Sample records for vials dissolution method

  1. Dissolution Methods Database (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  2. Evaluation of the open vial method in the radon measurement; Evaluacion del metodo del vial abierto en la medicion de radon

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    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    The open vial method is a simple technique, under-utilized but that take advantage of the great radon solubility in organic solvents, therefore applies in the measurement of the radon concentration exhaled in soil. The method consists on the exposition to the gas radon of an open vial with scintillating solution. An integral mathematical model for indoors that describes the emanation processes and gas radon exhalation was developed, as well as the radon dissolution in the scintillation liquid, besides obtaining the characteristic parameters of the experimental system proposed for the radon concentration calculation exhaled by soils. Two experimental arrangements were designed with exposition cameras of 12 and 6 L and quantity of different soil. The open vial was prepared with a mixture of 8 ml of deionized water and 12 ml of scintillation liquid OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 in polyethylene vials; the measurements of the dissolved radon were carried out in scintillation liquid equipment. As a result, on average 2.0% of the exhaled radon is dissolved in the open vial and the dissolved fraction is independent of the experimental arrangement. Also was observed that the exposition time does not affect the radon dissolution significantly, in correspondence with the reported in the literature. (Author)

  3. Determining the delamination propensity of pharmaceutical glass vials using a direct stress method. (United States)

    Sloey, Christopher; Gleason, Camille; Phillips, Joseph


    An accelerated lamellae formation (ALF) methodology has been developed to determine the delamination propensity and susceptibility of pharmaceutical glass vials. The ALF process consists of a vial wash and depyrogenation mimic procedure followed by stressing glass vials with 20 mM glycine pH 10.0 solution at 50 °C for 24 h and analyzing the resulting solutions by visual inspection for glass lamellae. ALF results demonstrate that while vial delamination propensity generally correlates with glass hydrolytic resistance, ALF is a more direct test of glass delamination propensity and is not affected by post-production vial washing that can affect results obtained using hydrolytic resistance tests. ALF can potentially be used by pharmaceutical companies to evaluate and screen incoming vial lots to minimize the risk of delamination during the shelf life of parenteral therapeutics, and by glass vial manufacturers to monitor and improve their vial manufacturing processes. Glass flakes can sometimes appear in liquid pharmaceutical drugs contained in glass vials. These glass flakes are a result of several factors related to the glass vial production process, glass vial sterilization procedures, and the formulation of the liquid pharmaceutical drug. Vial testing is routinely done in order to select glass vials that are less likely to form glass flakes. The factors leading to the formation of glass flakes were studied and applied to a method designed to directly screen vials for their propensity to form glass flakes. The washing of vials followed immediately by sterilization at high temperatures was determined to be a critical factor in the formation of glass flakes. As a result, a laboratory mimic of this procedure was incorporated into the newly developed method for screening vials. This mimic procedure as well as robust accelerated incubation conditions and a sensitive visual inspection procedure are key aspects of this vial screening method.

  4. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test method using a USP paddle type dissolution test apparatus set at a speed of. 50 rpm. The dissolution medium consisted of 900 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) containing 0.25% w/v cetrimide at 37 ...

  5. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  6. Discriminative Dissolution Method for Benzoyl Metronidazole Oral Suspension. (United States)

    da Silva, Aline Santos; da Rosa Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Paula, Fávero Reisdorfer; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos


    A dissolution method for benzoyl metronidazole (BMZ) oral suspensions was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. After determination of sink conditions, dissolution profiles were evaluated using different dissolution media and agitation speeds. The sample insertion mode in dissolution media was also evaluated. The best conditions were obtained using a paddle, 50 rpm stirring speed, simulated gastric fluid (without pepsin) as the dissolution medium, and sample insertion by a syringe. These conditions were suitable for providing sink conditions and discriminatory power between different formulations. Through the tested conditions, the results can be considered specific, linear, precise, accurate, and robust. The dissolution profiles of five samples were compared using the similarity factor (f 2) and dissolution efficiency. The dissolution kinetics were evaluated and described by the Weibull model. Whereas there is no monograph for this pharmaceutical formulation, the dissolution method proposed can be considered suitable for quality control and dissolution profile comparison of different commercial formulations.

  7. Development of Conductivity Method as an Alternative to Titration for Hydrolytic Resistance Testing Used for Evaluation of Glass Vials Used in Pharmaceutical Industry. (United States)

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    The European Pharmacopeia surface test to analyze the hydrolytic resistance is a common industrial method to understand and ensure the quality of produced glass vials. Hydrolytic resistance is evaluated by calculating the alkalinity of water extract from autoclaved vials by titration. As an alternative to this titration technique, a conductivity technique was assessed, which directly measures the ions in the water extract. A conductivity meter with a 12 mm diameter electrode was calibrated with a 100 μS/cm conductivity standard and carryover minimized by rinsing the probe in a water beaker per analysis. The limit of quantification at 1 μS/cm was determined as having a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 compared with the water blank. The conductivity method was selective for glass-composing elements (boron, sodium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and calcium) within the vial extract. Accuracies of spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm were ±7% and had linearity with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of ≥0.9999. Intraday precision had a relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 5) of ≤6% for spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm. Interday precision had a RSD (n = 4) of ≤6% for 10 vials from three glass vial lots. Conductivity of water extracts from nine sets of seven lots of glass vials had a precise linear relationship [R 2 = 0.9876, RSD = 1% (n = 9)] with titration volumes of the same lots. Conductivity results in μS/cm could be converted to titration volumes in milliliters by a conversion factor of 0.0275. The simplicity, sample stability, and individual vial analysis of the conductivity technique were more advantageous than the current titration technique. The quality of glass vials used as primary containers in the pharmaceutical industry is of concern due to recent observations of glass flake-like delamination, or lamellae, under specific storage conditions. The current European Pharmacopoeia method to assess

  8. A novel high throughput method to investigate polymer dissolution. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji


    The dissolution behavior of polystyrene (PS) in biodiesel was studied by developing a novel high throughput approach based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy. A multiwell device for high throughput dissolution testing was fabricated using a photolithographic rapid prototyping method. The dissolution of PS films in each well was tracked by following the characteristic IR band of PS and the effect of PS molecular weight and temperature on the dissolution rate was simultaneously investigated. The results were validated with conventional gravimetric methods. The high throughput method can be extended to evaluate the dissolution profiles of a large number of samples, or to simultaneously investigate the effect of variables such as polydispersity, crystallinity, and mixed solvents. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Alternative Dissolution Methods for Analysis of Niobium containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative Dissolution Methods for Analysis of Niobium containing Samples. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the different high purity Nb containing samples such as Nb metal, Nb2O5 and NbF5.

  10. Dissolution-recrystallization method for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Wan, Zhongquan; Liu, Xingzhao; Jia, Chunyang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve perovskite crystallization. • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. • The optimal perovskite solar cell obtains the champion PCE of 16.76%. • The optimal devices are of high reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a dissolution-recrystallization method (DRM) with chlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide treating the perovskite films during the spin-coating process is reported. This is the first time that DRM is used to control perovskite crystallization and improve the device performance. Furthermore, the DRM is good for reducing defects and grain boundaries, improving perovskite crystallization and even improving TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. By optimizing, the DRM2-treated perovskite solar cell (PSC) obtains the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.76% under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}) with enhanced J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} compared to CB-treated PSC.

  11. Comparative evaluation of methods to quantify dissolution of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kruse, Susanne; Baun, Anders


    Effects and behaviour of nanomaterials in the environment depends on the materials' specific physical and chemical properties and for certain nanomaterials (e.g., Ag, ZnO and CuO) aqueous solubility is of outmost importance. The solubility of metals salts is normally described as a maximum...... dissolved concentration or by the solubility constant (Ksp). For nanomaterials it is essential to also assess solubility kinetics as nanomaterials will often not dissolve instantaneously upon contact with artificial aqueous media or natural waters. Dissolution kinetics will thereby influence their short...... and long-term environmental fate as well as laboratory test results. This highlights the need to evaluate and improve the reliability of methods applied to assess the solubility kinetics of nanomaterials. Based on existing OECD guidelines and guidance documents on aqueous dissolution of metals and metal...

  12. Development of dissolution test method for a telmisartan/amlodipine besylate combination using synchronous derivative spectrofluorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikumar Durga Anumolu


    Full Text Available The dissolution process is considered an important in vitro tool to evaluate product quality and drug release behavior. Single dissolution methods for the analysis of combined dosage forms are preferred to simplify quality control testing. The objective of the present work was to develop and validate a single dissolution test for a telmisartan (TEL and amlodipine besylate (AML combined tablet dosage form. The sink conditions, stability and specificity of both drugs in different dissolution media were tested to choose a discriminatory dissolution method, which uses an USP type-II apparatus with a paddle rotating at 75 rpm, with 900 mL of simulated gastric fluid (SGF without enzymes as the dissolution medium. This dissolution methodology provided good dissolution profiles for both TEL and AML and was able to discriminate changes in the composition and manufacturing process. To quantify both drugs simultaneously, a synchronous first derivative spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated. Drug release was analyzed by a fluorimetric method at 458 nm and 675 nm for AML and TEL, respectively. The dissolution method was validated as per ICH guidance.

  13. Lyophilic matrix method for dissolution and release studies of nanoscale particles. (United States)

    Pessi, Jenni; Svanbäck, Sami; Lassila, Ilkka; Hæggström, Edward; Yliruusi, Jouko


    We introduce a system with a lyophilic matrix to aid dissolution studies of powders and particulate systems. This lyophilic matrix method (LM method) is based on the ability to discriminate between non-dissolved particles and the dissolved species. In the LM method the test substance is embedded in a thin lyophilic core-shell matrix. This permits rapid contact with the dissolution medium while minimizing dispersion of non-dissolved particles without presenting a substantial diffusion barrier. The method produces realistic dissolution and release results for particulate systems, especially those featuring nanoscale particles. By minimizing method-induced effects on the dissolution profile of nanopowders, the LM method overcomes shortcomings associated with current dissolution tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated Dissolution for Enteric-Coated Aspirin Tablets: A Case Study for Method Transfer to a RoboDis II. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A; Martini, Luigi


    Dissolution method transfer is a complicated yet common process in the pharmaceutical industry. With increased pharmaceutical product manufacturing and dissolution acceptance requirements, dissolution testing has become one of the most labor-intensive quality control testing methods. There is an increased trend for automation in dissolution testing, particularly for large pharmaceutical companies to reduce variability and increase personnel efficiency. There is no official guideline for dissolution testing method transfer from a manual, semi-automated, to automated dissolution tester. In this study, a manual multipoint dissolution testing procedure for an enteric-coated aspirin tablet was transferred effectively and reproducibly to a fully automated dissolution testing device, RoboDis II. Enteric-coated aspirin samples were used as a model formulation to assess the feasibility and accuracy of media pH change during continuous automated dissolution testing. Several RoboDis II parameters were evaluated to ensure the integrity and equivalency of dissolution method transfer from a manual dissolution tester. This current study provides a systematic outline for the transfer of the manual dissolution testing protocol to an automated dissolution tester. This study further supports that automated dissolution testers compliant with regulatory requirements and similar to manual dissolution testers facilitate method transfer. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Development and Validation of New Discriminative Dissolution Method for Carvedilol Tablets (United States)

    Raju, V.; Murthy, K. V. R.


    The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a discriminative dissolution method for evaluation of carvedilol tablets. Different conditions such as type of dissolution medium, volume of dissolution medium and rotation speed of paddle were evaluated. The best in vitro dissolution profile was obtained using Apparatus II (paddle), 50 rpm, 900 ml of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer as dissolution medium. The drug release was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The dissolution method was validated according to current ICH and FDA guidelines using parameters such as the specificity, accuracy, precision and stability were evaluated and obtained results were within the acceptable range. The comparison of the obtained dissolution profiles of three different products were investigated using ANOVA-based, model-dependent and model-independent methods, results showed that there is significant difference between the products. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its higher discriminative capacity in differentiating the release characteristics of the products tested and could be applied for development and quality control of carvedilol tablets. PMID:22923865

  16. Stability of 10 mg/mL cefuroxime solution for intracameral injection in commonly used polypropylene syringes and new ready-to-use cyclic olefin copolymer sterile vials using the LC-UV stability-indicating method. (United States)

    Feutry, Frédéric; Simon, Nicolas; Genay, Stéphanie; Lannoy, Damien; Barthélémy, Christine; Décaudin, Bertrand; Labalette, Pierre; Odou, Pascal


    Injecting intracameral cefuroxime has been found beneficial in reducing the risk of postoperative endophthalmitis but its use has been limited through a lack of approved marketing and of ready-to-use single-units as well as the problem of aseptic compounding. Our aim was to assess a new automated primary packaging system which should ensure a higher level of sterility, thanks to its closed, sterile, ready-to-use polymer vial called "Crystal® vial". The chemical stability of a 10 mg/mL cefuroxime solution was compared in 1 mL Crystal® vials and 1 mL Luer-lock polypropylene syringes (actual reference) to eliminate any potential and specific interactions with its cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) body and elastomer stopper. Cefuroxime solution was introduced into vials and syringes and stored at -20 °C, +5 °C and +25°C/60% Relative Humidity. Cefuroxime concentration and the relative amount of the main degradation product (descarbamoyl-cefuroxime) were both determined by an HPLC/UV method indicating stability. Solutions were considered steady if the concentration remained at over 90% of the initial value. In the adapted storage conditions, the evolution of osmolality, pH and sterility was assessed. Stability profiles were identical between vials and syringes in all storage and temperature conditions. The solution was stable (cefuroxime concentration, pH and osmolality) and still sterile for 365 days at -20°C. The concentration fell below 90% after 21 days at +5 °C and after 16 h at +25°C/60%s relative humidity. The COC and thermoplastic elastomer of the vials had no impact on the degradation process confirming its possible use for a ready-to-use cefuroxime solution single-unit dose.

  17. Metabolomic method: UPLC-q-ToF polar and non-polar metabolites in the healthy rat cerebellum using an in-vial dual extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amera A Ebshiana

    Full Text Available Unbiased metabolomic analysis of biological samples is a powerful and increasingly commonly utilised tool, especially for the analysis of bio-fluids to identify candidate biomarkers. To date however only a small number of metabolomic studies have been applied to studying the metabolite composition of tissue samples, this is due, in part to a number of technical challenges including scarcity of material and difficulty in extracting metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for maximising the biological information obtained from small tissue samples by optimising sample preparation, LC-MS analysis and metabolite identification. Here we describe an in-vial dual extraction (IVDE method, with reversed phase and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC which reproducibly measured over 4,000 metabolite features from as little as 3mg of brain tissue. The aqueous phase was analysed in positive and negative modes following HILIC separation in which 2,838 metabolite features were consistently measured including amino acids, sugars and purine bases. The non-aqueous phase was also analysed in positive and negative modes following reversed phase separation gradients respectively from which 1,183 metabolite features were consistently measured representing metabolites such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids and triacylglycerides. The described metabolomics method includes a database for 200 metabolites, retention time, mass and relative intensity, and presents the basal metabolite composition for brain tissue in the healthy rat cerebellum.

  18. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.


    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  19. Comprehensive validation scheme for in situ fiber optics dissolution method for pharmaceutical drug product testing. (United States)

    Mirza, Tahseen; Liu, Qian Julie; Vivilecchia, Richard; Joshi, Yatindra


    There has been a growing interest during the past decade in the use of fiber optics dissolution testing. Use of this novel technology is mainly confined to research and development laboratories. It has not yet emerged as a tool for end product release testing despite its ability to generate in situ results and efficiency improvement. One potential reason may be the lack of clear validation guidelines that can be applied for the assessment of suitability of fiber optics. This article describes a comprehensive validation scheme and development of a reliable, robust, reproducible and cost-effective dissolution test using fiber optics technology. The test was successfully applied for characterizing the dissolution behavior of a 40-mg immediate-release tablet dosage form that is under development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, New Jersey. The method was validated for the following parameters: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness. In particular, robustness was evaluated in terms of probe sampling depth and probe orientation. The in situ fiber optic method was found to be comparable to the existing manual sampling dissolution method. Finally, the fiber optic dissolution test was successfully performed by different operators on different days, to further enhance the validity of the method. The results demonstrate that the fiber optics technology can be successfully validated for end product dissolution/release testing. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  20. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NN Krot; VP Shilov; AM Fedoseev; NA Budantseva; MV Nikonov; AB Yusov; AYu Garnov; IA Charushnikova; VP Perminov; LN Astafurova; TS Lapitskaya; VI Makarenkov


    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported.

  1. Nondestructive detection of glass vial inner surface morphology with differential interference contrast microscopy. (United States)

    Wen, Zai-Qing; Torraca, Gianni; Masatani, Peter; Sloey, Christopher; Phillips, Joseph


    Glass particles generated by glass dissolution and delamination of the glass container for pharmaceutical products have become a major issue in the pharmaceutical industry. The observation of glass particles in certain injectable drugs, including several protein therapeutics, has recently resulted in a number of product recalls. Glass vial surface properties have been suggested to play a critical role in glass dissolution and delamination. Surface characterization of glass container, therefore, is important to evaluate the quality of the glass container. In this work, we demonstrate that differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a powerful, effective, and convenient technique to examine the inner surface morphology of glass vials nondestructively. DIC microscopy does not require the cutting of the glass vial for scanning the inner surface and has sufficient spatial resolution to reveal glass pitting, phase separation, delamination scars, and other defects. Typical surface morphology of pharmaceutical glass vials with different alkalinity are compared and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Paullinia cupana: validation of methods for quantification and assessment of dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves de Sousa


    Full Text Available "Guaraná" (Paullinia cupana is used as a physical activity enhancer and stimulator due to its methylxanthines and condensed tannins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior of five herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablets containing guaraná. Assay and dissolution methods were validated and results obtained allowed simultaneous marker quantification with precision, accuracy, selectivity and robustness. Findings showed that 100% of the herbal medicinal products analyzed did not provide satisfactory results concerning the presence of four markers, 60% had three markers (caffeine, catechin and epicatechin, while 40% had only caffeine at tested dosage forms. In addition, after 30 minutes, only capsule A showed at least 80% of the dissolved markers. In other capsules, marker dissolution did not exceed 60% whereas 60% of the samples had some characteristic pharmacotechnical problems. These results evidence the need for rigorous quality control to help ensure the therapeutic action of these drugs. To this end, dissolution studies are an essential tool for quality assurance of herbal medicines.Guaraná (Paullinia cupana é utilizado como revigorante e estimulante devido à presença de metilxantinas e taninos condensados. Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento de dissolução de cinco fitoterápicos, na forma de cápsulas e comprimidos, contendo guaraná. O método de quantificação e de dissolução foram validados e os resultados obtidos permitiram a quantificação dos marcadores simultaneamente, com precisão, exatidão, seletividade e robustez. Foi verificado que 100% dos fitoterápicos analisados encontravam em desacordo quanto à presença dos quatro marcadores, sendo que 60% apresentaram três marcadores (cafeína, catequina e epicatequina e 40% apresentaram somente a cafeína. Além disso, após o tempo de 30 minutos de ensaio foi possível observar que somente a cápsula A apresentou pelo menos 80% dos

  3. In vivo in vitro correlations for a poorly soluble drug, danazol, using the flow-through dissolution method with biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Vibeke Hougaard; Pedersen, Betty Lomstein; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup


    phospholipids, were used as the bile source. The effect of adding different concentrations and molar ratios of monoglycerides and fatty acids to the fed state media was investigated. In vivo release profiles under fasted and fed conditions were obtained from a previous study by deconvolution [Sunesen, V......The purpose of the study was to design dissolution tests that were able to distinguish between the behaviour of danazol under fasted and fed conditions, by using biorelevant media. In vitro dissolution of 100mg danazol capsules was performed using the flow-through dissolution method. Flow rates...... were 8, 16 or 32 ml/min, corresponding to total volumes dissolution medium of 960, 1920 and 3840 ml, respectively. The media used contained bile salt and phospholipid levels relevant for either fasted or fed conditions in vivo. Crude and inexpensive bile components, Porcine Bile Extract and soybean...

  4. A comparison of mathematical methods for the determination of in vitro dissolution constants for glass fibers. (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey W-D; Collier, Clare; Swauger, James E


    Biopersistence plays a significant role in determining the potential bioactivity of respirable fibers. In vivo biopersistence in the lung is frequently assessed by in vitro fiber dissolution studies using simulated biological solutions and flow-through techniques. The dissolution rate (k) of a fiber is typically determined by elemental analysis of the flow-through solution to measure the mass of material leached from the fibers over a given time. Various methods may be used to estimate the value of k from these results. The present study compared the in vitro dissolution characteristics of seven experimental glass fiber compositions to those obtained for four recognized fiber compositions (MMVF 10-glass fiber; MMVF 11-glass fiber; MMVF 21-rockwool fiber; crocidolite fiber). Fiber dissolution was examined over a 17-wk period using a flow-through system designed to simulate the conditions encountered by fibers in the extracellular environment of the lung. Mass loss and changes in fiber diameter were determined over time and were then used to calculate k using five different methods. Although the selected methodologies did not produce identical estimations of k for each fiber, the resulting ranking of fiber solubility for each method was consistent. The seven experimental glass fibers were found to have k values intermediate between those of MMVF 11 and MMVF 21.

  5. Impact of processing methods on the dissolution of artemether from two non-ordered mesoporous silicas. (United States)

    Tahir, Hira; Shahzad, Yasser; Waters, Laura J; Hussain, Talib; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mahmood, Tariq; Sheikh, Rizwan


    Poor aqueous solubility is often linked with a poor dissolution rate and ultimately, limited bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds. This study describes the application of mesoporous materials (Syloid 244 and Syloid AL1) in improving the dissolution rate of a drug with poor aqueous solubility, namely artemether, utilising different processing methods including physical mixing, co-grinding and solid dispersions prepared by solvent evaporation and the lyophilisation technique. The prepared formulations were extensively characterised for their solid-state properties and the drug release attributes were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction confirmed conversion of crystalline artemether into a disordered and amorphous form, whilst no intermolecular interactions were detected between artemether and silica. Both silica grades enhanced the dissolution rate of artemether in comparison with drug alone, for example from 17.43% (±0.87%) to 71.55% (±3.57%) after 120mins with lyophilisation and Syloid 244 at a 1:3 ratio. This enhancement was also dependant on the choice of processing method, for example, co-ground and lyophilised formulations prepared with Syloid 244 at 1:3 ratio produced the most extensive dissolution, thus endorsing the importance of materials as well as choice of formulation method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel silk fibroin films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method. (United States)

    Ming, Jinfa; Liu, Zhi; Bie, Shiyu; Zhang, Feng; Zuo, Baoqi


    Bombyx mori silk fibroin from the silkworm was firstly found to be soluble in formic acid/hydroxyapatite system. The rheological behavior of silk fibroin solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents in dissolved solution. At the same time, silk fibroin nanofibers were observed in dissolved solution with 103.6±20.4nm in diameter. Moreover, the structure behavior of SF films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method was examined. The secondary structure of silk fibroin films was attributed to silk II structure (β-sheet), indicating that the hydroxyapatite contents in dissolved solution were not significantly affected by the structure of silk fibroin. The X-ray diffraction results exhibited obviously hydroxyapatite crystalline nature existing in silk fibroin films; however, when the hydroxyapatite content was 5.0wt.% in dissolved solution, some hydroxyapatite crystals were converted to calcium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate in silk fibroin dissolution process. This result was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis and DSC measurement. In addition, silk fibroin films prepared by this dissolution method had higher breaking strength and extension at break. Based on these analyses, an understanding of novel SF dissolution method may provide an additional tool for designing and synthesizing advanced materials with more complex structures, which should be helpful in different fields, including biomaterial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics

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    Caroline Magna Pessoa Chaves

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. METHOD This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57% and ceftriaxone (94.28% predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. CONCLUSION We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment.

  8. Novel silk fibroin films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Jinfa, E-mail: [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Liu, Zhi; Bie, Shiyu [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Zhang, Feng [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zuo, Baoqi, E-mail: [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China)


    Bombyx mori silk fibroin from the silkworm was firstly found to be soluble in formic acid/hydroxyapatite system. The rheological behavior of silk fibroin solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents in dissolved solution. At the same time, silk fibroin nanofibers were observed in dissolved solution with 103.6 ± 20.4 nm in diameter. Moreover, the structure behavior of SF films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method was examined. The secondary structure of silk fibroin films was attributed to silk II structure (β-sheet), indicating that the hydroxyapatite contents in dissolved solution were not significantly affected by the structure of silk fibroin. The X-ray diffraction results exhibited obviously hydroxyapatite crystalline nature existing in silk fibroin films; however, when the hydroxyapatite content was 5.0 wt.% in dissolved solution, some hydroxyapatite crystals were converted to calcium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate in silk fibroin dissolution process. This result was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis and DSC measurement. In addition, silk fibroin films prepared by this dissolution method had higher breaking strength and extension at break. Based on these analyses, an understanding of novel SF dissolution method may provide an additional tool for designing and synthesizing advanced materials with more complex structures, which should be helpful in different fields, including biomaterial applications. - Highlights: • SF fibers were firstly successfully dissolved in FA/HAp solution. • The rheological behavior of SF solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents. • SF nanofibrils were observed in FA/HAp solution with 103.6 ± 20.4 nm in diameter. • SF films prepared by FA/HAp dissolution method had higher mechanical properties.

  9. In Vitro Dissolution Profile of Dapagliflozin: Development, Method Validation, and Analysis of Commercial Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Zielinski Cavalheiro de Meira


    Full Text Available Dapagliflozin was the first of its class (inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter to be approved in Europe, USA, and Brazil. As the drug was recently approved, there is the need for research on analytical methods, including dissolution studies for the quality evaluation and assurance of tablets. The dissolution methodology was developed with apparatus II (paddle in 900 mL of medium (simulated gastric fluid, pH 1.2, temperature set at 37±0.5°C, and stirring speed of 50 rpm. For the quantification, a spectrophotometric (λ=224 nm method was developed and validated. In validation studies, the method proved to be specific and linear in the range from 0.5 to 15 μg·mL−1 (r2=0.998. The precision showed results with RSD values lower than 2%. The recovery of 80.72, 98.47, and 119.41% proved the accuracy of the method. Through a systematic approach by applying Factorial 23, the robustness of the method was confirmed (p>0.05. The studies of commercial tablets containing 5 or 10 mg demonstrated that they could be considered similar through f1, f2, and dissolution efficiency analyses. Also, the developed method can be used for the quality evaluation of dapagliflozin tablets and can be considered as a scientific basis for future official pharmacopoeial methods.

  10. Characterization of Surface Properties of Glass Vials Used as Primary Packaging Material for Parenterals. (United States)

    Ditter, Dominique; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roehl, Holger; Wahl, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Nieto, Alejandra; Allmendinger, Andrea


    different vial types may serve as basis to further guide the selection of adequate primary packaging based on the desired quality target product profile and to support studies of glass surface interactions with formulations. The proposed analytical method panel can be used for characterization of future glass vials either before delivery to the manufacturer or drug product manufacturing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Improved dissolution and chemical separation methods for Lu-Hf garnet chronometry (United States)

    Connelly, J. N.


    Garnet-based Lu-Hf geochronology using conventional (HF-HNO3) dissolution methods may be compromised by full or partial digestion of Hf-rich zircon inclusions. This study integrates two complimentary methods to substantially reduce zircon digestion while assuring complete digestion of garnet and sample-spike equilibration. Handpicked garnet fractions are heat treated to >1000°C in an evacuated silica glass ampoule to anneal zircon inclusions and then dissolved with 12 M HCl at 210°C and cold 28 M HF. Analyses of heat-treated garnet (and their high-temperature breakdown products orthopyroxene-spinel-quartz) from Gore Mountain, New York, demonstrate the method is capable of complete dissolution of garnet and routinely achieving sample-spike equilibration. Independent analyses of annealed and unannealed zircons dissolved by HCl - cold HF demonstrate the benefit of heat treatment prior to dissolution. Analyses of zircon-rich garnets from peletic paragneisses of Labrador, Canada, show the potential of this method by returning Lu-Hf ratios commensurate with the degree of heat treatment. Finally, a complementary chemical separation method for Lu and Hf is presented that supports analysis of garnet by MC-ICP-MS.

  12. Dissolution study of nanocrystal powders of a poorly soluble drug by UV imaging and channel flow methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarnes, Annika; Østergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Sabrine Smedegaard


    , indomethacin. Nanocrystal suspensions were prepared using a top-down wet milling technique with three stabilizers: poloxamer F68, poloxamer F127 and polysorbate 80. The dissolution of the differently sized indomethacin nanocrystals were investigated using a channel flow dissolution method and by UV imaging...

  13. Development and validation of a dissolution method for warfarin sodium and aspirin combination tablets. (United States)

    McCormick, T J; Gibson, A B; Diana, F J


    A dissolution method for warfarin sodium-aspirin combination tablets was developed which utilizes USP Apparatus 1 (baskets) at 50 rpm with 900 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8; 0.05 M) medium at 37 degrees C. A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was also developed for the simultaneous determination of warfarin sodium, aspirin and salicylic acid on an octadecylsilica column using acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-glacial acetic acid-water (23:5:5:67, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase with UV detection at 282 nm. Validation data were obtained which demonstrate that the dissolution methodology is accurate, precise, linear and rugged for the combination tablets.

  14. Indomethacin nanocrystals prepared by different laboratory scale methods: effect on crystalline form and dissolution behavior (United States)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta; Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan; Di Martino, Piera


    The objective of this study is to select very simple and well-known laboratory scale methods able to reduce particle size of indomethacin until the nanometric scale. The effect on the crystalline form and the dissolution behavior of the different samples was deliberately evaluated in absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. Nanocrystals of indomethacin (native crystals are in the γ form) (IDM) were obtained by three laboratory scale methods: A (Batch A: crystallization by solvent evaporation in a nano-spray dryer), B (Batch B-15 and B-30: wet milling and lyophilization), and C (Batch C-20-N and C-40-N: Cryo-milling in the presence of liquid nitrogen). Nanocrystals obtained by the method A (Batch A) crystallized into a mixture of α and γ polymorphic forms. IDM obtained by the two other methods remained in the γ form and a different attitude to the crystallinity decrease were observed, with a more considerable decrease in crystalline degree for IDM milled for 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) revealed a higher dissolution rate for Batches A and C-40-N, due to the higher IDR of α form than γ form for the Batch A, and the lower crystallinity degree for both the Batches A and C-40-N. These factors, as well as the decrease in particle size, influenced the IDM dissolution rate from the particle samples. Modifications in the solid physical state that may occur using different particle size reduction treatments have to be taken into consideration during the scale up and industrial development of new solid dosage forms.

  15. Indomethacin nanocrystals prepared by different laboratory scale methods: effect on crystalline form and dissolution behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy); Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan [University of Tirana, Department of Pharmacy (Albania); Di Martino, Piera, E-mail: [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy)


    The objective of this study is to select very simple and well-known laboratory scale methods able to reduce particle size of indomethacin until the nanometric scale. The effect on the crystalline form and the dissolution behavior of the different samples was deliberately evaluated in absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. Nanocrystals of indomethacin (native crystals are in the {gamma} form) (IDM) were obtained by three laboratory scale methods: A (Batch A: crystallization by solvent evaporation in a nano-spray dryer), B (Batch B-15 and B-30: wet milling and lyophilization), and C (Batch C-20-N and C-40-N: Cryo-milling in the presence of liquid nitrogen). Nanocrystals obtained by the method A (Batch A) crystallized into a mixture of {alpha} and {gamma} polymorphic forms. IDM obtained by the two other methods remained in the {gamma} form and a different attitude to the crystallinity decrease were observed, with a more considerable decrease in crystalline degree for IDM milled for 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) revealed a higher dissolution rate for Batches A and C-40-N, due to the higher IDR of {alpha} form than {gamma} form for the Batch A, and the lower crystallinity degree for both the Batches A and C-40-N. These factors, as well as the decrease in particle size, influenced the IDM dissolution rate from the particle samples. Modifications in the solid physical state that may occur using different particle size reduction treatments have to be taken into consideration during the scale up and industrial development of new solid dosage forms.

  16. Dissolution and assaying of multicomponent tablets by chemometric methods using computer-aided spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Dinç, E; Serin, C; Tuğcu-Demiröz, F; Doğanay, T


    Dissolution of three component tablets containing paracetamol (APAP), propyphenazone (PP), and caffeine (CAF) was carried out by USP paddle method. Three chemometric methods; inverse least square (ILS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were applied to simultaneous assay of APAP, PP and CAF in tablets. The PCR, PLS and ILS methods were applied to simultaneous dissolution APAP, PP and CAF in tablets using a double beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer without any chemical separation and any graphical treatment of the overlapping spectra of three drugs. Twenty two mixture solutions in different concentrations were prepared in simulated gastric juice (SGJ, USP) for the chemometric calibrations as training set. The absorbance data matrix was obtained by measuring the absorbance at 14 wavelength points (from 222.5 to 292.5 nm) with the intervals of 5 nm (Deltalambda=5 nm) in the spectral region between 200 and 310 nm. Training set and absorbance data were used for the calibrations of chemometric methods. The developed calibrations were tested for the previously prepared solutions of mixture of three drugs for the validation of the assay method. The chemometric calculations were performed by using the 'MAPLE VRSQUO; software. The results of three chemometric methods were statistically compared with each other. These chemometric calibrations were successfully applied to the content uniformity and dissolution of the multicomponent tablets without any separation procedure. The synthetic mixtures of three drugs were used for the validity of the calibrations. Means recoveries (percent) and relative standard deviation of PLS, PCR and ILS methods were found to be 100.1+/-0.6, 101.4+/-1.6 and 100.1+/-0.6 for APAP; 100.9+/-3.2, 102.0+/-3.3 and 100.9+/-3.2 for PP; 99.9+/-3.5, 101.6+/-3.3 and 99.9+/-3.2 for CAF, respectively. Dissolution profiles of three component tablets were performed. More than 95% of drugs were dissolved within 15 min. All of the

  17. Comparison of Dissolution Similarity Assessment Methods for Products with Large Variations: f2 Statistics and Model-Independent Multivariate Confidence Region Procedure for Dissolution Profiles of Multiple Oral Products. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Hiroko; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro


    The current Japanese Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare (MHLW)'s Guideline for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products uses averaged dissolution rates for the assessment of dissolution similarity between test and reference formulations. This study clarifies how the application of model-independent multivariate confidence region procedure (Method B), described in the European Medical Agency and U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines, affects similarity outcomes obtained empirically from dissolution profiles with large variations in individual dissolution rates. Sixty-one datasets of dissolution profiles for immediate release, oral generic, and corresponding innovator products that showed large variation in individual dissolution rates in generic products were assessed on their similarity by using the f2 statistics defined in the MHLW guidelines (MHLW f2 method) and two different Method B procedures, including a bootstrap method applied with f2 statistics (BS method) and a multivariate analysis method using the Mahalanobis distance (MV method). The MHLW f2 and BS methods provided similar dissolution similarities between reference and generic products. Although a small difference in the similarity assessment may be due to the decrease in the lower confidence interval for expected f2 values derived from the large variation in individual dissolution rates, the MV method provided results different from those obtained through MHLW f2 and BS methods. Analysis of actual dissolution data for products with large individual variations would provide valuable information towards an enhanced understanding of these methods and their possible incorporation in the MHLW guidelines.

  18. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Lucy, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Chemale Junior, Farid [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Dussin, Ivo A.; Kawashita, Koji [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas


    Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-Multi Collector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS) method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3 +- 4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using {sup 235}U-{sup 205}Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7 +- 1.8 Ma (error 0.43 %) based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I - 416.75 +- 1.3 Ma; Temora II - 416.78 +- 0.33 Ma) and established as 416 +- 0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error < 1 %), mainly for high resolution stratigraphic studies of Phanerozoic sequences. (author)

  19. The effect of dissolution medium, rotation speed and compaction pressure on the intrinsic dissolution rate of amlodipine besylate, using the rotating disk method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Giorgetti


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dissolution medium, rotation speed and compaction pressure on the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of the antihypertensive drug amlodipine besylate, using the rotating disk method. Accordingly, a fractional factorial design (33-1 was used, employing dissolution media (water, phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and HCl 0.1 M, rotation speed (50, 75 and 100 rpm, and compaction pressure (1000, 1500 and 2000 psi as independent variables. The assays were randomized and statistically compared using the Statistica(r 11 software program. Significance testing (ANOVA indicated that the dissolution medium had a considerable impact on the IDR of amlodipine besylate. Analysis of the linear and quadratic components of the variables led to the proposition of a mathematical model that describes the IDR as a function of the parameters studied. Conversely, the levels of compaction pressure and rotation speed employed during experimental planning were less relevant, especially when the assay was conducted in the HCl 0.1 M medium.

  20. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  1. Enhanced dissolution of meloxicam from orodispersible tablets prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd Elbary


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was formulation, development and evaluation of meloxicam orodispersible tablets. ODTs were prepared by two methods including sublimation technique where different subliming agents like camphor, menthol and thymol were used with Ac-Di-Sol as a superdisintegrant. Each subliming agent was used in three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% w/w. Tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. Meloxicam ODTs were also prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of meloxicam containing a matrix former, a sugar alcohol, and a collapse protectant. In addition, different disintegration accelerators were tested (each in 1% w/v including PVP K25, PVP K90, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, PEG 400, tween 80 and tween 20. The prepared ODTs from two methods were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, drug content, friability, hardness, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution study. The best formulation was subjected to stability testing for 3 months at temperatures 40 °C and 75% relative humidity and at 60 °C. All formulations showed disintegration time ranging from 1 to 46 s. All the prepared formulae complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements of the drug contents. T17 gave the best in vitro disintegration and dissolution results. ODT formula T17 has shown no appreciable changes with respect to physical characters, meloxicam content and dissolution profiles when stored at elevated temperatures. In conclusion the results of this work suggest that orodispersible tablets of meloxicam with rapid disintegration time, fast drug release and good hardness can be efficiently and successfully formulated by employing freeze drying and sublimation methods.

  2. Development and validation of dissolution method for carvedilol compression-coated tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Shah


    Full Text Available The present study describes the development and validation of a dissolution method for carvedilol compression-coated tablets. Dissolution test was performed using a TDT-06T dissolution apparatus. Based on the physiological conditions of the body, 0.1N hydrochloric acid was used as dissolution medium and release was monitored for 2 hours to verify the immediate release pattern of the drug in acidic pH, followed by pH 6.8 in citric-phosphate buffer for 22 hours, to simulate a sustained release pattern in the intestine. Influences of rotation speed and surfactant concentration in medium were evaluated. Samples were analysed by validated UV visible spectrophotometric method at 286 nm. 1% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS was found to be optimum for improving carvedilol solubility in pH 6.8 citric-phosphate buffer. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between the results obtained at 50 and 100 rpm. The discriminating dissolution method was successfully developed for carvedilol compression-coated tablets. The conditions that allowed dissolution determination were USP type I apparatus at 100 rpm, containing 1000 ml of 0.1N HCl for 2 hours, followed by pH 6.8 citric-phosphate buffer with 1% SLS for 22 hours at 37.0 ± 0.5 ºC. Samples were analysed by UV spectrophotometric method and validated as per ICH guidelines.O presente estudo descreve o desenvolvimento e a validação de método de dissolução para comprimidos revestidos de carvedilol. O teste de dissolução foi efetuado utilizando-se o aparelho para dissolução TDT-06T. Com base nas condições fisiológicas do organismo, utilizou-se ácido clorídrico 0,1 N como meio de dissolução e a liberação foi monitorada por 2 horas para se verificar o padrão de liberação imediata do fármaco em condições de pH baixo, seguidas por pH 6,8 em tampão cítrico-fosfato por 22 horas, para simular o padrão de liberação controlada no intestino. Avaliou-se a influência da velocidade de

  3. The influence of amorphization methods on the apparent solubility and dissolution rate of tadalafil. (United States)

    Wlodarski, K; Sawicki, W; Paluch, K J; Tajber, L; Grembecka, M; Hawelek, L; Wojnarowska, Z; Grzybowska, K; Talik, E; Paluch, M


    This study for the first time investigates the solubility and dissolution rate of amorphous tadalafil (Td)--a poorly water soluble chemical compound which is commonly used for treating the erectile dysfunction. To convert the crystalline form of Td drug to its amorphous counterpart we have employed most of the commercially available amorphization techniques i.e. vitrification, cryogenic grinding, ball milling, spray drying, freeze drying and antisolvent precipitation. Among the mentioned methods only quenched cooling of the molten sample was found to be an inappropriate method of Td amorphization. This is due to the thermal decomposition of Td above 200°C, as proved by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Disordered character of all examined samples was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD). In the case of most amorphous powders, the largest 3-fold increase of apparent solubility was observed after 5 min, indicating their fast recrystallization in water. On the other hand, the partially amorphous precipitate of Td and hypromellose enhanced the solubility of Td approximately 14 times, as compared with a crystalline substance, which remained constant for half an hour. Finally, disk intrinsic dissolution rate (DIDR) of amorphous forms of Td was also examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissolution Behavior and Content Uniformity of An Improved Tablet Formulation Assayed by Spectrofluorometric and RIA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rafiee-Tehrani


    Full Text Available Digoxin 0.25 mg tablets were manufactured by pregranulation of lactose-fcorn starch with 10% corn starch paste and deposition of solvent on pregranules to make digoxin granules. In the preparation of tablet A, granules of lactose-corn Starch was uniformly moistened with a 5% chloroform-ethanol solution (2:lv/vof digoxin by a simple blending. Tablet B was produced by spray granulation system on which the solvent was sprayed on the granules of lactose-corn starch by utilization of a laboratory size fluidized bed drier (Uniglatt . The content uniformity and dissolution of both tablets were determined by the spectrofluorometric and radio¬immunoassay (RIA method modified for the assay of tablet solutious. One available commercially brand of digoxin tablet (C was included in dissolution study for comparison. For the spectrofluorometric method the technique is based on the fluor-ometric measurenent of the dehydration product of the cardiotonic steroid resulting from its reaction with hydrogen peroxide in concentrated hydrochloric acid. For the RIA method, the filtrate was diluted to theoretical concentration of 2.5 ng/ml."nAliquots of this dilution were then assayed for digoxin content using a commercial digoxin125 I RIA kit. Results from both assay methods were extrapolated to the total tablet content and compared with the labeled amount of 20 individual tablets. All tablet assay results were within the USP standards for the content uniformity and"ndissolution of individual. The individual tablet deviations from labeled amount by RIA method were smaller when compared with the spectrofluorometric method.There was no significant difference between the release of digoxin from three products, and thus it is suggested that the Procedure B could be easily applied for manufacturing"nof digoxin tablets in industrial scales.It was also concluded that,the RIA method could be used for the digoxin tablet determination.

