4 kHz/g, good temperature stability, and excellent linearity were observed in the wireless measurements.

  3. Phase transitions in shocked porous quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, M. C.; Crum, R. S.; Lind, J.; Pagan, D. C.; Homel, M. A.; Hurley, R. C.; Herbold, E. B.

    2017-06-01

    The presence of porosity in granular media provides the means to probe regions of the phase diagram that do not coincide with the principal Hugoniot. In particular, the potential for increased heating is likely to lead to observable changes in phase boundaries. 55% dense quartz and forsterite were prepared by tap filling. These samples were shock compressed using the two stage light gas gun at DCS-APS to examine the impact of the increased porosity on the phase boundary. Here we discuss the observed changes to phase in quartz and forsterite compared to the fully dense materials, the effects of porosity upon compaction and phase transitions, and the implications for constructing the phase diagram. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Work was supported by LLNL's LDRD program under Grant 16-ERD-010. The Dynamic Compression Sector (35) is supported by Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002442. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Shear ordering in polymer photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoswell, D R E; Kontogeorgos, A; Baumberg, J J; Lord, T D; Mackley, M R; Spahn, P; Hellmann, G P

    2010-02-01

    Optical scattering spectra are recorded in situ on flowing colloidal polymeric nanocomposites which are sheared into photonic crystals at 150 degrees C using a high-pressure quartz-cell multipass rheometer. Broadband spectroscopy of the resonant Bragg scattering peak allows the direct observation of crystal formation and melting of monodisperse core-shell particles. A range of flow conditions of this solventless, highly viscous melt reveals four distinct regimes of crystal growth and decay which match a simple rheological model. Extraction of crystal thickness, order and lattice spacing are validated by one-dimensional electromagnetic simulations.

  5. Vibration Properties of a Steel-PMMA Composite Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel-polymethyl methacrylate (steel-PMMA beam was fabricated to investigate the vibration properties of a one-dimensional phononic crystal structure. The experimental system included an excitation system, a signal acquisition system, and a data analysis and processing system. When an excitation signal was exerted on one end of the beam, the signals of six response points were collected with acceleration sensors. Subsequent signal analysis showed that the beam was attenuated in certain frequency ranges. The lumped mass method was then used to calculate the bandgap of the phononic crystal beam to analyze the vibration properties of a beam made of two different materials. The finite element method was also employed to simulate the vibration of the phononic crystal beam, and the simulation results were consistent with theoretical calculations. The existence of the bandgap was confirmed experimentally and theoretically, which allows for the potential applications of phononic crystals, including wave guiding and filtering, in integrated structures.

  6. Evidence of a Love wave bandgap in a quartz substrate coated with a phononic thin layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ting-Wei; Wu, Tsung-Tsong, E-mail: wutt@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Yao-Chuan [WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ono, Takahito; Tanaka, Shuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-05-05

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Love wave propagation in a micro-fabricated phononic crystal (PC) structure consisting of a 2D, periodically etched silica film deposited on a quartz substrate. The dispersion characteristics of Love waves in such a phononic structure were analyzed with various geometric parameters by using complex band structure calculations. For the experiment, we adopted reactive-ion etching with electron-beam lithography to fabricate a submicrometer phononic structure. The measured results exhibited consistency with the numerical prediction. The results of this study may serve as a basis for developing PC-based Love wave devices.

  7. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Starecki; Piotr Z. Wieczorek

    2017-01-01

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the ...

  8. Quartz: structural and thermodynamic analyses across the α ↔ β transition with origin of negative thermal expansion (NTE) in β quartz and calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Sytle M.

    2016-04-01

    The temperature variation,T, of the crystal structure of quartz, SiO2, from 298 to 1235 K was obtained with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data and Rietveld structure refinements. The polymorphic transformation fromP3221 (low-T, α quartz) toP6222 (high-T, β quartz) occurs at a transition temperature,Ttr= 847 K. TheTvariations of spontaneous strains and several structural parameters are fitted to an order parameter,Q, using Landau theory. The change in Si atom coordinate, Six, givesTtr-Tc= 0.49 K, which indicates an α ↔ β transition that is weakly first order and nearly tricritical in character (Q4T). Strains give higherTtr-Tcvalues (≃ 7 K). Other fitted parameters are the oxygen Ozcoordinate, Si—Si distance, Si—O—Si and φ angles, and intensity of the (111) reflection,I111. In α quartz, the Si—Si distance increases withTbecause of cation repulsion, so the Si—O—Si angle increases (and φ decreases) and causes the thermal expansion of the framework structure that consists of corner-sharing distorted rigid SiO4tetrahedra. The Si—Si distances contract withTand cause negative thermal expansion (NTE) in β quartz because of increasing thermal librations of the O atom in the Si—O—Si linkage that occur nearly perpendicular to the Si—Si contraction. In calcite, CaCO3, the short Ca—Ca distance expands withT, but the next-nearest Ca—Ca distance, which is of equal length to theaaxis, contracts withTand causes NTE along

  9. Pursuing frequency standards and control: the invention of quartz clock technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Shaul

    2016-01-01

    The quartz clock, the first to replace the pendulum as the time standard and later a ubiquitous and highly influential technology, originated in research on means for determining frequency for the needs of telecommunication and the interests of its users. This article shows that a few groups in the US, Britain, Italy and the Netherlands developed technologies that enabled the construction of the new clock in 1927-28. To coordinate complex and large communication networks, the monopolistic American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and national laboratories needed to determine and maintain a common 'standard' frequency measurement unit. Exploiting novel piezoelectric quartz methods and valve electronics techniques, researchers in these organizations constructed a new crystal-based frequency standard. To ensure its accuracy they compared it to an accepted absolute standard - an astronomical clock, constructing thereby the first quartz clock. Other groups, however, had different, though connected, technological aims, which originated from the diverse interests of the industrial, governmental and academic institutes to which they belonged, and for which they needed to measure, control and manipulate with frequencies of electric oscillations. The present article suggests a comparative examination of the research and development paths of these groups on their incentives, the technological and scientific resources they utilized, and the kind of research carried out in the various institutional settings.

  10. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  11. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  12. Anisotropic viscoelastic properties of quartz and quartzite in the vicinity of the α- β phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbach, Steffen; Schilling, Frank R.

    2017-10-01

    In this study we performed high-temperature, dynamic (i.e. sinusoidal), three-point bending experiments of quartz single crystals and quartzite samples within the frequency range of seismic surveys (i.e. 0.1-20 Hz). At constant temperature close to the α- β phase transition we observed a unique complex elastic behaviour of both quartz and quartzite. We find a frequency dependence of the complex Young's modulus of α-quartz, including a dissipation maximum at ≈1 Hz supposedly related to the formation and variation of Dauphiné twin domains. Based on our experimental results for different crystallographic directions and additional modelling, we are able to describe the complex Young's modulus of quartz at its α- β phase transition in a 3D diagram. We derive a frequency-dependent elasticity tensor, using a three-element equivalent circuit, composed of two springs E 1 and E 2 as well as a dashpot η. E 1 and η are connected parallel to each other, E 2 is added in series. Compliance coefficients yield ( S 11) E 1 = 572 GPa, E 2 = 70.0 GPa, η = 64.6 GPa·s, ( S 33) E 1 = 127 GPa, E 2 = 52.1 GPa, η = 22.9 GPa·s, ( S 44) E 1 = 204 GPa, E 2 = 37.5 GPa, η = 26.4 GPa·s, ( S 12) E 1 = 612 GPa, E 2 = 106.7 GPa, η = 78.5 GPa·s, ( S 13) E 1 = 1546 GPa, E 2 = 284 GPa, η = 200 GPa·s; S 14 ≈-0.0024 GPa-1. We use the derived direction-dependent coefficients to predict the frequency-dependent complex elastic properties of isotropic polycrystalline quartz. These predictions agree well with the experimental results of the investigated quartzite. Finally, we explore the potential of using the anomalous frequency-dependent complex elastic properties of quartz at the α- β phase transition that we observed as an in situ temperature probe for seismic studies of the Earth's continental crust.

  13. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based Trace Gas Sensors Using Different Quartz Tuning Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW, distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs with a resonant frequency (f0 of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  14. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Yu, Guang; Zhang, Jingbo; Yu, Xin; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2015-03-27

    A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonant frequency (f0) of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  15. Thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz samples of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, B. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124-Thessaloniki (Greece); Oniya, E. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Physics and Electronics Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 01, Akungba Akoko (Nigeria); Polymeris, G.S. [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, 34980-Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Afouxenidis, D.; Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G., E-mail: gkitis@auth.g [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124-Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of thermal quenching stands among the most important properties in the thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. Since the quartz samples used in various applications are all of different origin it is useful to investigate whether the values of the thermal quenching parameters, i.e. the activation energy for thermal quenching W and a parameter C which describes the ratio of non-radiative to radiative luminescence transitions, evaluated mainly in specific quartz samples can be extrapolated to quartz samples of unknown origin as well as to quartz samples which are annealed at high temperatures. In the present work the TL glow curve of a series of un-annealed and annealed natural and synthetic quartz samples were studied as a function of the heating rate between 0.25 K/s and 16 K/s. Using an indirect fitting method it was found that the thermal quenching parameters W and C in most of the quartz samples are very similar to the values accepted in the literature. Furthermore, in some cases the thermal quenching parameters W and C are not the same for all TL glow-peaks in the same glow-curve. Finally, the strong external treatment of annealing the quartz samples at very high temperature can also influence at least one of the thermal quenching parameters.