  5. Size distributions of micro-bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method (United States)

    Taya, C.; Maeda, Y.; Hosokawa, S.; Tomiyama, A.; Ito, Y.


    Size of micro-bubbles is widely distributed in the range of one to several hundreds micrometers and depends on generation methods, flow conditions and elapsed times after the bubble generation. Although a size distribution of micro-bubbles should be taken into account to improve accuracy in numerical simulations of flows with micro-bubbles, a variety of the size distribution makes it difficult to introduce the size distribution in the simulations. On the other hand, several models such as the Rosin-Rammler equation and the Nukiyama-Tanazawa equation have been proposed to represent the size distribution of particles or droplets. Applicability of these models to the size distribution of micro-bubbles has not been examined yet. In this study, we therefore measure size distribution of micro-bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method by using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), and investigate the applicability of the available models to the size distributions of micro-bubbles. Experimental apparatus consists of a pressurized tank in which air is dissolved in liquid under high pressure condition, a decompression nozzle in which micro-bubbles are generated due to pressure reduction, a rectangular duct and an upper tank. Experiments are conducted for several liquid volumetric fluxes in the decompression nozzle. Measurements are carried out at the downstream region of the decompression nozzle and in the upper tank. The experimental results indicate that (1) the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation well represents the size distribution of micro-bubbles generated by the pressurized dissolution method, whereas the Rosin-Rammler equation fails in the representation, (2) the bubble size distribution of micro-bubbles can be evaluated by using the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation without individual bubble diameters, when mean bubble diameter and skewness of the bubble distribution are given, and (3) an evaluation method of visibility based on the bubble size distribution and bubble

  6. Evaluation of dissolution profile similarity - Comparison between the f2, the multivariate statistical distance and the f2 bootstrapping methods. (United States)

    Paixão, Paulo; Gouveia, Luís F; Silva, Nuno; Morais, José A G


    A simulation study is presented, evaluating the performance of the f2, the model-independent multivariate statistical distance and the f2 bootstrap methods in the ability to conclude similarity between two dissolution profiles. Different dissolution profiles, based on the Noyes-Whitney equation and ranging from theoretical f2 values between 100 and 40, were simulated. Variability was introduced in the dissolution model parameters in an increasing order, ranging from a situation complying with the European guidelines requirements for the use of the f2 metric to several situations where the f2 metric could not be used anymore. Results have shown that the f2 is an acceptable metric when used according to the regulatory requirements, but loses its applicability when variability increases. The multivariate statistical distance presented contradictory results in several of the simulation scenarios, which makes it an unreliable metric for dissolution profile comparisons. The bootstrap f2, although conservative in its conclusions is an alternative suitable method. Overall, as variability increases, all of the discussed methods reveal problems that can only be solved by increasing the number of dosage form units used in the comparison, which is usually not practical or feasible. Additionally, experimental corrective measures may be undertaken in order to reduce the overall variability, particularly when it is shown that it is mainly due to the dissolution assessment instead of being intrinsic to the dosage form. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Legislacion sobre seguridad vial en las Americas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hijar, Martha; Perez-Nunez, Ricardo; Inclan-Valadez, Cristina; Silveira-Rodrigues, Eugenia Maria


    La legislacion sobre cinco de los principales factores de riesgo de sufrir lesiones causadas por el transito, asi como el cumplimiento de la ley, son esenciales para forjar una cultura integral de seguridad vial...

  8. Drawing medicine out of a vial (United States)

    ... page: // Drawing medicine out of a vial To use the sharing ... a clean area. Wash your hands. Check Your Medicine Carefully check your medicine: Check the label. Make ...

  9. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  10. Dissolution actuated sample container (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.


    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  11. Bubble size distribution in acoustic droplet vaporization via dissolution using an ultrasound wide-beam method. (United States)

    Xu, Shanshan; Zong, Yujin; Li, Wusong; Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi


    Performance and efficiency of numerous cavitation enhanced applications in a wide range of areas depend on the cavitation bubble size distribution. Therefore, cavitation bubble size estimation would be beneficial for biological and industrial applications that rely on cavitation. In this study, an acoustic method using a wide beam with low pressure is proposed to acquire the time intensity curve of the dissolution process for the cavitation bubble population and then determine the bubble size distribution. Dissolution of the cavitation bubbles in saline and in phase-shift nanodroplet emulsion diluted with undegassed or degassed saline was obtained to quantify the effects of pulse duration (PD) and acoustic power (AP) or peak negative pressure (PNP) of focused ultrasound on the size distribution of induced cavitation bubbles. It was found that an increase of PD will induce large bubbles while AP had only a little effect on the mean bubble size in saline. It was also recognized that longer PD and higher PNP increases the proportions of large and small bubbles, respectively, in suspensions of phase-shift nanodroplet emulsions. Moreover, degassing of the suspension tended to bring about smaller mean bubble size than the undegassed suspension. In addition, condensation of cavitation bubble produced in diluted suspension of phase-shift nanodroplet emulsion was involved in the calculation to discuss the effect of bubble condensation in the bubble size estimation in acoustic droplet vaporization. It was shown that calculation without considering the condensation might underestimate the mean bubble size and the calculation with considering the condensation might have more influence over the size distribution of small bubbles, but less effect on that of large bubbles. Without or with considering bubble condensation, the accessible minimum bubble radius was 0.4 or 1.7 μm and the step size was 0.3 μm. This acoustic technique provides an approach to estimate the size

  12. Hydroxyapatite, fluor-hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite produced via the sol-gel method: dissolution behaviour and biological properties after crystallisation. (United States)

    Tredwin, Christopher J; Young, Anne M; Abou Neel, Ensanya A; Georgiou, George; Knowles, Jonathan C


    Hydroxyapatite (HA), fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) with varying levels of fluoride ion substitution and fluorapatite (FA) were synthesised by the sol-gel method as possible implant coating or bone-grafting materials. Calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphite were used as precursors under an ethanol-water based solution. Different amounts of ammonium fluoride were incorporated for the preparation of the FHA and FA sol-gels. After heating and powdering the sol-gels, dissolution behaviour was assessed using ion chromatography to measure Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) ion release. Biological behaviour was assessed using cellular proliferation with human osteosarcoma cells and alamarBlue™ assay. Statistical analysis was performed with a two way analysis of variance and post hoc testing with a Bonferroni correction. Increasing fluoride substitution into an apatite structure decreased the dissolution rate. Increasing the firing temperature of the HA, FHA and FA sol-gels up to 1,000 °C decreased the dissolution rate. There was significantly higher cellular proliferation on highly substituted FHA and FA than on HA or Titanium. The properties of an implant coating or bone grafting material can be tailored to meet specific requirements by altering the amount of fluoride that is incorporated into the original apatite structure. The dissolution behaviour can further be altered by the temperature at which the sol-gel is fired.

  13. Development of the detection threshold concept from a close look at sorption occurrence inside a glass vial based on the in-vial vaporization of semivolatile fatty acids. (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Parker, David


    Headspace (HS) analysis has been recommended as one of the most optimal methods for extracting and analyzing volatile organic compounds from samples in diverse media such as soil and water. Short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA, C3-C7) with strong adsorptivity were selected as the target compounds to assess the basic characteristics of the HS analysis through simulation of HS conditions by in-vial vaporization of liquid-phase standards (VL) in 25 mL glass vials. The reliability of the VL approach was assessed by apportioning the in-vial VFA mass into three classes: (1) vaporized fraction, (2) dynamic adsorption on the vial walls (intermediate stage between vaporization and irreversible absorption), and (3) irreversible absorptive loss (on the vial wall). The dynamic adsorption partitioning inside the vial increased with n-VFA carbon number, e.g., 43% (C2: acetic acid, extrapolated value), 65% (C3: propanoic acid), and 98% (C7: heptanoic acid). The maximum irreversible losses for the studied n-VFAs exhibited a quadratic relationship with carbon number. If the detection threshold limit (DTL: the onset of mass detection after attaining the maximum irreversible loss) is estimated, the DTL values for target VFAs were in the range of 101 ng for i-valeric acid to 616 ng for propionic acid, which are larger than the method detection limit by about 3 orders of magnitude. Consequently, quantitation of VFAs using the VL approach should be critically assessed by simultaneously considering the DTL criterion and the initial VFA masses loaded into the vial.

  14. Development and validation of spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam in different dissolution media. (United States)

    Patel, Dasharath M; Sardhara, Bhavesh M; Thumbadiya, Diglesh H; Patel, Chhagan N


    Paracetamol and lornoxicam in combined tablet dosage form are available in the market. This combination is used to treat inflammatory diseases of the joints, osteoarthritis and sciatica. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been reported for their simultaneous estimation in tablet dosage form in specific solvent. This paper presents simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam in tablet dosage form in different dissolution media. The reported method is helpful in determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam during dissolution study. Simple, sensitive, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method based on an absorption correction equation was developed for the estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam simultaneously in tablet dosage form in different dissolution media at different pH. Paracetamol showed absorption maxima at 243 nm in 0.1N HCland phosphate buffer pH 6.8, while lornoxicam showed absorption maxima at 374 nm in 0.1N HCland phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 4-12 μg/ml for paracetamol and 4-16 μg/ ml for lornoxicam. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by an absorption correction equation method. The results of analysis have been validated statistically by recovery studies.

  15. Novel Mechanism of Glass Delamination in Type 1A Borosilicate Vials Containing Frozen Protein Formulations. (United States)

    Jiang, Ge; Goss, Monica; Li, Guiyang; Jing, Wendy; Shen, Hong; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Le, Linda; Wong, Lyanne; Wen, Zai-Qing; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Riker, Ken; Germansderfer, Abe; Tsang, Paul; Ricci, Margaret


    flakes were observed by scanning electron microscopy on the inner surface of the vials that contained lamellae. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry testing did not show elevated levels of silicon in the drug product solution, suggesting that the glass lamellae formed in the frozen vials was a local, event-based phenomenon rather than silica dissolution from the product contact surface or glass degradation caused by corrosive attack. These findings can be explained by the same thermally-induced mechanical stress which caused vial breakage. Frozen protein formulations contracted below -30 °C, causing an inward glass deformation and a subsequent rapid movement of the glass when the frozen plug of drug product solution separated from the vial inner surface at approximately -50 to -60 °C. The mechanical stress released during this separation caused vial breakage. The incidence of vial breakage increased with more concentrated product and higher fill volume-to-vial volume ratios. The same mechanism applies to lamellae formation. As the rapid surface separation occurred, small, thin pieces of glass were pulled from the glass surface by the frozen plug, and, as a result, glass lamellae particles appeared in the drug product solution after thawing. In recent years, glass flakes have been observed in parenteral liquid formulations due to chemical delamination during long-term storage, resulting in a number of product recalls. In our study, we discovered a novel mechanism of glass delamination in vials containing frozen protein formulations. This glass delamination mechanism has never been reported before, and we believe this work will benefit the pharmaceutical scientific community, especially the biotechnology and parenteral drug industries. Storing protein formulations in the frozen state typically improves stability during long-term storage as a drug substance or as a drug product. The frozen state minimizes chemical degradation and physical instability

  16. Comparison of Acid Titration, Conductivity, Flame Photometry, ICP-MS, and Accelerated Lamellae Formation Techniques in Determining Glass Vial Quality. (United States)

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Sloey, Christopher; Ricci, Margaret S; Wen, Zai-Qing; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser


    Certain types of glass vials used as primary containers for liquid formulations of biopharmaceutical drug products have been observed with delamination that produced small glass like flakes termed lamellae under certain conditions during storage. The cause of this delamination is in part related to the glass surface defects, which renders the vials susceptible to flaking, and lamellae are formed during the high-temperature melting and annealing used for vial fabrication and shaping. The current European Pharmacopoeia method to assess glass vial quality utilizes acid titration of vial extract pools to determine hydrolytic resistance or alkalinity. Four alternative techniques with improved throughput, convenience, and/or comprehension were examined by subjecting seven lots of vials to analysis by all techniques. The first three new techniques of conductivity, flame photometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measured the same sample pools as acid titration. All three showed good correlation with alkalinity: conductivity (R(2) = 0.9951), flame photometry sodium (R(2) = 0.9895), and several elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry [(sodium (R(2) = 0.9869), boron (R(2) = 0.9796), silicon (R(2) = 0.9426), total (R(2) = 0.9639)]. The fourth technique processed the vials under conditions that promote delamination, termed accelerated lamellae formation, and then inspected those vials visually for lamellae. The visual inspection results without the lot with different processing condition correlated well with alkalinity (R(2) = 0.9474). Due to vial processing differences affecting alkalinity measurements and delamination propensity differently, the ratio of silicon and sodium measurements from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was the most informative technique to assess overall vial quality and vial propensity for lamellae formation. The other techniques of conductivity, flame photometry, and accelerated lamellae formation

  17. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials. (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning


    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dissolution Rate of Steel Sheathing Through Plunging and Melt-Through Methods (United States)

    Rivera-Martínez, Elis A.; Beers, Mark; Scheller, Eric; Yu, Edward


    In an effort to determine the dissolution rate of the steel sheathing used in the production of cored wire, several experiments were conducted in the ASK Chemicals Metals Application Lab (MAL), in Dublin, Ohio. It is essential to understand that, when exposed to molten metal at a certain temperature/time, the low-carbon steel will dissolve, thereby exposing the contained alloy to the molten metal. This article presents two separate experiments that will provide a better understanding of the dissolution rates of the steel sheathing used in the 9-mm cored wire. The first experiment was an immersion test, where the finished product (cored wire containing a ferroalloy) was submerged in molten metal for a predetermined amount of time. The length of the cored wire was measured before and after the immersion to gauge the effect of time and temperature on the dissolution characteristics. The second experiment was conducted to examine the time and temperature needed to melt through a flat piece of metal sheathing. For this experiment, a flat piece of metal sheathing was placed over the down sprue of a sand-based pouring box. The basin was filled with molten metal at a predetermined temperature, and a high-speed camera and high-temperature thermocouples were used to record the temperature and the time needed to dissolve the metal sheathing.

  19. Content uniformity and dissolution tests of triplicate mixtures by a double divisor-ratio spectra derivative method. (United States)

    Markopoulou, Catherine K; Malliou, Eleftheria T; Koundourellis, John E


    The use of a UV double divisor-ratio spectra derivative calibration for the simultaneous analysis of synthetic samples and commercial tablet preparations without prior separation is proposed. The method was successfully applied to quantify three ternary mixtures, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine combined with paracetamol or acetylsalicylic acid and a mixture of acetylsalicylic acid combined with paracetamol and caffeine, using the information in the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.84-4.21 microg/ml for chlorpheniramine maleate, 1.60-15.96 microg/ml for caffeine, 2.0-20.0 microg/ml for acetylsalicylic acid and 1.58-15.93 microg/ml for paracetamol. The whole procedure was applied to synthetic mixtures of pure drugs as well as to commercial preparations (Algon) by using content uniformity and dissolution tests (USP 24) and was found to be precise and reproducible. According to the dissolution profile test more than 84% of paracetamol and caffeine were dissolved within 20 min. Acetylsalicylic acid dissolved more slowly, taking about 45-60 min to dissolve completely. A chemometric method partial least squares (PLS) and a HPLC method were also employed to evaluate the same mixtures. The results of the proposed method were in excellent agreement with those obtained from PLS and HPLC methods and can be satisfactorily used for routine analysis of multicomponent dosage forms.

  20. A superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with improved solubility and dissolution: Supercritical fluid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hao


    Full Text Available Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

  1. Enhanced dissolution rate of felodipine using spherical agglomeration with Inutec SP1 by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method (United States)

    Tapas, A.R.; Kawtikwar, P.S.; Sakarkar, D.M.


    Felodipine is a second generation calcium channel blocker widely used as antihypertensive and antianginal drug which belongs to BCS class II category. Hence, its low water solubility limits the pharmacological effect. The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate of felodipine using spherical agglomeration technique with acetone, water and dichloromethane as good solvent, poor solvent and bridging liquid, respectively. The quasi emulsion solvent diffusion technique was used as a method for spherical agglomeration. Inutec SP1 was used as an emulsion stabilizer and as hydrophilic polymer in agglomeration process. The FTIR and DSC results showed no change in the drug after crystallization process. PXRD studies showed sharp peaks in the diffractograms of spherical agglomerates with minor reduction in height of the peaks. The particle size of spherical agglomerates (FI-2) was about 134.33 ± 13.57 µm, n=3 and the dissolution efficiency of felodipine up to 120 min increased to about 4-fold in phosphate buffer containing 1.8% Tween 80 (pH 6.8). Spherical agglomerates showed enhanced solubility compared to untreated powder possibly due to the partial conversion to amorphous form. PMID:21589802

  2. The study of vial and cocktail for tritium radioactivity analysis of rain water by liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sung Jin; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Man Woo; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Yang, Kwang Mo; Kang, Yeong Rok [Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang Hee [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)


    Even though the current method for tritium (3H) analysis is routine, for the case of the low level of tritium in the environment, special conditions have to be fulfilled in order to obtain accurate and reliable tritium measurements. There are very little comparative data concerning commercial scintillating cocktails. The best cocktails for measuring tritium are those based on benzene derived solvent, and the worse cocktails are those which have complex chemical composition or contain too small concentration of scintillators. The aim of study was to investigate various vials and cocktails by comparison with the combination of few different scintillation cocktails and vials in our routine measurements according to count, efficiency, and the figure of merit (FOM). The comparison of three types of vials with scintillation cocktails for tritium activity analysis of rain water shows that glass vials have higher count rates and HiSafe 3 cocktails have lower FOM.

  3. High failure rate of the dissolution tests for 500-mg amoxicillin capsules sold in Cambodia: is it because of the product or the test method? (United States)

    Okumura, J; Taga, M; Tey, S; Kataoka, Y; Nam, N; Kimura, K


    During the survey of substandard medicines in Cambodia in 2007, it was found that more than 90% of 500-mg amoxicillin (AMPC) capsules failed the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 30 TEST 1 dissolution test. In the USP, several monographs provide multiple methods for performing the dissolution test. By using the 500-mg AMPC capsule as an example, we aimed to identify the problems and implications of the USP methods adopted for the dissolution test as a global standard. All AMPC samples were collected from the Cambodian market in 2007. For the quantitative test, we referred to USP 30. We performed the USP 28 and USP 30 TEST 2 dissolution tests and compared these results with those of the USP 30 TEST 1. All 500-mg AMPC capsules used for the comparison passed the quantitative test. Samples that passed the USP 28 and USP 30 TEST 2 dissolution tests were identical, and the pass rate was 97.1% (34/35), whereas the pass rate with the USP 30 TEST 1 was 8.6% (3/35). The difference in the dissolution results between the three methods was significant (P<0.0001). This study revealed that many users would select the most stringent method when multiple methods exist in the USP. This may lead to a high failure rate of the tests. Because USP is a global standard, we recommend that it take into consideration the developing countries and create a more detailed user-friendly manual for selection for appropriate methods. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Optimization of the solvent-based dissolution method to sample volatile organic compound vapors for compound-specific isotope analysis. (United States)

    Bouchard, Daniel; Wanner, Philipp; Luo, Hong; McLoughlin, Patrick W; Henderson, James K; Pirkle, Robert J; Hunkeler, Daniel


    The methodology of the solvent-based dissolution method used to sample gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was optimized to lower the method detection limits for TCE and benzene. The sampling methodology previously evaluated by [1] consists in pulling the air through a solvent to dissolve and accumulate the gaseous VOC. After the sampling process, the solvent can then be treated similarly as groundwater samples to perform routine CSIA by diluting an aliquot of the solvent into water to reach the required concentration of the targeted contaminant. Among solvents tested, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TGDE) showed the best aptitude for the method. TGDE has a great affinity with TCE and benzene, hence efficiently dissolving the compounds during their transition through the solvent. The method detection limit for TCE (5±1μg/m3) and benzene (1.7±0.5μg/m3) is lower when using TGDE compared to methanol, which was previously used (385μg/m3 for TCE and 130μg/m3 for benzene) [2]. The method detection limit refers to the minimal gas phase concentration in ambient air required to load sufficient VOC mass into TGDE to perform δ13C analysis. Due to a different analytical procedure, the method detection limit associated with δ37Cl analysis was found to be 156±6μg/m3 for TCE. Furthermore, the experimental results validated the relationship between the gas phase TCE and the progressive accumulation of dissolved TCE in the solvent during the sampling process. Accordingly, based on the air-solvent partitioning coefficient, the sampling methodology (e.g. sampling rate, sampling duration, amount of solvent) and the final TCE concentration in the solvent, the concentration of TCE in the gas phase prevailing during the sampling event can be determined. Moreover, the possibility to analyse for TCE concentration in the solvent after sampling (or other targeted VOCs) allows the field deployment of the sampling method

  5. Biorelevant dissolution of candesartan cilexetil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Gruberová


    Full Text Available The choice of an appropriate medium for dissolution tests is an essential step during a dosage form development. The adequate design of dissolution testing enables forecasting in vivo behavior of drug formulation. Biorelevant media were developed for this purpose because dissolution media described in the International Pharmacopoeia are not thoroughly suitable. Therefore, we carried out solubility and dissolution tests in biorelevant media and we compared the results with data measured in compendial dissolution media. A shake-flask method and standard paddle apparatus were used. The concentration was measured by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. An oral solid dosage form with poorly soluble drug candesartan cilexetil was tested. Significant differences in the solubility and dissolution profiles of candesartan cilexetil were observed. The study offers the overview of compendial and biorelevant media simulating fasted state that can be analyzed by a spectrophotometric technique.

  6. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)


    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  7. Determination of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis; Determinacao de {sup 226}Ra por espectrometria gama: estudo do recipiente de acondicionamento de amostra para analise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti


    Determination of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, daughters of {sup 222}Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the {sup 226}Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand {sup 226}Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was {sup 222}Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  8. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenea Hailu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. Methods We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Results Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164% to means of 59% (range: 4-164%, 62% (range: 4-175%, and 67% (range: 5-192%, respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300% to means of 161% (range: 82-322%, 175% (range: 78-344%, and 198% (range: 88-402%, respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC. The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%. Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. Conclusions The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per

  9. DissolvIt: An In Vitro Method for Simulating the Dissolution and Absorption of Inhaled Dry Powder Drugs in the Lungs. (United States)

    Gerde, Per; Malmlöf, Maria; Havsborn, Lina; Sjöberg, Carl-Olof; Ewing, Pär; Eirefelt, Stefan; Ekelund, Katarina

    The main purpose of this work was to develop an in vitro method for simulating the dissolution and absorption of inhaled dry powder drugs that also mimics systemic pharmacokinetic data. A second purpose was to evaluate this method. DissolvIt(®) was developed as a simulation of the air-blood barrier of the upper airways, constituting: "airborne" particles deposited on a glass cover slip, a mucus simulant, a polycarbonate (basal) membrane, and a pumped albumin buffer simulating the pulmonary blood flow. The PreciseInhale(®) exposure system was used to aerosolize and deposit test formulations onto cover slips. The particle dissolution was observed by optical microscopy as particle disappearance, and it was started directly when the particles came into contact with the mucus simulant. Solute from the dissolving particles diffused through the barrier and was absorbed into the perfusate. The drug concentration in the perfusate over time and the remaining drug in the barrier at the end of the experiment were quantitated by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate generated different pharmacokinetic dissolution/absorption profiles in DissolvIt. This study indicates that DissolvIt simulates dissolution and absorption of drugs in the lung, and that DissolvIt also mimics pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters.

  10. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R


    : Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT......(S): Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from...

  11. Container/Closure Integrity Testing and the Identification of a Suitable Vial/Stopper Combination for Low-Temperature Storage at -80 {degrees}C. (United States)

    Zuleger, Brigitte; Werner, Uwe; Kort, Alexander; Glowienka, Rene; Wehnes, Engelbert; Duncan, Derek


    It was recently found that after storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with rubber stoppers, a phenomenon was revealed which had not been observed before with other viral products stored at -20 °C: overpressure in the vials. As this phenomenon poses a serious safety problem for medical personnel as well as for the product itself, an investigation was initiated to identify the root cause of the overpressure. After exclusion of possible root causes (differences in air temperature or atmospheric air pressure during filling and quality control testing, outgassing from the formulation buffer) the remaining hypothesis involved a possible container closure integrity issue at low temperature. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of many rubber stopper formulations are in the range -55 to -70 °C. At storage temperatures below T(g), the rubber stopper loses its elastic properties and there is a risk that the seal integrity of the vial could be compromised. Loss of seal integrity of the vials near storage temperatures of -80 °C would result in an ingress of cold dense gas into the vial headspace. After removal of the vials from storage at -80 °C, the rubber stoppers could regain their elastic properties and the vials would quickly reseal, thereby trapping the ingressed gas, which leads to overpressure in the vial headspace. Nondestructive laser-based headspace analysis was used to investigate the maintenance of container closure integrity as a function of the filling and capping/crimping process, storage and transport conditions, and vial/stopper designs. This analytical method is based on frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and can be used for noninvasive headspace measurements of headspace pressure and headspace gas composition. Changes in the vial headspace composition and/or pressure are a clear marker for vials that have lost container closure integrity. After storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with

  12. HPLC method development for the simultaneous analysis of amlodipine and valsartan in combined dosage forms and in vitro dissolution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çelebier


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and reproducible HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine and valsartan in their combined dosage forms, and for drug dissolution studies. A C18 column (ODS 2, 10 μm, 200 x 4.6 mm and a mobile phase of phosphate buffer (pH 3.6 , 0.01 mol L-1:acetonitrile: methanol (46:44:10 v/v/v mixture were used for separation and quantification. Analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1 mL min-1 and at ambient temperature. The injection volume was 20 μL and the ultraviolet detector was set at 240 nm. Under these conditions, amlodipine and valsartan were eluted at 7.1 min and 3.4 min, respectively. Total run time was shorter than 9 min. The developed method was validated according to the literature and found to be linear within the range 0.1 - 50 μg mL-1 for amlodipine, and 0.05 - 50 μg mL-1 for valsartan. The developed method was applied successfully for quality control assay of amlodipine and valsartan in their combination drug product and in vitro dissolution studies.Desenvolveu-se método de HPLC rápido e reprodutível para a determinação simultânea de anlodipino e valsartana em suas formas de associação e para os estudos de dissolução dos fármacos. Utilizaram-se coluna C18 (ODS 2, 10 μm, 200 x 4,6 mm e fase móvel tampão fosfato (pH 3,6, 0,01 mol L-1:acetonitrila: metanol para a separação e a quantificação. As análises foram efetuadas com velocidade de fluxo de 1 mL min-1 e à temparatura ambiente O volume de injeção foi de 20 μL e utilizou-se detector de ultravioleta a 240 nm. Sob essas condições, anlodipino e valsartana foram eluídas a 7,1 min e 3,4 min, respectivamente. O tempo total de corrida foi menor que 9 min. O método desenvolvido foi validado de acordo com a literatura e se mostrou linear na faixa de 0,1-50 μg mL-1 para anlodipino e de 0,05-50 μg mL-1 para valsartana. O método desenvolvido foi aplicado com sucesso para ensaios de controle de qualidade de associações de

  13. On the variability of dissolution data. (United States)

    Elkoshi, Z


    To investigate dissolution data variability and its origins. The Weibull function with four parameters t0 (dissolution lag-time), K (the rate parameter), beta (the shape parameter) and D (the fraction dissolved as t-->infinity), is used to describe the dissolution curve. The variance of the dissolution data is expressed in terms of these parameters and their individual variances sigma t02, sigma K2, sigma beta 2, and sigma D2. These four variances originate from variable physical properties of the dosage units and from a variable dissolution environment. Therefore, dissolution data variability depends on both, the functional form of the curve and on the variance of the physical conditions. The use of this method enables the elucidation of the sources of dissolution data variability. In the case of a sigmoidal dissolution curve (beta > 1), data variance is zero as dissolution begins (following dissolution lag-time). This initial variance diverges when the dissolution curve is non-sigmoidal (with beta point (corresponding to the curve inflection point, when the main source of variability is dissolution lag-time t0, or around t = 1/K + t0, when the main sources of variability are the rate parameter K or the shape parameter beta). When the curve is sigmoidal (beta > 1) and the main source of variability relates to the dissolution extent, the overall variance grows with time all the way to the plateau of the dissolution curve. With a non-sigmoidal dissolution curve (beta point. The dissolution relative variance, on the other hand, diverges as dissolution begins and decreases with time at least until 63% of the drug is released, irrespective to the Weibull parameter values. Later, it may decrease or increase, attaining a fixed value (sigma D2/D2) at the plateau of the dissolution curve. The particular time dependence of dissolution data variance is well defined in terms of the Weibull shape parameters and their individual variances. Dissolution data variability may

  14. Size distribution estimation of cavitation bubble cloud via bubbles dissolution using an ultrasound wide-beam method (United States)

    Xu, Shanshan; Zong, Yujin; Liu, Xiaodong; Wan, Mingxi


    This paper proposed an acoustic technique to estimate size distribution of a cavitation bubble cloud induced by focused ultrasound (FUS) based on the dissolution of bubble cloud trapped by a wide beam of low acoustic pressure, after the acoustic exposure of FUS is turned off. Dissolution of cavitation bubbles in saline and in phase-shift nanodroplet emulsion diluted with degassed saline or saturated saline has been respectively studied to quantify the effects of pulse duration (PD) and acoustic power (AP) or peak negative pressure (PNP) of FUS on size distribution of cavitation bubbles.

  15. Applications of simultaneous equation method and derivative method for the determination of rabeprazole sodium and levosulpiride in pharmaceutical dosage form and dissolution samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima R. Shetty


    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate, precise, economical procedures, entailing neither irksome sample treatment nor tedious extraction process have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of rabeprazole sodium and levosulpiride in combined tablet dosage form. The first method was based on employing simultaneous equation method for analysis of both drugs. Rabeprazole sodium and levosulpiride have shown absorbance maxima at 284 and 232 nm in methanol, respectively. The second method was based on derivative spectrophotometric method involving the determination of both the drugs at their respective zero crossing point (ZCP. The first order derivative spectrum was obtained in methanol and the determinations were made at 231.2 nm (ZCP of levosulpiride for rabeprazole sodium and 246.2 nm (ZCP of rabeprazole sodium for levosulpiride. The linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-20 μg/ml for both drugs. The medium of dissolution was used 900 ml of phosphate buffer pH 7.4 using a USP type 2 apparatus at a stirring rate of 100 rpm. The drug release was evaluated by developed spectroscopic methods. The suitability of the developed method for quantitative determination of rabeprazole sodium and levosulpiride was proved by validation.

  16. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Matthey, S; Nicholson, D; Ruhs, S; Alden, B; Knock, M; Schultz, K; Schmuecker, A


    The Bartels respiratory virus panel detection kit is an indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) method that uses pooled and individual antisera for tissue culture confirmation of seven respiratory viruses. We evaluated these reagents for detecting viral antigen in shell vial cultures and by direct staining of cells from respiratory specimens. The isolation from 254 specimens of respiratory viruses in shell vial cultures compared with standard tube cultures was highly sensitive (94%) and specific (97.3%). The numbers of viral isolates detected in three consecutive years of testing with shell vial cultures were 68 of 254 (26.8%), 101 of 381 (26.5%), and 122 of 430 (28.4%). IFA direct staining of all 1,065 specimens resulted in 183 (17.2) being uninterpretable because of inadequate numbers of cells or interfering fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of the interpretable IFA direct stains in comparison with shell vial cultures were 85.9 and 87.1%, respectively. For detection of 881 adequate specimens, Bartels respiratory syncytial virus IFA direct staining compared with an Ortho Diagnostics Systems direct fluorescent-antibody test for respiratory syncytial virus RSV was highly sensitive (95.5%) and specific (97%). Shell vial cultures combined with Bartels IFA reagents are a rapid alternative to standard tube cultures. Bartels IFA direct staining with individual antisera provides useful same-day screening of respiratory specimens, but the antiserum pool was not effective in screening for positive specimens because of excessive amounts of nonspecific fluorescence.

  17. Development of a modified - solid dispersion in an uncommon approach of melting method facilitating properties of a swellable polymer to enhance drug dissolution. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong Ngoc-Gia; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thanh Van; Vo, Toi Van; Truong-DinhTran, Thao


    The study aimed to develop a modified-solid dispersion method using a swellable hydrophilic polymers accompanied by a conventional carrier to enhance the dissolution of a drug that possesses poor water solubility. Two swellable polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide) were swelled in melted polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) in different ratios and under different conditions. The type, amount, and, especially, incorporation method of the swellable polymers were crucial factors affecting the dissolution rate, crystallinity, and molecular interaction of the drug. Interestingly, the method in which the swellable polymer was thoroughly mixed with the melted PEG 6000 as the first step was more effective in increasing drug dissolution than the method in which the drug was introduced to the melted PEG 6000 followed by the addition of the swellable polymer. This system has potential for controlling drug release due to high swelling capabilities of these polymers. Therefore, the current study can be considered to be a promising model for formulations of controlled release systems containing solid dispersions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vial position in the determination of chlorophenols in water by solid phase microextraction. (United States)

    Portillo, M; Prohibas, N; Salvadó, V; Simonet, B M


    The extraction of chlorophenol from water by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in vials located both vertically and horizontally is compared. The results obtained show that kinetic parameters are clearly affected by how the vial is placed in the analysis of semivolatile compounds. Extraction time for reach the equilibrium was three times lower in the horizontal configuration. An on-line extraction unit coupled to a continuous flow system is used to analyse unmodified ground water samples. In order to increase the high throughput, the analysis time is reduced and the sensitivity increased by making the extraction simultaneously with two fibres. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of spiked river water samples. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation ranges from 3.5 to 4.8%, and the recoveries from 94 to 105%.

  19. Understanding the impact of media viscosity on dissolution of a highly water soluble drug within a USP 2 mini vessel dissolution apparatus using an optical planar induced fluorescence (PLIF) method. (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Batchelor, Hannah K; Alberini, Federico; Ramsay, John; Simmons, Mark J H


    In this study, planar induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used for the first time to evaluate variability in drug dissolution data using Rhodamine-6G doped tablets within small volume USP 2 apparatus. The results were compared with tablets contained theophylline (THE) drug for conventional dissolution analysis. The impact of hydrodynamics, sampling point, dissolution media viscosity and pH were investigated to note effects on release of these two actives from the hydrophilic matrix tablets. As expected mixing performance was poor with complex and reduced velocities at the bottom of the vessel close to the tablet surface; this mixing became even worse as the viscosity of the fluid increased. The sampling point for dissolution can affect the results due to in-homogenous mixing within the vessel; this effect is exacerbated with higher viscosity dissolution fluids. The dissolution profiles of RH-6G measured via PLIF and THE measured using UV analysis were not statistically different demonstrating that RH-6G is an appropriate probe to mimic the release profile of a highly soluble drug. A linear correlation was accomplished between the release data of the drug and the dye (R(2)>0.9). The dissolution profile of the dye, obtained with the analysis of the PLIF images, can be used in order to evaluate how the viscosity and the mixing performance of USP 2 mini vessel affect the interpretation of the dissolution data of the targeted drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissolution of [²²⁶Ra]BaSO₄ and partial separation of ²²⁶Ra from radium/barium sulfate: A new treatment method for NORM waste from petroleum industry. (United States)

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al Masri, M S; Amin, Yusr


    Complete dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 precipitate was successfully performed using NaNO2 as a reducing agent in acidic solution at room temperature. Results showed a significant effect of acid and NaNO2 concentrations and temperature on the dissolution efficiency. The method was successfully used for separation of radium from NORM scale samples from the petroleum industry; sufficient volume reduction of NORM waste was achieved. The obtained (226)Ra solution was purified using two separation methods. The dissolution method can be of great interest in the development of radiochemical analysis of radium isotopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Agresividad vial en la población general


    Fierro, Inmaculada; Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Álvarez, Francisco Javier


    Producción Científica Objetivos: Analizar la prevalencia y los factores sociodemográficos asociados con la agresividad vial en la población. Métodos: Se han realizado 2.500 entrevistas a la población de Castilla y León de entre 14 y 70 años de edad. Se evaluó la agresividad vial en el año previo a la realización de la encuesta utilizando un test de ocho preguntas. Resultados: El 31,1% refirió haber vivido alguna situación de agresividad vial en el último año, y el 26,8% en más de u...

  2. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method. (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O


    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of bevacizumab (Avastin® repacked in single-use glass vials for intravitreal administration

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    Michelle A. A. Sugimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Avastin® (bevacizumab is an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody given as an off-label drug by intravitreal administration for treatment of ocular diseases. The drug's clinical application and its cost-benefit profile has generated demand for its division into single-use vials to meet the low volume and low-cost doses necessary for intraocular administration. However, the safety of compounding the drug in single-use vials is still under discussion. In this study, the stability and efficacy of Avastin® repacked in individual single-use glass vials and glass ampoules by external compounding pharmacies were evaluated. Methods: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and turbidimetry were selected to detect the formation of aggregates of various sizes. Changes in bevacizumab biological efficacy were investigated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Repacked and reference bevacizumab showed similar results when analyzed by PAGE. By SEC, a slight increase in high molecular weight aggregates and a reduction in bevacizumab monomers were observed in the products of the three compounding pharmacies relative to those in the reference bevacizumab. A comparison of repacked and reference SEC chromatograms showed that the mean monomer loss was ≤1% for all compounding pharmacies. Protein aggregates in the nanometer- and micrometer-size ranges were not detected by DLS and turbidimetry. In the efficacy assay, the biological function of repacked bevacizumab was preserved, with <3% loss of VEGF binding capacity relative to that of the reference. Conclusion: The results showed that bevacizumab remained stable after compounding in ampoules and single-use glass vials; no significant aggregation, fragmentation, or loss of biological activity was observed.

  4. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test. (United States)

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan


    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance.

  5. Filtration of Glass Delamination Particles with West Pharmaceutical Vial Adapters. (United States)

    Zarour-Shalev, Elinor H; Ovadia, Yaron; Tuchmay, Oren; Reynolds, Graham; Lev, Nimrod


    One major current challenge facing companies producing injectable drugs contained in glass vials is the phenomenon of delamination that results in drug contamination. Particulate contamination of parenteral fluids is a fact of life. Particulate infusion is unlikely to cause immediate or severe signs and symptoms, but adverse effects, tissue damage, and loss of function are likely in the long term. Since 2010, recalls due to glass delamination have increased, and recently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration exercised temporary regulatory flexibility by allowing filtration as means of removing glass particles. The vial adapter is a needle-free product from West Pharmaceuticals Services that provides a simple and cost-effective solution for the safe and rapid transfer reconstitution of drugs between vials and syringes. One variant of the vial adapter is integrated with a filter to address various types of particles. In the present study, the performance of the filter-integrated vial adapter is evaluated with respect to glass delamination particles. Silica particles of 0.5-10 μm are used to emulate glass delamination particles. High-filtration efficiency is demonstrated according to the severest criteria stated by the British Pharmacopoeia that allows up to 100 particles smaller than 5 μm for every 1 mL liquid of a large-volume parenteral. The study was conducted using environmental scanning electron microscopy and statistical analysis. One major current challenge facing companies producing injectable drugs contained in glass vials is the phenomenon of delamination that results in drug contamination. Glass delamination is defined as degradation of surface glass, as from a vial, that produces glass flakes. Contamination of injectable drugs due to glass delamination is a fact of life. Normally, this type of contamination does not involve immediate severe signs, but rather accumulative damage to tissues in the long run. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  6. Optimization of Dissolution Compartments in a Biorelevant Dissolution Apparatus Golem v2, Supported by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stupák


    Full Text Available Biorelevant dissolution instruments represent an important tool for pharmaceutical research and development. These instruments are designed to simulate the dissolution of drug formulations in conditions most closely mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we focused on the optimization of dissolution compartments/vessels for an updated version of the biorelevant dissolution apparatus—Golem v2. We designed eight compartments of uniform size but different inner geometry. The dissolution performance of the compartments was tested using immediate release caffeine tablets and evaluated by standard statistical methods and principal component analysis. Based on two phases of dissolution testing (using 250 and 100 mL of dissolution medium, we selected two compartment types yielding the highest measurement reproducibility. We also confirmed a statistically ssignificant effect of agitation rate and dissolution volume on the extent of drug dissolved and measurement reproducibility.

  7. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  8. Estudio integral de la accidentalidad vial en bicicletas


    Sanromà Roger, Víctor


    El alcance de este proyecto es estudiar las causas que provocan los accidentes en que hay bicicletas implicadas y el posterior análisis de los diferentes tipos de tecnologías existentes para la seguridad vial de los ciclistas, para poder desarrollar mejoras que reduzcan la accidentalidad y que complementen las tecnologías ya existentes.