  16. Quartz exposure in agriculture: literature review and South African survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanepoel, A.J.; Rees, D.; Renton, K.; Swanepoel, C.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Gardiner, K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the published literature on respirable quartz exposure and associated disease in agricultural related settings systematically and to describe personal respirable dust and quartz measurements collected on a sandy soil farm in the Free State province of South Africa. METHODS: The

  17. Removal of Ozone by Carbon Nanotubes/Quartz Fiber Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen; Nie, Jingqi; Wei, Fei; Yang, Xudong

    2016-09-06

    Ozone is recognized as a harmful gaseous pollutant, which can lead to severe human health problems. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested as a new approach for ozone removal. The CNTs/quartz fiber film was fabricated through growth of CNTs upon pure quartz fiber using chemical vapor deposition method. Ozone conversion efficiency of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was tested for 10 h and compared with that of quartz film, activated carbon (AC), and a potassium iodide (KI) solution under the same conditions. The pressure resistance of these materials under different airflow rates was also measured. The results showed that the CNTs/quartz fiber film had better ozone conversion efficiency but also higher pressure resistance than AC and the KI solution of the same weight. The ozone removal performance of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was comparable with AC at 20 times more weight. The CNTs played a dominant role in ozone removal by the CNTs/quartz fiber film. Its high ozone conversion efficiency, lightweight and free-standing properties make the CNTs/quartz fiber film applicable to ozone removal. Further investigation should be focused on reducing pressure resistance and studying the CNT mechanism for removing ozone.

  18. A new irradiated quartz for beta source calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vicki; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2015-01-01

    laboratories have used the various different batches of Risø calibration quartz for the calibration of beta and X-ray sources, but these have been largely undescribed. Here we describe in detail the preparation and luminescence characteristics of a new quartz standard, based on a North Sea beach sand collected...

  19. New approaches in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Pennetta, Riccardo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and realization of custom quartz tuning forks with different geometries and sizes aimed to improve the photoacoustic effect in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor systems. A detailed analysis of the piezoelectric properties in terms of resonance frequencies, quality factors, gas damping was performed.

  20. Structural analysis and surface morphology of quartz | Jamo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the surface and internal structure of the quartz. The results among other things revealed that the quartz consist of mainly silica (SiO2), with crystalline ...

  1. Granular encapsulation of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) in LHL-salt water systems: Particle induced densification with quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin; Sukop, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Addition of granular materials to floating crude oil slicks can be effective in capturing and densifying the floating hydrophobic phase, which settles by gravity. Interaction of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) with quartz sand was investigated in LHL-salt water systems. The LHLs studied were decane, tetradecane, hexadecane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and 2-cholorotoluene. Experiments were conducted with fine quartz sand (passing sieve No. 40 with openings 0.425 mm). Each LHL was dyed with few crystals of Sudan IV dye for ease of visual observation. A volume of 0.5 mL of each LHL was added to 100 mL salt water (34 g/L). Addition of one gram of quartz sand to the floating hydrophobic liquid layer resulted in formation of sand-encapsulated globules, which settled due to increased density. All LHLs (except for a few globules of decane) formed globules covered with fine sand particles that were heavy enough to settle by gravity. The encapsulated globules were stable and retained their shape upon settling. Polarity of hydrophobic liquids as the main factor of aggregation with minerals was found to be insufficient to explain LHL aggregation with sand. Contact angle measurements were made by submerging a large quartz crystal with the LHL drop on its surface into salt water. A positive correlation was observed between the wetting angle of LHL and the LHL volume captured (r = 0.75). The dependence of the globule density on globule radius was analyzed in relation to the coverage (%) of globule surface (LHL-salt water interface) by fine quartz particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  3. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  4. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  5. Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at λ =2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, G.; Kosterev, A. A.; Tittel, F. K.

    2006-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) trace gas detection based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) using a distributed feedback diode laser operating at λ=2 μm is performed, with a primary purpose of studying vibrational relaxation processes in the CO2-N2-H2O system. A simple model is developed and used to explain the experimentally observed dependence of amplitude and phase of the photoacoustic signal on pressure and gas humidity. A (1σ) sensitivity of 110 parts-per-million (with a 1 s lock-in time constant) was obtained for CO2 concentrations measured in humid gas samples.

  6. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  7. New observations on the quartz monzodiorite-granite suite. [in lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, U. B.; Holmberg, B. B.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Martinez, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Five new fragments of quartz monzodiorite (QMD) were identified in particles from soil 15403, which was collected from the boulder sampled as rock 15405, an impact-melt breccia containing clasts of KREEP basalt, QMD, granite, and a more primitive alkali norite. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the fragments show considerable variation in modal proportions and bulk composition. This heterogeneity is due to unrepresentative sampling in small fragments of coarse-grained rocks. Variations in the proportions of accessory minerals have marked effects on incompatible-trace-element concentrations and ratios. Semiquantitative calculations support the derivation of QMD from 60-percent fractional crystallization of a KREEP basalt magma as suggested by Hess (1989). Apollo 15 KREEP basalt cannot be the actual parent magma because the evolved rocks predate volcanic KREEP basalts. It is suggested that ancient KREEP basalt magmas have crystallized as plutons, with alkali norite clasts offering the only direct evidence of this precursor.

  8. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  9. In-homogeneity in the pre-dose sensitization of the 110 Degree-Sign C TL peak in various quartz samples: The influence of annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, George S., E-mail: polymers@auth.gr [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Athena, Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); ISIK University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, Sile 34980, Istanbul (Turkey); Oniya, Ebenezer O. [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Athena, Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Physics and Electronics Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 01 Akungba Akoko (Nigeria); Jibiri, Nnamdi N. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Tsirliganis, Nestor C. [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Athena, Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-03-01

    The pre-dose sensitization effect of the 110 Degree-Sign C TL glow-peak of quartz is a basic tool in thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence dating and retrospective dosimetry. In the present work, a homogeneity study was performed on pre-dose sensitization in grains obtained from large quartz crystals samples collected from 10 different origins. The aliquot - to - aliquot scatter of the pre-dose sensitization of the 110 Degree-Sign C TL peak within each quartz crystal was monitored. The influence of the annealing on this scattering was also studied. Therefore, the investigation was applied to the un-fired 'as is' samples as well as to samples annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C for 1 h following cooling to room temperature in air. The results showed that in the case of 'as is' quartz the sensitization effect vary strongly within each aliquot of the same quartz sample. This strong variation is removed by both the high temperature annealing as well as heating up to 500 Degree-Sign C, involved in the TL measurements. These results are generally discussed in the framework of existing models and applications of the effect.

  10. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  11. MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    low spring constant objective to be achieved. A piezoelectric cantilever beam that is very long and very thin would produce the maximum voltage...California, Berkeley, 2002. [11] A. Kasyap, “Development of MEMS-based piezoelectric cantilever arrays for vibrational energy harvesting,” Gainesville, FL...maximum 200 words) The piezoelectric effect is a phenomenon where strain on a piezoelectric crystal structure causes potential difference at its

  12. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  13. Shock-metamorphic petrography and microRaman spectroscopy of quartz in upper impactite interval, ICDP drill core LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jared R.

    Standard and universal stage optical microscope and microRaman spectroscopic examination of quartz from the upper impactite interval of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Lake Bosumtwi crater drill core LB-07A demonstrates widespread but heterogeneous evidence of shock metamorphism. In the upper impactite, which comprises interbedded polymict lithic breccia and suevite from a drilling depth of 333.4-415.7 m, quartz occurs as a major component within metasedimentary lithic clasts and as abundant, isolated, single-crystal grains within matrix. The noted quartz shock-metamorphic features include phenomena related to a) deformation, such as abundant planar microstructures, grain mosaicism, and reduced birefringence; b) phase transformations, such as rare diaplectic quartz glass and very rare coesite; c) melting, such as isolated, colorless to dark, glassy and devitrified vesicular melt grains; and d) secondary, post-shock features such as abundant, variable decoration of planar microstructures and patchy grain toasting. Common to abundant planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are dominated by -equivalent crystallographic planes, although significant percentages of and other higher index orientations also occur; notably, c(0001) planes are rare. Significantly, the quartz PDF orientations match most closely those reported elsewhere from strongly shocked, crystalline-target impactites. Barometry estimates based on quartz alteration in the upper impactite indicate that shock pressures in excess of 20 GPa were widely reached; pressures exceeding 40-45 GPa were more rare. The relatively high abundances of decorated planar microstructures and grain toasting in shocked quartz, together with the nature and distribution of melt within suevite, suggest a water- or volatile-rich target for the Bosumtwi impact event.

  14. Proton induced defect formation in quartz glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulamova, R.R.; Gasanov, E.M.; Alimov, R. [Uzbekian AS, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    1996-12-31

    The contributions of ionization energy losses and elastic collisions to radiation induced defect formation along the proton track were considered in quartz glasses irradiated by protons with different energies. It is shown that on a larger part of the proton track the color and luminescence center formation by means of recharging of the native defects is due to the ionization energy losses. Generation of structural defects like displaced atoms and their vacancies by elastic collisions with protons and recoil atoms dominates for proton energies < 5 MeV. At proton energies > 10 MeV the color and luminescence center formation due to ionization energy losses prevails, and generation of the alumina-alkaline centers, causing an increase of the optical absorption at 550 nm and the thermoluminescence peak at 360 C and a band at 460 nm, occurs. At the proton energies E{sub p} < 10 MeV generation of the displaced atoms and their vacancies by elastic collisions dominates, leading to an increase of the E{prime}-centers and to the destruction and transformation of the alumina-alkaline centers.