  9. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Pens Versus Conventional Syringes and Vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Y. M.; DeVries, J. H.


    Pen injection devices have acquired a pivotal role in insulin delivery, surpassing the use of conventional insulin syringes in many parts of the world. In this review we sought to determine differences in dosing accuracy between insulin pens and conventional syringes and vials, also touching on

  10. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da


    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  11. Application of RP–HPLC method in dissolution testing and statistical evaluation by NASSAM for simultaneous estimation of tertiary combined dosages forms

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    Yogesh Upadhyay


    Full Text Available A dissolution method with robust high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis for immediate release tablet formulation was developed and validated to meet the requirement as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA guidelines. The method involved the use of Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column, and temperature was maintained at 30 °C. After optimization, the mobile phase was selected as phosphate buffer (KH2PO4, 30 mM : ACN (60:40, v/v with pH 3.0, and retention time Rt was found as 3.24, 4.16, and 2.55 min for paracetamol (PCM, chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM and phenylephrine hydrochloride (PH respectively at 265 nm and at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The relative standard deviation (%RSD for 6 replicate measurements was found to be less than 2%. Furthermore net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM with spectrophotometer was performed for standard and liquid oral suspension. On the basis of selectivity, sensitivity and accuracy analysis, it was confirmed that this novel method could be useful for simultaneous estimation of the given drug combinations. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied for evaluating the statistical difference between the assay results obtained via both NASSAM and RP–HPLC methods and ultimately no significant difference was found between both the methods. All the methods and results were acceptable and confirmed that the method was suitable for intended use. Keywords: Dissolution, RP–HPLC, Net analyte signal standard addition method, Two-way ANOVA

  12. Original research paper. A superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with improved solubility and dissolution: Supercritical fluid process. (United States)

    Pan, Hao; Wang, Han-Bing; Yu, Yi-Bin; Cheng, Bing-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Ying


    Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF) process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM) in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

  13. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las lesiones viales

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de las lesiones viales, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  14. Red Vial de Nicaragua (Optimización y Mantenimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Martínez


    Full Text Available La red vial es un patrimonio nacional, el cual es necesario: proteger, conservar, aumentar y mejorar; para apoyar eldesarrollo socioeconómico de nuestro país. La actividad de mantenimiento, constituye un factor determinante quegarantiza la operación satisfactoria del transporte durante la vida útil de los caminos; en sus diferentes modalidades. La ausencia de un mantenimiento preventivo y de un mantenimiento correctivo tardío, conduce a que la inversiónrealizada sufra una depreciación más acelerada, acortando su vida útil; obteniendo un grado de aprovechamientomenor que se traduce en una disminución de los beneficios estimados, ya que la rentabilidad no podrá ser óptima aldescuidar esta función. “Con frecuencia, los costos operativos de los vehículos, excederán los costos de losdepartamentos viales por un factor de 10 o màs, especialmente en carreteras de gran volumen de trànsito”.(Zaniewski, 1989. Por lo tanto, los costos (economía de los usuarios deben ser tomados en cuenta al momento deproyectar la construcción de una carretera. Por tal razón el Gobierno de Nicaragua, en conjunto con lasinstituciones correspondientes, han asumido un rol prioritario en la ejecución y mantenimiento de la red vial. Esteensayo pretende aportar elementos cuantitativos y cualitativos, para el análisis y mejoramiento de la Red Vial.

  15. Límites de la tarificación vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis de Grange


    Full Text Available Para muchos académicos y profesionales de la ingeniería de transporte, el concepto de tarificación por congestión se ha transformado en el paradigma de la eficiencia en el uso de la escasa infraestructura vial y del desincentivo al uso excesivo del automóvil. Si bien la tarificación vial puede ser, en varios casos, una buena herramienta de gestión de tráfico, comporta también una serie de riesgos y sobreexpectativas que es importante tener en consideración a la hora de diseñar, implementar y administrar un eficiente esquema de tarificación vial. En este trabajo presentamos una serie de antecedentes, basados muchos de ellos en la literatura especializada y en evidencia empírica, que permiten describir los riesgos potenciales y eventuales sobreexpectativas que enfrenta una política de tarificación por congestión, lo que puede ser de gran ayuda para impulsar una correcta implementación de esta política de gestión de tráfico.

  16. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thomas


    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3

  17. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine]. (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong


    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  18. Stability of Procainamide Injection in Clear Glass Vials and Polyvinyl Chloride Bags. (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of procainamide hydrochloride, 100 mg/mL, when repackaged in clear glass vials or diluted to 3 mg/mL with normal saline and packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags when stored at either 23°C and exposed to light (ETL) or 5°C and protected from light (PFL). Solutions were assayed using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Samples (5 mL) were collected from triplicate containers on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 56, 91, and 193. Color/clarity and pH changes were also monitored at each time interval. During the study, all samples remained clear and there was only a slight pH change. The color of the solutions stored at 23°C intensified but did not correlate with a significant decrease in concentration, while solutions stored at 5°C remained unchanged. Solutions repackaged in glass vials were stable for 193 days when stored at 23ºC and ETL or 5ºC and PFL. When further diluted to 3 mg/mL with normal saline and packaged in PVC bags, procainamide was also stable for 193 days at either 23ºC and ETL or 5°C and PFL. The stability of procainamide, 100 mg/mL, repackaged in clear glass vials was 193 days when stored at either 23ºC and ETL or 5ºC or PFL. If diluted further to 3 mg/mL with normal saline and packaged in PVC bags, the drug was also stable for 193 days at either 23ºC and ETL or 5°C and PFL.

  19. MALDI-TOF MS based carbapenemase detection from culture isolates and from positive blood culture vials. (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, B; Halstenbach, A; Smiljanic, M; Kaase, M; Ahmad-Nejad, P


    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria leads to massive health problems. Incidence of carbapenem and multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria are increasing globally and turn out to be a very urgent challenge in health care. Resistant bacteria play an important clinical role during hospital outbreaks as well as in sepsis. Rapid diagnostic tests are necessary to provide immediate information for antimicrobial treatment and infection control measures. Our mass spectrometry-based assay was validated with 63 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacterial isolates, and 35 carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative species with no carbapenemase production. These were analyzed from solid culture media and positive blood culture vials. After 4 h of incubation the carbapenemase products were analyzed with the MALDI-TOF MS. All the isolates were genotyped for carbapenemase genes by PCR and sequencing. For culture isolates the concordance of hydrolysis assay to genetic results was 98 % for OXA variants, KPC, VIM, IMP, GIM, and NDM. In contrast, only 14 of 29 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates carrying the OXA and NDM genes could be identified from blood culture. However, from blood culture vials our method allowed the detection of carbapenemases in 98 % of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboring different genes. This MALDI-TOF MS-based assay permitted the detection of carbapenemases either from solid culture media (98-100 %) or blood culture vials (96 %) for all non-A. baumannii isolates within 4 h. In case of A. baumannii isolates the assay was highly sensitive for the detection of carbapenemases directly from solid culture media.

  20. Agresividad vial en la población general Road-rage in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Fierro


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la prevalencia y los factores sociodemográficos asociados con la agresividad vial en la población. Métodos: Se han realizado 2.500 entrevistas a la población de Castilla y León de entre 14 y 70 años de edad. Se evaluó la agresividad vial en el año previo a la realización de la encuesta utilizando un test de ocho preguntas. Resultados: El 31,1% refirió haber vivido alguna situación de agresividad vial en el último año, y el 26,8% en más de una ocasión. El 2,6% fueron agresores viales «graves». Entre los conductores, la probabilidad de experimentar agresividad vial aumenta a medida que aumentan los miles de kilómetros conducidos a la semana (odds ratio [OR]=1,52, es menor cuanto mayor es la edad del entrevistado (OR=0,975 y es mayor en los hombres (OR=1,287, en los que tienen estudios universitarios (OR=1,408 y en los que viven en localidades de más de 10.000 habitantes (OR=1,25. Conclusiones: Los datos del presente estudio muestran que la agresividad vial afecta a casi un tercio de la población general de Castilla y León, lo que justificaría la adopción de medidas para su prevención y reducción.Objective: To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. Methods: A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. Results: One-third (31.1% of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion. Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975, and was highest in men (OR=1.287, university

  1. Effects of vial packing density on drying rate during freeze-drying of carbohydrates or a model protein measured using a vial-weighing technique. (United States)

    Gieseler, Henning; Lee, Geoffrey


    To determine the effects of vial packing density in a laboratory freeze dryer on drying rate profiles of crystalline and amorphous formulations. The Christ freeze-drying balance measured cumulative water loss, m(t), and instantaneous drying rate, m(t), of water, mannitol, sucrose and sucrose/BSA formulations in commercial vials. Crystalline mannitol shows drying rate behaviour indicative of a largely homogeneous dried-product layer. The drying rate behaviour of amorphous sucrose indicates structural heterogeneity, postulated to come from shrinkage or microcollapse. Trehalose dries more slowly than sucrose. Addition of BSA to either disaccharide decreases primary drying time. Higher vial packing density greatly reduces drying rate because of effects of radiation heat transfer from chamber walls to test vial. Plots of m(t) versus radical t and m(t) versus layer thickness (either ice or dried-product) allow interpretation of changes in internal cake morphology during drying. Vial packing density greatly influences these profiles.

  2. How Vial Geometry Variability Influences Heat Transfer and Product Temperature During Freeze-Drying. (United States)

    Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian


    Vial design features can play a significant role in heat transfer between the shelf and the product and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried product. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals production on the distribution of the vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on product temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive products (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a product temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and product temperature safety margins. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate (United States)

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.


    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  4. Stability of Pantoprazole Sodium in Glass Vials, Polyvinyl Chloride Minibags, and Polypropylene Syringes (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F


    Background: Pantoprazole sodium, a proton-pump inhibitor, is approved for the short-term treatment of several types of ulcer, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Objective: To determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)–free pantoprazole in glass vials, polypropylene syringes, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) minibags, after storage at 2°C to 8°C with protection from light or at 20°C to 25°C with exposure to light. Methods: Solutions of pantoprazole 4 mg/mL reconstituted in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) were stored in glass vials at 20°C to 25°C. Similar solutions were transferred to polypropylene syringes and stored at 2°C to 8°C. Stock solution was further diluted, in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) or NS, to 0.4 or 0.8 mg/mL, and samples were then packaged in PVC minibags for storage at 2°C to 8°C or at 20°C to 25°C. Samples collected on days 0, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were analyzed in duplicate with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Results: Pantoprazole 4 mg/mL was stable (i.e., retained at least 90% of initial concentration) for 3 days when stored in glass vials at 20°C to 25°C or for 28 days when stored in polypropylene syringes at 2°C to 8°C. Pantoprazole 0.4 mg/mL diluted in D5W and stored in PVC minibags was stable for 2 days at 20°C to 25°C or for 14 days at 2°C to 8°C. At 0.8 mg/mL, pantoprazole in D5W was stable for 3 days at 20°C to 25°C or 28 days at 2°C to 8°C. Pantoprazole diluted to either 0.4 or 0.8 mg/mL in NS and stored in PVC minibags was stable for 3 days at 20°C to 25°C or 28 days at 2°C to 8°C. Conclusions: The present study confirmed or extended previously reported expiry dates for pantoprazole sodium packaged in glass vials, polypropylene syringes, and PVC minibags. PMID:22479054

  5. Validation of a Minor Modification to the Soleris® Direct Yeast and Mold Vial and Selective Supplement. (United States)

    Alles, Susan; McDougal, Susan; Caballero, Oscar; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer


    Here we describe results of a study to validate minor reagent formulation changes to the Soleris Direct Yeast and Mold (DYM) automated growth-based method for semi-quantitative detection of yeast and mold in food products. In order to reduce the maximum concentration of the selective agent chloramphenicol in the Soleris reagents, chloramphenicol was removed from the selective supplement and added to the vial growth medium itself. Therefore, both the vial medium and supplement have been reformulated in an alternative version of the method. A probability of detection (POD) statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with plate counts determined using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual dilution plating procedure. Three matrixes were tested; yogurt, tomato juice, and cocoa powder. POD analysis showed that the percentage of positive Soleris tests at various test thresholds were within the limits predicted by the reference method plate counts for all matrixes evaluated. Real-time stability data on three manufactured lots showed that the modified Soleris vial and supplement are stable for at a minimum of 10 months when stored at 2-8°C. In sum, results presented here demonstrate that the modifications to the Soleris DYM vial and supplement do not impact method performance. The modified Soleris DYM method can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional dilution plating procedures for semi-quantitative determination of yeast and mold at threshold levels, while saving as much as 3 days in analysis time.

  6. Edificio de oficinas. Viale di Trastevere – Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafuente, Julio G.


    Full Text Available El solar, largo y estrecho, en esquina a Viale di Trastevere y Via Carlo Porta, y con fachada posterior a amplio patio de manzana, ha permitido resolver el bloque de viviendas en tres unidades alineadas, cada una de cuyas escaleras da acceso a dos viviendas por planta. No obstante, al exterior, el conjunto ha sido concebido con gran unidad de composición, jugando un papel importante el ritmo vigoroso de terrazas y paños ciegos de fábrica de ladrillo de sus miradores.

  7. Dissolution kinetics of paracetamol single crystals. (United States)

    Prasad, Korlakunte V R; Ristic, Radoljub I; Sheen, David B; Sherwood, John N


    The dissolution anisotropy of paracetamol crystals grown in the presence and absence of the molecularly similar additive, p-acetoxyacetanilide (PAA) was studied under controlled conditions using a single crystal dissolution method in undersaturated aqueous solutions. Linear dissolution rates were determined for all the major habit faces by measuring their movement (regression) with time in a flow cell using a microscope. The rates of dissolution of particular faces of the pure material were distinctly different in crystals of different morphology grown at different supersaturations. The dissolution rates of [001] and [110] faces of crystals grown in the presence of PAA (6.02% w/w in solution) are higher than those of pure paracetamol. The results correlate with the distribution of strain in the crystal and support the concept that integral strain increases the solubility and hence the dissolution rate of the material. The mechanism of the dissolution process at the [001], [201;] and [110] faces was defined using optical microscopy and X-ray topography. At all undersaturations above 1% the dissolution studies yielded well developed, structurally oriented, etch pits on both [001] and [201;] faces while on the [110] face rough shallow etch pits were observed. On all three faces, this etch-pitting was considerably more widespread than the dislocation content of the sector and probably reflects a 2-dimensional nucleation process rather than a dislocation controlled mechanism.

  8. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  9. Effect of different water conditions on dissolution of nanosilver. (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Feng; Zhang, Hongyin; Lin, Qing-Yu


    This study evaluates the time-dependent dissolution of nanosilver (nAg) in common electrolytes and natural waters. nAg was synthesized via Tollens' method using sodium citrate as stabilizer; its morphology, UV-Vis spectrum, and particle size were characterized. The dissolved silver was monitored over time using filtration, centrifugation, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Our results indicated that nanoparticle aggregation, Cl(-) presence, and natural organic compounds could affect the dissolution behavior of nAg. The dissolution of nAg was highly dependent on Cl(-) concentration. Excessive Cl(-) enhanced nanoparticle dissolution, whereas natural organic compound inhibited the dissolution. The dissolution data fitted well with the first-order kinetic model, and the dissolution rate coefficients were calculated using the first-order equation. This study showed the dissolution of nAg under various water conditions. The obtained results may be helpful in predicting nAg behavior in relevant environmental aquatic systems.

  10. Calcite Dissolution Kinetics (United States)

    Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.


    A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations rate at low degrees of undersaturation by >500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Melizza Ordoñez Díaz


    Full Text Available Actualmente en Colombia el desempeño de un contratista de obra se determina de acuerdo con los avances y resultados obtenidos en la construcción de la misma, mas no por su desempeño ambiental; sin embargo, cualquier tipo de obra civil se puede llevar a cabo con mayor o menor complejidad, dependiendo de la disponibilidad de recursos naturales en la zona y la visión que tenga la comunidad sobre el proyecto, de tal forma que la inversión económica y el tiempo de ejecución no solo dependerá de las actividades y costos netos de las obras civiles sino, además, de factores ambientales y sociales propios del lugar de ejecución. Con esta revisión bibliográfica sobre indicadores y guías ambientales internacionales, se pretende incentivar la sostenibilidad como eje transversal de los proyectos viales en Colombia, fortalecer las medidas de manejo socioambiental y mejorar el seguimiento y evaluación de los proyectos viales en el marco del equilibrio social, ambiental y económico que impulsa el desarrollo sostenible

  12. Effectiveness of Needleless Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Hailey, M.; Bayuse, T.


    Fluid Isolation in the medication vial: Air/ fluid isolation maneuvers were used to move the medication to the septum end of vial. This isolation may be achieved in multiple ways based on the experience of the astronaut with fluid management in microgravity. If vial adaptors/blunt cannula or syringe assembly is inserted into the to vial before fluid isolation commences, the stability of this assembly should be considered in an effort to limit the risk of "slinging off" of the vial during isolation. Alternatively, fluid isolation can be performed prior to attaching the syringe/vial adaptor assembly. Terrestrial practices for medication withdrawal from a nonvented vial require injection of an equivalent amount of air as the expected medication volume prior to withdrawing liquid. In microgravity, this action is still valid, however the injection of additional air into the vial creates a multitude of micro bubbles and increases the volume of medication mixed with air that then must be withdrawn to achieve the desired drug volume in syringe. This practice is more likely to be required when using vials >30ml in size and injection volumes >10mL. It is felt that based on the microgravity flight, the practice of air injection is more of a hindrance than help.

  13. Inventarios viales y categorización de la red vial en estudios de Ingeniería de Tránsito y Transporte


    Julián Rodrigo Quintero


    Se presentan las principales consideraciones y los aspectos técnicos fundamentales de la elaboración de Inventarios Viales y la Categorización de la Red Vial, aplicadas a la realización de estudios de ingeniería de tránsito y transporte. Se exponen los aspectos generales relacionados con la elaboración de los inventarios de infraestructura vial, de señalización y dispositivos de control, de estacionamientos, de paraderos y de rutas de transporte público colectivo urbano de pasajeros, como una...

  14. Dissolution Model Development: Formulation Effects and Filter Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Ragna; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette


    This study describes various complications related to sample preparation (filtration) during development of a dissolution method intended to discriminate among different fenofibrate immediate-release formulations. Several dissolution apparatus and sample preparation techniques were tested. The flow...... the mini paddle dissolution method demonstrates that sample preparation influenced the results. The investigations show that excipients from the formulations directly affected the drug–filter interaction, thereby affecting the dissolution profiles and the ability to predict the in vivo data....... With the tested drug–formulation combination, the best in vivo–in vitro correlation was found after filtration of the dissolution samples through 0.45-μm hydrophobic PTFE membrane filters....

  15. Quality control of antacid preparations: Up-dating the RIGO-method using standard USP dissolution test apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riet-Nales DA; van Aalst P; de Kaste D; Derks HJGM; LGO


    In 1976 bleek uit de literatuur, dat de werkzaamheid van een antacidum werd bepaald door de neutralizatiesnelheid, de maximaal bereikte pH en de werkingsduur. Een pharmacopee methode die met deze drie criteria rekening hield, ontbrak. Het RIGO ontwikkelde daarom een methode voor de in-vitro

  16. Development and validation of spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam in different dissolution media


    Patel, Dasharath M.; Sardhara, Bhavesh M.; Thumbadiya, Diglesh H.; Patel, Chhagan N.


    Background: Paracetamol and lornoxicam in combined tablet dosage form are available in the market. This combination is used to treat inflammatory diseases of the joints, osteoarthritis and sciatica. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been reported for their simultaneous estimation in tablet dosage form in specific solvent. This paper presents simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol...

  17. Hydrodynamic, mass transfer, and dissolution effects induced by tablet location during dissolution testing. (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Armenante, Piero M


    Tablets undergoing dissolution in the USP Dissolution Testing Apparatus II are often found at locations on the vessel bottom that are off-center with respect to the dissolution vessel and impeller. A previously validated CFD approach and a novel experimental method were used here to examine the effect of tablet location on strain rates and dissolution rates. Dissolution tests were conducted with non-disintegrating tablets (salicylic acid) and disintegrating tablets (Prednisone) immobilized at different locations along the vessel bottom. CFD was used to predict the velocity profiles and strain rates when the tablets were placed at such locations. A CFD-based model was derived to predict the mass transfer coefficient and dissolution curves, which were then compared to the experimental results. Both non-disintegrating and disintegrating off-center tablets experimentally produced higher dissolution rates than centered tablets. The CFD-predicted strain rate distribution along the bottom was highly not uniform and the predicted strain rates correlated well with the experimental mass transfer coefficients. The proposed CFD-based model predicts mass transfer rates that correlate well with the experimental ones. The exact tablet location has a significant impact on the dissolution profile. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict the mass transfer coefficients and dissolution profiles for non-disintegrating tablets.

  18. Multiparametric study of thorium oxide dissolution in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, Marie; Barre, Nicole; Drot, Romuald; Le Naour, Claire; Sladkov, Vladimir; Delpech, Sylvie [Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France). Institut de Physique Nucleaire


    Thorium oxide is poorly soluble: unlike uranium oxide, concentrated nitric acid medium is not sufficient to get quantitative dissolution. Addition of small amounts of fluoride is required to achieve thorium oxide total dissolution. The effect of several parameters on thorium oxide dissolution in order to optimize the dissolution conditions is reported in this paper. Thus the influence of solid characteristics, dissolution method, temperature and composition of dissolution medium on ThO{sub 2} dissolution rate has been studied. No complexing agents tested other than fluoride allows total dissolution. Beyond a given HF concentration a decrease of the dissolution rate is observed due to the formation of a precipitate at the solid/solution interface. It was demonstrated by XPS measurements that this precipitate is constituted of thorium fluoride (ThF{sub 4}) formed during the ThO{sub 2} dissolution. The low concentration of HF required to achieve a total dissolution and the activation energy value measured tends to show a catalytic effect of HF on the dissolution process.

  19. Seguridad vial en carreteras rurales de dos carriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R García

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realiza con el objetivo de evaluar la seguridad vial en carreteras rurales de dos carriles de interés nacional en la provincia de Sancti Spíritus, a partir del procedimiento desarrollado en la Universidad Central de Las Villas (UCLV, donde se realiza la caracterización de la accidentalidad, la identificación de los tramos de mayor peligrosidad y la identifican los factores de riesgos, en el tramos de mayor peligrosidad, para con esta información formular las posibles acciones a efectuar en el tramo, las cuales luego de su aprobación por los organismos rectores de la vialidad se implementan, y transcurrido un período de tiempo pueden ser evaluadas para comprobar su efectividad.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Eleven hundred and thirty-three clinical specimens submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections were tested by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), by shell vial culture, and by conventional cell culture. The shell vial cultures were

  1. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.


    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The rotating disc method was used to study the dissolution kinetics of ketanserin tartrate, the salt of a weakly basic drug. Both solubility and dissolution rate decrease exponentially with increasing pH of the dissolution medium. A plot of the logarithm of the ratio of dissolution rate to

  3. Effectiveness of Needles Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda; Bayuse, Tina


    The need for a new system of injectable medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was identified. It is desired that this system fly medications in their original manufacturer's packaging, allowing the system to comply with United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines while minimizing the resupply frequency due to medication expiration. Pre-filled syringes are desired, however, the evolving nature of the healthcare marketplace requires flexibility in the redesign. If medications must be supplied in a vial, a system is required that allows for the safe withdrawal of medication from the vial into a syringe for administration in microgravity. During two reduced gravity flights, the effectiveness of two versions of a blunt cannula and needleless vial adaptors was evaluated to facilitate the withdrawal of liquid medication from a vial into a syringe for injection. Other parameters assessed included the ability to withdraw the required amount of medication and whether this is dependent on vial size, liquid, or the total volume of fluid within the vial. Injectable medications proposed for flight on ISS were used for this evaluation. Due to differing sizes of vials and the fluid properties of the medications, the needleless vial adaptors proved to be too cumbersome to recommend for use on the ISS. The blunt cannula, specifically the plastic version, proved to be more effective at removing medication from the various sizes of vials and are the recommended hardware for ISS. Fluid isolation within the vials and syringes is an important step in preparing medication for injection regardless of the hardware used. Although isolation is a challenge in the relatively short parabolas during flight, it is not an obstacle for sustained microgravity. This presentation will provide an overview of the products tested as well as the challenges identified during the microgravity flights.

  4. In-vitro bioactivity, biocompatibility and dissolution studies of diopside prepared from biowaste by using sol-gel combustion method. (United States)

    Choudhary, Rajan; Vecstaudza, Jana; Krishnamurithy, G; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, Tunku; Swamiappan, Sasikumar; Locs, Janis


    Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Corundum dissolution in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    u-sheng Wu


    Full Text Available The corundum (α-alumina core has been considered as a suitable candidate for investment casting of hollow, high pressure turbine engine airfoils due to its excellent properties. However, the efficiency of removing alumina cores in concentrated caustic solution cannot meet the needs of industrial production. In this paper, the effects of temperature and initial solution concentration on dissolution of α-alumina were studied by the classical weight-loss method. The fractal kinetic model was developed in order to describe α-alumina dissolution, assuming that the nonporous particles shrank during reaction process. The results show that the dissolution rate increases with increasing reaction temperature and initial solution concentration. Especially, the initial solution concentration has a significant influence on α-alumina dissolution rate at a higher reaction temperature. The activation energies decrease with increasing initial solution concentration, and the chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step.

  6. Results of urinary dissolution therapy for radiolucent calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Maneesh


    Full Text Available Purpose In this paper we present our experience with dissolution therapy of radiolucent calculi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who were offered urinary dissolution therapy between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients were treated with tablets containing potassium citrate and magnesium oxide. Partial dissolution was defined as at least a 50% reduction in stone size. Patients with complete or partial dissolution were classified in the successful dissolution group. Patients with no change, inadequate reduction, increase in stone size and those unable to tolerate alkali therapy were classified as failures. Patient sex, stenting before alkalinization, stone size, urine pH at presentation and serum uric acid levels were analyzed using Fisher t-test for an association with successful dissolution. Results Out of 67, 48 patients reported for follow up. 10 (15% had complete dissolution and 13 (19% had partial dissolution. Alkalinization was unsuccessful in achieving dissolution in 25 (37%. Stenting before alkalinization, patient weight ( 75kg and serum uric acid levels (≤ 6 vs. > 6 were the only factors to significantly affected dissolution rates (p = 0.039, p 0.035, p 0.01 respectively. CONCLUSIONS A policy of offering dissolution therapy to patients with radiolucent calculi had a successful outcome in 34% of patients.

  7. Glass delamination: a comparison of the inner surface performance of vials and pre-filled syringes. (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E


    The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications.

  8. Valoraciones sobre la gestión del sistema de seguridad vial en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar con enfoque crítico el cumplimiento de la agenda del Observatorio Iberoamericano para la Seguridad Vial (OISEVI que evidencie los aciertos y desaciertos en esta actividad, se analiza en la literatura los enfoques de los autores Tony Bliss y Jeanne Breen que enfatizan en la concepción de sistema no solo a la seguridad vial sino también a la gestión de esta como sistema y se realiza una aplicación de los aspectos de la encuesta del OISEVI a la gestión de la seguridad vial en Cuba por el grupo de asesores de la Comisión Nacional de seguridad vial, pertenecientes a la Universidad de Sancti Spíritus, que durante los últimos años estudian esta problemática, detallando los argumentos que conciben para otorgar los valores en las respuestas al cuestionario. Con esta encuesta se obtiene una primera aproximación del estado de la gestión de la seguridad vial en el país, y se arriban a valoraciones acerca de cómo se encuentra Cuba respecto a los lineamientos básicos y generales que hacen exitosa a la gestión en seguridad vial, basada en los cinco pilares del Plan Mundial para el Decenio de Acción para la Seguridad Vial 2011-2020.

  9. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport. (United States)

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard


    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  10. Educación vial y movilidad en la Infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín Poó

    Full Text Available Resumen:La motorización creciente de los desplazamientos ha convertido al ambiente urbano en un lugar cada vez más hostil para los niños y niñas, quienes se encuentran entre los grupos humanos más vulnerables del tránsito. En esta etapa del desarrollo, la educación puede ser una herramienta clave para prevenir comportamientos de riesgo y promocionar hábitos de movilidad más saludables. El presente trabajo discute algunos aspectos relacionados con la educación vial en la infancia. Se destaca la importancia de considerar los patrones de movilidad típicos de cada edad, y de promover el uso de medios de transporte más saludables, equitativos y sustentables. Se señala además la necesidad de complementar las acciones educativas con intervenciones multi-sectoriales a diferente nivel.

  11. Inventarios viales y categorización de la red vial en estudios de Ingeniería de Tránsito y Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero


    Full Text Available Se presentan las principales consideraciones y los aspectos técnicos fundamentales de la elaboración de Inventarios Viales y la Categorización de la Red Vial, aplicadas a la realización de estudios de ingeniería de tránsito y transporte. Se exponen los aspectos generales relacionados con la elaboración de los inventarios de infraestructura vial, de señalización y dispositivos de control, de estacionamientos, de paraderos y de rutas de transporte público colectivo urbano de pasajeros, como una herramienta práctica para complementar los procedimientos de campo y optimizar los procesos y análisis de resultados orientados a identificar, caracterizar y cuantificar las variables relacionadas con el desarrollo del fenómeno del tránsito y la actividad del transporte.

  12. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.


    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures Mars surface conditions. Therefore, jarosite-bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  13. Comparison of Oil Sorbent/Vial Kit for Sampling and Preservation of Liquid Volatile Petroleum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoji Kurata; Takeshi Iyozumi; Naoyuki Aizawa


      An oil sorbent sheet made of nonwoven polypropylene fiber and a vial with screw cap were assessed as the test kit for sampling and preservation of liquid volatile petroleum samples in the forensic science field...

  14. Seguridad vial y peatonal: una aproximacion teorica desde la politica publica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pico Merchan, Maria Eugenia; Gonzalez Perez, Rosa Elena; Norena Aristizabal, Olga Patricia


    Introduccion: la seguridad vial se constituye en una de las grandes preocupaciones de los paises donde, por los procesos acelerados de desarrollo y expansion de las ciudades, sobresalen los vehiculos sobre los peatones. Objetivo...

  15. Bacterial contamination of propofol vials used in operating rooms of a third-level hospital. (United States)

    Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Brand-Giraldo, Vanessa; León, Tatiana; Herrera, Mónica; Payán, Andrey


    We found a 6.1% bacterial contamination rate among 198 propofol vials collected after clinical use in 12 operating rooms of a high-complexity hospital in Cali, Colombia. Some propofol vials were used for extended periods (up to 72 hours), and only 26.1% of vials were punctured once. Median time of use, although not statistically significant, was higher in positive samples (7.2 vs 3.5 hours, P = .08). Education on the topic should stress that vials are single-patient use and must be immediately discarded after use. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Emtricitabine in combined tablet dosage form by ratio derivative, first order derivative and absorbance corrected methods and its application to dissolution study. (United States)

    Choudhari, Vishnu P; Ingale, Snehal; Gite, Sacchidanand R; Tajane, Dipali D; Modak, Vikram G; Ambekar, Archana


    Three simple, economical, precise, and accurate methods are described for the simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM) in combined tablet dosage form. The first method is ratio derivative spectra, second is first-order derivative spectrophotometry and third is absorption corrected method. The amplitudes at 271.07 and 302.17 nm in the ratio derivative method, 224.38 and 306.88 nm in the first order derivative method were selected to determine Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM), respectively, in combined formulation. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 3-21 μg/ml for TE and 2-14 μg/ml for EM for first two methods and range for third method was 6-30 μg/ml of TE and 4-20 μg/ml of EM. The percent assay for commercial formulation was found to be in the range 98.91%-101.72% for both the analytes by the proposed three methods. Absorption corrected method was successfully applied to carry out dissolution study of commercial tablet formulation by using USP II dissolution test apparatus. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, and accuracy. Recoveries by proposed methods were found in the range of 99.06 %-101.34 % for both the analytes.

  17. Determinants of marriage dissolution (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina


    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  18. Una alternativa para la formación vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Belén Tencio Blanco


    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra de manera general la problemática que actualmente se vive a nivel mun-dial, y que ha venido aumentado año tras año en la sociedad costarricense, con cifras alarmantes donde la edad, el sexo, el credo, status social no escapan a tal situación, y que afecta las diferentes áreas sociales que velan por el bienestar de todos, una problemática que desencadena un sin fin de consecuencias fatales: los accidentes de tránsito. Esta epidemia como la llama la OMS (Organización Mundial de la Salud, ha sido desde ya hace décadas una enfermedad silen-ciosa, donde no se encuentran soluciones eficaces que acaben con tantas secuelas que deja a su paso, a pesar del esfuerzo de muchas instituciones del país. Es así como se pretende desarrollar una iniciativa desde una perspectiva que oriente la búsqueda de soluciones, desde las raíces de nuestra cultura, por medio de una formación integral continua desde edades tempranas. Esta tarea sin lugar a dudas le corresponde a todos los que somos partícipes, pero la visión y misión de formar ciudadanos concientes de sus derechos, sin olvidar sus deberes en armonía con lo que le rodea desde principios que demuestran una sociedad más responsable y segura, le corresponde al sistema edu-cativo costarricense, en conjunto con las diversas enti-dades que de una u otra forma son parte de esta situa-ción. Esto con el objetivo de encontrar en la educación continua y sistemática, una herramienta efectiva que a mediano o largo plazo logre disminuir las estadísticas de muertes en carretera, por la negligencia o error humano, causa de mayor incidencia en los accidentes de tránsito, por medio de una formación en y para una cultura vial, cuya política e ideología sea respetar la vida en la búsqueda del bienestar común.

  19. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.


    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  20. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.


    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  1. Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 2, 2007 ... Dissolution test for sustained release capsules of Metoprolol 125 mg was developed and validated according to FDA and ICH guidelines. Metoprolol coated pellets were coated with microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate for slow release of drug. The dissolution method which uses USP apparatus I.

  2. Dissolution rate enhancement of repaglinide by solid dispersion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solvency are some of the approaches to improve the dissolution rate of the drugs [3]. Solid dispersion (SD) is one of the most widely used techniques to improve solubility as well as dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. This method involves a ...

  3. Dissolution and Quantification of Tantalum-Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolution of Ta metal powder, TAN-1 CRM, TaF5, TaCl5 and Ta2O5 was undertaken with different acid, alkaline fluxes as well as with microwave digestion while quantification was performed using ICP-OES analysis. The success of the different dissolution methods was evaluated on percentage recovery basis, the results ...

  4. Leaching of plastic polymers by plastic vials used for storing homoeopathic medicines: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: In Homoeopathy, plastic containers/vials are used for the storing/dispensing of ethanol-based medicines instead of glass. Various studies have suggested that plastic components that leach out in stored substances tend to cause contamination and may produce adverse effects in living systems. The present study was aimed to find out chemical composition and leaching behaviour of commonly used plastic vials (PVs if any during the storage of ethanol-based homoeopathic medicines in optimal environment. Material and Methods: The experiments were conducted on two sample sets of PVs. Chemical properties of PV were assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. PV were cut separately [sample-1 (S-1 and sample-2 (S-2] and immersed in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE in conical flask and stored for 7 days at ambient temperature (25° ± 5C with constant rotary shaking. After 7 days, S-1 and S-2 of PV in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE were decanted and filtered. Aliquots (A1 and A2 were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H 1 NMR. The spectral graph obtained by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for PV compositions and spectral graph obtained by H 1 NMR spectroscopy for PV ethanol aliquots were examined for PVs material and PV leaching effect in HGE. Results: FTIR-ATR spectra showed that PV are made up of two types of polyolefin′s compounds i.e. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE. Aliquots of PV in HGE showed the presence benzophenone and its methyl derivative, heat and light stabiliser (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine and amino derivative, antioxidant (4, 4′- thiobis and 2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol and plasticizer bis 2-Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP or Dioctyl phthalate (DOP. Results of study suggest that PVs leach out plastic polymers in HGE. Conclusion: This preliminary experiment suggests that it is not safe to use LDPE/LLDPE plastic for storing

  5. Biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilardia-Arana, David; Kristensen, Henning G; Müllertz, Anette


    Biorelevant dissolution media containing bile salt and lecithin at concentrations appropriate for fed and fasted state are useful when testing oral solid formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Dilution of amphiphile solutions affects the aggregation state of the amphiphiles because bile salt....... Dilution of the two- and four component media caused enlargement of the mixed micelles and formation of vesicles. The solubility of estradiol in the buffer solution was increased with addition of the amphiphiles. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.987) was found between estradiol solubility and mass...

  6. Prediction of the acoustic and bubble fields in insonified freeze-drying vials. (United States)

    Louisnard, O; Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Montes-Quiroz, W; Peczalski, R; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F


    The acoustic field and the location of cavitation bubble are computed in vials used for freeze-drying, insonified from the bottom by a vibrating plate. The calculations rely on a nonlinear model of sound propagation in a cavitating liquid [Louisnard, Ultrason. Sonochem., 19, (2012) 56-65]. Both the vibration amplitude and the liquid level in the vial are parametrically varied. For low liquid levels, a threshold amplitude is required to form a cavitation zone at the bottom of the vial. For increasing vibration amplitudes, the bubble field slightly thickens but remains at the vial bottom, and the acoustic field saturates, which cannot be captured by linear acoustics. On the other hand, increasing the liquid level may promote the formation of a secondary bubble structure near the glass wall, a few centimeters below the free liquid surface. These predictions suggest that rather complex acoustic fields and bubble structures can arise even in such small volumes. As the acoustic and bubble fields govern ice nucleation during the freezing step, the final crystal's size distribution in the frozen product may crucially depend on the liquid level in the vial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization-extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamegos, Y.C.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stalikas, C.D.


    An in-vial simple method for the combined derivatization and extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from plant extracts and their direct determination with GC-MS, is described. The method is taking advantage of the beneficial potentials of phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Catalysts in soluble

  8. Experiencia-modelo piloto de los talleres de seguridad vial, como alternativa a la pena privativa de libertad en los delitos contra la seguridad vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Germán Mancebo


    Full Text Available Algunos de los delitos contra la seguridad vial en España tienen asignada la pena de trabajos en beneficio de la comunidad (TBC. Y en la práctica se han percibido problemas en su implementación, entre otros motivos por el aumento de la comisión de los delitos de tránsito y la escasez de puestos de trabajo social para poder llevar a cabo los trabajos comunitarios. Tanto la reciente modificación del Código Penal, como de la normativa reguladora de esta sanción, permite desarrollar los TBC por medio de la realización de talleres. En este artículo se presenta la experiencia-modelo piloto de los talleres de seguridad vial que dan contenido a la pena de TBC, como alternativa a la pena privativa de libertad, lo que resulta de especial interés al ser una de las primeras experiencias de esta naturaleza en España. Para ello se describen los talleres desarrollados, mensualmente, durante el año 2010, a saber: su primer año de funcionamiento en la provincia de Gipuzkoa (España, detallando su estructura, dinámica y tareas -tanto formativas como de utilidad pública- que realizaron los penados. La implementación de estos talleres ha paliado las deficiencias percibidas en la aplicación de la pena de TBC, dotándola de contenido, y superando así las críticas a las que esta sanción se había visto expuesta. Los talleres de seguridad vial responden de forma efectiva al papel preventivo que se le ha otorgado a este tipo de sanciones en el ámbito de la seguridad vial.

  9. Dissolution of Ceramic Monolith of Spent Catalytic Converters by Using Hydrometallurgical Methods / Rozpuszczanie Monolitu Ceramicznego Zużytych Katalizatorów Na Drodze Hydrometalurgicznej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willner J.


    Full Text Available Catalytic converters contain the catalytic substance in their structure, which is a mixture of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs: platinum, palladium and rhodium. The prices of these metals and a growing demand for them in the market, make it necessary to recycle spent catalytic converters and recovery of PGMs. The ceramic monolith of catalytic converters is still a predominant material in its construction among of multitude of catalytic converters which are in circulation. In this work attempts were made to leach additional metals (excluding Pt from comminuted ceramic monolith. Classic leachant oxidizing media 10M H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4 were used considering the possibility of dissolution of the ceramic monolith.

  10. [Preparation and in vitro dissolution of magnolol solid dispersion]. (United States)

    Tang, Lan; Qiu, Shuai-Bo; Wu, Lan; Lv, Long-Fei; Lv, Hui-Xia; Shan, Wei-Guang


    In this study, solid dispersion system of magnolol in croscarmellose sodium was prepared by using the solvent evaporation method, in order to increase the drug dissolution. And its dissolution behavior, stability and physical characteristics were studied. The solid dispersion was prepared with magnolol and croscarmellose sodium, with the proportion of 1∶5, the in vitro dissolution of magnolol solid dispersion was up to 80.66% at 120 min, which was 6.9 times of magnolol. The results of DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), IR (infra-red) spectrum and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) showed that magnolol existed in solid dispersion in an amorphous form. After an accelerated stability test for six months, the drug dissolution and content in magnolol solid dispersion showed no significant change. So the solid dispersion prepared with croscarmellose sodium as the carrier can remarkably improve the stability and dissolution of magnolol. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Felker, Leslie Kevin [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL


    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  12. Inventarios viales y categorización de la red vial en estudios de Ingeniería de Tránsito y Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero


    Full Text Available Se presentan las principales consideraciones y los aspectos técnicos fundamentales de la elaboración de Inventarios Viales y la Categorización de la Red Vial, aplicadas a la realización de estudios de ingeniería de tránsito y transporte. Se exponen los aspectos generales relacionados con la elaboración de los inventarios de infraestructura vial, de señalización y dispositivos de control, de estacionamientos, de paraderos y de rutas de transporte público colectivo urbano de pasajeros, como una herramienta práctica para complementar los procedimientos de campo y optimizar los procesos y análisis de resultados orientados a identificar, caracterizar y cuantificar las variables relacionadas con el desarrollo del fenómeno del tránsito y la actividad del transporte.