  15. [Dermatologic risks of quartz-halogen lamps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarini, J P; Muel, B

    1992-01-01

    Halogene sources are used increasingly in general illumination. Their quartz envelop is technically necessary, but presents the disadvantage of to letting the emitted UVA, UVB and UVC go through. Originally used as in indirect lighting, they have been introduced as desk-top lamps, without filter. We have proceeded to the verification of their output with a spectrophotometer calibrated by actinometry and we have calculated their relative erythemal efficacy according to the Parrish's action spectrum for human erythema. We found that, at 10 cm from the human skin, the irradiance was able to induce a minimal erythema in about 10 minutes on clear back skin. At working distance (50 cm), a barely perceptible erythema could be observed on the back of the hands after 8 consecutive hours working. We also found that sunburn cells were present in the skin sensitized with a potent phototoxic agent (8-methoxypsoralen) applied 15 minutes before a 4-6 minutes irradiation with the halogen source (at 20 cm), thus, indicating a potential risk for local phototoxicity and photoallergy. The cumulative doses per year, for 4 hours exposure per day, five days a week, reaches 125 minimal erythemal doses, equivalent to the average yearly exposure of individuals for work and leisure. If one assumes that this regimen is maintained for 30 years, the risk for induction of skin cancers on the dorsal aspect of the hands and the forearms, may be increased by a 3.4 factor, according to the widely accepted previsional models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The recrystallized grain size piezometer for quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Michael; Tullis, Jan

    2003-11-01

    In order to determine a recrystallized grain size piezometer for quartz, we deformed Black Hills quartzite in a molten salt assembly in a Griggs apparatus at 1.5 GPa, 800 to 1100°C, and strain rates between 2*10-7 and 2*10-4 s-1, conditions which include dislocation creep regimes 2 and 3 of Hirth and Tullis [1992]. Flow stresses ranged from 34 +/- 16 to 268 +/- 38 MPa with corresponding recrystallized grain sizes from 46 +/- 15 to 3.2 +/- 0.7 μm. The data are well fit by a single piezometer relation, D = 103.56+/- 0.27 * σ-1.26 +/- 0.13, with no change in slope at the regime 2-3 transition and no effect of temperature or α/β stability field. Another experimental piezometer relation for regime 1 of Hirth and Tullis [1992] differs in slope, suggesting that different recrystallization mechanisms require different piezometer calibrations.

  17. Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borri, S., E-mail: simone.borri@ino.it; Galli, I.; Mazzotti, D.; Giusfredi, G.; De Natale, P. [CNR-INO UOS Sesto Fiorentino and LENS, via Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino FI (Italy); Patimisco, P.; Scamarcio, G.; Spagnolo, V. [CNR-IFN UOS Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari e Politecnico di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari BA (Italy); Akikusa, N. [Development Bureau Laser Device R and D Group, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Yamanishi, M. [Central Research Laboratories, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We report on a spectroscopic technique named intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (I-QEPAS) employed for sensitive trace-gas detection in the mid-infrared spectral region. It is based on a combination of QEPAS with a buildup optical cavity. The sensor includes a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.33 μm. We achieved a laser optical power buildup factor of ∼500, which corresponds to an intracavity laser power of ∼0.75 W. CO{sub 2} has been selected as the target molecule for the I-QEPAS demonstration. We achieved a detection sensitivity of 300 parts per trillion for 4 s integration time, corresponding to a noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 1.4 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup −1} and a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 3.2 × 10{sup −10} W cm{sup −1} Hz{sup −1/2}.

  18. Retention of xenon in quartz and Earth's missing xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Schmidt, Burkhard C; Chamorro Perez, Eva Maria; Jambon, Albert; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2005-11-18

    The reactivity of xenon with terrestrial oxides was investigated by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. At high temperature (T > 500 kelvin), some silicon was reduced, and the pressure stability of quartz was expanded, attesting to the substitution of some xenon for silicon. When the quartz was quenched, xenon diffused out and only a few weight percent remained trapped in samples. These results show that xenon can be covalently bonded to oxygen in quartz in the lower continental crust, providing an answer to the missing xenon problem; synthesis paths of rare gas compounds are also opened.

  19. Recent developments of OSL techniques for dating quartz and feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a unit for measuring optically stimulated luminescence from quartz and feldspar is described. The light sources used for stimulation are infrared diodes for feldspar and green light from a halogen lamp (obtained with a system of filters) for both quartz and feldspar. The unit...... can be mounted on the Riso TL reader thus allowing combined TL and OSL measurements. The apparatus was used for studies of (1) the relation between TL and OSL signals, (2) the luminescence of quartz samples annealed at different temperatures and (3) anomalous fading of the latent luminescence signal...

  20. The normal modes of lattice vibrations of ice XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Lu, Ying-Bo; Ding, Zheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum of ice XI at thermal wavelengths using the CASTEP code, a first-principles simulation method, is investigated. A dual-track approach is constructed to verify the validity for the computational phonon spectrum: collate the simulated spectrum with inelastic neutron scattering experiments and assign the photon scattering peaks according to the calculated normal vibration frequencies. The 33 optical normal vibrations at the Brillouin center are illustrated definitely from the ab initio outcomes. The depolarizing field effect of the hydrogen bond vibrations at frequencies of 229 cm−1 and 310 cm−1 is found to agree well with the LST relationship. It is a convincing evidence to manifest the LO-TO splitting of hydrogen bonds in ice crystal. We attribute the two hydrogen bond peaks to the depolarization effect and apply this viewpoint to ordinary ice phase, ice Ih, which is difficult to analyse their vibration modes due to proton disorder. PMID:27375199

  1. Timescales recorded in volcanic quartz from Ti and Al diffusion profiles: a NanoSIMS investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, B. L.; Morgan, D. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Franchi, I. A.; Starkey, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the timescales of magma chamber assembly and recharge by applying diffusion modelling techniques to high resolution ion maps of titanium and aluminium in quartz produced by NanoSIMS analysis. The NanoSIMS is a multicollector instrument which is capable of detecting up to 7 different isotopes over a mass range up to a factor of 22 simultaneously, thus enabling the generation of compositional maps showing coupled spatial variations of multiple elements at a spot resolution down to ~150 nm. In this presentation, we demonstrate the utility of NanoSIMS for determining timescales from titanium and aluminium diffusion profiles across crystal interfaces within quartz grains with initially sharp Ti variations produced by multiple resorption episodes. Quartz crystals from the 25.4 ka ca. 530 cubic km Oruanui eruption (Taupo, New Zealand) were first imaged using CL to reveal complex zonation patterns reflecting several (up to 4) episodes of partial resorption and growth throughout the crystallisation history. Grains were then analysed for Ti and Al contents using conventional SIMS techniques (SHRIMP-RG) in order to characterise gross geochemical variations and to identify suitable areas for further analysis via the NanoSIMS. Selected 25 by 25 micron areas straddling dissolution boundaries were mapped to reveal measurable diffusion profiles. Those profiles in the interiors of grains occur over 6-8 microns and equate to hundreds of years of diffusive modification at plausible magmatic temperatures. Comparable timescales of hundreds of years are seen also in Fe-Mg diffusion profiles in orthopyroxenes from the Oruanui pumices and are interpreted to reflect extraction of melt and crystals from a mush source and assembly of the melt-dominant body (A.S.R. Allan et al.: From mush to eruption in 1000 years: rapid assembly of the super-sized Oruanui magma body. Abstract in Session V46). Ti profiles measured closer to the crystal rims occur over shorter length

  2. Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are reported in this paper. The relationships between the structure parameters and the frequencies of work mode were analysed by finite element analysis. The structure parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope were optimized to reduce the difference between the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode. The simulation results were proved by testing the prototype gyroscope, which was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Therefore, the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode can match each other by the structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope, which is helpful in the design of the high sensitivity quartz micromachined gyroscope.

  3. Degradation of glycine and alanine on irradiated quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  4. Petrographic and optical cathodoluminescence study of detrital quartz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basange Formation had been investigated using integrated optical Cathodoluminescence and Petrographic characteristics approach. Results showed the presence, in abundance, of detrital quartz with characteristic dull red to violet CL colour and ...