  13. Comparison of atomic absorption, mass and X-ray spectrometry techniques using dissolution-based and solid sampling methods for the determination of silver in polymeric samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrijver, Isabel de [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); University College West-Flanders, Department of Industrial Engineering and Technology, Research group EnBiChem, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Aramendia, Maite; Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Resano, Martin [University of Zaragoza, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dumoulin, Ann [University College West-Flanders, Department of Industrial Engineering and Technology, Research group EnBiChem, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Vanhaecke, Frank [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail:


    In this work, the capabilities and limitations of solid sampling techniques - laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRFS) and solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-ETAAS) - for the determination of silver in polymers have been evaluated and compared to those of acid digestion and subsequent Ag determination using pneumatic nebulization ICPMS (PN-ICPMS) or flame AAS (FAAS). In a first stage, two dissolution procedures were examined: conventional acid digestion in a Kjeldahl flask and the combination of dry ashing and microwave-assisted digestion. Accurate results for Ag could be obtained, although occasionally, problems of analyte losses and/or incomplete dissolution were observed. LA-ICPMS shows potential for direct analysis of solid materials, but calibration was found to be difficult. A polypropylene sample was used as standard. This approach provided satisfactory results for other polypropylene samples and even for other types of plastics, provided that the {sup 13}C{sup +} signal was used as internal reference, correcting for variations in ablation efficiency. However, the results for polyoxymethylene were overestimated. Similar calibration problems appeared with WD-XRFS, due to differences in absorption efficiency of X-rays. In this case, the accuracy could be improved by using a matrix correction procedure, which however required the matrix composition to be known into sufficient detail. SS-ETAAS, proved to be a fast approach that allowed accurate determination of Ag in polymers using aqueous standard solutions for calibration. Due to the high Ag content and the excellent sensitivity, the use of a 3-field mode Zeeman-effect background correction system was essential for the extension of the working range.

  14. Biomimetic Dissolution: A Tool to Predict Amorphous Solid Dispersion Performance. (United States)

    Puppolo, Michael M; Hughey, Justin R; Dillon, Traciann; Storey, David; Jansen-Varnum, Susan


    The presented study describes the development of a membrane permeation non-sink dissolution method that can provide analysis of complete drug speciation and emulate the in vivo performance of poorly water-soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II compounds. The designed membrane permeation methodology permits evaluation of free/dissolved/unbound drug from amorphous solid dispersion formulations with the use of a two-cell apparatus, biorelevant dissolution media, and a biomimetic polymer membrane. It offers insight into oral drug dissolution, permeation, and absorption. Amorphous solid dispersions of felodipine were prepared by hot melt extrusion and spray drying techniques and evaluated for in vitro performance. Prior to ranking performance of extruded and spray-dried felodipine solid dispersions, optimization of the dissolution methodology was performed for parameters such as agitation rate, membrane type, and membrane pore size. The particle size and zeta potential were analyzed during dissolution experiments to understand drug/polymer speciation and supersaturation sustainment of felodipine solid dispersions. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to measure the agreement or equivalence between dissolution profiles acquired using polymer membranes and porcine intestines and to establish the biomimetic nature of the treated polymer membranes. The utility of the membrane permeation dissolution methodology is seen during the evaluation of felodipine solid dispersions produced by spray drying and hot melt extrusion. The membrane permeation dissolution methodology can suggest formulation performance and be employed as a screening tool for selection of candidates to move forward to pharmacokinetic studies. Furthermore, the presented model is a cost-effective technique.

  15. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu


    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  16. Evaluation of a biphasic in vitro dissolution test for estimating the bioavailability of carbamazepine polymorphic forms. (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Bodmeier, Roland


    The purpose of this study was to discriminate three crystal forms of carbamazepine (a BCS II drug) by in vitro dissolution testing and to correlate in vitro data with published in vivo data. A biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) was used to evaluate the dissolution of the three polymorphic forms and to compare it with conventional single phase dissolution tests performed under sink and non-sink conditions. Similar dissolution profiles of three polymorphic forms were observed in the conventional dissolution test under sink conditions. Although a difference in dissolution was seen in the single phase dissolution test under non-sink conditions as well as in the aqueous phase of the biphasic test, little relevance for in vivo data was observed. In contrast, the biphasic dissolution system could discriminate between the different polymorphic forms in the octanol phase with a ranking of form III>form I>dihydrate form. This was in agreement with the in vivo performance. The dissolved drug available for oral absorption, which was dominated by dissolution and solution-mediated phase transformation, could be reflected in the biphasic dissolution test. Moreover, a good correlation was established between in vitro dissolution in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo pharmacokinetic data (R(2)=0.99). The biphasic dissolution method is a valuable tool to discriminate between different crystal forms in the formulations of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Método analítico para la cuantificación y ensayo de disolución de risperidona tabletas 3 mg Analytical method for quantification and dissolution essay of 3 mg tablets of Risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Margarita García Peña


    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la cuantificación y el ensayo de disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección UV a 278 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por acetonitrilo:buffer fosfato de potasio 0,05 M, de proporción 45:55. El método para la cuantificación del principio activo fue validado a través de la linealidad del sistema, especificad, exactitud y precisión. Mientras que en la validación del ensayo de disolución se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, especificidad e influencia del filtrado. Ambos métodos fueron sencillos, rápidos y económicos; además de específicos, lineales, precisos y exactos en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. El método analítico alternativo desarrollado para la cuantificación y disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg, se comparó estadísticamente con el método propuesto en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por cada método.A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed for quantification and in dissolution assay of 3 mg Risperidone tablets. Method was based in active principle separation through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (250 x 4 mm chromatographic column with UV detection to 278 nm using a mobile phase composed of 0.05 potassium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile, of 45:55 ratio. Method for active principle quantification was validated through linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy of system. Whereas in dissolution assay validation the linearity, precision, specificity and filtrate influence was assessed. Both methods were simple, fast and economic as well as specific, linear, precise and exact within the study concentrations rank. The

  18. Short communication. Challenges relating to comparison of flavonoid glycosides dissolution profiles from Sutherlandia frutescens products. (United States)

    Mbamalu, Oluchi N; Syce, James; Samsodien, Halima


    Unlike the case of conventional drug formulations, dissolution tests have hitherto not been required for herbal medicinal products commercially available in South Africa. This study investigated dissolution of the South African Sutherlandia frutescens using selected flavonoid glycosides as marker compounds. Dissolution of markers was assessed in three dissolution media at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, and samples were analysed using a validated HPLC method. The dissolution profile of each marker varied for the different materials investigated. All three media utilised showed differences in flavonoid glycoside dissolution between the S. frutescens products evaluated, with f2 values dissolution from any two of the materials. Dissolution of S. frutescens materials could thus be characterised using the markers in all the media tested. This tool may be employed in the future for comparison of orally administered S. frutescens products, provided between- batch variability is evaluated and found less than between-sample variability.

  19. Factors Affecting the Dissolution of Indomethacin Solid Dispersions. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Chen-Ning; He, Yue; Duan, Ban-Yan; Yang, Guang-Yi; Ma, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yong-Hong


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of factors such as carrier type, drug/carrier ratio, binary carriers, and preparation method on the dissolution of an insoluble drug, indomethacin (IM), under supersaturation conditions. Using a solvent evaporation (SE) method, poloxamer 188 and PVP K30 showed better dissolution among the selected carriers. Furthermore, as the ratio of carriers increased (drug/carrier ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:2), the dissolution rate increased especially in almost two times poloxamer 188 solid dispersions (SDs), while the reverse results were observed for PVP K30 SDs. For the binary carrier SD, a lower dissolution was found. Under hot melt extrusion (HME), the dissolution of poloxamer 188 SD and PVP K30 SD was 0.83- and 0.94-folds lower than that using SE, respectively, while the binary carrier SD showed the best dissolution. For poloxamer 188 SDs, the drug's crystal form changed when using SE, while no crystal form change was observed using HME. IM was amorphous in PVP K30 SDs prepared by both methods. For binary carrier systems, amorphous and crystalline drugs coexisted in SD using SE, and negligible amorphous IM was in SD using HME. This study indicated that a higher amorphous proportion in SD did not correlate with higher dissolution rate, and other factors, such as carrier type, particle size, and density, were also critical.

  20. Microfabrication of screen-printed nanoliter vials with embedded surface-modified electrodes. (United States)

    Lenihan, Jeffrey S; Ball, J Christopher; Gavalas, Vasilis G; Lumpp, Janet K; Hines, John; Daunert, Sylvia; Bachas, Leonidas G


    A self-contained ion-selective sensing system within a nanoliter-volume vial has been developed by integrating screen printing, laser ablation, and molecular imprinting techniques. Screen printing and laser ablation are used in tandem to fabricate nanoliter-volume vials with carbon and Ag/AgCl ring electrodes embedded in the sidewalls. Using multisweep cyclic voltammetry, the surface of the carbon electrode can be modified with a polypyrrole film. By polymerizing pyrrole in the presence of nitrate, pores complementary to the nitrate anion in size, shape, and charge distribution are formed in the resulting film. Electrochemical cells modified with this nitrate-imprinted polypyrrole film show a near-Nernstian response to nitrate, and excellent reproducibility. The integration of molecular recognition and electrochemical response in the nanoliter vials is demonstrated by the detection of as little as 0.36 ng nitrate in nanoliter-volume samples. The integration of tailored molecular recognition within nanoliter vials via established fabrication and imprinting protocols should result in a number of nanosensor devices with applications in BioMEMS and micro total analysis systems.

  1. Evaluation of Glass Delamination Risk in Pharmaceutical 10 mL/10R Vials. (United States)

    Ditter, Dominique; Nieto, Alejandra; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roehl, Holger; Wahl, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Allmendinger, Andrea


    Glass delamination is characterized by the dissociation of glass flakes from the glass surface. Since glass delamination is time dependent, 5 vial types were investigated to assess delamination under accelerated stress conditions published as quick tests in literature and compared to stress testing recommended per United States Pharmacopoeia . A broad panel of analytical techniques was employed to test the solution for visible/subvisible particles and leachables and characterize topography and composition of the surface. The vial types showed significant differences in surface durability when applying the same stress conditions. An increase in glass leachables and change in topography were shown for uncoated vials. An indication for an elevated delamination risk was confirmed for Expansion 33 vials only by the compiled analytical data set including particle assessment and change in elemental composition of the near glass surface investigated by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry. The delamination test protocols differ in test solution, handling, and time. Before choosing the most appropriate protocol to predict delamination propensity and mimic real-time conditions, long-term storage data are needed. A combination of analytical techniques to study the risk for long-term corrosion of glass is highly recommended covering the 3 aspects: visible/subvisible particle assessment, solution analysis, and surface characterization. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hacia el desarrollo sostenible en la seguridad vial : el caso holandés.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    En esta ponencia, se hace un estudio general sobre la Seguridad Vial en los Países Bajos, mostrando la evolución del indice de accidentes. Se indican cuales son los objetivos fijados por el Gobierno neerlandés y la estrategia a seguir desde el punto de vista político. Aparece el concepto de

  3. Supervisando la seguridad vial en el Perú Supervising road safety in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Sagástegui


    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe algunos problemas en seguridad vial que la Defensoría del Pueblo del Perú, en su trabajo como ente supervisor de la administración pública ha detectado, entre esos problemas se mencionan a: la escasa y mala elaboración de estadísticas de accidentes de tránsito; la inconsistencia del Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y la irresponsabilidad de los gobiernos regionales y locales por su falta de aplicación del Plan Nacional de Seguridad Vial. Ante ello, la Defensoría del Pueblo sugiere que el Estado desarrolle un sistema estadístico riguroso, que fortalezca al Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y que los diferentes sectores del Estado desarrollen el mencionado Plan Nacional.In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  4. Influence of storage vial material on measurement of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites in urine. (United States)

    Carignan, Courtney C; Butt, Craig M; Stapleton, Heather M; Meeker, John D; Minguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ


    Use of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has increased over the past decade with the phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Urinary metabolites of PFRs are used as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic research, which typically uses samples collected and stored in polypropylene plastic cryovials. However, a small study suggested that the storage vial material may influence reported concentrations. Therefore, we aimed to examine the influence of the storage vial material on analytical measurement of PFR urinary metabolites. Using urine samples collected from participants in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, we analyzed the PFR metabolites in duplicate aliquots that were stored in glass and plastic vials (n = 31 pairs). Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and isopropyl-phenyl phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP) were detected in 98%, 97% and 87% of duplicates. We observed high correlations between glass-plastic duplicates for BDCIPP (rs = 0.95), DPHP (rs = 0.79) and ip-PPP (rs = 0.82) (p polypropylene plastic cryovials may result in slightly reduced concentrations of urinary ip-PPP relative to storage in glass vials and future research should seek to increase the sample size, reduce background variability and consider the material of the urine collection cup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protect Patients by Using Single- and Multi-Dose Vials Correctly

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    CDC’s One & Only Campaign urges healthcare providers to recognize the differences between single-dose and multi-dose vials, and to understand appropriate use of each container type.  Created: 7/10/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/10/2014.

  6. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species. (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide


    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.

  7. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes, part 3: hydrophobic vials and the question of adhesion. (United States)

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey


    The importance of cake adhesion to the inside vial wall during lyophilization of amorphous trehalose cakes was determined by using hydrophobized vials. The degrees of cake shrinkage and cracking were determined independently by photographic imaging of the cake top surface in a dark cell. Additionally, measurements with microcomputed tomography were performed. Adhesion is found to be a determining factor in both cake shrinkage and cracking. The correlation between cake detachment from the vial inner wall and trehalose concentration indicates that adhesion of the frozen solute phase is a determining factor in shrinkage. The hydrophobized vials give reduced cracking at trehalose concentrations of up to 15%. The reduced wetting of the hydrophobized inside vial wall gives a planar cake topography with a uniform distribution of cracks within the cake. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Iohexol in patients undergoing urography: a comparison of polypropylene containers (Unique Soft Pack) and glass vials. (United States)

    Tveit, K; Dardenne, A N; Svihus, R; Fairhurst, J; Jenssen, G; Lemaitre, L; Grellet, J; Brekke, O; Skinningsrud, K


    The purpose of the present phase IV multicentre trial was to evaluate general patient tolerance to Omnipaque 350 mgI/ml (iohexol) supplied in polypropylene containers compared to that of the same product supplied in routinely used glass vials, with emphasis on allergy-like adverse events. Polypropylene is a pure plastic material with practically no additives, and has been tested in vitro as a contrast medium packaging material for several years. Handling of these containers is easier and safer than handling of glass vials. Iohexol was administered to 1481 patients undergoing urography (741 patients in the glass vial group, 740 in the polypropylene container group), all of whom successfully participated in the trial. Six centres, representing four European countries, participated. Patients were randomized to receive iohexol from either polypropylene containers or traditional glass vials according to a double blind, parallel design. Pre-established inclusion and pre-admission exclusion criteria were followed, as well as routine procedures for preparation of the patients and conduct of the urography examinations at each hospital. Patient tolerance was assessed by recording all adverse events experienced over a period of up to 1 h after the procedure. Allergy-like events were defined as coughing, sneezing, nausea, vomiting, urticaria or itching. No adverse events were experienced by 56.5% of the patients in the glass vial group, nor by 58.0% of those in the polypropylene group. Discomfort (mainly a sensation of warmth) was reported by 39.4% and 38.6% of the patients, and adverse events other than discomfort by 7.4% and 5.9% of the patients, respectively. There seemed to be a correlation between the speed of injection and the frequency of discomfort (an increase with increasing speed), both of which varied a lot between centres. There was no significant difference in the incidence of allergy-like events between the two groups. Such reactions were seen in 2.0% of

  9. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model. (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T; Djibo, Ali; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Kone, Souleymane; Kenea, Hailu; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Jana, Anirban; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S; Lee, Bruce Y


    Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers) in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164%) to means of 59% (range: 4-164%), 62% (range: 4-175%), and 67% (range: 5-192%), respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300%) to means of 161% (range: 82-322%), 175% (range: 78-344%), and 198% (range: 88-402%), respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC). The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%). Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per vaccinated child.

  10. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul


    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymakin......, are important determinants of the use and effectiveness of dissolution threats in policymaking. Analyzing an original time-series data set from a multiparty parliamentary democracy, we find evidence in line with key empirical implications of the model....

  11. Development and validation of a dissolution test for diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Ferreira Mendonça


    Full Text Available This work describes the development and validation of a dissolution test for 60 mg of diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules. The best dissolution in vitro profile was achieved using potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 as the dissolution medium and paddle as the apparatus at 50 rpm. The drug concentrations in the dissolution media were determined by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC and a statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between HPLC and spectrophotometry. This study illustrates the importance of an official method for the dissolution test, since there is no official monograph for diltiazem hydrochloride in capsules.

  12. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  13. Consequences of not relieving negative internal pressure of a medication vial: A survey and simulation study. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroko; Irie, Tomoya; Kawakami, Hiromasa; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Goto, Takahisa


    The glass vial of acetaminophen as an intravenous preparation (Acelio®, Terumo, Japan) has a strong internal negative pressure. The aim of our study was to determine if this negative pressure could result in medication administration errors if not released prior to connecting to the IV set. Questionnaire survey and simulation study. University hospital and its affiliated hospitals. Fifty-two anesthesiologists in 6 different hospitals in Yokohama. A questionnaire on current practice was sent to the subjects. The authors then first calculated the internal pressure of the Acelio® vial followed by a simulation set-up. This set-up measured the amount of saline that could be aspirated from a syringe loaded on a syringe pump connected via a secondary IV line when the Acelio® vial was attached to the primary line without prior release of the internal pressure. The volume of aspiration was tested with two syringe sizes and with a fully open IV clamp vs partially closed. Twenty-nine (56.9%) of 51 anesthesiologists who responded to the survey had connected the Acelio® vial at least once without releasing the internal negative pressure, and 21 experienced consequences such as backflow of the venous blood. The pressure inside the Acelio® vial was 81.8±19.6Torr. With the clamp of the simulated IV line fully open, the amount of saline aspirated before the alarm of the syringe pump went off was 1.5±0.1ml and 3.2±0.3ml when 20ml and 50ml syringes were used, respectively. When the clamp was partially closed to allow 2 drops per second, this value was 1.3±0.1ml and 2.3±0.1ml, respectively. After removing the plunger from the holder of the syringe pump, an additional 7ml (clamp partially closed) or 15-18ml (clamp fully open) was aspirated in the subsequent 1min. A considerable number of anesthesiologists experienced consequences caused by the negative pressure inside the Acelio® vial. This can also cause aspiration of the contents of the syringe pump. Copyright © 2016

  14. Development and Validation of Discriminating and Biorelevant Dissolution Test for Lornoxicam Tablets (United States)

    Anumolu, P. D.; Sunitha, G.; Bindu, S. Hima; Satheshbabu, P. R.; Subrahmanyam, C. V. S.


    The establishment of biorelevant and discriminating dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility is a useful technique for qualitative forecasting of the in vivo behavior of formulations. It also characterizes the drug product performance in pharmaceutical development. Lornoxicam, a BCS class-II drug is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug of the oxicam class, has no official dissolution media available in the literature. The objective of present work was to develop and validate a discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablet dosage forms. To quantify the lornoxicam in dissolution samples, UV spectrophotometric method was developed using 0.01M sodium hydroxide solution as solvent at λma×376 nm. After evaluation of saturation solubility, dissolution, sink conditions and stability of lornoxicam bulk drug in different pH solutions and biorelevant media, the dissolution method was optimized using USP paddle type apparatus at 50 rpm rotation speed and 500 ml simulated intestinal fluid as discriminating and biorelevant dissolution medium. The similarity factor (f2) were investigated for formulations with changes in composition and manufacturing variations, values revealed that dissolution method having discriminating power and method was validated as per standard guidelines. The proposed dissolution method can be effectively applied for routine quality control in vitro dissolution studies of lornoxicam in tablets and helpful to pharmacopoeias. PMID:26180277

  15. Reflectometric monitoring of the dissolution process of thin polymeric films. (United States)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Räty, Jukka; Korhonen, Kristiina; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik


    Pharmaceutical thin films are versatile drug-delivery platforms i.e. allowing transdermal, oral, sublingual and buccal administration. However, dissolution testing of thin films is challenging since the commonly used dissolution tests for conventional dosage forms correspond rather poorly to the physiological conditions at the site of administration. Here we introduce a traditional optical reflection method for monitoring the dissolution behavior of thin polymeric films. The substances, e.g. drug molecules, released from the film generate an increase in the refractive index in the liquid medium which can be detected by reflectance monitoring. Thin EUDRAGIT(®) RL PO poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co trimethylammonioethyl methacrylate chloride) (RLPO) films containing the model drug perphenazine (PPZ) were prepared by spraying on a glass substrate. The glass substrates were placed inside the flow cell in the reflectometer which was then filled with phosphate buffer solution. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the reflectance of the buffer liquid. The method was able to detect the distinctive dissolution characteristics of different film formulations and measured relatively small drug concentrations. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that a traditional optical reflection method can provide valuable information about the dissolution characteristics of thin polymeric films in low liquid volume surroundings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Errors in reporting on dissolution research: methodological and statistical implications. (United States)

    Jasińska-Stroschein, Magdalena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria


    In vitro dissolution testing provides useful information at clinical and preclinical stages of the drug development process. The study includes pharmaceutical papers on dissolution research published in Polish journals between 2010 and 2015. They were analyzed with regard to information provided by authors about chosen methods, performed validation, statistical reporting or assumptions used to properly compare release profiles considering the present guideline documents addressed to dissolution methodology and its validation. Of all the papers included in the study, 23.86% presented at least one set of validation parameters, 63.64% gave the results of the weight uniformity test, 55.68% content determination, 97.73% dissolution testing conditions, and 50% discussed a comparison of release profiles. The assumptions for methods used to compare dissolution profiles were discussed in 6.82% of papers. By means of example analyses, we demonstrate that the outcome can be influenced by the violation of several assumptions or selection of an improper method to compare dissolution profiles. A clearer description of the procedures would undoubtedly increase the quality of papers in this area.

  17. Investigation of the Dissolution Profile of Gliclazide Modified-Release Tablets Using Different Apparatuses and Dissolution Conditions. (United States)

    Skripnik, K K S; Riekes, M K; Pezzini, B R; Cardoso, S G; Stulzer, H K


    In the absence of an official dissolution method for modified-release tablets of gliclazide, dissolution parameters, such as apparatuses (1, 2, and 3), rotation speeds, pH, and composition of the dissolution medium were investigated. The results show that although the drug presents a pH-mediated solubility (pH 7.0 > 6.8 > 6.4 > 6.0 > 5.5 > 4.5), the in vitro release of the studied tablets was not dependent on this parameter, despite of the apparatus tested. On the other hand, the rotation speed demonstrated a greater influence (100 rpm >50 rpm). Using similar hydrodynamic conditions, the three different apparatuses were compared in pH 6.8 and provided the following trend: apparatus 1 at 100 rpm >2 at 50 rpm ≈3 at 10 dpm. As a complete, but slow release is expected from modified-release formulations, apparatus 2, in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and 100 rpm, were selected as the optimized dissolution method. In comparison to apparatus 1 under the same conditions, the paddle avoids the stickiness of formulation excipients at the mesh of the basket, which could prejudice the release of gliclazide. Results obtained with biorelevant medium through the developed dissolution method were similar to the buffer solution pH 6.8. The application of the optimized method as a quality control test between two different brands of gliclazide modified-release tablets showed that both dissolution profiles were considered similar by the similarity factor (f2 = 51.8). The investigation of these dissolution profiles indicated a dissolution kinetic following first-order model.

  18. Effect of dissolution on the load–settlement behavior of shallow foundations

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu


    Mineral dissolution and solid-liquid phase change may cause settlement or affect the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The effect of gradual grain dissolution on small-scale shallow foundation behavior is investigated using the discrete element method. Results show that dissolution is most detrimental during early stages, as initially contacting particles shrink and force chains must reform throughout the medium. Porosity tends to increase during dissolution and force chains evolve into strong localized forces with a honeycomb topology. Higher settlements are required to mobilize bearing resistance in postdissolution sediments than in pre-dissolution ones. Subsurface mineral dissolution beneath a footing under load is the worst condition; in fact, settlements in such cases are higher than when a foundation load is applied on a sediment that has already experienced dissolution. © the author(s) or their institution(s).

  19. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio


    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  20. Effect of Air Space in Storage Vials on Motility of Spermatozoa in Chilled Buck Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Paul K and Lali F Anand 1

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to find out the effect of air space on the top of glass vial in which semen is stored, on the motility of spermatozoa. 45 samples collected from two bucks over a span of 6 months were used for experiment. Goat milk extender was the diluent used. Two ml each of diluted semen after noting their initial motility was stored in 2 ml and 5 ml vials. Samples were stored at 5°C and motility of spermatozoa noted at 24 and 48 hours. Semen without air space was found to preserve the motility better than semen with air space on 24 and 48 hours of incubation. This could be better attributed to reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa, but further investigation is needed in this aspect to confirm it. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 421-423

  1. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.


    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  2. Laser Scanner Como Sistema de Detección de Entornos Viales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. García


    Full Text Available Resumen: Los últimos avances en seguridad vial, con sistemas cada vez más complejos, requieren de los más modernos sistemas de adquisición de información. La naturaleza misma del problema requiere sensores capaces de proveer información fiable para tareas complejas y exigentes. Los escáneres láser (LIDAR han demostrado ser una familia de sensores altamente fiable, por lo que durante los últimos años los esfuerzos dedicados a investigar posibles aplicaciones viales han ido en aumento. De esta forma, es cada vez más frecuente observar sistemas de ayuda a la conducción (ADAS con este tipo de dispositivos que proveen de información del entorno necesaria para realizar tareas complejas como deteccián y prediccián de situaciones peligrosas. En el presente trabajo, dos sistemas LIDAR han sido probados para comprobar sus capacidades reales en entornos viales. En segundo término, se propone una aplicación que hace uso de las capacidades de dichos sensores para la detección y clasificación de obstaculos en entornos viarios. Palabras clave: sensores, procesamiento de senales, sistemas reales, vehiculos, algoritmos de deteccion

  3. Use of soft sensors to monitor a pharmaceuticals freeze-drying process in vials. (United States)

    Bosca, Serena; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide


    This paper presents a soft sensor that can be effectively used for in-line monitoring of the primary drying step of a pharmaceuticals freeze-drying process in vials. Process modeling and product temperature measurements are used to estimate the residual amount of ice in the vial and the heat transfer coefficient from the shelf to the product in the vial. The resistance of the dried cake to vapor flow is determined through the heat balance equation at the interface of sublimation. Mathematical simulation and experimental tests have been carried out to validate the estimations provided by the soft sensor. Accurate estimations of the dynamics of the product until the end of primary drying are obtained, as well as of the heat and mass transfer coefficients, even in the case of a highly non-uniform batch. The reduction in the number of variables directly estimated by the soft sensor allows increasing the robustness of the tool with respect to other sensors presented in the literature. The proposed soft sensor is thus effective for process monitoring and it allows using model-based tools for cycle development in lab-scale units, where thermocouples are usually available, and for process monitoring in industrial-scale freeze-dryers, in case wireless sensors are used.

  4. Dissolution of anionic surfactant mesophases. (United States)

    Poulos, Andreas S; Jones, Christopher S; Cabral, João T


    Linear and circular solvent penetration experiments are used to study the dissolution of anionic SLE3S surfactant mesophases in water. We show that a lamellar (Lα) phase in contact with water will transit through a series of cubic, hexagonal, and micellar phase bands with sharp interfaces identified from their optical textures. In both linear and circular geometries, the kinetics of front propagation and eventual dissolution are well described by diffusive penetration of water, and a simple model applies to both geometries, with a different effective diffusion coefficient for water Df as the only fitting parameter. Finally, we show a surprising variation of dissolution rates with initial surfactant concentration that can be well explained by assuming that the driving force for solvent penetration is the osmotic pressure difference between neat water and the aqueous fraction of the mesophase that is highly concentrated in surfactant counterions.

  5. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne


    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  6. Development and Validation of a New HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Paracetamol, Ascorbic Acid, and Pseudoephedrine HCl in their Co-formulated Tablets. Application to in vitro Dissolution Testing. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fawzia; El-Enany, Nahed; El-Shaheny, Rania N; Mikhail, Ibraam E


    The first HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PC), ascorbic acid (AA), and pseudoephedrine HCl (PE) in their co-formulated tablets. Separation was achieved on a C18 column in 5 min using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.05 M phosphate buffer (35:65, v/v) at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 220 nm. Linear calibration curves were constructed over concentration ranges of 1.0 - 50.0, 3.0 - 60.0 and 3.0 - 80.0 μg mL(-1) for PC, AA, and PE, respectively. The method was validated and applied for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in their tablets with average % recoveries of 101.17 ± 0.67, 98.34 ± 0.77, and 98.95 ± 1.11%, for PC, AA, and PE, respectively. The proposed method was also used to construct in vitro dissolution profiles of the co-formulated tablets containing the three drugs.

  7. Dissolution of nuclear fuels; Disolucion de combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Berberana Eizmendi, M.; Rainey, R.


    A laboratory study was made of the instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) for unirradiated uranium metal rods and UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets in boiling nitric acid alone and with additives. The uranium metal and UO{sub 2} dissolved readily in nitric acid alone; PuO{sub 2} dissolved slowly even with the addition of fluoride; PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets containing as much as 35% PuO{sub 2} in UO{sub 2} gave values of the instantaneous dissolution rate to indicate can be dissolved with nitric acid alone. An equation to calculate the time for complete dissolution has been determinate in function of the instantaneous dissolution rates. The calculated values agree with the experimental. Uranium dioxide pellets from various sources but all having a same density varied in instantaneous dissolution rate. All the pellets, however, have dissolved ved in the same time. The time for complete dissolution of PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets, having the same composition, and the concentration of the used reagents are function of the used reagents are function of the fabrication method. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Modeling of the dissolution of a pharmaceutical compound (United States)

    Mangin, D.; Garcia, E.; Gerard, S.; Hoff, C.; Klein, J. P.; Veesler, S.


    This paper analyses the phenomena encountered in the dissolution of a powder composed by drug crystals using the complementarity between the experimental and numerical approach. A macroscopic model based on the population balance equation was developed to describe dissolution experiments. The population balance equation was discretized and solved with the method of classes. The experiments were performed in a perfectly mixed vessel. Different initial masses of solid particles were introduced. The size distribution of the initial particles was measured by image analysis to take into account the particle anisotropy. For each experiment, the evolution of the concentration during the dissolution process was followed by conductimetry. The concentration measurements show an acceleration of the overall dissolution kinetics at the beginning of the dissolution process, although the undersaturation decreases. This particular behavior suggests that the aggregated powder is first disaggregated under the effect of stirring. The introduction of a fragmentation mechanism in our model has allowed a correct description of the concentration profiles. Intrinsic dissolution kinetics was found to be controlled by mass transfer.

  9. Simultaneous Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by Simultaneous Equation Spectrophotometric Method: A Quality Control Tool for Dissolution Studies


    Deepak Sharma; Mankaran Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Gurmeet Singh


    Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride are used for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and allergy. A simple, economical, accurate, and precise method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form has been developed. Simultaneous equation method based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, that is, 244 nm and 230 nm, λmax of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Both of...

  10. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  11. A case study of nondelamination glass dissolution resulting in visible particles: implications for neutral pH formulations. (United States)

    Ratnaswamy, Gayathri; Hair, Alison; Li, Gary; Thirumangalathu, Renuka; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Brych, Lejla; Dharmavaram, Vasumathi; Wen, Zai-Qing; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Jing, Wendy; Sethuraman, Ananth; Swift, Rob; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy


    Visible particles were unexpectedly observed in a neutral-pH placebo formulation stored in glass vials but were not observed in the same formulation composition that contained protein. The particles were identified as silica gel (SiO2 ) and polysorbate 20, suggesting dissolution of the glass vial. Time course studies were performed to assess the effect of variables such as pH, excipients, storage temperature, and duration on particle formation. Data suggest that glass dissolution occurred during the storage in the liquid state, as shown by increased Si levels in solution. Upon freezing, the samples underwent freeze concentration and likely became supersaturated, which resulted in the appearance of visible silica particles upon thawing. The glass degradation described here is unique and differs from the more commonly reported delamination, defined by the presence of reflective, shard-like glass flakes in solution that are often termed lamellae. This case study underscores the importance of an early assessment (during formulation development) of potential incompatibility of the formulation with the primary container. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. The Influence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 to the Dissolution Rate of Phenylbutazone Prepared in Solid Dispersion


    Rahman, Latifah; Putranto, Aliyah; Setiawan, Irawan


    The influence of vehicle polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 to the dissolution rate of phenylbutazone prepared in solid dispersion has been investigated. The purpose of the investigation poly was to obtain solid dispersion of phenylbutazone in the vehicle polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 which has superior dissolution rate dissolution medium. The solid dispersion of phenylbutazone in polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 was prepared by solvent method with various ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5). the solid mass for...

  13. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution proceedings. 11.606 Section 11.606 Indians... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.606 Dissolution proceedings. (a) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the...

  14. Childbearing and Dissolution of the Second Marriage. (United States)

    Wineberg, Howard


    Examined relationship between childbearing and dissolution of second marriage among 713 white women. Women who gave birth in second marriage had significantly reduced probability of dissolution. Childbearing prior to remarriage was associated with increased risk of dissolution in first five years of remarriage. Other results suggest bringing…

  15. Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  16. Interactions between a poorly soluble cationic drug and sodium dodecyl sulfate in dissolution medium and their impact on in vitro dissolution behavior. (United States)

    Huang, Zongyun; Parikh, Shuchi; Fish, William P


    In the pharmaceutical industry, in vitro dissolution testing ofsolid oral dosage forms is a very important tool for drug development and quality control. However, ion-pairing interaction between the ionic drugand surfactants in dissolution medium often occurs, resulting in inconsistent and incomplete drug release. The aim of this study is toevaluate the effects ofsodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mediated medium onthe dissolution behaviors of a poorly soluble cationic drug (Drug B). The study was carried out by measuring solubility of Drug B substance and dissolution rate of Drug B product in media containing SDS.Desolubilization of Drug B substance was observed at pH 4.5 in the presence of SDS at concentrations below critical micelle concentration (CMC) which is attributed to the formation of an insoluble di-dodecyl sulfate salt between SDS and Drug B. This ion-pairing effect is less significant with increasing medium pH where Drug B is less ionized and CMC of SDS is lower. In medium at pH 4.5, dissolution of Drug B product was found incomplete with SDS concentration below CMC due to the desolubilization of Drug B substance. In media with SDS level above CMC, the dissolution rate is rather slower with higher inter-vessel variations compared to that obtained in pH 4.5 medium without SDS. The dissolution results demonstrate that the presence of SDS in medium generates unexpected irregular dissolution profiles for Drug B which are attributed to incompatible dissolution medium for this particular drug. Therefore, non-ionic surfactant was selected for Drug B product dissolution method and ion-pairing effect in SDS mediated medium should be evaluated when developing a dissolution method for any poorly soluble cationic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Componentes descriptivos y explicativos de la accidentalidad vial en Colombia: Incidencia del factor humano


    Ervyn H. Norza Céspedes; Elba Lucía Granados León; Sergio Alejandro Useche Hernández; Mauricio Romero Hernández; Jesica Moreno Rodríguez


    Problema: Se analizó la incidencia del factor humano en la accidentalidad vial en el territorio colombiano, y se identificó evidencia empírica para la formulación de política pública del tránsito. Metodología: El diseño es descriptivo-correlacional. Instrumentos: cuestionario de comportamiento para conductores y motociclistas (D.B.Q.) y encuesta tipo Likert. Muestra no probabilística intencional: 16.322 personas (8.631 conductores de automotores, 5.133 motociclistas y 2.558 peatones, pasajero...

  18. Un experimento de física útil para la educación vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vila


    Full Text Available El índice de fallecidos y de minusvalías debido a los accidentes de coches en las vías se relaciona (1 muy directamente con el exceso de velocidad de los automóviles. En la educación vial internacional se establecen variadas estrategias para concienciar a los conductores de modo que respeten los límites de velocidades establecidos e incrementen las precauciones cuando las condiciones climatológicas así lo aconsejen.

  19. Un experimento de física útil para la educación vial


    Jesús Vila; Carlos J. Sierra


    El índice de fallecidos y de minusvalías debido a los accidentes de coches en las vías se relaciona (1) muy directamente con el exceso de velocidad de los automóviles. En la educación vial internacional se establecen variadas estrategias para concienciar a los conductores de modo que respeten los límites de velocidades establecidos e incrementen las precauciones cuando las condiciones climatológicas así lo aconsejen.

  20. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the formation of atorvastatin calcium (AC) co-crystal to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Method: Co-crystallization of AC in equimolar ratio with isonicotinamide (INA) was carried out by slow solvent evaporation method using methanol. The solid obtained was characterized by powder x-ray ...

  1. Uranium dioxide, SIMFUEL, and spent fuel dissolution rates - a review of published data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M. [VMO Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Published data from studies of the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide, SIMFUEL, and spent fuel in aqueous solutions of low ionic strength are reviewed. Data for the dissolution rate of each of the three solid phases are examined for internal consistency and the average or best estimate of the dissolution rate for each of the phases is compared with the rates found for the other phases. The effects of solid phase crystallinity and of environmental conditions such as oxygen concentration in solution on dissolution rate are discussed. The general conclusion of this review is that the kinetics of dissolution of spent fuel as a function of environmental parameters is poorly constrained. Possible experimental methods to better constrain the dissolution rate of spent fuel under potential repository disposal conditions are presented.

  2. A new approach to dissolution testing by UV imaging and finite element simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Johan Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas


    , a flexible numerical model was combined with a novel UV imaging system, allowing monitoring of the dissolution process with sub second time resolution. METHODS: The dissolution process was monitored by both effluent collection and UV imaging of compacts of paracetamol. A finite element model (FEM) was used...... to characterize the UV imaging system. RESULTS: A finite element model of the UV imaging system was successfully built. The dissolution of paracetamol was studied by UV imaging and by analysis of the effluent. The dissolution rates obtained from the collected effluent were in good agreement with the numerical......PURPOSE: Most dissolution testing systems rely on analyzing samples taken remotely from the dissolving sample surface at different time points with poor time resolution and therefore provide relatively unresolved temporally and spatially information on the dissolution process. In this study...

  3. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland). (United States)

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis


    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of a miniaturized dissolution system. (United States)

    Frenning, G; Ahnfelt, E; Sjögren, E; Lennernäs, H


    Dissolution testing is an important tool that has applications ranging from fundamental studies of drug-release mechanisms to quality control of the final product. The rate of release of the drug from the delivery system is known to be affected by hydrodynamics. In this study we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate and investigate the hydrodynamics in a novel miniaturized dissolution method for parenteral formulations. The dissolution method is based on a rotating disc system and uses a rotating sample reservoir which is separated from the remaining dissolution medium by a nylon screen. Sample reservoirs of two sizes were investigated (SR6 and SR8) and the hydrodynamic studies were performed at rotation rates of 100, 200 and 400rpm. The overall fluid flow was similar for all investigated cases, with a lateral upward spiraling motion and central downward motion in the form of a vortex to and through the screen. The simulations indicated that the exchange of dissolution medium between the sample reservoir and the remaining release medium was rapid for typical screens, for which almost complete mixing would be expected to occur within less than one minute at 400rpm. The local hydrodynamic conditions in the sample reservoirs depended on their size; SR8 appeared to be relatively more affected than SR6 by the resistance to liquid flow resulting from the screen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolution Kinetics of Alumina Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas


    Dissolution kinetics of alumina type non-radioactive calcine was investigated as part of ongoing research that addresses permanent disposal of Idaho High Level Waste (HLW). Calcine waste was produced from the processing of nuclear fuel at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Acidic radioactive raffinates were solidified at ~500°C in a fluidized bed reactor to form the dry granular calcine material. Several Waste Management alternatives for the calcine are presented in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The Separations Alternative addresses the processing of the calcine so that the HLW is ready for removal to a national geological repository by the year 2035. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the separations alternative.

  6. After adoption: dissolution or permanence? (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy


    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  7. Interactions between gravity currents and convective dissolution (United States)

    Elenius, M. T.; Voskov, D. V.; Tchelepi, H. A.


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising technology for reducing atmospheric emissions. The large discrepancy in the time- and length-scales between up-dip migration of buoyant supercritical CO2 and the sinking fingers of dissolved CO2 poses a challenge for numerical simulations aimed at describing the fate of the plume. Hence, several investigators have suggested methods to simplify the problem, but to date there has been no reference solution with which these simplified models can be compared. We investigate the full problem of Darcy-based two-phase flow with gravity-current propagation and miscible convective mixing, using high-resolution numerical simulations. We build on recent developments of the Automatic Differentiation - General Purpose Research Simulator (AD-GPRS) at Stanford. The results show a CO2 plume that travels for 5000 years reaching a final distance of 14 km up-dip from the injection site. It takes another 2000 years before the CO2 is completely trapped as residual (40%) and dissolved (60%) CO2. Dissolution causes a significant reduction of the plume speed. While fingers of dissolved CO2 appear under the propagating gravity current, the resident brine does not become fully saturated with CO2 anywhere under the plume. The overall mass transfer of CO2 into the brine under the plume remains practically constant for several thousands of years. These results can be used as a benchmark for verification, or improvements, of simplified (reduced-dimensionality, upscaled) models. Our results indicate that simplified models need to account for: (i) reduced dissolution due to interaction with the plume, and (ii) gradual reduction of the local dissolution rate after the fingers begin to interact with the bottom of the aquifer.