  5. Zoning of mineralization in hypogene porphyry copper deposits: Insight from comb microfractures within quartz-chalcopyrite veins in the Hongshan porphyry Cu deposit, western Yunnan, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Liang, Guang-He; Qin, Ke-Zhang

    2012-08-01

    The origin of zonal mineralization in porphyry copper deposit is important for understanding the mineralization processes. We propose a new, modified "orthomagmatic" genetic model for mineralization zoning in hypogene porphyry copper deposits. This new model is based on the features and formation mechanism of comb microfractures in quartz-chalcopyrite veins within pyrite vein from the Hongshan porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian County, western Yunnan Province, SW-China. The main evidence for this model is volume expansion related to crystallization of chalcopyrite, magnetite and K-metasomatism in the deposit. Comb microfractures are well developed in quartz-chalcopyrite veins and are present as comb-quartz veinlets consisting of a zone of central longitudinal quartz overprinted by laterally grown quartz combs. Chalcopyrite fragments lie perpendicular to the central quartz veinlet and were dismembered by the quartz combs. The combed microfractures are typical tensional hydrofractures. The formation of the comb microfractures is related to volume expansion that was induced by crystallization of chalcopyrite from a chalcopyrite melt that resulted in the subsequent increase of volumetric pressure in the confined residual silica melt. The formation mechanism of the comb microfractures, including volume expansion induced by crystallization, increases volumetric pressure, hydrofracturing and fluid expulsion, and was the most likely process for zoning of minerals in hypogene porphyry copper deposits. Fabrics in the veins and veinlets are consistent with overpressuring and injection and are common structures that are directly related to volumetric pressure and crystallization of chalcopyrite and magnetite and K-metasomatism in hypogene porphyry copper deposits. The volume expansion ratio of chalcopyrite mineral to melt and that of magnetite mineral to melt are approximately 19 vol.% and 20 vol.%, respectively. The volume expansion rate of a monomolecular lattice is ⩾8

  6. Deposits of gold-quartz formation in the Priamur province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Степанов

    2017-03-01

    Small deposits of near-bottom ore pipe are quite rare. Ore bodies are represented by quartz veins and zones of metasomatites. Gold is mostly free, of fine and super fine grain size. The prevailing trace element is mercury. Attribution of gold-quartz deposits to a certain part of ore pipe can facilitate more precise estimation of their prospects. In its own turn, this will allow to choose more favorable objects for further evaluation.

  7. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling

    2010-01-01

    statistical planning, a total of 10 tests were arried out with two different limestones and one type of quartz sand. The size distributions were kept constant and only the mixing ratios were varied. It appears from the investigation that mixtures consisting of minerals with different grindabilities result...... in an increased concentration of abrasive particles in the grinding bed ðR2 > 0:99Þ. The present study shows that the quartz concentration in the grinding bed is determining the wear rate....

  8. Improved Tuning Fork for Terahertz Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Giglio, Marilena; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor for methanol (CH3OH) detection employing a novel quartz tuning fork (QTF), specifically designed to enhance the QEPAS sensing performance in the terahertz (THz) spectral range. A discussion of the QTF properties in terms of resonance frequency, quality factor and acousto-electric transduction efficiency as a function of prong sizes and spacing between the QTF prongs is presented. The QTF was employed in a QEPAS sensor system using a ...

  9. Interaction Between Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles and Quartz Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirelis, Nikolaos P; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-11-17

    In this study, the influence of pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature on graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles attachment onto quartz sand were investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at three controlled temperatures (4, 12, and 25 °C) in solutions with different pH values (pH 4, 7, and 10), and ionic strengths (IS = 1.4, 6.4, and 21.4 mM), under static and dynamic conditions. The surface properties of GO nanoparticles and quartz sand were evaluated by electrophoretic mobility measurements. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential energy profiles were constructed for the experimental conditions, using measured zeta potentials. The experimental results showed that GO nanoparticles were very stable under the experimental conditions. Both temperature and pH did not play a significant role in the attachment of GO nanoparticles onto quartz sand. In contrast, IS was shown to influence attachment. The attachment of GO particles onto quartz sand increased significantly with increasing IS. The experimental data were fitted nicely with a Freundlich isotherm, and the attachment kinetics were satisfactorily described with a pseudo-second-order model, which implies that the quartz sand exhibited substantial surface heterogeneity and that GO retention was governed by chemisorption. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis revealed that the attachment process was nonspontaneous and endothermic, which may be associated with structural changes of the sand surfaces due to chemisorption. Therefore, secondary minimum interaction may not be the dominant mechanism for GO attachment onto the quartz sand under the experimental conditions.

  10. Model Indepedent Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  11. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  12. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  13. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  14. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  15. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  16. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomasz Starecki; Piotr Z Wieczorek

    2017-01-01

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations...

  17. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  18. Deformation Experiment on Quartz Aggregates with High Porosity and High Water Contents at High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, K.; Hirth, G.

    2016-12-01

    Large earthquakes typically nucleate near the depth limit of seismogenic zones. In these areas, high Vp/Vs ratios are commonly observed, indicating the presence of high pore fluid pressures. Thus, it is important to understand how the water content (both water in the crystal and in the pores) and the pore structure affect the rheology of polycrystalline materials. We conducted deformation experiments on quartz aggregates using a Griggs-type deformation apparatus. Samples were hot-pressed from silica gels, which contain 9 wt% water within the amorphous structure and absorbed on the surface. Hydrostatic experiments within the α-quartz stability field at a pressure of 1.5 GPa and 900°C indicate that hot-pressed samples are composed of quartz and no relict of amorphous material is present. The average grain size and porosity of the hot-pressed aggregates is about 4 μm and 23%, respectively. The grain shape is equigranular and no crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is observed. Initial results from general shear experiments on the hot-pressed quartz aggregates at the equivalent strain rate of 1.5 x 10-4 1/s, a pressure of 1.5 GPa and 900°C show very low strength (equivalent stress of 140 MPa) and nominally steady state flow at shear strains up to 3.5. The samples show no CPO and evidence for strain localization along R1 riedel shears. In contrast, deformation experiments on cores of quartzite show dislocation creep at this pressure/temperature condition. The measured stress from the new experiments is significantly lower than predicted by the wet quartz flow law (e.g., Hirth et al., 2001). The low flow stress and absence of CPO suggest the operation of grain-size sensitive flow, or perhaps that the effective pressure law is still applicable and the sample deforms by a distributed semi-brittle flow process

  19. Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi [Sigma Koki Co., Ltd., 1-19-9 Midori, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0021 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (R{sub a} = 0.20 nm and R{sub a} = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm{sup 2} was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), {alpha}-quartz (111), and {beta}-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm{sup -1}), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm{sup -1}), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm{sup -1}, 390 cm{sup -1}, and 300 cm{sup -1}). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

  20. Single crystal: Urea bisthiourea sodium acetate synthesis, growth and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, R.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-05-01

    Crystals of urea bisthiourea sodium acetate (UBTSA) were successfully grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Recrystallization process was used to increase the purity of the grown crystal. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal XRD, FT-Raman, UV and TGA/DTA analysis. Structure and unit cell parameters were determined by single crystal XRD. Functional groups of grown crystal and their modes of vibration were identified using FT-Raman spectral analysis. Absorbance percentage of the grown crystal was studied using UV analysis. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis reveal that the good thermal stability of the material.

  1. Some experiments on the high-low transition of quartz; Recherches experimentales sur une transformation du quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    First section. - We expose on the one hand a theory of specific heat, thermal expansion and variations of elastic constants as functions of temperature, which is applicable only in the absence of transformation phenomena affecting symmetry or periodicity of the crystal lattice. On the other hand, we discuss some theories relative to the phenomena which accompany phase transformations. Second section. - We have gathered together numerical results concerning elastic, piezoelectric and optical properties of quartz. Some have been collected from the literature, other have been obtained in our laboratories with the help of experimental methods which we describe. As a result, we are able to present a complete picture of the evolution of these constants in a large temperature range containing the critical temperature of 574 deg. C at which these constants exhibit discontinuities. New phenomena have been observed, in the course of these studies. Third section. - We show that the evolution of the two piezoelectric and elastic constants which cancel out in the high temperature form is described by the same function. With the inclusion of one other function, it is possible to explain quantitatively the behaviour in the transformation range of all the other constants under study. With the help of crystallographic considerations and of hypotheses concerning the nature of the transformation entropy, we finally try to account for the experimental values of these two functions. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons d'une part une theorie de la chaleur specifique, de la dilatation thermique et des variations des constantes elastiques des solides avec la temperature qui n'est valable qu'en l'absence de phenomenes de transformation affectant la symetrie ou la periodicite de l'edifice cristallin, et nous rappelons d'autre part quelques theories relatives aux phenomenes qui accompagnent les changements de phase. Dans une seconde partie

  2. Quartz concentration trends in metal and nonmetal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Winthrop F; Huynh, Tran B; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2012-01-01

    From 1974 through 2010, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) collected nearly 147,000 respirable dust samples with a mass of at least 0.1 mg and a minimum of 1% quartz. These samples represent about 50% of all respirable dust compliance samples collected by MSHA. Analysis of these data shows that pockets of high concentrations and overexposure continue to exist. At underground mines, from 2005 to 2010, occupations with >20% of the samples exceeding the permissible exposure limit (PEL) and geometric mean quartz concentrations exceeding the ACGIH threshold limit value of 25 μg/m(3) included mucking, crusher operator, general laborer/utility, and front-end loader operator. During the same period, stone and rock saw operators and bagger and packers working at surface mines and mills also had >20% of the samples exceeding the PEL and geometric mean quartz concentrations >25 μg/m(3). Regardless of mine type or location, slow but steady improvement in exposure levels is seen in jobs involving crushing operations, which are widespread in the mining industry. Crusher operators are more likely to work in an enclosed area where it is easier to apply dust controls and air conditioning. A downward trend is also observed for vehicle equipment operators who drive load-haul-dumps, front-end loaders, trucks, and similar equipment. Crusher operators and vehicle equipment operators represent occupational categories that are widely sampled by MSHA inspectors. A small but statistically significant reduction in the overall mean respirable quartz dust and quartz concentrations from 1993 to 2010 was observed in most commodity groups. Variability from year to year and between commodities is high. Reduction in respirable quartz dust concentration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in quartz concentration within the same commodity group. These trends are consistent with those reported in previous studies.

  3. Luminescent, optical and color properties of natural rose quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, R. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Cetin, A.; Selvi, S. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Karal, T. [Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Can, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com

    2007-11-15

    Rose quartz is an interesting mineral with numerous impurities that have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), ion beam luminescence (IBL), radioluminescence (RL), thermoluminescence (TL) and optical absorption (OA). After HF etching, rose quartz from Oliva de Plasencia (Caceres, Spain) shows under SEM the presence of other silicate phases such as dumortierite [Al{sub 6.5-7}(BO{sub 3})(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}(O,OH){sub 3}]. The OA spectrum of rose quartz suggests that these inclusions are the cause of coloration of rose quartz. The luminescence (CL, IBL, RL, TL) spectra behavior, at both room temperature and lower, confirms that the {approx}340nm emission could be associated with Si-O strain structures, including non-bridging oxygen or silicon vacancy-hole centers; the observed {approx}400nm emission could be associated with recombination of a hole trapped adjacent to a substitutional, charge-compensated aluminum alkali ion center; the {approx}500nm emission could be associated with substitutional Al{sup 3+} and the {approx}700nm peak could be associated with Fe{sup 3+} point defects in Si{sup 4+} sites. These results suggest that, while defect properties of rose quartz are not greatly dissimilar to those of purer forms of quartz and silica, further research seems necessary to determine criteria for the evolution of the newly-formed self-organized microstructures in the rose quartz lattice under irradiation.

  4. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  5. Thickness vibrations of a piezoelectric plate with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter C Y; Liu, Ninghui; Ballato, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity with quasi-electrostatic approximation are extended to include losses attributed to the acoustic viscosity and electrical conductivity. These equations are used to investigate effects of dissipation on the propagation of plane waves in an infinite solid and forced thickness vibrations in an infinite piezoelectric plate with general symmetry. For a harmonic plane wave propagating in an arbitrary direction in an unbounded solid, the complex eigenvalue problem is solved from which the effective elastic stiffness, viscosity, and conductivity are computed. For the forced thickness vibrations of an infinite plate, the complex coupling factor K*, input admittance Y are derived and an explicit, approximate expression for K* is obtained in terms of material properties. Effects of the viscosity and conductivity on the resonance frequency, modes, admittance, attenuation coefficient, dynamic time constant, coupling factor, and quality factor are calculated and examined for quartz and ceramic barium titanate plates.

  6. Effect of particle size in the TL response of natural quartz sensitized with high gamma dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A B Jr; Guzzo, P L; Sullasi, H L; Khoury, H J, E-mail: alvarobcjr@yahoo.com.b

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particle size in the thermoluminescence (TL) response of natural quartz sensitized with high gamma dose. For this, fragments of a single crystal taken from the Solonopole district (Brazil) were crushed and classified into ten size fractions ranging from 38 {mu}m to 5 mm. Aliquots of each size fraction were sensitized with 25 kGy of gamma dose of {sup 60}Co and heat-treated in a muffle furnace at 400{sup o}C. The non-sensitized samples were exposed to test doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy and the sensitized samples were exposed to a unique test dose equal to 50 mGy. For non-sensitized samples, the TL peak near 325 {sup 0}C increases with the particle size decreasing. However, in the case of sensitized samples, the TL output near 280 {sup 0}C increases with the increasing of particle size up to mean grain size equal to 308 {mu}m. Above 308 {mu}m, an abrupt reduction in the TL intensity was noticed. These effects are discussed in relation to the specific surface area and the different interaction of high gamma doses with fine and coarse particles of quartz.

  7. Organic compounds in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz-Analogues of prebiotic chemistry on early Earth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schreiber

    Full Text Available The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis. Here we present evidence for organic compounds which were preserved in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz minerals from Western Australia. We found a variety of organic compounds such as alkanes, halocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes which unambiguously show that simple and even more complex prebiotic organic molecules have been formed by hydrothermal processes. Stable-isotope analysis confirms that the methane found in the inclusions has most likely been formed from abiotic sources by hydrothermal chemistry. Obviously, the liquid phase in the continental Archean crust provided an interesting choice of functional organic molecules. We conclude that organic substances such as these could have made an important contribution to prebiotic chemistry which might eventually have led to the formation of living cells.

  8. Organic compounds in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz-Analogues of prebiotic chemistry on early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Mayer, Christian; Schmitz, Oliver J; Rosendahl, Pia; Bronja, Amela; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Mulder, Ines; Sattler, Tobias; Schöler, Heinz F

    2017-01-01

    The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis. Here we present evidence for organic compounds which were preserved in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz minerals from Western Australia. We found a variety of organic compounds such as alkanes, halocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes which unambiguously show that simple and even more complex prebiotic organic molecules have been formed by hydrothermal processes. Stable-isotope analysis confirms that the methane found in the inclusions has most likely been formed from abiotic sources by hydrothermal chemistry. Obviously, the liquid phase in the continental Archean crust provided an interesting choice of functional organic molecules. We conclude that organic substances such as these could have made an important contribution to prebiotic chemistry which might eventually have led to the formation of living cells.

  9. Taste Sensing Based on Frequency Characteristics of Quartz Resonator with Oleic Acid Film Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Keiichi; Misawa, Kenji; Kitama, Masataka; Yamashita, Masaji; Arisawa, Junij

    In this paper, we studied a possibility of a taste sensing using a quartz crystal microbalance (hereafter cited as QCM) sensor. We modified oleic acid film to Au electrode of the quartz resonator by an electrodeposition method. The electrodeposition film was used as the adsorber for taste substances. We consider that oscillation frequency decreases with the mass changes due to adsorption. Frequency characteristics differed in each basic taste solution. Their characteristics were based on chemical nature of taste substances. Ions or organic molecules were attached to electrodeposition film by electrostatic interaction or hydrophobic interaction respectively. Moreover, we studied the taste evaluation of sweetness solutions and sourness solutions. As a result, in case of sweetness solutions, the frequency changes correlated with Brix (%) (r = -0.98). In case of sourness solutions, especially, the frequency changes correlated in pH (r = 0.89) of organic acids. Differences of the frequency changes depended on the amount of undissociated molecule in the acid solutions. Additionally, taste evaluation by the QCM sensor related to gustatory sense of human. Therefore, we suggested the validity of the QCM sensor for evaluation of the taste solutions.

  10. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of sputtered YIG films grown on quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumie, M., E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.lb [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Airport Road, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Samad, B. Abdel [DIOM Laboratory, Jean Monnet University, 23 rue du Docteur Paul Michelon, Saint-Etienne 42023 (France); Tabbal, M.; Abi-Akl, M. [Department of Physics, American University of Beirut, Bliss Street, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Blanc-Mignon, M.-F. [DIOM Laboratory, Jean Monnet University, 23 rue du Docteur Paul Michelon, Saint-Etienne 42023 (France); Nsouli, B. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Airport Road, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2010-11-01

    Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG), Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, is an oxide material that has potential applications in the magneto-optical recording media and microwave device industries. These materials, when synthesized in thin film form, usually require post-deposition annealing in order to enhance their physical properties. Furthermore, integration of YIG based optical components requires the synthesis of high quality YIG material on quartz, a process that may be problematic due to poor adhesion and lattice mismatch. Thus, we have conducted a study on the effect of deposition temperature (from 25 to 800 deg. C) and post-deposition annealing (at 740 deg. C) on the crystalline quality and chemical composition of YIG thin films, grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, on quartz substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that as-grown layers are amorphous, and subsequent annealing is necessary to induce film crystallization. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses were also conducted and the chemical composition of the films was found to depend on initial deposition temperature and is affected by post-deposition anneals. Comparison of the XRD and RBS results point out to the existence of an optimal deposition temperature at about 700 deg. C for the formation of high crystalline quality and stoichiometric YIG thin films. Magnetic measurements were found to correlate to the XRD and RBS analyses.

  11. Development of early diagenetic silica and quartz morphologies — Examples from the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik; Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Svendsen, Johan B.; Stokkendal, Jesper; Poulsen, Mette Lise K.

    2010-07-01

    The Siri Canyon has proved to be a perfect area for investigating various morphologies of diagenetic silica in sandstones. The development in silica morphologies can be observed from very shallow (˜ 1700 m) to increased burial depth (˜ 3000 m) and increased proximity to the Central Graben (distance from 0 to 65 km). Hydrocarbons and pore fluids, now found in the Siri Fairway, have (at least partly) originated from the Central Graben. The Siri Canyon is a submarine canyon system eroded into the uppermost chalk deposits and filled with Palaeogene hemipelagic and turbiditic marls and mudstones interbedded with sandstone units deposited from sandy mass-flows and sandy turbidites, which originated on the Stavanger Platform. Several hydrocarbon exploration and production wells have been drilled in the Siri Canyon, seven of which are included in this study (Nini-3, Nini-1, NA-2P, Sofie-1, Siri-4, Celilie-1A and Augusta-1). The reservoir sandstones in these wells all contain authigenic silica of various morphologies identified with a combination of traditional optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The silica morphologies in some places are classic and well-documented in the literature, whereas others, at least to our knowledge, have never previously been described. Some of the silica morphologies presented here show gradual transition from one to another, and others are stand-alone forms without clear relationships to other forms. The silica morphologies can be expressed in the following way: Opal rims; characteristic of the initial phase of the silica diagenesis in most sandstone units in the Siri Canyon. Thick opal rims characterise the sandstone parts adjacent to the mudstone units in the Stine segment of the Siri Field. Microquartz (quartz crystals with a size of 1-5 µm); seen as coatings on the opal rims, both ordered and random. Cavity overgrowth; found as quartz outgrowths in circular and angular cavities formed by dissolution of early authigenic

  12. Phonon-enhanced crystal growth and lattice healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonassisi, Anthony; Bertoni, Mariana; Newman, Bonna

    2013-05-28

    A system for modifying dislocation distributions in semiconductor materials is provided. The system includes one or more vibrational sources for producing at least one excitation of vibrational mode having phonon frequencies so as to enhance dislocation motion through a crystal lattice.