  8. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz (United States)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.


    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  9. Application of in-vial membrane assisted solvent extraction to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    March, J G; Moukhchan, F; Cerdà, V


    A device for membrane assisted solvent extraction from an aqueous sample to an organic solvent within a micro-vial compatible with a chromatography auto-sampler was used to extract trace amounts of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater. The device consisted in an assembly of a volumetric flask containing the sample and a micro-vial containing the organic solvent by means of a screw stopper in which the septum was replaced by a sized piece of a membrane. Extraction conditions (nature of the organic solvent, extraction time, presence of ethanol in the donor phase, ionic content of the donor phase, characteristics of the membrane and volumes of donor and acceptor phases) were studied in order to find the conditions for maximum extraction. Analytical performance characteristics have also been established. The extraction efficiency was between 12.5 and 23%, which implies an enrichment factor value above 40. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 8.6-10.0% and 13-19%, respectively. Detection limits were in the range of 24-39 ng L(-1). Nine seawater samples have been studied. Most of the concentrations were under the limits of detection. Naphthalene and phenanthrene contents have been determined in a sample using the method of standard additions, and concentrations 100 and 91 ng L(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended stability of the rituximab biosimilar CT-P10 in its opened vials and after dilution and storage in polyolefin bags. (United States)

    Vieillard, V; Paul, M; Ibrahim, T; Astier, A


    The stability of the rituximab biosimilar CT-P10, in 50mL vials at a concentration of 10mg/mL, and after dilution to final concentrations of 1 and 4mg/mL and storage in polyolefin bags at 4°C and 25°C was studied by several orthogonal and complementary methods. No significant change (as defined by a magnitude greater than the inter-batch variability) was observed, for each of the parameters characterizing physical and chemical stability studied, for the two concentrations and temperatures tested, or for any of the three batches tested. This implies that cold-chain rupture and exposure to room temperature up to 15 days both for vials and diluted bags have no deleterious consequence on the quality of the product. Moreover, this extended stability permits safe in-advance preparation, dose-banding or flat-dose, that to avoid unnecessary delays in the management of the patient, improvement of the pharmacy and nurse workload and money saving by avoiding non justified losses of this expensive drug. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J


    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The

  12. Elementos del impacto ambiental producido por los deslizamientos de taludes viales colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Beltrán Moreno


    Full Text Available Las características orográficas; climáticas y geotécnices, junto con las condiciones impuestas por el tipo y el nivel de desarrollo en el territorio colombiano favorecen la ocurrencia de los deslizamientos. Durante las épocas de invierno se producen numerosos y a veces grandes movimiento en masa en los taludes viales causando notables pérdidas físicas y económicas. Para reducirlas se pueden mejorar los procedimientos seguidos durante el diseño, la interventorie, y la construcción. En este artículo se describen aquellos factores y condiciones que favorecen la ocurrencia de los movimientos en masa, se mencionan las características de estos últimos determinadas mediante un inventario reciente, se indican las deficiencias actuales más notorias qce se encuentran en el diseño y en la construcción de carreteras, y se incluyen informaciones sobre costos parciales de los daños ocasionados por  los derrumbes de los taludes viales. Este trabajo fue publicado en las memorias del lV Congreso Colombiano de Geotecnia, que se realizó en Bogotá, entre el 20 y 23 de agosto de 1991.

  13. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments. (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R


    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol tablet. (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-ping; Wan, Xin-xiang; Liu, Qiang


    To investigate the relationship between the dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol tablets. The dissolution rate of paracetamol tablet was determined according to methods described in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was employed to measure urine concentration of paracetamol, and the relative bioavailability was determined in 25 male healthy volunteers, with the relationship between the dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol assessed. The 15-min dissolution rates of 5 kinds of paracetamol tablets were 100.43+/-2.61, 99.76+/-1.97, 96.47+/-3.52, 89.58+/-1.85, and 85.85+/-1.83 respectively, with their bioavailability of 86.34+/-10.06, 85.82+/-11.21, 87.10+/-10.86, 81.71+/-12.34, and 76.53+/-11.73 respectively, showing obvious linear relationship between them, which conformed to the equation y = 0.6122x + 25.175, r = 0.9642. As there is a good linear relationship between the dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol tablets, the latter parameter can be derived from the measurement of the former.

  15. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

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  16. Effects of amorphous silicon dioxides on drug dissolution. (United States)

    Yang, K Y; Glemza, R; Jarowski, C I


    The dissolution profiles of prednisone, digoxin, and griseofulvin in simulated GI fluids were determined after solvent deposition or ball milling with three commercially available grades of amorphous silicon dioxide. The former procedure resulted in adsorbates showing evidence of drug entrapment by the two grades with larger average pore diameters. Ball milling the drugs with the grade possessing the largest average particle diameter produced triturations with the slowest dissolution rates. A relationship between drug dissolution and extent of dilution with the amorphous silicon dioxides was shown. Particle-size measurements revealed that the ball milling procedure was more apt to broaden the size distribution as compared with the solvent-deposition method of drug incorporation.

  17. Comparative dissolution testing of paracetamol commercial tablet dosage forms. (United States)

    Ozkan, Y; Ozalp, Y; Savaşer, A; Ozkan, S A


    Dissolution can best be described as a tool that can provide valuable information about the availability of a drug product. In this study, nine different paracetamol tablet dosage forms available on the Turkish Drug Market have been investigated and physical controls were realized. Paddle and rotating basket apparatus methods were applied to all the formulations. In order to evaluate the dissolution rates, five different kinetics have been studied and the best fitting kinetics was found to be the Hixson-Crowell kinetics. It was found that all the preparations are in accordance with the Pharmacopeia standards.

  18. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy Visualizes Pharmaceutical Tablets During Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fussell, A.L.; Kleinebudde, P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Strachan, C.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and

  19. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Lijun [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Sapozhnikova, Yelena [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J., E-mail: [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)


    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g⁻¹ spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix.

  20. Evaluación técnica de los puentes en la infraestructura vial del departamento de Antioquia


    Garcia, John Mario; Ospina Giraldo, Jaime; Graciano, Edir Amparo


    El desarrollo económico y social de una región está directamente relacionado con el estado de su infraestructura vial. La falla de un puente genera la interrupción total del tráfico de bienes en su superficie, generando incalculables pérdidas materiales y sociales mientras se restituye el flujo vehicular. El departamento de Antioquia cuenta en su patrimonio vial con una de las redes más extensas del territorio colombiano. La gobernación departamental es la encargada del adecuado funcionamient...

  1. Educación vial en la Escuela Primaria para Prevención de Accidentes de Peatones


    Alvarado, Danilo Eliseo


    179 p. Este estudio presenta un análisis profundo en el marco de la educación vial en la escuela primaria, enfocado en los docentes del establecimiento educativo 23 de Agosto Nº 85, sobre que concepciones de educación vial para la prevención de accidentes de peatones poseen estos y, cuales son los fundamentos legales y teóricos que usan para la implementación dentro del marco regulatorio que lo establece la ley nacional 24.449.

  2. Aluminium fractionation of European volcanic soils by selective dissolution techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Rodeja, E.; Novoa, J.C.; Pontevedra, X.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Buurman, P.


    Several selective dissolution methods were used to differentiate Al forms in 12 soils formed from volcanic materials (64 andic, vitric and organic horizons) in Iceland, Azores (Portugal), Tenerife (Spain) and Italy. The soils differ in many properties because of differences in parent materials,

  3. Evolution, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In this brief communication, we have highlighted for the first time the in situ preparation, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver nanoparticles from their cyano complexes by the UV-light. Here we have exhibited the preparation of gold and silver nanoparticles by UV- photoactivation method and then their ...

  4. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the Dissolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ketoprofen crystals were prepared by various crystallization technique including spherical agglomeration (SA), spray drying (SD), freeze drying (FD) and ... The solubility of FD crystals in water increased almost fivefold to 0.0926 mg/ml compared with that of the drug (0.0172 mg/ml), while the dissolution rates of the ...

  5. Componentes descriptivos y explicativos de la accidentalidad vial en Colombia: Incidencia del factor humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn H. Norza Céspedes


    Full Text Available Problema: Se analizó la incidencia del factor humano en la accidentalidad vial en el territorio colombiano, y se identificó evidencia empírica para la formulación de política pública del tránsito. Metodología: El diseño es descriptivo-correlacional. Instrumentos: cuestionario de comportamiento para conductores y motociclistas (D.B.Q. y encuesta tipo Likert. Muestra no probabilística intencional: 16.322 personas (8.631 conductores de automotores, 5.133 motociclistas y 2.558 peatones, pasajeros y acompañantes. Resultados: a conductores con nivel educativo superior inciden en menos accidentes; b peatones con menor nivel educativo inciden en mayores conductas riesgosas; c las mujeres tienen actitud positiva y perciben eficacia de campañas en prevencion; d estilos de conducción iracundo, ansioso, riesgoso y de alta velocidad cometen más infracciones y accidentes; e desobedecer señales de tránsito, la principal causa de accidentalidad; f agresividad, hostilidad y estrés en el tránsito son factores que aumentan la probabilidad de accidente; g campañas de prevención no están siendo captadas por la población más afectada. Conclusiones y recomendaciones: Los factores de accidentalidad vial guardan correspondencia con el Triángulo de Seguridad Vial establecido por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas -factor humano preponderante en la accidentalidad-. Lineamientos de política pública fundamentados en procesos educativos y corporativos tendientes a disminuir la accidentalidad por lo general no se concibe aplicada a la seguridad pública. Por ello, se presenta la inteligencia criminal como una disciplina que se ocupa de anticipar los riesgos criminales contra la seguridad pública. Esto permitiría disminuir la incertidumbre durante la toma de decisiones y calcular los daños contra la seguridad pública, que se pretende prevenir.

  6. General class of multiparticulate dissolution models. (United States)

    Pedersen, P V; Brown, K F


    The dissolution of multiparticulate systems under sink and nonsink conditions can be described rigorously according to a generally applicable formula on the basis of the single-particle dissolution model and the initial particle distribution. The kinetic model for log-normal systems dissolving under sink conditions is extended to nonsink conditions as a specific example. The equation presented describes a general class of multiparticulate models for various values of the dispersion parameter and the dissolution capacity coefficient.

  7. Modeling dissolution of sparingly soluble multisized powders


    Almeida, Luís Pereira de; Simões, Sérgio; Brito, Paulo; Portugal, António; Figueiredo, Margarida


    The dissolution of powder drugs, besides being a topic of utmost importance, especially for the sparingly soluble ones, is far from being well-explained. The purpose of the present study is, on the one hand, to obtain experimental dissolution profiles and, on the other hand, to analyze and process the data for dissolution modeling. Three different size fractions of a widely used sparingly soluble drug - ibuprofen - were fully characterized with regard to its particle size distribution, specif...

  8. The Use of Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Dissolution Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elçiçek


    Full Text Available Colemanite is a preferred boron mineral in industry, such as boric acid production, fabrication of heat resistant glass, and cleaning agents. Dissolution of the mineral is one of the most important processes for these industries. In this study, dissolution of colemanite was examined in water saturated with carbon dioxide solutions. Also, prediction of dissolution rate was determined using artificial neural networks (ANNs which are based on the multilayered perceptron. Reaction temperature, total pressure, stirring speed, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, and reaction time were selected as input parameters to predict the dissolution rate. Experimental dataset was used to train multilayer perceptron (MLP networks to allow for prediction of dissolution kinetics. Developing ANNs has provided highly accurate predictions in comparison with an obtained mathematical model used through regression method. We conclude that ANNs may be a preferred alternative approach instead of conventional statistical methods for prediction of boron minerals.

  9. Dissolution of minerals and hydrometallurgical processes (United States)

    Habashi, Fathi


    Physical, chemical, electrochemical, and electrolytic processes involved in the dissolution of minerals in aqueous solutions are identified and characterized. Their importance to hydrometallurgy is outlined.

  10. Chlorhexidine gel associated with papain in pulp tissue dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Couto De Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with 8% papain gel in comparison with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. Materials and Methods Ninety bovine pulps of standardized sizes were used and fragmented into 5-mm sizes. The fragments were removed from the root middle third region. They were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 15, 1 8% papain; 2 2% chlorhexidine; 3 2% chlorhexidine associated with 8% papain; 4 0.9% saline solution; 5 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; and 6 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. The pulp fragments were weighed and put into immobile test tubes for dissolution for time intervals of 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results The 5.25% sodium hypochlorite had greater dissolution potential than the pure papain, and when associated with chlorhexidine, both promoted greater dissolution than did the saline solution and 2% chlorhexidine groups (p < 0.05. The 2.5% sodium hypochlorite promoted dissolution to a lesser extent than the groups with papain within a period of 30 min (p < 0.05, but, was comparable to the saline solution and chlorhexidine. After 120 min, the 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite promoted dissolution of 100% of the pulp fragments, and papain, 61%, while chlorhexidine associated with papain and chlorhexidine alone dissolved only 55% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions The 8% papain in gel, both alone and in association with chlorhexidine, was able to dissolve bovine pulp tissue, but to a lesser extent than did 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.

  11. Hacia un análisis sociológico de la siniestrabilidad vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sánchez Ferreira


    Full Text Available Este artículo reivindica la importancia de una sociología de los transportes, un área esencial para nuestras sociedades que tradicionalmente las ciencias sociales no han atendido. Este vacío científico se ha trasladado a las investigaciones sobre la siniestrabilidad vial. En su lugar han imperado estudios sin verdadera base científica que, divulgados por los medios de comunicación, no permiten a la opinión pública visualizar la realidad del problema. Las instituciones de tráfico se limitan a establecer medidas recaudatorias y a responsabilizar a los conductores. Sin embargo, un análisis detallado de los datos y un cuestionamiento razonado de los planteamientos oficiales pueden desvelarnos las auténticas causas de los accidentes.

  12. Safety and efficacy of multiuse botulinum toxin vials for intralaryngeal injection. (United States)

    Barrow, Emily M; Rosen, Clark A; Hapner, Edie R; Smith, Sarah; Hatcher, Jeanne L; Simpson, Blake; Johns, Michael M


    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines maintain that single-use vials cannot be used for multiple patients. Botox product labeling states that the reconstituted toxin should be used within 4 hours on a single patient based on concerns of reduced potency, contamination, and consequent infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of using single-use vials in a multidose fashion. Prospective study and cohort chart review. A multi-institutional three-part study was performed between May 2013 and October 2013: 1) a summation of subjects' recall of their past experiences (symptoms/response) with previous multidose Botox injections, 2) a prospective study of intralaryngeal injections, and 3) a chart review of injection responses in a subset of the cohort. Seven hundred forty-three subjects receiving 6,216 injections demonstrated zero infection-related complications on retrospective chart review. One hundred seventy-nine subjects recalled 24.0% overall adverse events, 10.6% redness, 7.3% pain and swelling at the injection site, and 0% fever. One hundred seventy-four subjects prospectively reported 12.6% overall adverse events. The self-reported efficacy rate of Botox injection was 96.6%. The low rates of adverse events following the use of Botox in a multipatient fashion are consistent with other percutaneous injections. No evidence of infection was found with multidose Botox use. Given the low incidence of side effects and high success rate, Botox can be used both safely and effectively in a multipatient fashion. 4 © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. DDSolver: an add-in program for modeling and comparison of drug dissolution profiles. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Zou, Aifeng; Li, Weize; Yao, Chengli; Xie, Shaofei


    In recent years, several mathematical models have been developed for analysis of drug dissolution data, and many different mathematical approaches have been proposed to assess the similarity between two drug dissolution profiles. However, until now, no computer program has been reported for simplifying the calculations involved in the modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles. The purposes of this article are: (1) to describe the development of a software program, called DDSolver, for facilitating the assessment of similarity between drug dissolution data; (2) to establish a model library for fitting dissolution data using a nonlinear optimization method; and (3) to provide a brief review of available approaches for comparing drug dissolution profiles. DDSolver is a freely available program which is capable of performing most existing techniques for comparing drug release data, including exploratory data analysis, univariate ANOVA, ratio test procedures, the difference factor f (1), the similarity factor f (2), the Rescigno indices, the 90% confidence interval (CI) of difference method, the multivariate statistical distance method, the model-dependent method, the bootstrap f (2) method, and Chow and Ki's time series method. Sample runs of the program demonstrated that the results were satisfactory, and DDSolver could be served as a useful tool for dissolution data analysis.

  14. Dissolution chemistry of Minnesota Lunar Simulant (United States)

    Oglesby, James P.; Lindsay, Willard L.; Sadeh, Willy Z.


    Dissolution studies of Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS), a prepared finely ground basalt, were conducted to measure solution species, to assess the levels of plant nutrients and toxic elements, and to identify minerals controlling these levels. Many of the plant nutrients in the MLS solution (Mg, S, K, Ca, Cl, Mo, P, B, Ni, and Cu) are found to be in concentrations acceptable for plant growth. Nitrogen and manganese, however, are found to be deficient, and extractable iron and zinc are marginal after 150 d. The solution concentrations of metals are several orders of magnitude below levels that are toxic to plants. Aluminum hydroxide, calcite, and clinoenstatite are found to be the most likely mineral controls for aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Many of the methods employed can be used to study actual lunar regolith.

  15. Seguridad Vial y Procesos Psicológicos: Acciones Preventivas. [ Road Safety and Psychological Processes: Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ernesto Riaño Garzón


    Full Text Available El artículo revisa la relación entre los procesos psicológicos y la seguridad vial desde una postura preventiva con el fin de proporcionar evidencias sobre alternativas utilizadas en terapia que puedan ser de utilidad para el adecuado funcionamiento psico-fisiológico y que determinen una mayor Seguridad Vial. Dicha revisión resulta pertinente en el marco de la Policía Nacional y de la Seguridad Vial en tanto ilustra metodologías empíricamente validadas que pueden ser utilizadas por las personas que desarrollen labores de alto esfuerzo cognitivo como la conducción. Con el fin de desarrollar la temática propuesta, se revisarán las nociones iniciales de la accidentalidad en tránsito dando paso a la revisión de los procesos cognoscitivos implicados en la seguridad vial citando algunos estudios empíricos que dan cuenta de métodos de utilidad en el incremento de las capacidades del conductor. Se concluye la efectividad de métodos basados en estimulación cognoscitiva y bioretroalimentación para el fortalecimiento de procesos cognoscitivos especialmente atencionales, advirtiendo la relación directamente proporcional entre la capacidad atencional y la seguridad al conducir.

  16. El Sistema Vial Inca y los desafíos para su conservación en tiempos modernos


    Ríos Canales, Moisés


    El Estado peruano, a través del Ministerio de Cultura, desarrolla dentro de su política cultural una estrategia para la identificación, protección, conservación y puesta en uso social del Sistema Vial Inca, el mayor monumento de la historia americana construida por el Estado Inca en el Siglo XV.

  17. Direct observation of microbial inhibition of calcite dissolution. (United States)

    Lüttge, Andreas; Conrad, Pamela G


    Vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) provides a method for quantification of surface topography at the angstrom to nanometer level. Time-dependent VSI measurements can be used to study the surface-normal retreat across crystal and other solid surfaces during dissolution or corrosion processes. Therefore, VSI can be used to directly and nondestructively measure mineral dissolution rates with high precision. We have used this method to compare the abiotic dissolution behavior of a representative calcite (CaCO(3)) cleavage face with that observed upon addition of an environmental microbe, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, to the crystal surface. From our direct observations, we have concluded that the presence of the microbes results in a significant inhibition of the rate of calcite dissolution. This inhibition appears to be a 2nd-order effect that is related to the formation of etch pits. The opening of etch pits was greatly inhibited in the presence of added bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial cells exert their effect by inhibiting the formation of etch pits at high-energy sites at the crystal surface caused by lattice defects, e.g., screw or point dislocations. The experimental methodology thus provides a nondestructive, directly quantifiable, and easily visualized view of the interactions of microbes and minerals during weathering (or corrosion) processes or during mineral precipitation.

  18. Artificial Leaks in Container Closure Integrity Testing: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Aperture Size Originated by a Copper Wire Sandwiched between the Stopper and the Glass Vial. (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Adler, Michael; Chalus, Pascal; Mahler, Hanns-Christian


    Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against possible contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the container closure system with microorganisms under specified testing conditions. Physical CCI uses surrogate endpoints, such as coloration by dye solution ingress or gas flow (helium leakage testing). In order to correlate microbial CCI and physical CCI test methods and to evaluate the methods' capability to detect a given leak, artificial leaks are being introduced into the container closure system in a variety of different ways. In our study, artificial leaks were generated using inserted copper wires between the glass vial opening and rubber stopper. However, the insertion of copper wires introduces leaks of unknown size and shape. With nonlinear finite element simulations, the aperture size between the rubber stopper and the glass vial was calculated, depending on wire diameter and capping force. The dependency of the aperture size on the copper wire diameter was quadratic. With the data obtained, we were able to calculate the leak size and model leak shape. Our results suggest that the size as well as the shape of the artificial leaks should be taken into account when evaluating critical leak sizes, as flow rate does not, independently, correlate to hole size. Capping force also affected leak size. An increase in the capping force from 30 to 70 N resulted in a reduction of the aperture (leak size) by approximately 50% for all wire diameters. From 30 to 50 N, the reduction was approximately 33%. Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the

  19. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)


    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution


    Fries, B.A.


    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  1. Reducing dissolution of MnO2 nanofibers by doping with ferric ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Chen et al


    Full Text Available MnO2 nanofiber was found to possess high adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions such as, arsenic and lead, in water due to its high specific surface area (SSA and high surface activity. However, a significant amount of manganese was found to leach from MnO2 nanofibers. Reducing MnO2 dissolution is very important for improving its applications in drinking water treatment. In this study, MnO2 nanofiber was doped with Fe3+ to reduce its dissolution in water. Dissolution tests were conducted on un-doped and Fe-doped MnO2 nanofibers. The results revealed that doping with Fe3+ significantly reduced MnO2 dissolution. SSA and defects of MnO2 materials were analyzed by BET and XRD methods. The effects of Fe3+ on MnO2 dissolution were discussed and the optimal dopant amount was identified.

  2. Growth and dissolution of sodium perborate in aqueous solutions by using the RDC technique (United States)

    Chianese, A.


    Growth and dissolution rates of compressed polycrystalline discs of sodium perborate have been measured in aqueous solutions with and without sodium metaborate as co-solute. Both the dissolution and the growth rates are first order with respect to concentration gradients for the two types of solutions; the presence of sodium metaborate in solution causes a decrease of the dissolution and the overall growth coefficient. The overall growth process is diffusion controlled. From the dissolution runs in pure aqueous solutions, the diffusion coefficient of sodium perborate has first been determined and then compared with the values measured by interferometry or calculated by means of a prediction method. In addition, it has been shown that the overall mass transfer coefficients for dissolution processes are in good agreement with the rate constant for a bulk diffusion step in crystal growth.

  3. Unravelling the relationship between degree of disorder and the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Laaksonen, Timo; Rades, Thomas


    Milling is an attractive method to prepare amorphous formulations as it does not require the use of solvents and is suitable for thermolabile drugs. One of the key critical quality attributes of milled amorphous formulations is their dissolution behavior. However, there are limited studies...... that have investigated the relationship between degree of disorder induced by milling and dissolution behavior. The main aim of this study was to identify the analytical technique used to characterize degree of disorder that correlates best with the recrystallization behavior during dissolution of milled...... glibenclamide samples. Solid state and surface changes during dissolution of milled glibenclamide samples were monitored in order to elucidate the processes that influence the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide samples. Glibenclamide was ball milled for different durations and analyzed using X...

  4. Dissolution enhancement of tadalafil by liquisolid technique. (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Xing, Haonan; Yang, Tianzhi; Yu, Jiankun; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Yanping; Ding, Pingtian


    This study aimed to enhance the dissolution of tadalafil, a poorly water-soluble drug by applying liquisolid technique. The effects of two critical formulation variables, namely drug concentration (17.5% and 35%, w/w) and excipients ratio (10, 15 and 20) on dissolution rates were investigated. Pre-compression tests, including particle size distribution, flowability determination, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were carried out to investigate the mechanism of dissolution enhancement. Tadalafil liquisolid tablets were prepared and their quality control tests, dissolution study, contact angle measurement, Raman mapping, and storage stability test were performed. The results suggested that all the liquisolid tablets exhibited significantly higher dissolution rates than the conventional tablets and pure tadalafil. FT-IR spectrum reflected no drug-excipient interactions. DSC and XRD studies indicated reduction in crystallinity of tadalafil, which was further confirmed by SEM and Raman mapping outcomes. The contact angle measurement demonstrated obvious increase in wetting property. Taken together, the reduction of particle size and crystallinity, and the improvement of wettability were the main mechanisms for the enhanced dissolution rate. No significant changes were observed in drug crystallinity and dissolution behavior after storage based on XRD, SEM and dissolution results.

  5. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.


    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…


    The rate of carbonate mineral dissolution from limestone was studied using a rotating disk apparatus and samples of limestone of varied composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of limestone composition on the kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution. Th...

  7. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the initial phase, the dissolution rate of a soluble compound is very high due to the high concentration gradient, and as dissolution progresses, its effective solubility decreases with change in mole fraction. At higher pore volumes, the mole fractions of lower solubility fractions increase which can result in higher ...

  8. Effect of ammonium compounds on dissolution rate of South African calcium-based material. (United States)

    Rutto, Hillary; Siagi, Zachariah; Mbarawa, M


    The rate at which limestone dissolves is very important in wet flue gas desulphurisation process (FGD). High dissolution rates provide better alkalinity that is important for sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) absorption. The dissolution characteristics have been studied by using a pH-Stat method at 60 degrees C, at pH value of 5, stirrer speed of 100 rpm and particle size of 44 microm. This paper examines the use of ammonium compound as the possible additives that will enhance the dissolution rate of limestone. The dissolution rates were measured according to the shrinking core model with surface control, i.e. (1-(1-X)(1/3))=k(r)t. It was found that the dissolution rate increases in the presence of ammonium compounds. Upon addition of 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, the dissolution rate constants increased by 170%. As the pH is increased the dissolution rate decreases. The dissolution reaction follows a shrinking core model with the chemical reaction control as the rate-controlling step.

  9. Effect of room temperature transport vials on DNA quality and phylogenetic composition of faecal microbiota of elderly adults and infants. (United States)

    Hill, Cian J; Brown, Jillian R M; Lynch, Denise B; Jeffery, Ian B; Ryan, C Anthony; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; O'Toole, Paul W


    Alterations in intestinal microbiota have been correlated with a growing number of diseases. Investigating the faecal microbiota is widely used as a non-invasive and ethically simple proxy for intestinal biopsies. There is an urgent need for collection and transport media that would allow faecal sampling at distance from the processing laboratory, obviating the need for same-day DNA extraction recommended by previous studies of freezing and processing methods for stool. We compared the faecal bacterial DNA quality and apparent phylogenetic composition derived using a commercial kit for stool storage and transport (DNA Genotek OMNIgene GUT) with that of freshly extracted samples, 22 from infants and 20 from older adults. Use of the storage vials increased the quality of extracted bacterial DNA by reduction of DNA shearing. When infant and elderly datasets were examined separately, no differences in microbiota composition were observed due to storage. When the two datasets were combined, there was a difference according to a Wilcoxon test in the relative proportions of Faecalibacterium, Sporobacter, Clostridium XVIII, and Clostridium XlVa after 1 week's storage compared to immediately extracted samples. After 2 weeks' storage, Bacteroides abundance was also significantly different, showing an apparent increase from week 1 to week 2. The microbiota composition of infant samples was more affected than that of elderly samples by storage, with significantly higher Spearman distances between paired freshly extracted and stored samples (p microbiota profiles were analysed at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, three infant datasets in the study did not cluster together, while only one elderly dataset did not. The lower microbiota diversity of the infant gut microbiota compared to the elderly gut microbiota (p microbiota samples, but may be less appropriate for lower diversity samples. Differences between fresh and stored samples mean that where storage is

  10. Enhanced performance large volume dissolution-DNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik


    A systematic study of the performance of the dissolution process in dissolution-DNP is presented. A relatively simple set of modifications is made to the standard Hypersense dissolution system to enable polarization of large volume samples. These consist of a large volume sample cup along...... with supporting modifications to the dissolution head and related components. Additional modifications were made to support the mapping of the temperature/pressure space of the dissolution process as well as enabling the use of large volumes of solvent and improving the robustness of the system. No loss...... of polarization was observed as sample size was increased to the 1g capacity of the large volume cup and for a dilution factor as low as 1:10....

  11. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong


    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  12. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets. (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon


    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test <1% with a disintegration time <5 min. The sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  13. Dissolution of Metal Supported Spent Auto Catalysts in Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornalczyk A.


    Full Text Available Metal supported auto catalysts, have been used in sports and racing cars initially, but nowadays their application systematically increases. In Metal Substrate (supported Converters (MSC, catalytic functions are performed by the Platinum Group Metals (PGM: Pt, Pd, Rh, similarly to the catalysts on ceramic carriers. The contents of these metals make that spent catalytic converters are valuable source of precious metals. All over the world there are many methods for the metals recovery from the ceramic carriers, however, the issue of platinum recovery from metal supported catalysts has not been studied sufficiently yet. The paper presents preliminary results of dissolution of spent automotive catalyst on a metal carrier by means of acids: H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4. The main assumption of the research was the dissolution of base metals (Fe, Cr, Al from metallic carrier of catalyst, avoiding dissolution of PGMs. Dissolution was the most effective when concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 2M sulfuric acid (VI was used. It was observed that the dust, remaining after leaching, contained platinum in the level of 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively.

  14. Dissolution Enhancement of Drugs. Part II: Effect of Carriers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... surfactants, in dissolution enhancement. This part describes the use of cyclodextrin, carbohydrates, hydrotropes, polyglocolized glycerides, dendrimers, acids and miscellaneous carriers in enhancing dissolution of drugs. Keywords: Dissolution enhancement; aqueous solubility, water soluble carriers; lipophilic, excipients.

  15. Vial usage, device dead space, vaccine wastage, and dose accuracy of intradermal delivery devices for inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). (United States)

    Jarrahian, Courtney; Rein-Weston, Annie; Saxon, Gene; Creelman, Ben; Kachmarik, Greg; Anand, Abhijeet; Zehrung, Darin


    Intradermal delivery of a fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) offers potential benefits compared to intramuscular (IM) delivery, including possible cost reductions and easing of IPV supply shortages. Objectives of this study were to assess intradermal delivery devices for dead space, wastage generated by the filling process, dose accuracy, and total number of doses that can be delivered per vial. Devices tested included syringes with staked (fixed) needles (autodisable syringes and syringes used with intradermal adapters), a luer-slip needle and syringe, a mini-needle syringe, a hollow microneedle device, and disposable-syringe jet injectors with their associated filling adapters. Each device was used to withdraw 0.1-mL fractional doses from single-dose IM glass vials which were then ejected into a beaker. Both vial and device were weighed before and after filling and again after expulsion of liquid to record change in volume at each stage of the process. Data were used to calculate the number of doses that could potentially be obtained from multidose vials. Results show wide variability in dead space, dose accuracy, overall wastage, and total number of doses that can be obtained per vial among intradermal delivery devices. Syringes with staked needles had relatively low dead space and low overall wastage, and could achieve a greater number of doses per vial compared to syringes with a detachable luer-slip needle. Of the disposable-syringe jet injectors tested, one was comparable to syringes with staked needles. If intradermal delivery of IPV is introduced, selection of an intradermal delivery device can have a substantial impact on vaccine wasted during administration, and thus on the required quantity of vaccine that needs to be purchased. An ideal intradermal delivery device should be not only safe, reliable, accurate, and acceptable to users and vaccine recipients, but should also have low dead space, high dose accuracy, and low overall

  16. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping


    , flow-through and beaker methods) were employed and compared. The modified Franz cell method was selected to test the dissolution behaviour of aerosolised powder formulations to eliminate the effect of membrane on dissolution. The results showed that surface enrichment of hydrophobic rifampicin neither...... of combination powders....

  17. Dissolution of steel slags in aqueous media. (United States)

    Yadav, Shashikant; Mehra, Anurag


    Steel slag is a major industrial waste in steel industries, and its dissolution behavior in water needs to be characterized in the larger context of its potential use as an agent for sequestering CO2. For this purpose, a small closed system batch reactor was used to conduct the dissolution of steel slags in an aqueous medium under various dissolution conditions. In this study, two different types of steel slags were procured from steel plants in India, having diverse structural features, mineralogical compositions, and particle sizes. The experiment was performed at different temperatures for 240 h of dissolution at atmospheric pressure. The dissolution rates of major and minor slag elements were quantified through liquid-phase elemental analysis using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy at different time intervals. Advanced analytical techniques such as field emission gun-scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, BET, and XRD were also used to analyze mineralogical and structural changes in the slag particles. High dissolution of slags was observed irrespective of the particle size distribution, which suggests high carbonation potential. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in the leachate were far below maximum acceptable limits. Thus, the present study investigates the dissolution behavior of different mineral ions of steel slag in aqueous media in light of its potential application in CO2 sequestration.

  18. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage. (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E


    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling dissolution of sparingly soluble multisized powders. (United States)

    de Almeida, L P; Simöes, S; Brito, P; Portugal, A; Figueiredo, M


    The dissolution of powder drugs, besides being a topic of utmost importance, especially for the sparingly soluble ones, is far from being well-explained. The purpose of the present study is, on the one hand, to obtain experimental dissolution profiles and, on the other hand, to analyze and process the data for dissolution modeling. Three different size fractions of a widely used sparingly soluble drug--ibuprofen--were fully characterized with regard to its particle size distribution, specific surface area, density, solubility, and diffusion coefficient. The dissolution profiles were obtained making use of a technique that counts and sizes particles--the Coulter counter technique--which is capable of following the number and size of the particles in suspension throughout time. The knowledge of these parameters allowed a critical study of the assumptions associated with the models currently used to describe the dissolution process. It was concluded that most of the assumptions were not valid for the present experimental conditions. This motivated the proposal of a new methodology, which uses the experimentally determined characteristics of the drug and takes into account the polydisperse nature of the powder. By applying an adequate dissolution equation to each of the many size classes in which the primary particle size distribution was divided, it was possible to obtain a large agreement between the simulated and the experimental dissolution profile.

  20. International harmonization of generic drugs: in vitro dissolution tests for Japanese and American generic tablets. (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tomita, Hisako; Otsuka, Kuniko; Kamae, Isao; Jorgenson, James A


    Ibuprofen tablets on the market in Japan and the USA were compared by manual- and automatic-dissolution tests according to USP24 criteria. Dissolution test were performed in 900 ml of phosphate buffer of pH 7.2 at 37.0+/-0.5 degrees C at 50 rpm for 60 min, and the time required for 70% dissolution (T70%) and 5% dissolution after 60 min (A60) were evaluated. The dissolution profiles of both Japanese and American tablets by the automatic-method showed almost the same profiles as those of the manual method. T70% of the American and Japanese tablets by the manual method were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the automatic-method at various sampling positions. The A60 of the American and Japanese tablets by the manual-method was not significantly different (p>0.05) except at one position. The results indicate that the automatic-method was more reproducible than the manual-method, and also that systematic error was negligible. The T70% and A60 of the American tablets were significantly different (p<0.05) from the Japanese tablets. The American tablets were a film-coated over-the-counter drug and the Japanese tablets were a sugar-coated prescription drug. There was a difference in dissolution behavior between the dosage forms of the two countries.

  1. Predictores Psicosociales de Delitos contra la Seguridad Vial: Un Estudio con Internos de un Centro Penitenciario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Herraiz Gonzalo


    Full Text Available En el Centro Penitenciario de Hombres de Barcelona ha habido un aumento creciente de ingresos por delitos contra la seguridad vial. El objetivo de esta investigación es obtener un perfil psicológico en una muestra de 115 internos, analizar cuáles son los predictores en la conducción agresiva, y finalmente contrastar la posible existencia de diferentes tipologías, en función de la ausencia o presencia de otros delitos, con o sin componentes agresivos. Los resultados muestran que las causas o estados que causan irritación, los antecedentes familiares de conducción agresiva y la presencia de trastornos psiquiátricos son predictores de la conducta agresiva en la conducción, así como la agresividad física es también un predictor de los accidentes. No hay diferencias en internos que también presentan otras tipologías delictivas.

  2. Experiment and Simulation Study of Hydrodynamic Dispersion and Finger Dynamics for Convective Dissolution of Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Liang, Y.; DiCarlo, D. A.; Hesse, M. A.


    Carbon capture and storage in deep geological formations has the potential to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from industrial point sources. Dissolution of CO2 into the brine, resulting in stable stratification, has been identified as the key to long-term storage security. Here we present new analogue laboratory experiment method, advanced image processing method and optimized simulation method to characterize CO2 convective dissolution trapping process and gravitational finger behaviors, in order to study the effect of hydrodynamic dispersion on the CO2 convective dissolution process, as well as to study the effect of control physical parameters on the gravitational finger dynamics. Figure 1 shows the image processing method to analyze the finger dynamics. Understanding the effect of hydrodynamic dispersion and the finger dynamics are essential to evaluate whether convective dissolution occurs, as well as to predict how fast it occurs at the geological CO2 storage field scale. The effect of hydrodynamics dispersion and the finger dynamics can be applied to estimate the security of geological CO2 storage fields, in turn. Optimiezed simulation work is conducted to predict the CO2 dissolution rate at geological CO2 storage field. The large experimental assembly will allow us to quantify in detail for the first time the relationship between convective dissolution rate and the controlling factors of the system, including permeability and driven force, which could be essential to trapping process at Bravo Dome geological CO2 storage field. We complement the homogeneous experiments with a detailed study of the scaling law of the convective flux with dispersion effect. The advanced image processing method with Fourier's transform method allow us to understand the finger dynamics and corresponding control factors in porous media, for the first time. By applying the dispersion effect and finger dynamics we found from the experimental study, we optimize the simulation

  3. Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieve based Nanocarriers: Transpiring Drug Dissolution Research. (United States)

    Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Pathak, Kamla


    Improvement of oral bioavailability through enhancement of dissolution for poorly soluble drugs has been a very promising approach. Recently, mesoporous silica based molecular sieves have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the dissolution velocity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the factors influencing the drug release from these carriers, the kinetics of drug release and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This comprehensive review provides an overview of different methods adopted for synthesis of mesoporous materials, influence of processing factors on properties of these materials and drug loading methods. The drug release kinetics from mesoporous silica systems, the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the safety and biocompatibility issues related to these silica based materials are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  4. Chlorhexidine gel associated with papain in pulp tissue dissolution


    Gabriel Couto De Oliveira; Caio Souza Ferraz; Carlos Vieira Andrade Júnior; Matheus Melo Pithon


    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with 8% papain gel in comparison with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. Materials and Methods Ninety bovine pulps of standardized sizes were used and fragmented into 5-mm sizes. The fragments were removed from the root middle third region. They were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 15), 1) 8% papain; 2) 2% chlorhexidine; 3) 2% chlorhexidine associated with 8% pap...

  5. La Webquest como innovación educativa en el ámbito de la educación vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María GOIG MARTÍNEZ


    Full Text Available La Educación Vial en las edades tempranas se puede implementar a través de cuentos, talleres, rincones de juego, patios de recreo, salidas extraescolares, actividades de psicomotricidad. Sin embargo, es importante destacar el papel de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación en el enriquecimiento de las propuestas de aula en relación a la Educación Vial, tomándolas como recurso complementario, en nuestro contexto, la Webquest. Sin olvidar la necesidad de seguir trabajando con los niños y las niñas situaciones reales ligadas a sus experiencias vitales en materia de Educación Vial, pues el mundo real nunca debiera ser desplazado por el mundo virtual en ningún caso, máxime si tenemos en cuenta que se trata de la etapa de Educación Infantil. El objetivo general de este artículo es corroborar que la Webquest constituye una auténtica oportunidad para innovar en el ámbito de la Educación Vial, ofreciendo al alumnado experiencias didácticas coherentes y complementarias desde la etapa de Educación Infantil. La metodología, de carácter cuantitativo y cualitativo, se desarrolló a través de la aplicación de un cuestionario, de una entrevista, del análisis documental y su triangulación, finalizando con el análisis de los datos obtenidos. Una de las conclusiones obtenidas expone que la Webquest es un recurso que nos facilita el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y aumenta la motivación tanto en alumnos como en agentes educativos.

  6. Low temperature dissolution flowsheet for plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The H-Canyon flowsheet used to dissolve Pu metal for PuO2 production utilizes boiling HNO3. SRNL was requested to develop a complementary dissolution flowsheet at two reduced temperature ranges. The dissolution and H2 generation rates of Pu metal were investigated using a dissolving solution at ambient temperature (20-30 °C) and for an intermediate temperature of 50-60 °C. Additionally, the testing included an investigation of the dissolution rates and characterization of the off-gas generated from the ambient temperature dissolution of carbon steel cans and the nylon bags that contain the Pu metal when charged to the dissolver.

  7. [Phytobezoar dissolution with Coca-Cola]. (United States)

    Martínez de Juan, F; Martínez-Lapiedra, C; Picazo, V


    The treatment of phytobezoar is empiric. The various therapeutic choices include dietary modifications, prokinetic drugs, gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic treatment, and surgery. We present two cases of phytobezoar with successful outcome after Coca-Cola administration.

  8. Dissolution Rates and Mineral Lifetimes of Phosphate Containing Minerals and Implications for Mars (United States)

    Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E.