  13. Axion crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity ɛ, permeability μ, and theta angle θ. Crystals with periodic ɛ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic θ (modulo 2 π) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent mass gap and nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems and high-energy physics.

  14. Characterization of impurities present on Tihimatine (Hoggar) quartz, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas Boussaa, S.; Kheloufi, A.; Boutarek Zaourar, N.

    2017-11-01

    Many of today's advanced materials depend on quartz as a raw material. Quartz usually contains abundant inclusions, both solid and liquid, and due to the number of these inclusions and their small size, complete separation is most difficult. Typical properties of raw quartz that must be characterized are: Size and Chemical composition of inclusions, their spatial distribution, localization of isomorphic substitutional elements (e.g. Al, Fe). The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating some inclusions (impurities) present in the Tihimatine quartz from El Hoggar region deposits (southern Algeria) using X Ray Fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, optical Microscopy with reflected and transmitted lights, infra-red spectrometer, Raman spectrometer. Despite the high concentration of SiO2 in studied quartz reaching 98%, several harmful inclusions were found and identified as hematite, anatase, muscovite, graphite, it contains: Fe, Ti, Al, K, Ca. Some fluid inclusions were found. We detect the presence of carbon dioxide and water using raman spectroscopy. The repartition of solid impurities is aleatory and not homogeneous with maximum size of 10 μm. Concerning the fluid impurities, their diameter vary between 5 and 20 μm and their repartition is aleatory.

  15. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  16. Page 1 THE VIBRATION SPECTRUM OF LITHIUM FLUORIDE AND ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings in recent months, the author has described studies on the infra- red behaviour of three crystals of simple structure and composition, viz.,. MgO, NaCl and diamond and shown that the results enable us to determine the characteristic modes and frequencies of free vibration of the atomic nuclei in their structures.

  17. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  18. Equivalent dose determination using a quartz isothermal TL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, D.A.G.; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on further developments in the use of an isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signal for determining the equivalent dose (De) in unheated sedimentary quartz. In order to minimise sensitivity change during the first measurement, the ITL signal is measured at 270 °C following a preheat...... agreement with the expected burial dose in samples from a variety of depositional environments and ages. Our results suggest that measurement of the ITL signal at 270 °C enables the quartz 325 °C TL peak to be used for accurate dose measurements on a single aliquot. The signal allows dating over at least...... the same age range as the OSL signal, and it appears especially advantageous for application to quartz samples for which the OSL signal saturates below 500 Gy....

  19. Dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from fired materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluszcz, A.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an examination of the dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from ancient fired materials. Eleven samples of different origin were tested for their TL and GLSL (green light stimulated luminescence) sensitivities within the mGy dose range. Very promising results...... were obtained showing the possibility of measuring the doses of around 10 mGy with 1% precision using GLSL or TL and using the single aliquot technique for natural quartz as a dosimeter. The lowest detectable dose was estimated to be lower than 500 mu Gy. The results obtained indicate that natural...... quartz grains from selected materials could be used for the dosimetry of environmental gamma radiation for the purposes of paleodosimetric dating methods as well as for accident dosimetry....

  20. Quartz red TL SAR equivalent dose overestimation for Chinese loess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Z.P.; Murray, A.S.; Bailey, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    For the red TL of quartz extracted from Chinese loess, the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure overestimates the known laboratory doses in dose recovery test. The overestimation is the result of the first heating during the measurement of natural TL signal causing a sensitivity...... reduction, which is not corrected for using a SAR protocol. The SARA procedure was used to measure the sensitivity change. Using this as a correction factor is tested by comparison with the quartz optically stimulated luminiscence (OSL) equivalent dose. SARA is also employed to determine the residual level...

  1. Pressure effect on the sensitivity of quartz Bourdon tube gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniszlo, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The sensitivity change for a commercial fused quartz Bourdon tube precision pressure gauge, due to a change in absolute pressure level, has been analytically computed and experimentally confirmed. The computed differential pressure error is 2.5% of full scale at a 100 atm absolute pressure level. The experimental method compared the fused quartz Bourdon tube gauge digital output to the results obtained from a nitrogen gas pressure system which had a high pressure, well-type mercury manometer as the differential pressure reference.

  2. Double acoustic microresonator quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Wu, Hongpeng; Zheng, Huadan; Liu, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wenzhe; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Ren, Wei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang; Tittel, Frank K

    2014-04-15

    Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based on double acoustic microresonators (AmRs) is developed and experimentally investigated. The double AmR spectrophone configuration exhibits a strong acoustic coupling between the AmR and the quartz tuning fork, which results in a ∼5  ms fast response time. Moreover, the double AmRs provide two independent detection channels that allow optical signal addition or cancellation from different optical wavelengths and facilitate rapid multigas sensing measurements, thereby avoiding laser beam combination.

  3. Extensive authigenic quartz overgrowths in the gas-bearing Haynesville-Bossier Shale, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Taylor, Kevin G.

    2017-07-01

    In sandstone reservoirs, despite grain rearrangement during compaction, significant pore volumes may be retained prior to the onset of late diagenetic quartz cementation. In mudstone reservoirs, grain rearrangement during compaction results in significant pore volume reduction prior to late diagenesis. Where quartz overgrowths have been previously reported in post-compaction mudstones they have been in volumetrically low concentrations and interpreted as anomalous occurrences. Quartz cementation alters rock brittleness resulting in changes to mechanical fracture properties. Quartz overgrowths reduce reservoir porosity and permeability. We present petrographic evidence of two phases of quartz cement in the Haynesville-Bossier Shale: (i) grain replacive and (ii) quartz overgrowths. Carbonate grain replacement is volumetrically low (< 1%). Quartz overgrowths identified from SEM-CL imaging are volumetrically more significant (8-13%). Quartz overgrowths were most commonly observed in the sandy and coarse mudstone microfacies, but are present in both medium and fine mudstone microfacies. Petrographic evidence indicates three processes in the development of quartz overgrowths. Mica and pyrite are (i) engulfed and (ii) displaced by quartz overgrowth cement. The absence of a supportive, primary granular framework surrounding engulfed detrital and early authigenic minerals would indicate that quartz overgrowths are also (iii) replacive. Pressure dissolution of detrital quartz silt grains and smectite-to-illite transformation are likely sources of silica for quartz cement. This study is the first to document large-scale, replacive, authigenic quartz overgrowth development within a producing mudstone.

  4. Mosaic anisotropy model for magnetic interactions in mesostructured crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby R. Goldman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new model for interpreting the magnetic interactions in crystals with mosaic texture called the mosaic anisotropy (MA model. We test the MA model using hematite as a model system, comparing mosaic crystals to polycrystals, single crystal nanoparticles, and bulk single crystals. Vibrating sample magnetometry confirms the hypothesis of the MA model that mosaic crystals have larger remanence (Mr/Ms and coercivity (Hc compared to polycrystalline or bulk single crystals. By exploring the magnetic properties of mesostructured crystalline materials, we may be able to develop new routes to engineering harder magnets.

  5. Etching quartz with inductively coupled plasma etching equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuming; Zhou, Changhe; Xi, Peng; Dai, Enwen; Ru, Huayi; Liu, Liren

    2003-11-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)can achieve high density plasma in low pressure,so it has a number of significant advantages such as improved etching rates,better profile control,improved uniformity, greatly increased selectivity and a dramatic reduction in radiation damage and contamination. In optics,quartz is an ideal optical material with transmitting spectral range from deep ultraviolet to far infrared.So we systematically studied the etching characteristics of quartz by using a Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)etching system.In the xperim nts,the gas was the mixture of CHF3,O2 and Ar,and the chamber pressure was about 10 mTorr.Th influences of gas flow rate and the power of the radio frequency on etching rate were optimized. The uniformity and repeatability of the etching technology were also studied. After residue mask material was removed by wet chemical solution, no polymer was observed on the surfaces of samples,and the surfaces of the fabricated quartz elements were smooth and clean. The optimized etching process is important for the fabrication of micro-optical lements based on quartz. Using this etching process, many gratings such as Dammann grating, rectangular groove grating, and optical disk grating can be fabricated successfully.

  6. Evaluation of trapping parameters of annealed natural quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rui [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); Shisanling Seismic Station, Institute of Earthquake Science, CEA, 102200 Beijing (China); Wei, Ming-Jian, E-mail: weimj@cnu.edu.cn [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); Song, Bo [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); Beijing Jing Yuan School, 100040 Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China); School of TaiPingqiao, Nan Lu of West Railway Station, 100073 Beijing (China); Zhao, Qiu-Yue [Key Laboratory of Tourism and Resources Environment in Universities of Shandong, Taishan University, 271000 Tai’an (China); Pan, Bao-Lin; Li, Teng-Fei [College of Resources, Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, 100048 Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) trapping parameters of annealed quartz have been investigated. The apparent TL peaks observed at temperatures of 133 °C, 211 °C, 266 °C and 405 °C, respectively, were named Peak I, Peak II, Peak III and Peak IV. The T{sub m} − T{sub stop} method is applied to investigate the number of peaks and their positions, and to obtain the trap distributions in the quartz. Peak shape (PS), Hoogenstraaten method (Various Heating Rates Method, VHR), and Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) are used to evaluate the trapping parameters of the annealed quartz. The glow curve can be considered as a superposition of at least nine overlapping peaks. These peaks show up at 133 °C, 211 °C, 266 °C, 308 °C, 333 °C, 384 °C, 441 °C, 466 °C and 484 °C. The PS method can be only used in evaluating the parameters for Peaks I. The VHR method can be used in evaluating the trapping parameters for the first three peaks. CGCD method is complementary to obtaining parameters for the sub-peaks, and the thermal quenching correction with the Urbach’s method is necessary. The Urbach’s coefficient for the quartz is 30.03 kT{sub m}.

  7. Triplet states at an O vacancy in alpha-quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The energy landscape of an alpha-quartz O vacancy in the lowest triplet state is investigated. Four local minima are identified and geometries, total energies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters are obtained. On the basis of calculated values for the magnetic dipole interaction...

  8. Influence of Quartz Fillers in Dielectric Composites on Electrostrictive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Shivamurthy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation E-glass epoxy composite filled with different amount of quartz powder were prepared by compression moulding and hot curing. Plain waived E-glass cloth with density 200gm / meter square was used as reinforcement. Epoxy resin LY556 mixed with Hardener HT907 and accelerator DY063 in the ratio 100:80:2 was used as matrix. The quartz powder of 30 microns particle size was used as fillers. Four types of composites were prepared with different amount of quartz fillers like 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% with unchanged reinforcement. For all the samples, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ, dielectric constant and a. c. conductivity and electrostriction have been measured by using a LCR meter at 1 KHz frequency. The phenomenon of electrostriction was examined for all samples (of different percentage of quartz filled composites. It is observed that the percentage of filler influences the electrostriction phenomena in the composites. The 6 % filler content composites samples exhibits the improved electrostriction phenomenon required for sensors compared to other types of composites.

  9. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  10. Meteorological factors in the Quartz Creek forest fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne

    1927-01-01

    It is not often that a large forest fire occurs conveniently near a weather station specially equipped for measuring forest-fire weather. The 13,000-acre Quartz Creek fire on the Kaniksu National Forest during the summer of 1936 was close enough to the Priest River Experimental Forest of the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Station for the roar of the flumes...

  11. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  12. Symmetry and Piezoelectricity: Evaluation of $\\alpha$-Quartz coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, C.

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric coefficients of $\\alpha$-Quartz are derived from symmetry arguments based on Neumann's Principle with three different methods: Fumi, Landau-Lifshitz and Royer-Dieulesaint. While Fumi method is tedious and Landau-Lifshitz requires additional physical principles to evaluate the piezoelectric coefficients, Royer-Dieulesaint is the most elegant and most efficient of the three techniques.

  13. Absorbed dose evaluations in retrospective dosimetry: Methodological developments using quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailiff, I.K.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Correcher, V.

    2000-01-01

    Dose evaluation procedures based on luminescence techniques were applied to 50 quartz samples extracted from bricks that had been obtained from populated or partly populated settlements in Russia and Ukraine downwind of the Chernobyl NPP. Determinations of accrued dose in the range similar to 30...

  14. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were studied. Apart from presenting new data on the geology and geochemistry of these veins, an attempt has ...

  15. Quartz reserves in Brazil: planning and photovoltaic industry; Reservas de quartzo no Brasil: planejamento e Industria fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Breitner; Gonzalez, Mariana Pedrosa; Oliveira, Sergio H.F. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia], emails: mariana.gonzalez@ufabc.edu.br, sergio.oliveira@ufabc.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this research was examine the availability of part of Brazilian quartz resource for the construction of a photovoltaic industry in the country and the possibility to expand your contribution for others markets. The use of renewable alternative sources of energy has been wining more space in the last years, mainly for the photovoltaic technology. The exponential growth of this technology in the world at an average rate of 20% per year allows understand the importance and contribution for the spheres economic, social and environmental. The solar energy it's renewable and doesn't emit greenhouse gases during the generation of electric energy. Favor this background, research and academic development have been investing to make this technology more efficiency and cheap. In this context, Brazil is in a position unique for several aspects, for example, the incidence of high levels of solar radiation during the year, the amount of reserve of quartz, and now, the knowledge to produce this technology in laboratory scale. So, to achieve an hypothetical scenario for the construction of an national industry, to supply this technology not just for the country, as well to Latin America, help the planning and gives credibility for possible actions to be taken. Through the proposal scenario, the result gained was that is at least part of the reserve of quartz, in this case crystal of quartz enough to attend the insertion of 50 MW/year in the country and the possibility to supply international demand without compromise your on future electronic or photovoltaic industry. (author)

  16. Evidence for a cosmogenic origin of fired glaciofluvial beds in the northwestern Andes: Correlation with experimentally heated quartz and feldspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Krinsley, David; Kalm, Volli

    2010-11-01

    Fired sediment, considered equivalent to the 'Black Mat' impact of 12.9 ka, has been located and analyzed in the Andes of northwestern Venezuela. The 'Black Mat' refers to possible fallout from the Encke Comet airburst presumed to have occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the impact spreading ejecta over large portions of North America and Europe, making it an interhemispheric event of considerable magnitude. These possible equivalent beds in the northern Andes, first considered to result from a lightning-induced conflagration adjacent to the retreating Late Wisconsinan (Mérida Glaciation) ice, are now known to have undergone intense heating upon impact to a temperature much higher than what would occur in a wet, first-stage, successional tundra. Analyses carried out by SEM and FESEM, in SE and BSE modes, show massive micro-disruption on grain surfaces, fractures diminishing with depth toward grain interiors and C welded onto quartz and plagioclase minerals. Bubbles on some grains, possibly the result of exclusion of water-of-crystallization, are seen on some samples, principally quartz. The presence of copious monazite in the carbonaceous coatings is considered part of the incoming ejecta, as it is not a common indicator mineral in the local lithology. Analysis by SEM and FESEM of quartz and plagioclase subjected experimentally to temperatures ranging from 500 to 900 °C shows that intense heating affects resident mineralogies to differing extents, with grain disruption more prevalent along cleavage planes deep into grain interiors. The intergrowth of carbonaceous "black mat" material with thermally disrupted and fragmented quartz and feldspar, a "welded" patina of 100-400 nm thickness could only occur with temperatures in excess of 900 °C, the event interpreted here to be of cosmogenic origin.

  17. [Study on the vibrational spectra and XRD characters of Huanglong jade from Longling County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing-cheng; Fan, Lu-wei; Xie, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on the conventional test methods, the infrared absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the characters of the vibration spectrum and mineral composition of Huanglong jade. The testing results show that Huanglong jade shows typical vibrational spectrum characteristics of quartziferous jade. The main infrared absorption bands at 1162, 1076, 800, 779, 691, 530 and 466 cm(-1) were induced by the asymmetric stretching vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and bending vibration of Si-O-Si separately. Especially the absorption band near 800 cm(-1) is split, which indicates that Huanglong jade has good crystallinity. In Raman spectrum, the main strong vibration bands at 463 and 355 cm(-1) were attributed to bending vibration of Si-O-Si. XRD test confirmed that Quartz is main mineral composition of Huanglong jade and there is a small amount of hematite in red color samples which induced the red color of Huanglong jade. This is the first report on the infrared, Raman and XRD spectra feature of Huanglong jade. It will provide a scientific basis for the identification, naming and other research for huanglong jade.

  18. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Starecki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  19. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starecki, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z

    2017-11-03

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  1. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien

    2009-01-01

    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  2. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  3. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  4. Characterization of magnetite particles in shocked quartz by means of electron- and magnetic force microscopy: Vredefort, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cloete, M

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available ) in quartz generally accepted as typical shock lamellae. The magnetite particles along shock lamellae in quartz grains virtually all show uniform crystallographic orientations. In most instances, the groups of magnetite within different quartz grains...

  5. Crystal rainbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neskovic, N. E-mail: nnesko@vin.bg.ac.yu; Petrovic, S

    2003-06-01

    This review is devoted to ion transmission through axial channels of thin crystals. In this process the rainbows occur. The effect is called the crystal rainbow effect. We shall describe its origin and present the experiments in which it has been observed. We shall explain also how the crystal rainbows can be classified using catastrophe theory. This classification has resulted in a universal, simple and accurate approximation to the continuum potential in the channels. Besides, the periodicity of the angular distributions of transmitted ions with the reduced crystal thickness will be considered. It will be introduced via the effect of zero-degree focusing of channeled ions. In addition, we shall mention the doughnut effect in ion channeling, which has proven to be the rainbow effect with tilted crystals. All these considerations will demonstrate clearly the usefulness of the theory of crystal rainbows, which is the proper theory of ion channeling in thin crystals00.