    The objectives of NASA's Mars Exploration Program include exploring the planet's habitability and the possibility of past, present, or future life. This includes investigating "possible supplies of bioessential elements" [1]. Phosphate is one such bioessential element for life as we understand it. Phosphate is also abundant on Mars [2], and the phosphate rich minerals chlorapatite, fluorapatite, and merrillite have been observed in Martian meteorites [3]. Surface rock analyses from the MER Spirit also show the loss of a phosphate rich mineral from the rocks Wishstone and Watchtower at Gusev Crater [4,5], implying mineral dissolution. Dissolution rates of phosphate containing minerals are therefore important for characterizing phosphate mobility and bioavailability on Mars. Previous studies have measured dissolution rates of fluorapatite [6-8]. However, chlorapatite and merrillite (a non-terrestrial mineral similar to whitlockite) are more common phosphate minerals found in Martian meteorites [3], and few dissolution data exist for these minerals. We have begun batch dissolution experiments on chlorapatite, synthesized using methods of [9], and whitlockite, synthesized using a method modified from [10]. Additionally, we are dissolving Durango fluorapatite to compare to dissolution rates in literature, and natural Palermo whitlockite to compare to dissolution rates of our synthesized whitlockite. Batch dissolution experiments were performed after [8], using a 0.01 molar KNO3 solution with 0.1500g-0.3000g mineral powders and starting solution volumes of 180ml in LDPE reaction vessels. HNO3 or KOH were used to adjust initial pH as required. Dissolution rates are calculated from the rate of change of elemental concentration in solution as a function of time, and normalized to the mineral surface area as measured by BET. Resulting rates will be used to calculate mineral lifetimes for the different phosphate minerals under potential Mars-like aqueous conditions, and in

  9. Dissolution assessment of allopurinol immediate release tablets by near infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Smetiško, Jelena; Miljanić, Snežana


    The purpose of this study was to develop a NIR spectroscopic method for assessment of drug dissolution from allopurinol immediate release tablets. Thirty three different batches of allopurinol immediate release tablets containing constant amount of the active ingredient, but varying in excipients content and physical properties were introduced in a PLS calibration model. Correlating allopurinol dissolution reference values measured by the routinely used UV/Vis method, with the data extracted from the NIR spectra, values of correlation coefficient, bias, slope, residual prediction determination and root mean square error of prediction (0.9632, 0.328%, 1.001, 3.58, 3.75%) were evaluated. The obtained values implied that the NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy could serve as a faster and simpler alternative to the conventional dissolution procedure, even for the tablets with a very fast dissolution rate (>85% in 15minutes). Apart from the possibility of prediction of the allopurinol dissolution rate, the other multivariate technique, PCA, provided additional data on the non-chemical characteristics of the product, which could not be obtained from the reference dissolution values. Analysis on an independent set of samples confirmed that a difference between the UV/Vis reference method and the proposed NIR method was not significant. According to the presented results, the proposed NIR method may be suitable for practical application in routine analysis and for continuously monitoring the product's chemical and physical properties responsible for expected quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciptono Ciptono


    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the phenomenon of presence / absence of anomalies in the early development of Mimi-giant mintuno (Tachypleus gigas during artificial incubation in the vial bottles. Samples 5 eggs are fertilized incorporated into transparent 50 bottles and vials each filled with clear sea water medium. Embryonic stages (instars hatch, bottles marked, then dumped seawater medium was replaced with 4% formalin solution and glycerin amount of 5% by volume, up to ¾ of the total volume of the vial bottles. Standard stages of giant Mimi-mintuno embryonic normal development Mimi-mintuno according to Itow (1988. The description type of anomalies contained in the post-hatching embryo development. The observations are documented in the form of stereo-microphotograph. The results showed that there are forms anomalies: (a. Delayed development, the structure of the body is not perfect; (b. In observation of the embryo hatches, open shell and egg perivitelline membrane has been opened but delayed development, the structure of the body is not perfect; (c. Embryos after hatched perfectly, abnormalities of morphologic structure such as abnormal protrusion on the dorsal carapace part found.   Keywords: Tachypleus gigas, artificially, incubation

  11. Status report on dissolution model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.D.


    The computer program PROTOCOL models the dissolution reactions of chemical species in water. It is being developed particularly to study the dissolution of proposed nuclear waste forms and related phases. Experimentally derived leaching rate functions are coupled to thermochemical equilibrium calculations and water flow rates. The program has been developed over a period of years. This report describes improvements that have been done in the past year.

  12. Variability of Zinc Oxide Dissolution Rates. (United States)

    Michaelis, Monika; Fischer, Cornelius; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; Luttge, Andreas


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is of widespread use for numerous applications, including many in the cosmetic industry. Thus, ZnO particles are quite likely to enter the environment. ZnO may be harmful because of the release of cytotoxic Zn2+ ions during dissolution reactions. Here, we analyze the dissolution kinetics of the polar zinc-terminated (000-1) and nonpolar (10-10) crystal surfaces in ultrapure water to examine the impact of the crystal defects on dissolution. By using a complementary approach of atomic force microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry, we quantify the difference in reaction rate between the crystal faces, the overall range of rate variability, and the rate components that combine to an overall rate. The mean dissolution rate of the (000-1) crystal surface is more than 4 times that of the (10-10) surface. By using the rate spectrum analysis, we observed an overall dissolution rate variability of more than 1 order of magnitude. The rate components and the range of dissolution rate are important input parameters in reactive transport models for the prediction of potential release of Zn2+ into the environment.

  13. Assessment of solvents for cellulose dissolution. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tsianou, Marina; Alexandridis, Paschalis


    A necessary step in the processing of biomass is the pretreatment and dissolution of cellulose. A good solvent for cellulose involves high diffusivity, aggressiveness in decrystallization, and capability of disassociating the cellulose chains. However, it is not clear which of these factors and under what conditions should be improved in order to obtain a more effective solvent. To this end, a newly-developed phenomenological model has been applied to assess the controlling mechanism of cellulose dissolution. Among the findings, the cellulose fibers remain crystalline almost to the end of the dissolution process for decrystallization-controlled kinetics. In such solvents, decreasing the fiber crystallinity, e.g., via pretreatment, would result in a considerable increase in the dissolution rate. Such insights improve the understanding of cellulose dissolution and facilitate the selection of more efficient solvents and processing conditions for biomass. Specific examples of solvents are provided where dissolution is limited due to decrystallization or disentanglement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid analysis of drug dissolution by paper spray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Ning; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Lin, Lan; He, Lan


    With a great quantity of solid dosage tested by dissolution technology, developing a rapid and sensitive method to access the content of drug within dissolution media is highly desired by analysts and scientists. Traditionally, dissolution media is not compatible with mass spectrometry since the inorganic salts in the media might damage the mass spectrometer. Here, paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS), one of the ambient mass spectrometry technologies, is developed to characterize the content of drugs in dissolution media. The porous structure of paper can effectively retain salts from entering mass spectrometer. This makes the measurement of drug content within dissolution media by mass spectrometer possible. After the experimental parameters were optimized, calibration curves of model drugs - enalapril, quinapril and benazepril were established by using corresponding deuterated internal standards. PSI-MS was then deployed to characterize the content of enalapril from the dissolution testing of enalapril tablets. The results from PSI-MS are comparable to those from HPLC characterization. More importantly, the analysis time of 6 samples is shortened from 90min to 6min. Detection limit of enalapril maleate tablets by PSI-MS is 1/300 of LC. PSI-MS is rapid, sensitive and accurate in analyzing drug content from dissolution tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of Deteriorated Dissolution of Amorphous Itraconazole: Description of Incompatibility with Magnesium Stearate and Possible Solutions. (United States)

    Démuth, B; Galata, D L; Szabó, E; Nagy, B; Farkas, A; Balogh, A; Hirsch, E; Pataki, H; Rapi, Z; Bezúr, L; Vigh, T; Verreck, G; Szalay, Z; Demeter, Á; Marosi, G; Nagy, Z K


    Disadvantageous crystallization phenomenon of amorphous itraconazole (ITR) occurring in the course of dissolution process was investigated in this work. A perfectly amorphous form (solid dispersion) of the drug was generated by the electroblowing method (with vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer), and the obtained fibers were formulated into tablets. Incomplete dissolution of the tablets was noticed under the circumstances of the standard dissolution test, after which a precipitated material could be filtered. The filtrate consisted of ITR and stearic acid since no magnesium content was detectable in it. In parallel with dissolution, ITR forms an insoluble associate, stabilized by hydrogen bonding, with stearic acid deriving from magnesium stearate. This is why dissolution curves do not have the plateaus at 100%. Two ways are viable to tackle this issue: change the lubricant (with sodium stearyl fumarate >95% dissolution can be accomplished) or alter the polymer in the solid dispersion to a type being able to form hydrogen bonds with ITR (e.g., hydroxypropyl methylcellulose). This work draws attention to one possible phenomenon that can lead to a deterioration of originally good dissolution of an amorphous solid dispersion.

  16. Calcite dissolution rate spectra measured by in situ digital holographic microscopy. (United States)

    Brand, Alexander S; Feng, Pan; Bullard, Jeffrey W


    Digital holographic microscopy in reflection mode is used to track in situ, real-time nanoscale topography evolution of cleaved (104) calcite surfaces exposed to flowing or static deionized water. The method captures full-field holograms of the surface at frame rates of up to 12.5 s(-1). Numerical reconstruction provides 3D surface topography with vertical resolution of a few nanometers and enables measurement of time-dependent local dissolution fluxes. A statistical distribution, or spectrum, of dissolution rates is generated by sampling multiple area domains on multiple crystals. The data show, as has been demonstrated by Fischer et al. (2012), that dissolution is most fully described by a rate spectrum, although the modal dissolution rate agrees well with published mean dissolution rates (e.g., 0.1 µmol m(-2) s(-1) to 0.3 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). Rhombohedral etch pits and other morphological features resulting from rapid local dissolution appear at different times and are heterogeneously distributed across the surface and through the depth. This makes the distribution in rates measured on a single crystal dependent both on the sample observation field size and on time, even at nominally constant undersaturation. Statistical analysis of the inherent noise in the DHM measurements indicates that the technique is robust and that it likely can be applied to quantify and interpret rate spectra for the dissolution or growth of other minerals.

  17. Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  18. Mechanism and Kinetics for the Dissolution of Apatitic Materials in Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmanovici C.E.


    Full Text Available Abstract - This work concerns the study of the digestion step in the production process of phosphoric acid. Some qualitative experiments indicate that the difference between the pH at the surface of the phosphate and that in the bulk of the solution is negligible and that the dissolution is controlled by diffusion of products away from the phosphate particle. In further experiments, to isolate the dissolution phenomenon from the formation of calcium sulfate, the sulfuric acid normally used industrially is replaced by hydrochloric acid. The phosphate material used in our experiments is a model apatitic material: synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP. The dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite was studied with increasing amounts of calcium and phosphate at different temperatures. A simple method was developed for this observation based on the time required for complete dissolution of the HAP powder. The results confirm that the dissolution is controlled by a diffusional process through an interface of calcium and phosphate ions released from the solid surface. A kinetic model for the dissolution of apatitic materials is proposed which assumes a shrinking particle behaviour controlled by diffusion of calcium ions. The experimental results are fitted to this model to determine the mass transfer constant for HAP dissolution in acid solutions. The activation energy of the reaction is about 14kJ/mol. This study was carried on in conditions similar to the industrial ones for the production of phosphoric acid by the dihydrate-process

  19. Auditorías viales e intervenciones para prevenir atropellamientos, Cuernavaca, México, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Híjar M.


    Full Text Available Resumen Los atropellamientos son un problema de Salud Pública en México. Representan más del 40% de las muertes reportadas como lesiones causadas por el tránsito (lct. En zonas urbanas representan hasta el 60% de las lct. Objetivo: caracterizar y analizar algunas zonas donde se concentraban tanto las muertes como los lesionados por atropellamiento en Cuernavaca, México. Metodología: desde un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo se planearon y ejecutaron auditorías viales sobre las intersecciones que habían representado mayor riesgo de lesiones y muertes en peatones. En cada lugar se evaluó el aforo peatonal, vehicular, los ciclos semafóricos, las condiciones del medio ambiente físico y se tomaron archivos fotográficos. Resultados: se observó deficiencia de elementos del medio ambiente físico: señalamientos desgastados sobre y al costado de la vía, mala visibilidad por ramas de árboles, vehículos estacionados indebidamente, paradas no autorizadas de transporte público, no uso de puentes peatonales y ciclos semafóricos deficientes. Conclusión: las auditorías viales son herramientas procedentes y empleadas en la ingeniería del tránsito, poco usadas por los salubristas como técnicas para prevenir LCT, en especial atropellamientos. Permiten diseñar e implementar medidas de prevención primaria para disminuir los riesgos de lesión en los usuarios más vulnerables de la vía pública: los peatones. Abstract Pedestrian injuries are a public health problem in Mexico.Represent more than 40% of the deaths reported as road traffic injuries (rti. Likewise, they represent up to 60% of all RTIs in urban areas. Objective: To characterize and analyze the areas with a high incidence of fatal and non-fatal pedestrian injuries in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Methodology: a retrospective descriptive study in which street audits were conducted on the intersections with the highest risk of pedestrian fatality and injury. Pedestrian and vehicle equipment

  20. Criterios de cuantificación indemnizatoria en accidentalidad vial: una ítica judicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pantoja Echeverri


    Full Text Available La accidentalidad vial, es la segunda causa de muerte violenta en Colombia, fuente de daños materiales y morales en las personas. Las normas de responsabilidad civil obligan al propietario o conductor a responder civil y penalmente por sus consecuencias. El problema de accidentalidad y de la cuantificación de indemnizaciones, reviste gran interés por el alto número de procesos que por homicidios en accidentes de tránsito cursan en el Distrito Judicial de Cali. En la investigación realizada en la Escuela de Ingeniería Estadística de la Universidad del Valle, se efectuó recolección de expedientes y se aplicó una encuesta de tipo cuestionario para indagar sobre la política judicial que se usó en el cálculo de indemnizaciones en Juzgados Penales del Circuito de Cali, donde se observa gran disparidad en los criterios de reparación. Tampoco se contempla un modelo estándar para cuantificar los perjuicios tanto materiales como morales y no hay evidencia de una política baremada; por tanto, el estudio intenta brindar un marco de referencia para proponer a Jueces y Fiscales, un modelo de regresión múltiple en el cual se consideran características socioeconómicas de víctimas, perjudicados y procesados, con el fin de unificar criterios de cuantificación que fijen el monto de la reparación económica a los perjudicados, sus herederos. El modelo resultante propone criterios utilizados por las compañías de seguros para fijar las primas de seguro de vida, tales como: el tiempo de vida y el nivel de ingresos del occiso, y responsabilidades con su grupo familiar.

  1. Latent variable modeling to analyze the effects of process parameters on the dissolution of paracetamol tablet


    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang


    The dissolution is one of the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of oral solid dosage forms because it relates to the absorption of drug. In this paper, the influence of raw materials, granules and process parameters on the dissolution of paracetamol tablet was analyzed using latent variable modeling methods. The variability in raw materials and granules was understood based on the principle component analysis (PCA), respectively. A multi-block partial least squares (MBPLS) model was used to ...

  2. Improving the dissolution properties of spironolactone using liquisolid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari


    Full Text Available In this study the effect of liquisolid technique on the dissolution profile of spironolactone was evaluated. Different formulations of spironolactone liquisolid compacts were prepared using various amounts of non-volatile vehicles (Poly ethylene glycol 400 and glycerin. The ratio of microcrystalline cellulose (as carrier to silica (as coating powder material was 20 for all formulations. After preparing tablets by direct compression with constant compression load, the release profiles were evaluated by USP paddle method. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and FTIR were used to evaluate any interaction between spironolactone and other ingredients. The liquisolid tablets exhibited significantly higher dissolution rates in comparison with conventionally direct compressed tablets. Furthermore results showed dissolution rate enhancement of liquisolid tablets by increase in the amounts of non-volatile vehicles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, the drug has got solubilized in the liquid vehicle. FT-IR spectroscopy studies of pure spironolactone, liquisolid compacts, glycerin and PEG400 supported solubilization of the drug in the liquid vehicle too. The FT-IR spectra also showed that no interactions have been occurred between spironolactone and other ingredients. In conclusion the liquisolid technique can be a suitable method in order to prepare rapid release tablets of poorly water-soluble drugs such as spironolactone.

  3. Dissolution of chromium in sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. POPIC


    Full Text Available By combining electrochemical corrosion rate measurements and spectrophotometric analysis of the electrolyte it was shown that at room temperature chromium dissolves in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 + H2SO4 (pH 1 solution as Cr(II and Cr(III ions in he ratio Cr(II : Cr(III @ 7 : 1. This process was stable over 4 h without any detectable change. The total corrosion rate of chromium calculated from the analytical data is about 12 times higher, than that determined electrochemically by cathodic Tafel line extrapolation to the corrosion potential. This finding was confirmed by applying the weight-loss method for the determination of the corrosion rate. This enormous difference between these experimentally determined corrosion rates can be explained by the rather fast, “anomalous” dissolution process proposed by Kolotyrkin and coworkers (chemical reaction of Cr with H2O molecules occurring simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process.

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy to monitor drug release in-situ during dissolution tests. (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Matias, Rita; Figueiredo, Raquel; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto S; Martins, Ana Teixeira; Lopes, João Almeida


    Dissolution tests can be used to demonstrate suitable in vivo drug release through in vivo/in vitro correlations. This work explores the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor in-situ dissolution tests. It aims at expanding surrogate methods in quality control of drug products. Laboratory designed tablets of an immediate-release formulation containing folic acid and four excipients were used as case study. The dissolution tests were performed on a 1L vessel filled with 500ml of Milli-Q water with a rotating paddle apparatus (apparatus 2, Ph. Eur.) at 50rpm and 37±0.5°C. Near infrared (NIR) spectra were acquired in-situ with a transflectance probe connected to a Fourier-transform near infrared spectrometer. NIR spectra were regressed against folic acid concentration by partial least squares (PLS) regression. Folic acid concentrations during dissolution tests were obtained by periodically sampling the dissolution vessel and resourcing to an UV method. The proposed real-time NIR method was tested on a validation run yielding a root mean squared error of 0.25μgml(-1) (0.16μgml(-1) for the calibration runs) and a R(2) of 0.93 (0.95 for the calibration runs). The results suggest that NIRS is a suitable analytical technique for monitoring in-situ dissolution tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali


    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  6. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi


    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  7. Machine learning approach for predicting the effect of CO2 solubility on dissolution rate of calcite (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad


    A machine learning-assisted model is developed to predict the dissolution rate of calcite in saline solutions that are imbibed with dissolved CO2 over a broad range of both subcritical and supercritical conditions. This study focuses on determining the rate of calcite dissolution within a temperature range of 50-100 C and pressures up to 600 bar, relevant for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. A general reaction kinetic model is used that is based on the extension of the standard Arrhenius equation with an added, solubility dependent, pH term to account for the saturated concentration of dissolved CO2. The kinetic model helps to obtain a predictive rate equation using machine learning methods to determine the dissolution of calcite as a function of temperature, pressure and salinity. The new rate equation helps us obtain good agreement with experimental data, and it is applied to study the geochemically induced alterations of fracture geometry due to calcite dissolution.

  8. Dissolution of magnetite and redistribution of heavy metals in urban soils (model experiment) (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.


    Technogenic magnetite in urban soils is extremely various in properties. Its particles strongly differ in magnetic susceptibility and degree of association with heavy metals. In the city of Perm, particles of magnetite enriched with different heavy metals are precipitated, which indicates different sources of technogenic magnetite within the limits of the city. The dissolution of magnetite and the effect of this process on the behavior of heavy metals have been simulated by the magnetochemical method. In strongly magnetic soils, the dissolution of highly magnetic macrocrystalline magnetite is accompanied by the dissolution of heavy metals: Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cu. The secondary precipitates of hydroxides of iron and heavy metals (predominantly Pb, Cu, and Ni) are formed relatively rarely, mainly in weakly magnetic soils, where slightly magnetic and dispersed magnetite is present. In cities, the dissolution of magnetite is favored by the added salts and organic acids released by plants.

  9. Arresting dissolution by interfacial rheology design (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J.; Gupta, Manish; Alicke, Alexandra; Liascukiene, Irma; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.; Vermant, Jan


    A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an “armored bubble” to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air-water interface as a function of surface coverage. Bubbles with varying particle coverages are made and their resistance to dissolution evaluated using a microfluidic technique. Whereas a bare bubble only has a single pressure at which a given radius is stable, we find a range of pressures over which bubble dissolution is arrested for armored bubbles. The link between interfacial rheology and macroscopic dissolution of ˜ 100 μm bubbles coated with ˜ 1 μm particles is presented and discussed. The generic design rationale is confirmed by using nonspherical particles, which develop significant yield stress at even lower surface coverages. Hence, it can be applied to successfully inhibit Ostwald ripening in a multitude of foam and emulsion applications.

  10. Evaluating the role of re-adsorption of dissolved Hg{sup 2+} during cinnabar dissolution using isotope tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Li, Yanbin [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Guangliang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Yang, Guidi [College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Yin, Yongguang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gu, Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Cai, Yong, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)


    Highlights: • Develop a new method to study Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar. • Both isotope dilution and tracer techniques were adopted. • The presence of O{sub 2} can significantly enhance the dissolution of cinnabar. • Prove the necessity of including re-adsorption in estimating cinnabar dissolution. - Abstract: Cinnabar dissolution is an important factor controlling mercury (Hg) cycling. Recent studies have suggested the co-occurrence of re-adsorption of the released Hg during the course of cinnabar dissolution. However, there is a lack of feasible techniques that can quantitatively assess the amount of Hg re-adsorbed on cinnabar when investigating cinnabar dissolution. In this study, a new method, based on isotope tracing and dilution techniques, was developed to study the role of Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar dissolution. The developed method includes two key components: (1) accurate measurement of both released and spiked Hg in aqueous phase and (2) estimation of re-adsorbed Hg on cinnabar surface via the reduction in spiked {sup 202}Hg{sup 2+}. By adopting the developed method, it was found that the released Hg for trials purged with oxygen could reach several hundred μg L{sup −1}, while no significant cinnabar dissolution was detected under anaerobic condition. Cinnabar dissolution rate when considering Hg re-adsorption was approximately 2 times the value calculated solely with the Hg detected in the aqueous phase. These results suggest that ignoring the Hg re-adsorption process can significantly underestimate the importance of cinnabar dissolution, highlighting the necessity of applying the developed method in future cinnabar dissolution studies.

  11. Preparation and dissolution characteristics of griseofulvin solid dispersions with saccharides. (United States)

    Saito, Masataka; Ugajin, Takashi; Nozawa, Yasuo; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Miyagishima, Atsuo; Sonobe, Takashi


    To improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, we studied physical characteristics of griseofulvin (GF) solid dispersions with saccharides as the dispersion carrier using a roll mixing method. In all carriers tested, roll mixtures of GF and saccharides gradually became amorphous, and the solubility of GF increased. The solubility of GF was higher in the mixtures with higher molecular weight carriers such as corn starch and processed starch. The dissolution of GF was markedly improved by the GF-Britishgum roll mixture. The initial dissolution rate of these mixtures was 170-fold higher than GF alone. The surface tension of carrier aqueous solutions was low in the processed starch with branched sugar chains. The initial dissolution rate of GF in physical mixtures was correlated with the surface tension of carrier aqueous solutions. The stability of the amorphous state of GF at a high humidity was maintained in the mixtures with carriers with a high molecular weight. These results indicated that the solubility of GF was markedly improved in the roll mixtures. It was suggested that the saccharides with a high molecular weight are useful carriers for solid dispersions.

  12. Dissolution study of thorium-uranium oxides in aqueous triflic acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulemela, E.; Bergeron, A.; Stoddard, T. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories - CNL, 286 Plant Rd., Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)


    The dissolution of sintered mixed oxides of thorium with uranium in various concentrations of trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid solutions was investigated under reflux conditions to evaluate the suitability of the method. Various fragment sizes (1.00 mm < x < 7.30 mm) of sintered (Th,U)O{sub 2} and simulated high-burnup nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) were almost completely dissolved in a few hours, which implies that triflic acid could be used as an alternative to the common dissolution method, involving nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The influence of acid concentration, composition of the solids, and reaction time on the dissolution yield of Th and U ions was studied using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The dissolution rate was found to depend upon the triflic acid concentration and size of the solid fragments, with near complete dissolution for the smallest fragments occurring in boiling 87% w/w triflic acid. The formation of Th and U ions in solution appears to occur at the same rate as the triflic acid simultaneously reacts with the constituent oxides as evidenced by the results of a constant U/Th concentration ratio with the progress of the dissolution. (authors)

  13. Vaccine vial monitor availability and use in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review. (United States)

    Eriksson, Pär; Gessner, Bradford D; Jaillard, Philippe; Morgan, Christopher; Le Gargasson, Jean Bernard


    The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) registers cumulative heat exposure on vaccines over time. As low- and lower-middle-income countries transition beyond support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi), they will assume full responsibility for vaccine financing and procurement. It is unclear to what extent countries transitioning out of Gavi support will continue to include VVMs on their vaccines. This paper aims to systematically review evidence on VVM availability and use in low- and middle-income countries to document factors behind global access to and country demand for VVMs. Such results could help identify actions needed to ensure continued use of VVMs in countries that transition out of Gavi support. We performed a systematic review of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature in English and French languages with publication dates from 2005 onwards. The studies included were analyzed for the following outcomes: (1) availability and deployment of VVM-labeled vaccines; (2) VVM practices and perceptions in the immunization system; (3) vaccine introduction and decision-making processes; (4) Gavi graduation and vaccine program sustainability. The study found that VVM availability and use was affected by multiple sourcing of vaccines and the extent to which VVM was included in the vaccine specification in the tendering documents when procuring vaccines. Knowledge about VVM and its impact on the EPI program was found to be high among health workers as well as decision-makers. However, the study also found that weak capacity in key national institutions such as NRA and NPA might impact on demand for VVM. As countries take decisions regarding the adoption of new vaccines, factors such as disease burden and vaccine price may assume greater importance than vaccine characteristics and presentation. Finally, the study found that countries rely largely on the advice and recommendations from technical partners such as WHO and PAHO. The

  14. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product. (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu


    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f2 > 50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.


    A literature survey on the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) has been performed. This survey encompassed both internal and external literature sources for the dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium alloy fuels. The most limiting aspect of dissolution in the current facility configuration involves issues related to the control of the flammability of the off-gas from this process. The primary conclusion of this work is that based on past dissolution of this fuel in H-Canyon, four bundles of this fuel (initial charge) may be safely dissolved in a nitric acid flowsheet catalyzed with 0.002 M mercuric nitrate using a 40 scfm purge to control off-gas flammability. The initial charge may be followed by a second charge of up to five bundles to the same dissolver batch depending on volume and concentration constraints. The safety of this flowsheet relies on composite lower flammability limits (LFL) estimated from prior literature, pilot-scale work on the dissolution of site fuels, and the proposed processing flowsheet. Equipment modifications or improved LFL data offer the potential for improved processing rates. The fuel charging sequence, as well as the acid and catalyst concentrations, will control the dissolution rate during the initial portion of the cycle. These parameters directly impact the hydrogen and off-gas generation and, along with the purge flowrate determine the number of bundles that may be charged. The calculation approach within provides Engineering a means to determine optimal charging patterns. Downstream processing of this material should be similar to that of recent processing of site fuels requiring only minor adjustments of the existing flowsheet parameters.

  16. Potential of Bio-Enhanced DNAPL Dissolution (United States)

    Chu, J. M.; Kitanidis, P. K.; McCarty, P. L.


    DNAPL contamination is one of most challenging environmental problems. According to EPA's estimation, the total number of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) impacted sites in the U.S. could range from 15,000 to 25,000. It has been generally believed that promoting biological reactions that transform contaminants in DNAPL source zones can increase mass transfer rates, thereby shortening source longevity and total cleanup time. Use of bioremediation to enhance residual DNAPL dissolution, therefore, has potential as an economical and effective approach to accelerate DNAPL cleanup. While promising, some biological processes, such as biomass growth and gas production (CO2 and CH4), may occur together with biodegradation in source zones and adversely affect dissolution enhancement. In addition, the toxic effects of DNAPL compounds and transformation products produced by microorganisms may also adversely affect microbial activity and the extent of the bio-active zones. An understanding of how such factors control the efficiency of bio-enhanced dissolution is of great importance in helping to predict the potential benefits of DNAPL bioremediation. In this presentation, we will integrate the results of experimental and theoretical studies over the past six years on bio-enhanced tetrachloroethene (PCE) DNAPL dissolution to illustrate the effects on dissolution enhancement. Specifically, we will discuss the significance of our theoretical work on: (1) how biomass accumulation can affect dissolution enhancement for a PCE DNAPL pool and (2) the evolution of a bio-active zone in a residual DNAPL area under the influence of DNAPL toxicity. In addition, we will show the interplay between various groups of microorganisms within and around PCE DNAPL source zones as well as how our experimental work can help better understand the toxic effects of PCE and its transformation products on the activity of PCE dehalogenating bacteria. Finally, the presentation will highlight

  17. Dissolution and pharmacokinetics of baicalin-polyvinylpyrrolidone coprecipitate. (United States)

    Li, Bibo; He, Mei; Li, Wei; Luo, Zhibin; Guo, Ying; Li, Yajun; Zang, Chunbao; Wang, Bo; Li, Fang; Li, Shaolin; Ji, Ping


    Baicalin-polyvinylpyrrolidone coprecipitate was prepared with the aim of improving the dissolution and bioavailability of the baicalin. The dissolution of the coprecipitate in capsule form was tested and compared with baicalin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) capsules. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method was established to determine the concentration of baicalin in plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction methods were used to pretreat the baicalin plasma sample. The pharmacokinetics of the coprecipitate capsules were tested and compared with the API capsules in six beagle dogs after crossover oral administration. The results of the dissolution demonstrated that the dissolution of the coprecipitate capsules was 21.02, 2.02 and 3.29 times that of the API capsules in 0.1 mol/l HCl solution, pH 4.5 solution and water, respectively, but it was slightly lower than that of the API capsules in a pH 6.8 solution. The calibration curve showed a good linearity at concentrations between 3.648 ng/mL and 364.8 ng/mL (r = 0.998). The baicalin plasma sample was successfully pretreated, with endogenous impurities almost completely removed. The pharmacokinetics of the coprecipitate capsules and the API capsules indicated that the mean values of Cmax were 127.04 ± 10.6 and 27.49 ± 36 μg/l, and those of AUC(0-24h) were 1080.23 ± 336.43 and 337.84 ± 127.64 μg/l × h, respectively. Compared with the baicalin API capsules, the relative bioavailability of the coprecipitate capsules was 338.2% ± 93.2%. From these observations of improved dissolution and pharmacokinetic behaviours, a good relationship was found in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the coprecipitate could be a promising formulation strategy for insoluble baicalin. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Microbial dissolution of silicate materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, D. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Biology


    The objective of this research was to better understand the role of selected thermophilic bacteria in the colonization and dissolution of silicate minerals, with potential applications to the HDR Project. The demonstration of enhanced dissolution from microbial effects is critically dependent on providing a mineral bait within a media deficient in the critical nutrient found in the mineral (e.g., Fe). Reproducible experimental conditions in batch experiments require agitation to expose mineral powders, as well as nearly similar initial conditions for both inoculated cultures and controls. It is difficult, but not impossible to ensure reproducible conditions with microbes favoring filamentous growth habits.

  19. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeiro


    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  20. Environmental surveillance of enterovirus in Northern India using an integrated shell vial culture with a semi-nested RT PCR and partial sequencing of the VP1 gene. (United States)

    Shukla, Deepti; Kumar, Arvind; Srivastava, Shalini; Idris, Mohammad Z; Dhole, Tapan N


    Enteroviruses have been reported in epidemic form during last 10 years in northern India. Environmental surveillance of sewage is the method of choice in limited resources countries for detection of enterovirus serotypes circulating in the community. Twenty-four sewage samples collected between January, 2009 and December, 2010 were tested for enterovirus by using a new modified integrated shell vial culture (ISVC) with a semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene and virus isolation integrated with semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene. Twenty-one (87.5%) out of 24 samples were positive for enterovirus by the conventional method and all samples (100%) by the ISVC-RT-PCR. The additional positive samples detected by ISVC-RT-PCR was typed as six different enterovirus serotypes (Sabin poliovirus 3, Coxsackievirus B3, Coxsackievirus A13, Coxsackievirus A17, Echovirus 33, and Enterovirus 75). Phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene of Echovirus 19 showed that one genetic lineage clustered with isolates from Georgia suggesting their importation into northern India. Detection of wild poliovirus in the absence of clinical cases with 16 different co-circulating enterovirus serotypes supports the need of increased molecular surveillance of sewage. Rapid identification and characterization of enterovirus serotypes is necessary to study their transmission and evolution in different geographical regions to prevent future outbreak. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bienestar psicológico y conductas de riesgo vial en jóvenes universitarios/as


    Govillard, L.; Herrero, D.; Jáuregui, P.; Iraurgi, I.; Gorbeña, S.


    Introducción: El riesgo vial asociado con la velocidad y con el consumo de alcohol y drogas, y su relación con problemas de salud mental ha sido ampliamente investigado en la población universitaria. Existen, sin embargo, otras conductas de riesgo como la falta de uso del cinturón de seguridad o del casco que han sido menos estudiadas. El objetivo ha sido analizar la relación entre estos indicadores y el bienestar psicológico. Material y método: Se encuestó, de forma voluntaria y anónima, a 3...

  2. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test. (United States)

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela


    To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (pfungos) da parte externa dos frascos de envasamento de bupivacaína hiperbárica (Neocaína®) em ampola e bupivacaína em frasco-ampola das apresentações convencional e estéril (sterile pack). As apresentações estéreis (sterile pack) foram distribuídas em dois grupos, sendo que o G1 (n=16) continha as ampolas e o G2 (n=16), os frascos-ampola. As apresentações convencionais foram distribuídas em dois grupos, a saber G3 (n=16) com as ampolas e G4 (n=16) com os frascos-ampola. As ampolas e os frascos-ampolas eram abertos e tinham seu conteúdo aspirado. Os frascos vazios eram, então, acondicionados em sacos plásticos estéreis e enviados para análise quanto à carga microbiana (bactérias e fungos), bem como para o teste de esterilidade. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste χ2 com correção Yates com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Os grupos G1 e G2 não apresentaram crescimento bacteriano quando comparado aos grupos convencionais (pfungos em nenhum dos grupos. O uso de embalagens estéreis (sterile pack) diminui a carga microbiana dos frascos de envasamentos, o que diminuiria a chance de exposição a uma potencial contaminação da solução anestésica.

  3. Delitos contra la seguridad vial. La Agrupación de Tráfico de la Guardia Civil


    Rosa Carbajo, Jorge Juan de la


    El crecimiento económico, los avances tecnológicos y el estilo de vida nos conducen a una movilidad creciente. En esta hodierna violencia vial que sufrimos "in crescendo" en la actualidad, el infractor se convierte en un enemigo para la sociedad, en donde el conductor se percibe como fuente de peligro, la víctima encarnada en protagonista inocente, y la conducción "per se" como una conducta peligosa y arriesgada. Lo que en otros pretéritos tiempos se consideraba por todos la fórmula CONDUCCIÓ...

  4. Kinetics of gold dissolution in iodide solutions (United States)

    Yang, Kang

    Cyanide has been used as a lixiviant for free milling gold ores for a long time. Cyanide solutions are highly toxic and their use poses long term environmental problems. Cyanidation process is efficient for oxide gold ores but it is ineffective for gold ores containing sulfides. Among the noncyanide based lixiviants, iodide has the potential of replacing cyanide due to its ability to leach gold at a wider pH range and higher rate of gold dissolution. The emerging technology of bio-oxidation is an accepted process for pretreatment of sulfide gold ores. The bio-oxidation is conducted at acidic pH which makes direct cyanidation without pH adjustment impractical. On the contrary, iodide leaching of gold from the bio-oxidized ore can be accomplished without any pH adjustment. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the kinetics of gold dissolution in various iodide-oxidant solutions under conditions similar to those prevailing in a solution containing bio-oxidized ore. The thermodynamic study indicated that gold can be spontaneously dissolved in iodide-hydrogen peroxide, iodide-ferric ion and iodide-persulfate solutions. Dissolution of gold powder was carried out in these solutions and the results showed that the gold dissolution was dependent on solution pH, concentrations of iodide, oxidants and temperature. Gold dissolution was found to increase with decreasing pH and substantial gold dissolution could be achieved at pH ≤ 2. Increasing concentration of oxidant till an optimum oxidant/iodide molar ratio increased gold dissolution and much higher concentration of oxidant would result in a decrease in gold dissolution. With increasing iodide concentration and temperature, gold dissolution increased significantly. The activation energy data which ranged between 9.6 and 13.6 kcal/mole for various oxidants indicated that surface reaction was the rate controlling step. At higher temperatures a change in rate limiting step with passage of time was observed

  5. Solid-state chemiluminescence assay for ultrasensitive detection of antimony using on-vial immobilization of CdSe quantum dots combined with liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costas-Mora, Isabel; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Solid-state chemiluminescence based on CdSe QDs was developed. •QDs immobilization in a vial was achieved in a simple and fast way. •Antimony detection was achieved by inhibition of the CdSe QDs/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} CL reaction. •LLLME allowed improving the selectivity and sensitivity of the CL assay. •The capping ligand played a critical role in the selectivity of the CL system. -- Abstract: On-vial immobilized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are applied for the first time as chemiluminescent probes for the detection of trace metal ions. Among 17 metal ions tested, inhibition of the chemiluminescence when CdSe QDs are oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was observed for Sb, Se and Cu. Liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction was implemented in order to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the chemiluminescent assay. Factors influencing both the CdSe QDs/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} chemiluminescent system and microextraction process were optimized for ultrasensitive detection of Sb(III) and total Sb. In order to investigate the mechanism by which Sb ions inhibit the chemiluminescence of the CdSe QDs/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence measurements were performed. The selection of the appropriate CdSe QDs capping ligand was found to be a critical issue. Immobilization of QDs caused the chemiluminescence signal to be enhanced by a factor of 100 as compared to experiments carried out with QDs dispersed in the bulk aqueous phase. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit was 6 ng L{sup −1} Sb and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (N = 7) was about 1.3%. An enrichment factor of 95 was achieved within only 3 min of microextraction. Several water samples including drinking, spring, and river waters were analyzed. The proposed method was validated against CRM NWTM-27.2 fortified lake water, and a recovery study was

  6. Dissolution Kinetics of Milled-Silicate Rock Fertilizers in Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Priyono


    Full Text Available A dissolution experiment was carried out to identify the effects of milling condition on dissolution kinetics of silicate rock fertilizers. Initially ground materials (Ø < 250 μm for basalt, dolerite, gneiss, and Ø < 150 μm for K-feldspar were further milled with a ball mill (Spex 8000 under dry and wet conditions for 10, 60, and 120 minutes. The rock powders were dissolved in a mixture of 0.01M acetic-citric acid at a rock powder/solvent ratio of 1/1000, and the solution was agitated continuously on a rotary shaker at 25o C. The concentrations of dissolved Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si from the milled rocks were determined at intervals from 1 hour up to 56 days. Results indicated that the relationships of quantity of dissolved rock and elemental plant nutrients (Et with time (t were well described by a power equation: Et = Eo + atn with reaction order (n of 0.3 – 0.8. Milling increased quantity of total and individual dissolved element (Et , dissolution rate (Rt, the proportion of rapidly soluble rock or element (Eo, and dissolution constant a. The increases in dissolution due to dry milling were larger than for wet milling. Although further proves should be provided, results of this dissolution experiment clearly indicates that SRFs may be used as multinutrient fertilizers as well as remedial materials for acidic soils; and dry milling may be applied as an appropriate method for manufacturing effective SRFs.

  7. Solid phospholipid nano-particles: investigations into formulation and dissolution properties of griseofulvin. (United States)

    Brinkmann-Trettenes, Ulla; Bauer-Brandl, Annette


    Solid phospholipid (PL) nanoparticles with griseofulvin (GRIS) as a model drug were prepared by co-spray drying. Their dissolution properties were compared with formulations containing the physical blends of the native crystalline drug and excipient materials, and physical blends of the spray dried materials. Co-spray drying was performed from ethanol+water solutions (80+20) using Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Dissolution profiles in phosphate buffer (PBS), simulated intestinal fluids (fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF)) and pancreatin containing media (PAN) were studied. It was found that the influence of PL on the dissolution profile was affected by both the solid state of the drug formulation and the dissolution medium: the co-SD formulations showed the fastest release in all media. The amount of GRIS dissolved after 5h increases by a factor of 7 for the co SD as compared to physical blend of native materials in PBS, and a factor of 4 in FaSSIF respectively. Surprisingly, in contrast to PBS, dissolution rate in FaSSIF decreased with increasing the PL content. All the pancreatin containing media showed a decrease in dissolution rate and extent independently of the processing methods due to an incompatibility between GRIS and PAN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of dehydration temperature on water vapor adsorption, dissolution behavior and surface property of ampicillin. (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Wongmekiat, Arpansiree; Hyakutake, Yuki; Tozuka, Yuichi; Oguchi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Keiji


    Several specimens of anhydrous ampicillin were prepared by heating the ampicillin trihydrate at 100, 120, 140 and 160 degrees C. The effects of dehydration temperature on water vapor adsorption, dissolution behavior and surface property were investigated. The water vapor adsorption of anhydrous ampicillin was studied at 89% relative humidity, 40 degrees C and the water vapor adsorption rate was found to decrease with increase of dehydration temperature. Dissolution profiles of the various anhydrous specimens were investigated in 96% ethanol at 35 degrees C by the static disk method. The anhydrous form prepared at higher dehydration temperature exhibited faster dissolution rate. Solid phase transformation from the anhydrous form to the trihydrate form occurred during the dissolution test. The rate of phase transformation during the dissolution test decreased with increasing dehydration temperature. Topographic difference of the anhydrous forms prepared at 100 and 160 degrees C was not observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM); however, difference of the microstructural properties was apparently observed by the AFM phase image. Surface free energy study revealed that when ampicillin was dehydrated at high temperature, the sample surface became more hydrophobic resulting in less interaction force with water and slow water sorption rate. From the results, we concluded that the polarity of sample surface induced by dehydration of ampicillin would affect the phase transformation and dissolution behavior.

  9. Artemisinin-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Composites Prepared by Evaporative Precipitation of Nanosuspension for Dissolution Enhancement. (United States)

    Kakran, M; Sahoo, N G; Li, L; Judeh, Z; Panda, P


    Nanoparticles of a poorly water-soluble anti-malarial drug, artemisinin (ART), and its composite particles with a hydrophilic polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were synthesized using a nanofabrication method called the evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). ART nanoparticles and ART/PVP composite particles containing ART nanoparticles coated with PVP were successfully prepared with the aim of improving the dissolution rate of ART. The effect of polymer concentration on the physical and morphological properties, and dissolution rate of the EPN-prepared ART/PVP composite particles was investigated. The crystallinity of ART nanoparticles decreased with increasing polymer concentration, as suggested by the differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies. The phase solubility studies revealed an AL-type of curve, indicating a linear increase in the drug solubility with PVP concentration. The dissolution of the ART nanoparticles and ART/PVP composite particles markedly increased as compared to that of the original ART powder due to lower particle size and reduced crystallinity of the drug particles. The percent dissolution efficiency (DE), relative dissolution (RD), t 75% and similarity factor (f 2) were calculated for the statistical analysis. Various mathematical models, viz., zero-order, first-order, Korsemeyer-Peppas and Higuchi, were applied to fit the experimental drug-dissolution data and diffusion was found to be the drug release mechanism.

  10. A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhu; William E. Seyfried


    Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. One strategy that potentially enhances CO{sub 2} solubility and reduces the risk of CO{sub 2} leak back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and precipitation of secondary carbonate phases, which increases the brine pH and immobilizes CO{sub 2}. Clearly, the rates at which these dissolution and precipitation reactions occur directly determine the efficiency of this strategy. However, one of the fundamental problems in modern geochemistry is the persistent two to five orders of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory-measured and field derived feldspar dissolution rates. To date, there is no real guidance as to how to predict silicate reaction rates for use in quantitative models. Current models for assessment of geological carbon sequestration have generally opted to use laboratory rates, in spite of the dearth of such data for compositionally complex systems, and the persistent disconnect between lab and field applications. Therefore, a firm scientific basis for predicting silicate reaction kinetics in CO{sub 2} injected geological formations is urgently needed to assure the reliability of the geochemical models used for the assessments of carbon sequestration strategies. The funded experimental and theoretical study attempts to resolve this outstanding scientific issue by novel experimental design and theoretical interpretation to measure silicate dissolution rates and iron carbonate precipitation rates at conditions pertinent to geological carbon sequestration. In the first year of the project, we have successfully developed a sample preparation method and completed three batch feldspar dissolution experiments at 200 C and 300 bars. The changes of solution chemistry as dissolution experiments progressed were monitored with on-line sampling of the aqueous phase at the constant temperature and pressure

  11. Comparative Dissolution Profiles of Representative Quinolones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implication in the choice of medium for dissolution testing of quinolones, particularly for comparative purposes in the absence of specific monograph recommendations. Furthermore, it supports the change from 0.1N to 0.01NHCl for ciprofloxacin in the USP as a monographic modification. Conclusion: We conclude that there ...

  12. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, John C.


    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  13. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of binary systems of pyrimethamine and 2- hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. ... (PYR), a drug effective against protozoan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, is poorly water soluble and exhibits marked variation in oral bioavailability.

  14. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    becoming the continuing source of subsurface contamination because of their inherent toxic- ity and partitioning .... dissolution mass transfer rate coefficient when the contaminant is present as single as well as in a mixture ...... port models which can over or under-predict aqueous phase concentrations to a large extent.

  15. Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj


    reaction rates) may exhibit rapid increase of porosity and permeability near the inlet probably indicating a formation of high permeable channels (wormholes). Water saturation in the zone of dissolution increases due to an increase in the bulk volume accessible for the injected fluid. Volumetric non...

  16. 25 CFR 11.605 - Dissolution. (United States)


    ... dissolution of marriage if: (1) The court finds that the marriage is irretrievably broken, if the finding is... affecting the attitude of one or both of the parties towards the marriage; (2) The court finds that either..., or provided for child custody, the support of any child entitled to support, the maintenance of...

  17. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement I: Co-Micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha


    Full Text Available AIDS constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases, representing a major public health priority. Efavirenz (EFV, one of the most widely used drugs for this pathology, belongs to the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System for drugs with very poor water solubility. To improve EFV’s dissolution profile, changes can be made to the physical properties of the drug that do not lead to any accompanying molecular modifications. Therefore, the study objective was to develop and characterize systems with efavirenz able to improve its dissolution, which were co-processed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The technique used was co-micronization. Three different drug:excipient ratios were tested for each of the two carriers. The drug dispersion dissolution results showed significant improvement for all the co-processed samples in comparison to non-processed material and corresponding physical mixtures. The dissolution profiles obtained for dispersion with co-micronized SLS samples proved superior to those of co-micronized PVP, with the proportion (1:0.25 proving the optimal mixture. The improvements may be explained by the hypothesis that formation of a hydrophilic layer on the surface of the micronized drug increases the wettability of the system formed, corroborated by characterization results indicating no loss of crystallinity and an absence of interaction at the molecular level.

  18. Can dosage form-dependent food effects be predicted using biorelevant dissolution tests? Case example extended release nifedipine. (United States)

    Andreas, Cord J; Tomaszewska, Irena; Muenster, Uwe; van der Mey, Dorina; Mueck, Wolfgang; Dressman, Jennifer B


    Food intake is known to have various effects on gastrointestinal luminal conditions in terms of transit times, hydrodynamic forces and/or luminal fluid composition and can therefore affect the dissolution behavior of solid oral dosage forms. The aim of this study was to investigate and detect the dosage form-dependent food effect that has been observed for two extended-release formulations of nifedipine using in vitro dissolution tests. Two monolithic extended release formulations, the osmotic pump Adalat® XL 60mg and matrix-type Adalat® Eins 30mg formulation, were investigated with biorelevant dissolution methods using the USP apparatus III and IV under both simulated prandial states, and their corresponding quality control dissolution method. In vitro data were compared to published and unpublished in vivo data using deconvolution-based in vitro - in vivo correlation (IVIVC) approaches. Quality control dissolution methods tended to overestimate the dissolution rate due to the excessive solubilizing capabilities of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-containing dissolution media. Using Level II biorelevant media the dosage form dependent food effect for nifedipine was described well when studied with the USP apparatus III, whereas the USP apparatus IV failed to detect the positive food effect for the matrix-type dosage form. It was demonstrated that biorelevant methods can serve as a useful tool during formulation development as they were able to qualitatively reflect the in vivo data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon


    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  20. Effect of background electrolytes on gypsum dissolution (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion


    Knowledge of the dissolution behaviour of gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) in aqueous solutions is of primary importance in many natural and technological processes (Pachon-Rodriguez and Colombani, 2007), including the weathering of rocks and gypsum karst formations, deformation of gypsum-bearing rocks, the quality of drinking water, amelioration of soil acidity, scale formation in the oil and gas industry or measurement of water motion in oceanography. Specific ions in aqueous solutions can play important but very different roles on mineral dissolution. For example, the dissolution rates and the morphology of dissolution features may be considerably modified by the presence of the foreign ions in the solution, which adsorb at the surface and hinder the detachment of the ions building the crystal. Dissolution processes in the aqueous environment are closely related to the rearrangement of water molecules around solute ions and the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves. The rearrangement of water molecules with respect to solute species has been recognized as the main kinetic barrier for crystal dissolution in many systems (Davis, 2000; De Yoreo and Dove 2004; Wasylenki et al. 2005). Current research suggest that the control that electrolytes exert on water structure is limited to the local environment surrounding the ions and is not related to long-range electric fields emanating from the ions but results from effects associated with the hydration shell(s) of the ions (Collins et al. 2007) and the ions' capacity to break or structure water (i.e. chaotropic and kosmotropic ions, respectively). These effects will ultimately affect the kinetics of crystal dissolution, and could be correlated with the water affinity of the respective background ions following a trend known as the lyotropic or Hofmeister series (Kunz et al. 2004; Dove and Craven, 2005). In situ macroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted at a

  1. Facts, fallacies and future of dissolution testing of polysaccharide based colon-specific drug delivery. (United States)

    Kotla, Niranjan Goud; Gulati, Monica; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Shivapooja, Ashwini


    Colonic diseases like ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer are on rise due to variations in the dietary and lifestyle habits. Increase in prevalence of such diseases has augmented the interest of researchers in colon targeted drug delivery systems. Polysaccharide coating has emerged as one of the most successful approaches in this direction. Evaluation of such systems, however, demands an efficient dissolution method in terms of convenience, economy, relevance and reproducibility. It is problematic to mimic the dynamic and ecologically diverse features of the colon. A number of dissolution approaches were tried which include incorporation of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, rat caecal contents, human faecal slurries, and multi-stage culture systems. Till date, pursuit for cost-effective and animal-sparing colon-specific bio-relevant dissolution media has been a foremost challenge facing pharmaceutical scientists over many decades. This article reviews various dissolution methods adopted to mimic the in vivo performance of dosage forms that are used for colon targeting. It also highlights limitations of the available methods and conditions that should be taken into account while designing a bio-relevant dissolution method for such systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Silicate mineral dissolution during heap bioleaching. (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Halinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rahunen, Nelli; Boström, Dan; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A


    Silicate minerals are present in association with metal sulfides in ores and their dissolution occurs when the sulfide minerals are bioleached in heaps for metal recovery. It has previously been suggested that silicate mineral dissolution can affect mineral bioleaching by acid consumption, release of trace elements, and increasing the viscosity of the leach solution. In this study, the effect of silicates present in three separate samples in conjunction with chalcopyrite and a complex multi-metal sulfide ore on heap bioleaching was evaluated in column bioreactors. Fe(2+) oxidation was inhibited in columns containing chalcopyrite samples A and C that leached 1.79 and 1.11 mM fluoride, respectively but not in sample B that contained 0.14 mM fluoride. Microbial Fe(2+) oxidation inhibition experiments containing elevated fluoride concentrations and measurements of fluoride release from the chalcopyrite ores supported that inhibition of Fe(2+) oxidation during column leaching of two of the chalcopyrite ores was due to fluoride toxicity. Column bioleaching of the complex sulfide ore was carried out at various temperatures (7-50 degrees C) and pH values (1.5-3.0). Column leaching at pH 1.5 and 2.0 resulted in increased acid consumption rates and silicate dissolution such that it became difficult to filter the leach solutions and for the leach liquor to percolate through the column. However, column temperature (at pH 2.5) only had a minor effect on the acid consumption and silicate dissolution rates. This study demonstrates the potential negative impact of silicate mineral dissolution on heap bioleaching by microbial inhibition and liquid flow. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. El impacto de las nuevas políticas de seguridad vial sobre la conducta de los conductores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tena-Sánchez


    Full Text Available La evidencia empírica disponible señala de manera unánime que las nuevas políticas de tráfico y seguridad vial aplicadas en España desde 2004, y en particular la introducción del carné por puntos y la reforma del Código Penal, han tenido una fuerte incidencia positiva en la reducción de la siniestralidad. De dichos resultados se deriva que las nuevas políticas han tenido también un efecto positivo sobre la conducta de los conductores, de modo que ha sido esa mejora en la conducta al volante la que finalmente se ha traducido en una reducción de la siniestralidad. No obstante, hasta el momento, los investigadores han descuidado el análisis directo de los datos sobre cumplimiento. En el presente trabajo se analizan todos los datos disponibles que ofrecen información sobre el cumplimiento de la normativa de tráfico y seguridad vial.

  4. Chromatographic and Spectral Analysis of Two Main Extractable Compounds Present in Aqueous Extracts of Laminated Aluminum Foil Used for Protecting LDPE-Filled Drug Vials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Akapo


    Full Text Available Laminated aluminum foils are increasingly being used to protect drug products packaged in semipermeable containers (e.g., low-density polyethylene (LDPE from degradation and/or evaporation. The direct contact of such materials with primary packaging containers may potentially lead to adulteration of the drug product by extractable or leachable compounds present in the closure system. In this paper, we described a simple and reliable HPLC method for analysis of an aqueous extract of laminated aluminum foil overwrap used for packaging LDPE vials filled with aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. By means of combined HPLC-UV, GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopy, the two major compounds detected in the aqueous extracts of the representative commercial overwraps were identified as cyclic oligomers with molecular weights of 452 and 472 and are possibly formed from poly-condensation of the adhesive components, namely, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, and diethylene glycol. Lower molecular weight compounds that might be associated with the “building blocks” of these compounds were not detected in the aqueous extracts.

  5. Synthesis, sintering and dissolution of thorium and uranium (IV) mixed oxide solid solutions: influence of the method of precursor preparation; Synthese, frittage et caracterisation de solutions solides d'oxydes mixtes de thorium et d'uranium (IV): influence de la methode de preparation du precurseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingant, N


    Mixed actinide dioxides are currently considered as potential fuels for the third and fourth generations of nuclear reactors. In this context, thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions were studied as model compounds to underline the influence of the method of preparation on their physico-chemical properties. Two methods of synthesis, both based on the initial precipitation of oxalate precursors have been developed. The first consisted in the direct precipitation ('open' system) while the second involved hydrothermal conditions ('closed' system). The second method led to a significant improvement in the crystallization of the samples especially in the field of the increase of the grain size. In these conditions, the formation of a complete solid solution Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O was prepared between both end-members. Its crystal structure was also resolved. Whatever the initial method considered, these compounds led to the final dioxides after heating above 400 C. The various steps associated to this transformation, involving the dehydration of precursors then the decomposition of oxalate groups have been clarified. Moreover, the use of wet chemistry methods allowed to reduce the sintering temperature of the final thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions. Whatever the method of preparation considered, dense samples (95% to 97% of the calculated value) were obtained after only 3 hours of heating at 1500 C. Additionally, the use of hydrothermal conditions significantly increased the grain size, leading to the reduction of the occurrence of the grain boundaries and of the global residual porosity. The significant improvement in the homogeneity of cations distribution in the samples was also highlighted. Finally, the chemical durability of thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions was evaluated through the development of leaching tests in nitric acid. The optimized homogeneity especially in terms of the

  6. Synthesis of Phosphate Minerals for Use in Dissolution Experiments (United States)

    Adcock, C. T.; Simon, A. C.; Hausrath, E. M.


    Mineral dissolution experiments require well-characterized mineral material that is relatively free of contaminates and is available in sufficient quantities. Here we report progress synthesizing chlorapatite and whitlockite for use in dissolution experiments.

  7. Dissolution-Guided Wetting for Microarray and Microfluidic Devices (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.


    The trapping of air bubbles presents a substantial impediment for the user in the increasingly widespread use of lab-on-a-chip products having microcavities in the forms of microwells, traps, dead ends and corners. Here we demonstrate a simple, effective, and passive method to eliminate air bubbles by coating hydrophilized microarray and microfluidic devices with a monosaccharide such as D-glucose or D-sorbitol, where the microcavities are filled with a conformal, elliptical, cone-shaped monosaccharide solid. These devices were stored in air for up to 6 months with a complete rewetting of the microcavities by dissolution of the monosaccharide with an aqueous solution. PMID:22814435

  8. Optical microscopy as a comparative analytical technique for single-particle dissolution studies. (United States)

    Svanbäck, Sami; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko


    Novel, simple and cost effective methods are needed to replace advanced chemical analytical techniques, in small-scale dissolution studies. Optical microscopy of individual particles could provide such a method. The aim of the present work was to investigate and verify the applicability of optical microscopy as an analytical technique for drug dissolution studies. The evaluation was performed by comparing image and chemical analysis data of individual dissolving particles. It was shown that the data obtained by image analysis and UV-spectrophotometry produced practically identical dissolution curves, with average similarity and difference factors above 82 and below 4, respectively. The relative standard deviation for image analysis data, of the studied particle size range, varied between 1.9% and 3.8%. Consequently, it is proposed that image analysis can be used, on its own, as a viable analytical technique in single-particle dissolution studies. The possibility for significant reductions in sample preparation, operational cost, time and substance consumption gives optical detection a clear advantage over chemical analytical methods. Thus, image analysis could be an ideal and universal analytical technique for rapid small-scale dissolution studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Importance of surface structure on dissolution of fluorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinho, Jose; Piazolo, Sandra; Balic Zunic, Tonci


    of dissolution. Results are analyzed in terms of changes in surface area, surface reactivity and dissolution rates. All surfaces studied present fast changes in topography during the initial 200 h of dissolution. The controlling factors that cause the development of topography are the stability of the step edges...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1219 - Dissolution of political subdivision. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution of political subdivision. 404... Agreements Is Obtained and Continues § 404.1219 Dissolution of political subdivision. If a political... satisfactory evidence of its dissolution or nonexistence. The evidence must establish that the entity is not...

  11. Examining Two Types of Best Friendship Dissolution during Early Adolescence (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.


    This study examined young adolescents' experiences with best friendship dissolution. Participants were 77 sixth-grade students (M age = 11.63 years, SD = 0.36; 11.00-12.69 age range) who reported on past experiences with (1) "complete dissolutions" (when friendship ties are completely severed), and (2) "downgrade dissolutions"…

  12. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution. An...

  13. Kinetics of dissolution of phosphorite in acid mixtures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apparent activation energy for the phosphate dissolution was evaluated and results discussed. INTRODUCTION ... the dissolution process, the kinetic model for the dissolution of fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) which is the major ... appropriate times during a run and analyzed colorimetrically for phosphate content by the.

  14. Dissolution Kinetics of Icel-Aydincik Dolomite in Hydrochloric Acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The dissolution of Icel-Aydincik dolomite in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution was investigated with respect to the effects of acid/dolomite mole ..... reaction temperature increases. 3.6. Dissolution Rates. In order to calculate the dissolution rates, the derivative of the concentration-time plot is necessary. One mole of Ca2+ ...

  15. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas


    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  16. Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 2, 2007 ... gelatin capsules. The average fill weight of one capsule is. 169 mg. Dissolution test was conducted in USP XXV dissolution test apparatus type I with basket rotation at. 100 rpm. The dissolution medium was 900 ml 0.1 .... REFERENCES. Food and Drug Administration (2000). Draft Guidance for Industry on.

  17. Combination of solid phase extraction and in vial solid phase derivatization using a strong anion exchange disk for the determination of nerve agent markers. (United States)

    Subramaniam, Raja; Astot, Crister; Nilsson, Calle; Ostin, Anders


    Alkylphosphonic acids (APAs) are degradation products and chemical markers of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents (chemical warfare agents). Anion exchange disk-based solid phase extraction (SPE) has been combined with in vial solid phase derivatization (SPD) and GC-MS analysis for the determination of APAs in aqueous samples. The optimization of critical method parameters, such as the SPD reaction, was achieved using statistical experimental design and multivariate data analysis. The optimized method achieved quantitative recoveries in the range from 83% to 101% (n=13, RSD from 4% to 10%). The method was sensitive, with LODs in SIM mode of 0.14 ppb, and demonstrated excellent linearity with an average R(2)>or=0.99 over the concentration range of 0.07-1.4 ppm in full scan mode and from 0.14 ppb to 14 ppb in SIM mode. For forensic applications, aqueous samples containing APAs at concentrations exceeding 14 ppb were concentrated and target analytes were successfully identified by spectral library and retention index matching. Method robustness was evaluated using aqueous samples from the official OPCW Proficiency Test (round 19) and all APAs present in the sample were conclusively identified. The SPE disk retained the underivatized APAs in a stable condition for extended periods of time. No significant losses of APAs from the disk were observed over a 36-day period. Overall, the method is well suited to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of degradation markers of OP nerve agents in aqueous matrices with simplicity, a low risk of cross-contamination and trace level sensitivity.

  18. Toward an In Vivo Dissolution Methodology: A Comparison of Phosphate and Bicarbonate Buffers (United States)

    Sheng, Jennifer J.; McNamara, Daniel P.; Amidon, Gordon L.


    Purpose To evaluate the difference between the pharmaceutical phosphate buffers and the gastrointestinal bicarbonates in dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin, to illustrate the dependence of buffer differential on biopharmaceutical properties of BCS II weak acids, and to recommend phosphate buffers equivalent to bicarbonates. Methods The intrinsic dissolution rates of, ketoprofen and indomethacin, were experimentally measured using rotating disk method at 37°C in USP SIF/FaSSIF and various concentrations of bicarbonates. Theoretical models including an improved reaction plane model and a film model were applied to estimate the surrogate phosphate buffers equivalent to the bicarbonates. Results Experimental results show that the intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin, in USP and FaSSIF phosphate buffers are 1.5–3.0 times of that in the 15 mM bicarbonates. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the buffer differential is largely dependent on the drug pKa and secondly on solubility, and weakly dependent on the drug diffusivity. Further, in accordance with the drug pKa, solubility and diffusivity, simple phosphate surrogate was proposed to match an average bicarbonate value (15 mM) of the upper gastrointestinal region. Specifically, phosphate buffers of 13–15 mM and 3–4 mM were recommended for ketoprofen and indomethacin, respectively. For both ketoprofen and indomethacin, the intrinsic dissolution using the phosphate surrogate buffers closely approximated the 15 mM bicarbonate buffer. Conclusions This work demonstrates the substantial difference between pharmaceutical phosphates and physiological bicarbonates in determining the drug intrinsic dissolution rates of BCS II weak acids, such as ketoprofen and indomethacin. Surrogate phosphates were recommended in order to closely reflect the in vivo dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin in gastrointestinal bicarbonates, which has significant implications for defining buffer systems for

  19. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shete Amol S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1, and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5 Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol. Methods The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Results The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve. Conclusion This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble

  20. Dissolution kinetics of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in oxidized mine samples and their detection by differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dold, Bernhard


    A dissolution test with 9 natural and synthetic schwertmannite and ferrihydrite samples was performed by reaction with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate at pH 3.0 in the dark. The method was coupled with differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD) to successfully detect schwertmannite at low concentrations in oxidized mine tailings. Rapid dissolution was observed for all schwertmannites (> 94% in 60 min) and natural 2-line ferrihydrites (> 85% in 60 min); however, synthetic 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrite dissolved slower (42 and 16% after 60 min, respectively). The results showed that it was not possible to distinguish between natural schwertmannites and ferrihydrites on the basis of their dissolution kinetics. Modeling of the schwertmannite dissolution curves, examinations of mineral shape by scanning electron microscopy, and Fe/S mole ratios of the dissolved fractions indicated that two different schwertmannite particle morphologies (spherical and web-like) occurred. Collapse of spherical (sea-urchin) schwertmannite aggregates seemed to control the dissolution kinetics according to a shrinking core model. In the case of web-like schwertmannite, dissolution could be modeled with a simple first order equation, and structural SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} may have affected the dissolution kinetics. No relationship was found between ferrihydrite particle shape and dissolution behavior in acid NH{sub 4}-oxalate. A 1-h extraction with 0.2 M NH{sub 4}-oxalate at pH 3.0 in the dark should be adequate to dissolve schwertmannite and natural 2-line ferrihydrite in most samples. In some cases, a fraction of secondary jarosite or goethite may also be dissolved, although at a slower rate. If only schwertmannite is of interest (e.g., determination by DXRD), a 15 min attack should be used to increase selectivity. A truly selective leach of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite should be based on dissolution tests, as a broad variety of dissolution kinetics can be observed in this mineral group.

  1. Justification of Drug Product Dissolution Rate and Drug Substance Particle Size Specifications Based on Absorption PBPK Modeling for Lesinurad Immediate Release Tablets. (United States)

    Pepin, Xavier J H; Flanagan, Talia R; Holt, David J; Eidelman, Anna; Treacy, Don; Rowlings, Colin E


    In silico absorption modeling has been performed, to assess the impact of in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for ZURAMPIC (lesinurad) tablets. The dissolution profiles of lesinurad tablets generated using the quality control method were used as an input to a GastroPlus model to estimate in vivo dissolution in the various parts of the GI tract and predict human exposure. A model was set up, which accounts for differences of dosage form transit, dissolution, local pH in the GI tract, and fluid volumes available for dissolution. The predictive ability of the model was demonstrated by confirming that it can reproduce the Cmax observed for independent clinical trial. The model also indicated that drug product batches that pass the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min are anticipated to be bioequivalent to the clinical reference batch. To further explore the dissolution space, additional simulations were performed using a theoretical dissolution profile below the proposed specification. The GastroPlus modeling indicates that such a batch will also be bioequivalent to standard clinical batches despite having a dissolution profile, which would fail the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min. This demonstrates that the proposed dissolution specification sits comfortably within a region of dissolution performance where bioequivalence is anticipated and is not near an edge of failure for dissolution, providing additional confidence to the proposed specifications. Finally, simulations were performed using a virtual drug substance batch with a particle size distribution at the limit of the proposed specification for particle size. Based on these simulations, such a batch is also anticipated to be bioequivalent to clinical reference, demonstrating that the proposed specification limits for particle size distribution would give products bioequivalent to the pivotal clinical batches.

  2. Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI). (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L


    The experience of a compromised sense of "self", termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation. Items were rated using a visual analog scale. Participants answered the questionnaire for experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, cocaine and/or alcohol. They also answered the seven questions from the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) relating to the experience of unity with one's surroundings. Six hundred and ninety-one participants completed the questionnaire, providing data for 1828 drug experiences (1043 psychedelics, 377 cocaine, 408 alcohol). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the eight EDI items loaded exclusively onto a single common factor, which was orthogonal to a second factor comprised of the items relating to ego-inflation (rho = -0.110), demonstrating discriminant validity. The EDI correlated strongly with the MEQ-derived measure of unitive experience (rho = 0.735), demonstrating convergent validity. EDI internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha 0.93). Three analyses confirmed the specificity of ego-dissolution for experiences occasioned by psychedelic drugs. Firstly, EDI score correlated with drug-dose for psychedelic drugs (rho = 0.371), but not for cocaine (rho = 0.115) or alcohol (rho = -0.055). Secondly, the linear regression line relating the subjective intensity of the experience to ego-dissolution was significantly steeper for psychedelics (unstandardized regression

  3. Dry powder inhalers: An overview of the in vitro dissolution methodologies and their correlation with the biopharmaceutical aspects of the drug products. (United States)

    Velaga, Sitaram P; Djuris, Jelena; Cvijic, Sandra; Rozou, Stavroula; Russo, Paola; Colombo, Gaia; Rossi, Alessandra


    In vitro dissolution testing is routinely used in the development of pharmaceutical products. Whilst the dissolution testing methods are well established and standardized for oral dosage forms, i.e. tablets and capsules, there are no pharmacopoeia methods or regulatory requirements for testing the dissolution of orally inhaled powders. Despite this, a wide variety of dissolution testing methods for orally inhaled powders has been developed and their bio-relevance has been evaluated. This review provides an overview of the in vitro dissolution methodologies for dry inhalation products, with particular emphasis on dry powder inhalers, where the dissolution behavior of the respirable particles can have a role on duration and absorption of the drug. Dissolution mechanisms of respirable particles as well as kinetic models have been presented. A more recent biorelevant dissolution set-ups and media for studying inhalation biopharmaceutics were also reviewed. In addition, factors affecting interplay between dissolution and absorption of deposited particles in the context of biopharmaceutical considerations of inhalation products were examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efectividad de las campañas de publicidad para reducir la siniestralidad vial en España: un análisis econométrico


    Castillo Manzano, José I.; Castro Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal Tercero, Diego José


    A principios del siglo XXI, hemos asistido a un endurecimiento considerable de las estrategias de prevención y sanción aplicadas por la Administración española en materia de seguridad vial, con objeto de lograr una reducción en los accidentes de tráfico. Este endurecimiento puede apreciarse de manera particular, en las campañas públicas de publicidad vial dirigidas a los diferentes medios de comunicación, a través de un cambio profundo en el diseño de los mensajes emitidos, pas...

  5. Dissolution of Hematite Nanoparticle Aggregates: Influence of Primary Particle Size, Dissolution Mechanism, and Solution pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanzl, C.A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Cwiertny, D.M.


    The size-dependent dissolution of nanoscale hematite (8 and 40 nm α-Fe2O3) was examined across a broad range of pH (pH 1–7) and mechanisms including proton- and ligand- (oxalate-) promoted dissolution and dark (ascorbic acid) and photochemical (oxalate) reductive dissolution. Empirical relationships

  6. A validated HPLC method for the determination of dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylene dioxybiphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB) with fluorescence detection in raw material and pill form: application to an in vitro dissolution test and a content uniformity test. (United States)

    Walash, Mohamed I; Ibrahim, Fawzia; El Abass, Samah Abo


    A simple, sensitive and rapid HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylene dioxybiphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB) in the raw material and pill form was developed. Liquid chromatography was performed on a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size), the mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.05 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (80 : 20, v/v), and the apparent pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3. The fluorescence detector was operated at excitation/emission wavelengths of 275/400 nm. The proposed method allows the determination of DDB within concentration range 0.1-1.5 µg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.032 µg/mL, a limit of quantification of 0.097 µg/mL and a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of DDB in its pills with a percentage recovery of 98.45 ± 0.32. The method was fully validated according to ICH guidelines. Moreover, the high sensitivity of the method permits its use in an in vitro dissolution test for DDB under simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, the proposed method was extended to a content uniformity test according to USP guidelines. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Dissolution test optimization for meloxicam in the tablet pharmaceutical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika de Fátima Silva Oliveira


    Full Text Available Meloxicam is a broadly used drug in the therapeutics for the osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis treatments in adults, and it is available in the Brazilian market, as tablet and capsule pharmaceutical forms. The present work aimed to establish conditions for accomplishment of the dissolution test of 15 mg meloxicam tablets (A and B test products, compared with the reference product, since there is no monograph about dissolution assays for meloxicam in official summaries. To optimize the conditions several parameters were tested and, according to obtained results, the use of pH 7.5 phosphate buffer (900mL, at 37 ± 0.5ºC as dissolution medium, paddle method (apparatus 2, stirring speed of the dissolution medium at 100 rpm and collect time of 60 minutes were considered satisfactory. The samples were quantified by UV spectrophotometric method at 362 nm. The products presented kinetics of first-order. Dissolution efficiency values were of 83.25, 83.73 and 88.10% for the A, B and reference products, respectively. Factors f1 and f2 were calculated and similarity of the tested medicines was demonstrated. The dissolution test was validated presenting selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy within of the acceptance criteria.O meloxicam é fármaco amplamente utilizado na terapêutica para o tratamento de osteoartrite e artrite reumatóide em adultos, e encontra-se disponível no mercado brasileiro, sob as formas farmacêuticas comprimido e cápsula. O presente trabalho objetivou estabelecer condições para realização do teste de dissolução de meloxicam 15 mg na forma farmacêutica comprimido (medicamentos-teste A e B, comparado com o medicamento de referência, visto que não há monografia para o ensaio de dissolução com meloxicam em compêndios oficiais. Para otimização das condições, diversos parâmetros foram testados e de acordo com os resultados obtidos, a utilização de tampão fosfato pH 7,5 (900mL, a 37 ± 0,5 ºC como

  8. Electrochemical Dissolution of Tungsten Carbide in NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 Molten Salt (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Nie, Zuoren; Xi, Xiaoli; Ma, Liwen; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Ming


    Tungsten carbide was utilized as anode to extract tungsten in a NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 molten salt, and the electrochemical dissolution was investigated. Although the molten salt electrochemical method is a short process method of tungsten extraction from tungsten carbide in one step, the dissolution efficiency and current efficiency are quite low. In order to improve the dissolution rate and current efficiency, the sodium tungstate was added as the active substance. The dissolution rate, the anode current efficiency, and the cathode current efficiency were calculated with different contents of sodium tungstate addition. The anodes prior to and following the reaction, as well as the product, were analyzed through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the sodium tungstate could improve the dissolution rate and the current efficiency, due to the addition of sodium tungstate decreasing the charge transfer resistance in the electrolysis system. Due to the fact that the addition of sodium tungstate could remove the carbon during electrolysis, pure tungsten powders with 100 nm diameter were obtained when the content of sodium tungstate was 1.0 pct.

  9. Comparison of three preservation techniques for slowing dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic rich sediments (United States)

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Schultz, Arthur P.


    In an attempt to halt or reduce dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic and/or pyrite-rich sediments, three different methods of short-term storage preservation were tested for efficacy: vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, and buffered water. Abundance counts of calcareous nannofossil assemblages over a six month period showed that none of the three preservation methods were consistently effective in reducing assemblage loss due to dissolution. In most cases, the control slides made at the drill site had more abundant calcareous nannofossil assemblages than those slides made from sediments stored via vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, or buffered water. Thin section and XRD analyses showed that in most cases, dissolution, even in carbonate-rich sediments.

  10. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 20, 2009 ... inclusion complex and a stability constant value of 914 M-1. Solubility and dissolution ... the co-evaporated and freeze-dried systems indicated strong drug amorphization and/or inclusion of. PYR in the CD cavities. .... 50 mg of PYR, to 5 ml simulated gastric fluid (without enzyme) pH. 1.2 [containing 2.0 g/L ...

  11. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ... (United States)

    To understand their fate and transport in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in seawater were investigated. Hydrodynamic size increased from 40 to 60 nm to >1 mm within 1 h in seawater, and the aggregates were highly polydispersed. Their sedimentation rates in seawater were measured to be 4–10 mm/day. Humic acid (HA), further increased their size and polydispersity, and slowed sedimentation. Light increased their dissolution and release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell also slowed release of Cd ions. With sufficient light, HA increased the dissolution of QDs, while with low light, HA alone did not change their dissolution. The benthic zone in estuarine systems is the most probable long-term destination of QDs due to aggregation and sedimentation. The bioavailability of was evaluated using the mysid Americamysis bahia. The 7-day LC50s of particulate and dissolved QDs were 290 and 23 μg (total Cd)/L, respectively. For mysids, the acute toxicity appears to be from Cd ions; however, research on the effects of QDs should be conducted with other organisms where QDs may be lodged in critical tissues such as gills or filtering apparatus and Cd ions may be released and delivered directly to those tissues. Because of their increasing use and value to society, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) will inevitably find their way into marine systems. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuar


    Zimmer, Łukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa


    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of four superdisintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol), crospovidone (Kollidon CL and with smaller particle sizes Kollidon CL-F), sodium starch glycolate (Explotab) in combination with β-lactose and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) as base excipients exhibiting properties of directly compressed tablets and increasing the disintegration and the dissolution rate of sulfadimidine sodium (SDD-Na) and trimethoprim (TMP). All tablets were prepared by direct compression method and superdisintegrants were used at 2% for all formulations. The tablets were evaluated with regard to uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and dissolution properties. Dissolution properties such as t50% and t80% (time to release 50 and 80% of drug), DP3045 (percent of drug dissolved in 30 and 45 min) and the dissolution rate constant value (K) were considered in comparing the dissolution results. The results showed that crospovidone (Kollidon CL) provides the shortest disintegration time and the fastest rate of dissolution for both TMP and SDD-Na. The kinetic study of the dissolution data reveals that in vitro release profiles of TMP and SDD-Na can be best explained by first order model or by Higuchi model. The obtained data were plotted into Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to find out the confirmed diffusion mechanism. For TMP release, the values of the release exponent are beyond the limits of Korsmeyer model, so-called, power law. For SDD-Na release, exponent values are characteristic for anomalous transport (non-Fickian) or the value of the release exponent is beyond the limits of Korsmeyer model.

  13. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.


    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  14. Do organic ligands affect calcite dissolution rates? (United States)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Golubev, Sergey V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Bénézeth, Pascale


    Steady state Iceland-spar calcite dissolution rates were measured at 25 °C in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl and up to 0.05 M dissolved bicarbonate at pH from 7.9 to 9.1 in the presence of 13 distinct dissolved organic ligands in mixed-flow reactors. The organic ligands considered in this study include those most likely to be present in either (1) aquifers at the conditions pertinent to CO 2 sequestration or (2) soil/early diagenetic environments: acetate, phthalate, citrate, EDTA 4-, succinate, D-glucosaminate, L-glutamate, D-gluconate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, fumarate, malonate, and gallate. Results show that the presence of exopolysaccharides, and analogs of microbial cell envelopes: alginate, lichen extract, humic acid, pectin, and gum xanthan. In no case did the presence of <100 ppm of these organics change calcite dissolution rates by more than a factor of 2.5. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of aqueous organic anions negligibly affects calcite forward dissolution rates in most natural environments. Some effect on calcite reactivity may be observed, however, by the presence of organic anions if they change substantially the chemical affinity of the fluid with respect to calcite.

  15. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  16. Three-dimensional simulations of fracture dissolution (United States)

    Starchenko, Vitaliy; Marra, Cameron J.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.


    Numerical studies of fracture dissolution are frequently based on two-dimensional models, where the fracture geometry is represented by an aperture field h(x,y). However, it is known that such models can break down when the spatial variations in aperture are rapid or large in amplitude; for example, in a rough fracture or when instabilities in the dissolution front develop into pronounced channels (or wormholes). Here we report a finite-volume implementation of a three-dimensional reactive transport model using the OpenFOAM® toolkit. Extensions to the OpenFOAM source code have been developed which displace and then relax the mesh in response to variations in the surface concentration; up to 100-fold increases in fracture aperture are possible without remeshing. Our code has simulated field-scale fractures with physical dimensions of about 10 m. We report simulations of smooth fractures, with small, well-controlled perturbations in fracture aperture introduced at the inlet. This allows for systematic convergence studies and for detailed comparisons with results from a two-dimensional model. Initially, the fracture aperture develops similarly in both models, but as local inhomogeneities develop the results start to diverge. We investigate numerically the onset of instabilities in the dissolution of fractures with small random variations in the initial aperture field. Our results show that elliptical cross sections, which are characteristic of karstic conduits, can develop very rapidly, on time scales of 10-20 years in calcite rocks.

  17. Dissolution of Marriage According to Canon Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi


    Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife     repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.

  18. Serpentine dissolution in hydrochloric acid for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amankwah, R.K.; Pickles, C.A. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    Increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere can be attributed to industrialization and the associated combustion of large amounts of fossil fuels. The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere causes greenhouse gases, which is expected to have a destabilizing effect on the climate. Several methods have been investigated to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as improved energy efficiency and conservation programs; utilization of alternative energy sources; and carbon dioxide sequestration. This paper discussed the sequestration of carbon dioxide by minerals as a potential method for reducing the greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. The paper presented a study that involved the dissolution of lizardite, a serpentine mineral, in hydrochloric acid at high pressures in an autoclave. The thermodynamics of the system were examined and experimental data were presented. The solubility of the mineral was shown to be strongly dependent on processing time, acid concentration and pulp density but not strongly affected by stirring or temperature. The paper also discussed the characterization of the reacted samples by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reacted samples were compared to the as-received material. It was concluded that the equilibrium calculations, the kinetic experiments and the characterization of the processed samples indicated that a silica-rich layer formed on the lizardite as the magnesium dissolved, and that this layer hindered further dissolution. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Monitoring Lidocaine Single-Crystal Dissolution by Ultraviolet Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Ye, Fengbin; Rantanen, Jukka


    ) imaging for conducting single‐crystal dissolution studies was performed. Using lidocaine as a model compound, the aim was to develop a setup capable of monitoring and quantifying the dissolution of lidocaine into a phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, under stagnant conditions. A single crystal of lidocaine...... was placed in the quartz dissolution cell and UV imaging was performed at 254 nm. Spatially and temporally resolved mapping of lidocaine concentration during the dissolution process was achieved from the recorded images. UV imaging facilitated the monitoring of lidocaine concentrations in the dissolution...... media adjacent to the single crystals. The concentration maps revealed the effects of natural convection due to density gradients on the dissolution process of lidocaine. UV imaging has great potential for in vitro drug dissolution testing...