  6. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  7. Raman spectroscopic and microthermometric studies of authigenic quartz (the Pepper Mts., Central Poland) as an indicator of fluids circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglik, Beata; Toboła, Tomasz; Natkaniec-Nowak, Lucyna; Luptáková, Jarmila; Milovská, Stanislava

    2017-02-01

    Differently colored authigenic quartz crystals were found as the druses compound within mudstone heteroliths from the Pepper Mts. Shale Formation (Cambrian unit of the Holy Cross Mts., Central Poland). The genesis of this mineral was established on the basis of fluid inclusion study. Raman microspectroscopy was the key instrumental technique to identify the nature of the compounds trapped in the fluid inclusions. Methane (2917 cm- 1) or water vapor (broad band 2500-3000 cm- 1) occur within two-phased primary inclusion assemblages, while nitrogen (2329 cm- 1) associated with methane and trace amount of carbon dioxide (1285, 1388 cm- 1) occur within secondary fluid inclusion assemblage. Temperatures of homogenization of primary fluid inclusions was obtained on the basis of heating experiments and ranged from 171° to 266 °C. These values are much higher than expected for the diagenetic system without metamorphic changes what may imply hydrothermal origin of quartz crystals. The source of fluids is uncertain as in the Holy Cross Mts. there was no volcanic activity to the end of Late Devonian. However, fluids originated in metamorphic basin could use deep faults as the migration paths.

  8. Raman spectroscopic and microthermometric studies of authigenic quartz (the Pepper Mts., Central Poland) as an indicator of fluids circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglik, Beata; Toboła, Tomasz; Natkaniec-Nowak, Lucyna; Luptáková, Jarmila; Milovská, Stanislava

    2017-02-15

    Differently colored authigenic quartz crystals were found as the druses compound within mudstone heteroliths from the Pepper Mts. Shale Formation (Cambrian unit of the Holy Cross Mts., Central Poland). The genesis of this mineral was established on the basis of fluid inclusion study. Raman microspectroscopy was the key instrumental technique to identify the nature of the compounds trapped in the fluid inclusions. Methane (2917cm-1) or water vapor (broad band ~2500-3000cm-1) occur within two-phased primary inclusion assemblages, while nitrogen (2329cm-1) associated with methane and trace amount of carbon dioxide (1285, 1388cm-1) occur within secondary fluid inclusion assemblage. Temperatures of homogenization of primary fluid inclusions was obtained on the basis of heating experiments and ranged from 171° to 266°C. These values are much higher than expected for the diagenetic system without metamorphic changes what may imply hydrothermal origin of quartz crystals. The source of fluids is uncertain as in the Holy Cross Mts. there was no volcanic activity to the end of Late Devonian. However, fluids originated in metamorphic basin could use deep faults as the migration paths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EXTRACTION OF CRISTOBALITE FROM MILKY-WHITE FORMS OF QUARTZ STUFF1

    OpenAIRE

    Issaev, V.; Oreshnikova, N.

    1997-01-01

    Natural quartz is one of die main sources of getting a unique material - quartz glass. Wide application of quartz glass in chemical and electronic industry, aviation and cosmonautics, fibre optics and computer techniques makes it absolutely indispensable. However, industrial reserves of rock-chrystal lodes, that is die most pure source of quartz stuff with minimal mineral admixturer, are practically exhausted everywhere. All this results in usage of.low quality stuff and, thus, to significant...

  10. Properties and behavior of quartz for the silicon process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasly, Kurt

    2008-07-01

    This PhD-thesis is a result of the study on important properties of quartz as a raw material for the metallurgical production of ferrosilicon and silicon metal. This includes defining mechanical properties important for the size reduction experienced during transport and storage and thermo-mechanical properties of quartz that is important for how the quartz reacts to the high temperatures experienced as it is charged on the furnace. Additionally, softening properties of quartz have been briefly discussed in some of the papers. Another important goal has been to test analytical and experimental methods for investigating the various properties. The investigations of important factors for the mechanical properties of ores and industrial minerals have been carried out as a literature study. The mining operation and transport from mine to smelter has been discussed and several factors that are significant for achieving best possible mechanical properties of the quartz have been identified. The most important factors are related to production in the mine and processing plant, which should be carefully planned to minimize the amount of blast-induced damage in the rock and thus achieve the best possible mechanical strength of the raw material. The amount of fines can be minimized by controlling the handling of the raw materials during the transport and storage. It is especially important to avoid high drops, both high single drops and accumulated height of all the drops in total. Investigations of the thermo-mechanical properties of quartz have been carried out by using different experimental and characterization methods. The petrographic investigations of the raw materials by polarized light microscopy have been important. Thermo-mechanical investigations have been high-temperature microthermometry and shock heating of quartz samples in an induction furnace with subsequent investigations of the heated material. The subsequent investigation included polarized- and

  11. Deformation assisted by fluids in quartz veins of shear zones: an example from Iron Formations of Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paola; Lagoeiro, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    exhibit any kind of fibrous structures that can indicate a sense of growth of the quartz crystals inside the vein. The less deformed veins are composed of tabular crystals of quartz, with the optical axes oriented sub-parallel to the foliation. Mechanical Dauphiné twinning of quartz may also be observed in the single crystals. On the other hand, the deformed veins are represented by polycrystalline layers of quartz, with two distinct CPOs of c-axes: 1) oblique to the foliation and 2) parallel to the Y axis. We suppose that the veins are the result of a concurrence between transformation, recrystallization and recovery of quartz assisted by fluid activity at low temperature and confining pressure. In the related deformation conditions, slip on basal planes and mechanical twinning are consistent with a strong c-axis CPO of quartz sub-parallel to the foliation, but it is not acceptable to the c-axis CPO around Y. To achieve this distinct crystallographic orientation, it is necessary a slip system on prismatic planes followed by grain boundary migration. At low temperatures, one possible situation to explain the CPO under theses conditions is the progressive deformation assisted by fluid activity. A posterior static recrystallization by discontinuous grain growth of quartz may be responsible for the concentration of the c-axis around the Y, intensifying the CPO.

  12. Synthesis, single-crystal structure determination, and vibrational spectroscopy of the europium borate Eu[B{sub 6}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 5}].H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Teresa S.; Wurst, Klaus; Huppertz, Hubert [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Seibald, Markus [OSRAM GmbH, Corporate Innovation, Schwabmuenchen (Germany); Joachim, Bastian [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    The new europium borate Eu[B{sub 6}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 5}].H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} was obtained by hydrothermal synthesis from europium nitrate hydrate and boric acid. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 (no. 2) with the lattice parameters a = 681.59(3), b = 714.17(3), c = 1271.88(6) pm, α = 96.02(1), β = 98.60(1), γ = 101.73(1) (Z = 2). The structure of Eu[B{sub 6}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 5}].H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} is isotypic to that of the samarium borate Sm[B{sub 6}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 5}].H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and is built up from tetrahedral BO{sub 4} and trigonal-planar BO{sub 3} units, both of which are protonated at terminal and bridging oxygen positions. Boric acid molecules reside between the borate layers. Through hydrogen bonding, the structure forms a three-dimensional network. In channels down [110], the Eu{sup 3+} cations are eightfold coordinated by oxygen ions. The compound was also characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy, and it shows typical Eu{sup 3+} line emission. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Simulation of Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Modulated Structures of Quartz

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V., DMITRIEV; Miki, YAJIMA; Yoshiya, MAKITA; Kohji, ABE; Takeshi, SHIGENARI; Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications; Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications; Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications; Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications; Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications

    2000-01-01

    In the vicinity of α⟷β transition in quartz there exists an incommensurate phase. We perform numerical calculations to obtain the phase diagram of quartz and estimate the period of modulation. The results show that modulation phase with a short period is preferable in contrast to the currently accepted interpretation of incommensurate phase in quartz.

  14. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Dust Standards § 71.101 Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the...

  15. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part 90 miner is exposed contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the...

  16. 75 FR 30282 - Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...-008-AD; Amendment 39-16312; AD 2010-11-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain... Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E airplanes. This AD requires you to clean and lubricate the... publications listed in this AD. ADDRESSES: Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. is in liquidation. For service/or...

  17. 30 CFR 70.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the average...

  18. 75 FR 12468 - Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E airplanes. This proposed AD would... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. is in...

  19. Cancer morbidity and quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Håkan; Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ngo, Yen; Ohlson, Carl-Göran

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cancer morbidity amongst Swedish iron foundry workers with special reference to quartz exposure. In addition to respirable dust and quartz, phenol, formaldehyde, furfuryl alcohols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon black, isocyanates and asbestos are used or generated by foundry production techniques and exposure to any of these substances could have potentially carcinogenic effects. Cancer morbidity between 1958 and 2004 was evaluated in a cohort of 3,045 male foundry workers employed for >1 year between 1913 and 2005. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were determined by comparing observed numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Swedish cancer register. Exposure measures were assessed using information from the personal files of employees and modelling quartz measurement based on a database of 1,667 quartz measurements. Dose responses for lung cancer were determined for duration of employment and cumulative quartz exposure for latency periods >20 years. Overall cancer morbidity was not increased amongst the foundry workers (SIR 1.00; 95 % CI, 0.90-1.11), but the incidence of lung cancer was significantly elevated (SIR 1.61; 95 % CI, 1.20-2.12). A non-significant negative dose response was determined using external comparison with a latency period of >20 years (SIR 2.05, 1.72 1.26 for the low, medium and high exposure groups), supported by internal comparison data (hazard ratios 1, 1.01, 0.78) for the corresponding groups. For cancers at sites with at least five observed cases and a SIR > 1.25, non-significant risks with SIRs > 1.5 were determined for cancers of the liver, larynx, testis, connective muscle tissue, multiple myeloma plasmacytoma and lymphatic leukaemia. A significant overall risk of lung cancer was determined, but using external and internal comparison groups could not confirm any dose response at our cumulative quartz dose levels.

  20. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.