  20. Insight into the Development of Dissolution Media for BCS Class II Drugs: A Review from Quality Control and Prediction of In Vivo Performance Perspectives. (United States)

    Wu, Chunnuan; Liu, Yan; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin


    To assess in vivo behavior through in vitro method, the dissolution test is mostly used, both for quality control (QC) and for development purpose. In view of the fact that a dissolution test can hardly achieve two goals at the same time, the design of dissolution testing generally varies along with the development stage of drug products and therefore the selection of dissolution media may change with the goals of the dissolution test. To serve the QC purpose, a dissolution medium is designed to provide a sink condition; for development purpose, the dissolution medium is required to simulate the physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract as far as possible. In this review, we intended to provide an initial introduction to the various dissolution media applied for QC and formulation development purposes for poorly water soluble drugs. We focused on these methods like addition of cosolvents, surfactants and utilization of biphasic media, applied to provide sink conditions which are difficult to be achieved by simple aqueous buffers for lipophilic drugs, and introduced the development of physiologically relevant media for human and animals like dog and rat with respect to the choice of buffers, bile salts, lipids and so on. In addition, we further discussed the influence of biorelevant dissolution media on the modification of drug Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classification, especially for BCS class II drugs with low solubility and high permeability, the solubility of which is relatively sensitive to the presence of bile salts and lipids.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Drug Dissolution: I. Solubility and Intrinsic Dissolution Rate. (United States)

    Shekunov, Boris; Montgomery, Eda Ross


    The first-principles approach presented in this work combines surface kinetics and convective diffusion modeling applied to compounds with pH-dependent solubility and in different dissolution media. This analysis is based on experimental data available for approximately 100 compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Overall, there is a linear relationship between the drug solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate expressed through the total kinetic coefficient of dissolution and dimensionless numbers defining the mass transfer regime. The contribution of surface kinetics appears to be significant constituting on average ∼20% resistance to the dissolution flux in the compendial rotating disk apparatus at 100 rpm. The surface kinetics contribution becomes more dominant under conditions of fast laminar or turbulent flows or in cases when the surface kinetic coefficient may decrease as a function of solution composition or pH. Limitations of the well-known convective diffusion equation for rotating disk by Levich are examined using direct computational modeling with simultaneous dissociation and acid-base reactions in which intrinsic dissolution rate is strongly dependent on pH profile and solution ionic strength. It is shown that concept of diffusion boundary layer does not strictly apply for reacting/interacting species and that thin-film diffusion models cannot be used quantitatively in general case. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Exchange-linked dissolution agents in dissolution-DNP (13)C metabolic imaging. (United States)

    Hurd, Ralph E; Spielman, Daniel; Josan, Sonal; Yen, Yi-Fen; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Mayer, Dirk


    The use of unlabeled exchange-linked dissolution agents in hyperpolarized metabolic imaging was studied to examine pool size limits and saturation relative to the availability of NADH. Three-dimensional dynamic metabolic images were obtained, and compared following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, prepared with and without unlabeled sodium lactate in the dissolution buffer. Comparisons were made on the basis of apparent rate constants and [1-(13)C]lactate signal-to-noise ratio. Range finding data were obtained for different bolus compositions. Isotope exchange was also probed in the reverse direction, following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate, with and without unlabeled sodium pyruvate in the dissolution buffer. Liver, kidney, and vascular regions of interest all showed an increase in [1-(13)C]lactate signal with addition of unlabeled sodium lactate in the dissolution buffer. Injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate with unlabeled sodium pyruvate in the dissolution buffer, provided exchange rate constants Klp for kidney and vascular regions of interest. These results are consistent with a high level of (13)C-exchange, and with labeling rates that are limited by steady-state pool sizes in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Análisis de la seguridad vial en la región central de Cuba


    García Depestre, René A; Domingo E. Delgado Martínez; Eduardo E. Díaz García


    La accidentalidad vehicular es un problema de salud mundial, lo que constituye la primera causa de muerte de niños y adultos jóvenes. Cuba no está exenta de esta situación y la provincia de Villa Clara, ubicada en la región central del país, está entre las primeras en el país en lo que se refiere a la inseguridad vial; por lo que es necesario analizar los factores que inciden en los accidentes a partir de la información contenida en los reportes de accidentes de tránsito. En este trabajo se c...

  4. Environmental Testing of Tritium-Phosphor Glass Vials for Use in Long-Life Radioisotope Power Conversion Units (United States)

    Zemcov, Michael; Cardona, Pedro; Parkus, James; Patru, Dorin; Yost, Valerie


    Power generation in extreme environments, such as the outer solar system, the night side of planets, or other low-illumination environments, currently presents a technology gap that challenges NASA's ambitious scientific goals. We are developing a radioisotope power cell (RPC) that utilizes commercially available tritium light sources and standard 1.85 eV InGaP2 photovoltaic cells to convert beta particle energy to electric energy. In the test program described here, we perform environmental tests on commercially available borosilicate glass vials internally coated with a ZnS luminescent phosphor that are designed to contain gaseous tritium in our proposed power source. Such testing is necessary to ensure that the glass containing the radioactive tritium is capable of withstanding the extreme environments of launch and space for extended periods of time.

  5. Effect of particle size on solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability: evaluation using coenzyme Q10 as naked nanocrystals (United States)

    Sun, Jiao; Wang, Fan; Sui, Yue; She, Zhennan; Zhai, Wenjun; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Yihui


    In this paper work, four naked nanocrystals (size range 80–700 nm) were prepared without any surfactant or polymer using the solvent/nonsolvent method. The effects of particle size on their solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability were investigated. Solubility and dissolution testing were performed in three types of dissolution medium, and the studies demonstrated that the equilibrium solubilities of coenzyme Q10 nanocrystals and bulk drugs were not affected by the dissolution media but the kinetic solubilities were. Kinetic solubility curves and changes in particle size distribution were determined and well explained by the proposed solubilization model for the nanocrystals and bulk drugs. The particle size effect on dissolution was clearly influenced by the diffusion coefficients of the various dissolution media, and the dissolution velocity of coenzyme Q10 increased as particle size decreased. The bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 after oral administration in beagle dogs was improved by reducing the particle size. For 700 nm nanocrystals, the AUC0–48 was 4.4-fold greater than that for the coarse suspensions, but a further decrease in particle size from 700 nm to 120 nm did not contribute to improvement in bioavailability until the particle size was reduced to 80 nm, when bioavailability was increased by 7.3-fold. PMID:23166438

  6. Dissolution of Material and Test reactor Fuel in an H-Canyon Dissolver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In an amended record of decision for the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site, the US Department of Energy has authorized the dissolution and recovery of U from 1000 bundles of Al-clad SNF. The SNF is fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors and is typically referred to as Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel. Bundles of MTR fuel containing assemblies fabricated from U-Al alloys (or other U compounds) are currently dissolved using a Hg-catalyzed HNO3 flowsheet. Since the development of the existing flowsheet, improved experimental methods have been developed to more accurately characterize the offgas composition and generation rate during laboratory dissolutions. Recently, these new techniques were successfully used to develop a flowsheet for the dissolution of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel. Using the data from the HFIR dissolution flowsheet development and necessary laboratory experiments, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to define flowsheet conditions for the dissolution of MTR fuels. With improved offgas characterization techniques, SRNL will be able define the number of bundles of fuel which can be charged to an H-Canyon dissolver with much less conservatism.

  7. Effect of Particle Size and Grinding Time on Gold Dissolution in Cyanide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Egan


    Full Text Available The recovery of gold by ore leaching is influenced by the size of the particles and the chemical environment. The effect of particle size on the dissolution of gold is usually studied using mono-size particles as the gold in solution comes from the ore of a unique leached particle size. This paper proposes a method to estimate the gold dissolution as a function of particle size using a bulk ore sample, i.e., with the dissolved gold coming from the various sizes of particles carried by the ore. The results are consistent with the fact that gold dissolution increases with the decreasing particle size but results also indicate that gold dissolution of the ore within a size interval is not significantly affected by the grinding time used for the ore size reduction. Results also show a good dissolution of the gold contained in the fine-size fractions without oxidation and lead nitrate pre-treatment for an ore that is known to require such pre-treatment.

  8. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products. (United States)

    Wang, M; Jin, X; Ren, X; Zhu, Y; Liu, Z; Gao, X


    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to detect simultaneously six active ingredients for quantification and dissolution study (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, apigenin, oleanolic acid). As we observed, contents of main active ingredients were close in the two formulations for daily dose. In each medium, more ingredients dissolved from formula granule with higher Ymax and Ka. The mean dissolution time of the most ingredients in granule was significantly shorter than that in pill in acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Furthermore, salidroside, specnuezhenide and luteolin dissolved more than 80% in 30 min from formula granule, which indicated higher solubility along the intestinal tract according to biopharmaceutics classification system. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its purposes and could be applied for quality control of herbal medicine. This work also can be used to provide necessary information on absorption for its biopharmaceutical properties.

  9. Effect of Cr2O3 Pickup on Dissolution of Lime in Converter Slag (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Chen, Weiqing; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yindong; McLean, Alex


    Application of low-nickel laterite ore containing chromium as charging material for ironmaking can reduce raw material costs, but result in an increase of chromium content in the hot metal and hence, Cr2O3 content in the steelmaking slag, which subsequently causes many problems related to lime dissolution for the steelmaking operation. In this work, a rotating cylinder method was employed to study the effect of Cr2O3 on lime dissolution in steelmaking slag. The lime dissolution mechanism, rate control step and affecting factors, including slag basicity, FeOx and B2O3 content, and the formation of phases at reacted layer, were discussed. It was found that mass transfer was the rate control step in slag phase, increase of Cr2O3 and slag basicity delayed lime dissolution due to the formation of high-melting temperature phases of FeO · Cr2O3 spinel and 2CaO · SiO2 at the slag/lime reacted interface. Addition of B2O3 promoted lime dissolution and suppressed formation of FeO · Cr2O3 spinel.

  10. Non aqueous dissolution of inert matrices for future nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Peron, F.; Lacquement, J


    The dissolution by non aqueous methods of two potential inert matrices of fuels for future reactors, TiN and SiC, was studied. The titanium nitride can be attacked in gas phase by chlorine gas above 400 deg C, to produce gaseous TiCl{sub 4} and N{sub 2}, with no solid or liquid residue. In molten LiCl-KCl melts at 550 deg C, the electrochemical oxidation of TiN produces TiCl], TiCl{sub 4} and N{sub 2} whereas liquid TiCl{sub 3}, remains in solution. The alpha silicon carbide can be attacked in gas phase by chlorine gas at 950 deg C. Gaseous SiCl{sub 4} and solid C are produced. A combination of Cl{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could lead to the formation of SiCl{sub 4} and CO, CO{sub 2}, with no solid or liquid residue. In molten KCl melts, at 950 deg C, the attack by dissolved Cl{sub 2} is very weak. With the used SiC, electrochemical studies were not possible because of a very low electrical conductivity of the material. Further studies are necessary to reduce the proportion of TiCl{sub 3} produced during the electro-dissolution in molten salt and to improve the oxidation of carbon during the attack of SiC. (authors)

  11. Partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants in the Spanish context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo González-Ferrer


    Full Text Available Background: The diversification of partnership patterns away from the traditional marriage standard emerged in Spain relatively late. This makes Spain an interesting case for the study of the partnership dynamics of natives and immigrant groups. Objective: This paper analyzes partnership formation and dissolution among immigrant women of various origins, in comparison to natives in Spain. The study aims to identify variations in timing and incidence of partnership transitions. Methods: Data from the Fertility and Values Survey 2006 is used to conduct discrete-time logistic regressions for several union transitions. In a further step, the data are analyzed including cohort interactions to explore the extent to which differences are due to the younger profile of the migrant population. Results: The obtained results lend support to the selection and disruption hypotheses in the case of immigrant women who arrived in Spain before their first union formation. However, when explaining the high propensity of Latin American and EU-15 women to enter cohabiting unions, socialization effects cannot be ruled out. Immigrant women also show higher risk of union dissolution than natives. Conclusions: Immigrant women differ consistently from native Spanish women across the various partnership transitions. They generally display higher risks of forming a union, particularly a cohabiting union, and of separating from their first partner. Models including interactions between birth cohort and migrant status showed that differentials between immigrants and natives are not due to compositional effects.

  12. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids (United States)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.


    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Oil drainage by CO2 gas diffusion, dissolution and foaming in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, H; Sasaki, K.; Sugai, Y. [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Takahashi, T.; Ito, D.; Okabe, T. [Research Center, JAPEX (Japan)


    In the heavy oil industry, the injection of carbon dioxide into reservoirs is used as a method to enhance oil recovery and store CO2. During this process, dissolution of gas takes place and contributes to cold production through a reduction in oil viscosity and capillarity pressure and swelling of the oil. The aim of this study was to investigate oil drainage from the sandstone cores. Experiments were conducted in a high pressure cell with pressures up to 10MPa, to measure the swelling factors of heavy and light oils for CO2 gas dissolution and thus evaluate the swelling coefficient and diffusion coefficient of the oil. Results allowed the development of an equation to determine gas solubility in the heavy oil based on measurements of apparent density. This study showed that gas dissolution does not affect oil mobility but that foamy oil contributes to oil drainage.

  14. Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew


    This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

  15. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten


    and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns......Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution....... The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  16. The effect of surfactants on the dissolution behavior of amorphous formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Peltonen, Leena; Novakovic, Dunja


    in detail. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on the dissolution behavior of neat amorphous drug and binary polymer based solid dispersion. Indomethacin was used as the model drug and the surfactants studied were polysorbate 80 and poloxamer 407. The presence...... of surfactants (alone or in combination with polymers) in the buffer was detrimental to the dissolution of neat amorphous indomethacin, suggesting that the surfactants promoted the crystallization of neat amorphous indomethacin. In contrast, the presence of surfactants (0.01% w/v) in the buffer resulted...... studies of neat amorphous drugs requires prudent consideration. The design of amorphous formulations with optimal dissolution performance requires the appropriate selection of a combination of excipients and consideration of the method of introducing the excipients....

  17. Factors governing dissolution process of lignocellulosic biomass in ionic liquid: current status, overview and challenges. (United States)

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M


    The utilisation of non-feed lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable bio-energy and synthesis of fine chemical products is necessary for the sustainable development. The methods for the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in conventional solvents are complex and tedious due to the complex chemical ultra-structure of biomass. In view of this, recent developments for the use of ionic liquid solvent (IL) has received great attention, as ILs can solubilise such complex biomass and thus provides industrial scale-up potential. In this review, we have discussed the state-of-art for the dissolution of lignocellulosic material in representative ILs. Furthermore, various process parameters and their influence for biomass dissolution were reviewed. In addition to this, overview of challenges and opportunities related to this interesting area is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor. (United States)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders


    Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns. The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water.

  19. Real-time dissolution behavior of furosemide in biorelevant media as determined by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Sarah; Naelapää, Kaisa; Rantanen, Jukka


    The potential of UV imaging as a new small scale flow-through dissolution testing platform and its ability to incorporate biorelevant media was tested. Furosemide was utilized as a model poorly soluble drug, and dissolution media simulating conditions in the small intestine (5/1.25 mM and 40/10 m...... was observed, however repeatability of data based on measurement of collected effluent was superior to that obtained by UV imaging in the utilized prototypic flow cell. Both methods indicated that biorelevant media did not markedly increase the dissolution rate of furosemide as compared to buffer....... Qualitatively, UV images indicated that uncontrolled swelling/precipitation of furosemide on the compact surface was occurring in some samples. In situ Raman spectroscopy together with X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the observations were not due to a solid form transformation of furosemide...

  20. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products


    Wang, M.; Jin, X.; X. Ren; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Gao, X


    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method wa...

  1. Preparation, characterization, and dissolution studies of naproxen solid dispersions using polyethylene glycol 6000 and labrafil M2130

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari


    Full Text Available Naproxen is a poor water soluble, non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. The enhancement of oral bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of drug development. Although salt formation, solubilization and particle size reduction have commonly been used to increase dissolution rate and thereby oral absorption and bioavailability of low water soluble drugs, there are practical limitation of these techniques. However, the most attractive option for increasing the release rate is improvement of solubility through formulation approaches. In this study, solid dispersions (SD of naproxen were prepared by hot melt method using various ratios of drug to polymers (PEG6000 separately and characterized for physical appearance, FTIR, DSC, X-Ray crystallography, and in-vitro dissolution studies. The influence of several amounts of Labrafil M2130 was also studied. FTIR study revealed that drug was stable in SDs, and great state of amorphous formed particles was proofed by DSC analysis. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried using USP type II (paddle dissolution apparatus at medium (pH 1.5. Solubility of naproxen from SDs was increased in dissolution media. The prepared dispersion showed increase in the dissolution rate of naproxen comparing to that of physical mixtures of drug and polymers and pure drug. Percent of drug released in 60 minutes was 23.92% for pure naproxen witch is increased in SDs and reached to100% for best formulations of PEG6000 and labrafil based SDs respectively, considering ratio of drug to polymers.It is concluded that dissolution of the naproxen could be improved by the solid dispersion. Although physical mixtures have increased the rate of dissolution, dissolution shows faster release from SDs which would therefore be due to formation of amorphous particles through the hot melt process which was also revealed by DSC analysis and XRD.

  2. Risk of Injection-Site Abscess among Infants Receiving a Preservative-Free, Two-Dose Vial Formulation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deron C Burton

    Full Text Available There is a theoretical risk of adverse events following immunization with a preservative-free, 2-dose vial formulation of 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10. We set out to measure this risk. Four population-based surveillance sites in Kenya (total annual birth cohort of 11,500 infants were used to conduct a 2-year post-introduction vaccine safety study of PCV10. Injection-site abscesses occurring within 7 days following vaccine administration were clinically diagnosed in all study sites (passive facility-based surveillance and, also, detected by caregiver-reported symptoms of swelling plus discharge in two sites (active household-based surveillance. Abscess risk was expressed as the number of abscesses per 100,000 injections and was compared for the second vs first vial dose of PCV10 and for PCV10 vs pentavalent vaccine (comparator. A total of 58,288 PCV10 injections were recorded, including 24,054 and 19,702 identified as first and second vial doses, respectively (14,532 unknown vial dose. The risk ratio for abscess following injection with the second (41 per 100,000 vs first (33 per 100,000 vial dose of PCV10 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-4.06. The comparator vaccine was changed from a 2-dose to 10-dose presentation midway through the study. The matched odds ratios for abscess following PCV10 were 1.00 (95% CI 0.12-8.56 and 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.54 when compared to the 2-dose and 10-dose pentavalent vaccine presentations, respectively. In Kenya immunization with PCV10 was not associated with an increased risk of injection site abscess, providing confidence that the vaccine may be safely used in Africa. The relatively higher risk of abscess following the 10-dose presentation of pentavalent vaccine merits further study.

  3. Risk of Injection-Site Abscess among Infants Receiving a Preservative-Free, Two-Dose Vial Formulation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Kenya (United States)

    Burton, Deron C.; Bigogo, Godfrey M.; Audi, Allan O.; Williamson, John; Munge, Kenneth; Wafula, Jackline; Ouma, Dominic; Khagayi, Sammy; Mugoya, Isaac; Mburu, James; Muema, Shadrack; Bauni, Evasius; Bwanaali, Tahreni; Feikin, Daniel R.; Ochieng, Peter M.; Mogeni, Ondari D.; Otieno, George A.; Olack, Beatrice; Kamau, Tatu; Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Chen, Robert; Farrington, Paddy; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Laserson, Kayla F.


    There is a theoretical risk of adverse events following immunization with a preservative-free, 2-dose vial formulation of 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10). We set out to measure this risk. Four population-based surveillance sites in Kenya (total annual birth cohort of 11,500 infants) were used to conduct a 2-year post-introduction vaccine safety study of PCV10. Injection-site abscesses occurring within 7 days following vaccine administration were clinically diagnosed in all study sites (passive facility-based surveillance) and, also, detected by caregiver-reported symptoms of swelling plus discharge in two sites (active household-based surveillance). Abscess risk was expressed as the number of abscesses per 100,000 injections and was compared for the second vs first vial dose of PCV10 and for PCV10 vs pentavalent vaccine (comparator). A total of 58,288 PCV10 injections were recorded, including 24,054 and 19,702 identified as first and second vial doses, respectively (14,532 unknown vial dose). The risk ratio for abscess following injection with the second (41 per 100,000) vs first (33 per 100,000) vial dose of PCV10 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–4.06). The comparator vaccine was changed from a 2-dose to 10-dose presentation midway through the study. The matched odds ratios for abscess following PCV10 were 1.00 (95% CI 0.12–8.56) and 0.27 (95% CI 0.14–0.54) when compared to the 2-dose and 10-dose pentavalent vaccine presentations, respectively. In Kenya immunization with PCV10 was not associated with an increased risk of injection site abscess, providing confidence that the vaccine may be safely used in Africa. The relatively higher risk of abscess following the 10-dose presentation of pentavalent vaccine merits further study. PMID:26509274

  4. Mesoscale Approach to Feldspar Dissolution: Quantification of Dissolution Incongruency Based on Al/Si Ordering State (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Min, Y.; Jun, Y.


    Dissolution mechanism of aluminosilicates is important for understanding natural and anthropogenic carbon cycles. The total mass of atmospheric CO2 is regulated by the weathering of silicate minerals, and the fate of geologically sequestered CO2 is affected by the interactions between brine, sandstone, caprock, and CO2, which is initiated by mineral dissolution. It has been shown through both experimental and ab initio studies that the dissolution/weathering reactivities of Al and Si in the matrix of an aluminosilicate can be different under many conditions. A subsequent observation is that the release rates of Al and Si, both from the same mineral, may not be stoichiometric when compared to the bulk chemistry of the mineral. For a very long time, the relationship between mineral dissolution incongruency and mineral crystallographic properties remain largely qualitative and descriptive. Here we study the dissolution incongruency of feldspars, the most abundant aluminosilicate on earth. Mineral dissolution experiments for a series of alkali feldspars (albite, anorthoclase, sanidine, and microcline) and plagioclases (oligoclase, andesine, labradorite, bytownite, and anorthite) were conducted at pH 1.68 under ambient conditions. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and water chemistry analysis (ICP-MS) are combined to examine the effect of Al/Si ordering on mineral dissolution. Our analysis based on a C1 structure model shows that the incongruency, stemming from the different reactivities of Al-O-Si and Si-O-Si linkages in feldspar's framework, is quantifiable and closely related to the Al/Si ordering state of a feldspar. Our results also suggest that the more random the Al/Si distribution of a mineral, the greater the dissolution incongruency. Our results have significant implications for understanding water-rock interactions. First, when studying the effect of water chemistry on water-rock interaction, smaller

  5. Dissolution of peripheral arterial thrombi by ultrasound. (United States)

    Ariani, M; Fishbein, M C; Chae, J S; Sadeghi, H; Michael, A D; Dubin, S B; Siegel, R J


    We have previously shown that continuous-wave ultrasound can rapidly dissolve human thrombi in vitro, with 99% of all residual particles measuring less than 10 microns in diameter. To assess the effects of pulsed-wave ultrasound energy on whole blood clots, 1) in vitro studies were preformed to assess precisely the rates of clot disruption and to quantify particulate size, and 2) in vivo studies were performed to assess the efficacy and safety of catheter-delivered ultrasound for intra-arterial thrombus dissolution. In vitro, we studied 50 samples of human whole blood clots and using an 89-cm-long wire probe, applied pulse-wave energies from 8 to 23 W. The corresponding peak-to-peak tip displacement range was 63.5 - 102 microns. We studied arterial thrombosis in vivo in 21 canine superficial femoral arteries. To produce an acute thrombosis, 200 units of thrombin followed by 2 ml of 72-hour-old autologous clot were injected into a 5-7-cm segment of femoral artery and left to coagulate for 2 hours. Ultrasound energy was intermittently applied at a frequency of 20 kHz with a prototype ultrasound wire ensheathed in a catheter and directed to clots by fluoroscopy. In nine cases, angioscopic guidance was used to put the probe into direct contact with the intra-arterial thromboses. In vitro clot dissolution times were inversely related to the ultrasound power output (r = 0.95). All in vivo canine thromboses were disrupted in 4 minutes or less. All successful recanalizations were confirmed by angiography and in nine cases by angioscopy as well. Angioscopy demonstrated that probe activation caused rapid clot disruption. Histological studies of the vessels showed no evidence of thermal or cavitation injury, occlusive distal embolization, or perforation. Our findings in this experimental canine model suggest that ultrasound clot dissolution has the potential to be an effective and safe alternative to current treatment modalities for peripheral arterial thrombosis.

  6. Dissolution of FB-Line Cabinet Sweepings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, Mark L.


    Three FB-Line samples were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and evaluation for suitability for HB-Line dissolution. These samples are part of a larger sampling/evaluation program in support of FB-Line deinventory efforts. The samples studied were identified as MC04-147- HBL, MC04-148-HBL, and FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N). The first sample, MC04-147-HBL, is a portion of FB-Line Packaging and Stabilization (P&S) materials. The second sample, MC04-148-HBL, is a sweeping from Cabinet 6-8, which is not representative of the mechanical line. The third sample, FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N), is an FB-Line North cabinet sweeping. The samples were described by FB-Line personnel as containing plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) which had not been high-fired. This description was generally confirmed by solids analysis and off gas measurements. All three samples were dissolved in 8 M HNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KF at 90-100 C leaving minor amounts of solid residue. During dissolution, sample MC04-147 did not generate hydrogen gas. Sample MC04-148 generated modest amounts of gas, which contained 4.0 to 4.7 volume percent (vol %) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at a ratio of up to 8.4 x 10{sup -5} mol H{sub 2}/g sample. Sample FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N) was nearly completely soluble in 8 M HNO{sub 3}and produced a very small amount of gas. Apparently, the CaF{sub 2} in that sample dissolves and provides sufficient fluoride to support the dissolution of other components.

  7. Zero and second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the quantification of two non-classical β-lactams in pharmaceutical vials: Application to stability studies. (United States)

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Youssif, Rania M; Salama, Nahla N; Fayed, Ahmed S; Hendawy, Hassan A M; Salem, Maissa Y


    The formation of metal chelates with various ligands may lead to the production of fluorescent chelates or enhance the fluorescence of the chelating agent. This paper describes two sensitive, selective and computer-solved methods, namely, zero order (SF) and second-derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry (SDSFS) for nano-quantitation of two carbapenems; meropenem (MP) and ertapenem (EP). The methods are based on the chelation of MP with Tb 3+ and EP with Zr 4+ in buffered organic medium at pH 4.0 to produce fluorescent chelates. In the zero order method, the relative synchronous fluorescence intensity is measured at 327.0 nm at Δλ = 70.0 and 100.0 nm for MP and EP, respectively. The second method utilizes a second-derivative technique to enhance the method selectivity and emphasize a stability-indicating approach. The peak amplitudes ( 2 D) of the second-derivative synchronous spectra were estimated to be 333.06 and 330.06 nm for MP and EP, respectively. The proposed synchronous spectrofluorimetric methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and applied successfully for the analysis of MP and EP in pure forms, pharmaceutical vials and in synthetic mixtures with different degradants of both drugs. Under optimum conditions, the mole-ratio method was applied and the co-ordination ratios of MP-Tb 3+ and EP-Zr 4+ chelates were found to be 1:1 and 1:3. The formation constants for the chelation complexes were evaluated using the Benesi-Hildebrand's equation; the free energy change (ΔG) was also calculated. The results indicated that EP-Zr 4+ was more stable than the MP-Tb 3+ chelate. Moreover, the developed methods were found to be selective and inexpensive for quantitative determination of both drugs in quality control laboratories at nano-levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluación de desempeño del método de ensayo de disolución para tabletas de zidovudina 300 mg producidas en Cuba Performance assessment of dissolution assay method of 300 mg of Zidovudine tablets produced in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Margarita García Peña


    Full Text Available Se validó un método por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para evaluar la disolución de las tabletas de zidovudina 300 mg producidas en Cuba, con detección ultravioleta a 265 nm. Se evaluaron los parámetros de especificidad, linealidad, precisión e influencia de la filtración. En el estudio de la influencia de la filtración se demostró que a través del filtro de línea, no se absorbe el principio activo, ni se aportan interferencias al filtrado, por lo que se recomienda su empleo. Se demostró la especificidad del método al no observarse interferencias de los excipientes de la formulación, en la determinación del principio activo. La curva de linealidad se realizó en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,999. El método resultó preciso ya que los valores se encontraron dentro de los límites establecidos. Se realizó además la comparación estadística de los perfiles de disolución de las tabletas producidas en Cuba contra el Retrovir® (medicamento líder, lo cual demostró que existe similitud entre el perfil de liberación de las formulaciones.A high-performance liquid chromatography method was validated to assess the dissolution of 300 mg Zidovudine tablets manufactured in Cuba with 265 nm ultraviolet (UV detection. Filtration specificity, linearity, accuracy parameters were assessed. In influence filtration study it was shown that through the line-filter the active principle it isn't absorbed and without filtrate interferences thus it is recommended its use. It was possible to demonstrate the method specificity due to no interferences of the formula excipients in active principle assessment. Linearity curve was drawed in the interval of study concentrations with a correlation coefficient similar to 0.999. The method was precise since the values were within the established limits. Also, we made a statistical comparison of dissolution profiles of tablets manufactured

  9. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D


    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known...

  10. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa


    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  11. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.


    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  12. Uranium dioxide oxidation/dissolution mechanism; Mecanisme d'oxydation / dissolution du dioxyde d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larabit-Gruet, N.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/L3MR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Meserque, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN//DPC/SCP/LRSI), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    In the case of deep geological storage of spent fuels, the environment waters will arrive at the surface of the fuel after some thousand years. It is then necessary to understand the leaching mechanisms of the UO{sub 2} matrix in contact with the interstitial waters of the potential storage site. At first, the characterization of the intrinsic properties of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2} system is carried out by an electrochemical way on a uranium dioxide electrode (semi conductor material). The electrochemical parameters of this system such as anodic charge transfer coefficient and standard velocity constant of the electrochemical reaction are determined in the speciation conditions adapted to the study of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2} redox couple study. The second part deals with the dependence of pH and carbonate ions on the dissolution of UO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the solid is characterized by ex-situ methods as XPS to reveal the eventual secondary phases precipitated at the surface of the UO{sub 2}. The aim of this work is to verify that the limiting step to the dissolution of the nuclear ceramics in presence of complexing agents is the progression of the oxidation front. (O.M.)

  13. Solid-state chemiluminescence assay for ultrasensitive detection of antimony using on-vial immobilization of CdSe quantum dots combined with liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction. (United States)

    Costas-Mora, Isabel; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos


    On-vial immobilized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are applied for the first time as chemiluminescent probes for the detection of trace metal ions. Among 17 metal ions tested, inhibition of the chemiluminescence when CdSe QDs are oxidized by H2O2 was observed for Sb, Se and Cu. Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction was implemented in order to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the chemiluminescent assay. Factors influencing both the CdSe QDs/H2O2 chemiluminescent system and microextraction process were optimized for ultrasensitive detection of Sb(III) and total Sb. In order to investigate the mechanism by which Sb ions inhibit the chemiluminescence of the CdSe QDs/H2O2 system, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption and fluorescence measurements were performed. The selection of the appropriate CdSe QDs capping ligand was found to be a critical issue. Immobilization of QDs caused the chemiluminescence signal to be enhanced by a factor of 100 as compared to experiments carried out with QDs dispersed in the bulk aqueous phase. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit was 6 ng L(-1) Sb and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (N=7) was about 1.3%. An enrichment factor of 95 was achieved within only 3 min of microextraction. Several water samples including drinking, spring, and river waters were analyzed. The proposed method was validated against CRM NWTM-27.2 fortified lake water, and a recovery study was performed with different types of water samples. Sb recoveries ranged from 94 to 105%. A fast, miniaturized and relatively inexpensive assay for selective and sensitive detection of Sb(III) and total Sb in waters is accomplished. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissolution of Platinum in the Operational Range of Fuel Cells (United States)

    Keeley, Gareth P.; Geiger, Simon; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R.; Hodnik, Nejc; Kulyk, Nadiia


    Abstract One of the most important practical issues in low‐temperature fuel‐cell catalyst degradation is platinum dissolution. According to the literature, it initiates at 0.6–0.9 VRHE, whereas previous time‐ and potential‐resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) experiments, however, revealed dissolution onset at only 1.05 VRHE. In this manuscript, the apparent discrepancy is addressed by investigating bulk and nanoparticulated catalysts. It is shown that, given enough time for accumulation, traces of platinum can be detected at potentials as low as 0.85 VRHE. At these low potentials, anodic dissolution is the dominant process, whereas, at more positive potentials, more platinum dissolves during the oxide reduction after accumulation. Interestingly, the potential and time dissolution dependence is similar for both types of electrode. Dissolution processes are discussed with relevance to fuel‐cell operation and plausible dissolution mechanisms are considered. PMID:27525206

  15. Dissolution of Platinum in the Operational Range of Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Keeley, Gareth P; Geiger, Simon; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Hodnik, Nejc; Kulyk, Nadiia; Mayrhofer, Karl J J


    One of the most important practical issues in low-temperature fuel-cell catalyst degradation is platinum dissolution. According to the literature, it initiates at 0.6-0.9 VRHE, whereas previous time- and potential-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) experiments, however, revealed dissolution onset at only 1.05 VRHE. In this manuscript, the apparent discrepancy is addressed by investigating bulk and nanoparticulated catalysts. It is shown that, given enough time for accumulation, traces of platinum can be detected at potentials as low as 0.85 VRHE. At these low potentials, anodic dissolution is the dominant process, whereas, at more positive potentials, more platinum dissolves during the oxide reduction after accumulation. Interestingly, the potential and time dissolution dependence is similar for both types of electrode. Dissolution processes are discussed with relevance to fuel-cell operation and plausible dissolution mechanisms are considered.

  16. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement IV-Antisolvent Nanocrystallization by Sonication, Physical Stability, and Dissolution. (United States)

    Sartori, Gabriela Julianelly; Prado, Livia Deris; Rocha, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes


    Efavirenz is a fundamental drug in the HIV therapy; however, it has a low bioavailability due to low water solubility. Particle nanonization should enhance its dissolution and therefore its bioavailability. Nanocrystallization is a promising technique for preparing drug nanocrystals. A solution containing efavirenz (EFV) and methanol was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under sonication. The adequate polymer stabilizer and its concentration and drug load were evaluated. Particle size and zeta potential of suspensions were measured. Nanosuspensions were freeze-dried and the resulting powder was characterized by some techniques, with special attention to dissolution. Particle size and zeta potential analysis showed that HMPC and PVP were the most suitable polymers. All samples prepared with these stabilizers had nanosized particles and proper zeta potential; however, sedimentation and particle growth were detected with Turbiscan™. Time-related destabilization occurred when the lowest polymer concentration of 20% was used. SEM analysis of the dried powder shows film formation for suspensions with 40% of polymer and particle aggregation in samples with less polymer. Dissolution profiles of samples were higher than EFV raw material, although the lower the polymer concentration, the higher the dissolution.

  17. Frogging It: A poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution


    Sandra L. Faulkner


    Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection to interpersonal relationship dissolution literature through the technique of poetic analysis. This analysis serves as an exemplar for how poetry as...

  18. Anodic dissolution of metals in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Abbott


    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of metals is an important topic for battery design, material finishing and metal digestion. Ionic liquids are being used in all of these areas but the research on the anodic dissolution is relatively few in these media. This study investigates the behaviour of 9 metals in an ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] and a deep eutectic solvent, Ethaline, which is a 1:2 mol ratio mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. It is shown that for the majority of metals studied a quasi-passivation of the metal surface occurs, primarily due to the formation of insoluble films on the electrode surface. The behaviour of most metals is different in [C4mim][Cl] to that in Ethaline due in part to the differences in viscosity. The formation of passivating salt films can be decreased with stirring or by increasing the electrolyte temperature, thereby increasing ligand transport to the electrode surface.

  19. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution. (United States)

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M


    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.

  20. Relationship between dissolution and bioavailability for nimodipine colloidal dispersions: the critical size in improving bioavailability. (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Kou, Longfa; Gong, Cheng; Li, Mo; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Meina; Sui, Xiaofan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Siling; He, Zhonggui


    To compare the dissolution and bioavailability for nimodipine microcrystals and nanocrystals, and to determine the critical size range in improving the oral absorption of nimodipine. Nimodipine microcrystals and nanocrystals were prepared using a microprecipitation method. The particle size was determined with a laser diffraction method. X-ray powder diffraction was applied to inspect the potential crystal form transition. The aqueous solubility was determined by shaking flasks, and the dissolution behavior was evaluated using the paddle method. The pharmacokinetics was performed in beagle dogs in a crossover experimental design. Three nimodipine colloidal dispersions (16296.7, 4060.0 and 833.3 nm) were prepared, respectively. Nimodipine had undergone crystal form transition during microprecipitation process, but experienced no conversion under the high-pressure homogenization. The colloidal dispersions did not show any difference in aqueous equilibrium solubility. Additionally, the three formulations also displayed similar dissolution curves in purified water and 0.05% SDS. The AUC for dispersions of 4060.0 and 833.3 nm sizes was 1.69 and 2.59-fold higher than that for 16296.7 nm system in dogs. To sum up, the critical particle size was found to be within the range of 833.3-4060.0 nm (average volume-weighted particle size) in improving the bioavailability of nimodipine, and dissolution performance was not an effective index in evaluating the bioavailability for nimodipine colloidal dispersions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro evaluation of Biosilicate® dissolution on dentin surface: a SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carolina Pinheiro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biomaterials such as bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics have been proposed for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the dissolution of a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate® 1-20 µm particles on dentin surface samples, with different application methods and different dilution medium used for applying Biosilicate®. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 280 dentin samples were randomly divided into four groups: (1 Biosilicate® plus fluoride gel applied with Robinson brush; (2 Biosilicate® plus fluoride gel applied with microbrush; (3 Biosilicate® plus distilled water applied with Robinson brush; (4 Biosilicate® plus distilled water applied with microbrush. After treatment, the samples were immersed in saliva at different periods (0, 15 and 30 minutes, 1, 2, 12 and 24 hours. Two photomicrographs were obtained from each sample and were further analyzed by a blind calibrated examiner according to a "Particle Dissolution Index" created for this study. RESULT: The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. There was no statistical difference among the degrees of dissolution between the 4 groups in any period. CONCLUSION: Biosilicate® can be incorporated in both substances without differences in the degree of dissolution of the particles in any of the evaluated periods and the application of dentine can be performed with both methods evaluated.

  2. In vitro dissolution testing of parenteral aqueous solutions and oily suspensions of paracetamol and prednisolone. (United States)

    Probst, Mareike; Schmidt, Martin; Tietz, Katharina; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne


    The number of intramuscularly applied dosage forms has been continuously increasing during the last decades. However, up to date no in vitro dissolution test method for parenteral dosage forms has been described in the Ph. Eur. or USP. It was the aim of this study to investigate dissolution test setups based on the compendial flow-through cell and the reciprocating holder for this purpose. Both apparatuses were equipped with dialysis membranes to accommodate the drug formulation. The suitability of the dissolution method was evaluated by comparing release profiles with blood level curves that were obtained previously in an in vivo study in rats by our group. Aqueous solutions and oily suspensions of paracetamol and prednisolone were tested in vitro that were also applied in the in vivo study. In the case of the aqueous solutions in which no formal dissolution occurs, transport from the applied depot across a dialysis membrane was investigated. While the drug transport across the dialysis membrane of both drugs in aqueous solution was similar in all applied test methods, differences in the release behavior of paracetamol and prednisolone as an oily suspension were observed. This was mainly due to sedimentation of the particles within the oily depot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The dissolution kinetics of quartz and kaolinite in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drillet, V.


    For modelling alkaline migration in a reservoir rock, dissolution kinetics data are required. Dissolution of kaolinite, a typical mineral in clays, is studied at pH between 11 and 13 and for three temperatures 30, 47 and 55{sup 0}C. Experiments are realized by injection of the alkaline solution in a stirred reactor containing a suspension of the studied mineral. Dissolution rate is obtained from silicon and aluminium concentration in the effluent. For kaolinite dissolution rate increases with temperature and an unexpected fast decrease with Si or Al concentration in the solution. Results are interpreted.

  4. Frogging It: A poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Faulkner


    Full Text Available Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection to interpersonal relationship dissolution literature through the technique of poetic analysis. This analysis serves as an exemplar for how poetry as performative writing offers a valuable addition to interpersonal communication research through the poeticizing of relational dissolution as an everyday relational challenge.

  5. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry


    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  6. [Determination of borneol in Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets and study its in vitro dissolution in different dosage form]. (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Du, Shou-ying; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Li, Peng-yue; Dong, Bo-yu; Du, Qin; Zhang, Lin


    The borneol was included with β-CD and prepared Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets. GC method for determination of borneol in Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets was established to study its in vitro dissolution and make a comparison with the Fufang Danshen tablet, in this way, the rationality of dosage form was evaluated. The first method of dissolution determination was used for determining the in vitro dissolution of borneol in Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets in artificial intestinal juice, and Fufang Danshen tablet in artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice, respectively. Result shows: the concentration of borneol in Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets and Fufang Danshen tablet was 0.79% and 0.80%, respectively. Its in vitro dissolution was nearly 70% within 12 h in Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets, and in Fufang Danshen tablet, the dissolution was about 60% within 20 min and more than 90% within 40 min, and in artificial gastric juice, was less than 20% within 40 min but more than 80% till 150 min. Research suggests that in comparison with Fufang Danshen tablet, in vitro dissolution of borneol in the Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets showed an obvious sustained release behavior. The borneol in Fufang Danshen intestinal adhesion pellets was included with β-CD and prepared enteric preparations. To some extent, the stimulation on stomach and intestinal mucosa can be reduced and safety can be improved.

  7. Griseofulvin/carrier blends: application of partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis for estimating the factors affecting the dissolution efficiency. (United States)

    Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Trapani, Adriana; Lopedota, Angela; Franco, Massimo; Mandracchia, Delia; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Trapani, Giuseppe


    The main aim of the present study was to estimate the carrier characteristics affecting the dissolution efficiency of griseofulvin (Gris) containing blends (BLs) using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. These systems were prepared at three different drug/carrier weight ratios (1/5, 1/10, and 1/20) by the solvent evaporation method, a well-established method for preparing solid dispersions (SDs). The carriers used were structurally different including polymers, a polyol, acids, bases and sugars. The BLs were characterised at the solid-state by spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), thermoanalytical (differential scanning calorimetry) and X-ray diffraction studies and their dissolution behaviours were quantified in terms of dissolution efficiencies (log DE/DE(Gris)). The correlation between the selected descriptors, including parameters for size, lipophilicity, cohesive energy density, and hydrogen bonding capacity and log DE/DE(Gris) (i.e., DE and DE(Gris) are the dissolution efficiencies of the BLs and the pure drug, respectively) was established by PLS regression analysis. Thus two models characterised by satisfactory coefficient of determination were derived. The generated equations point out that aqueous solubility, density, lipophilic/hydrophilic character, dispersive/polar forces and hydrogen bonding acceptor/donor ability of the carrier are important features for dissolution efficiency enhancement. Finally, it could be concluded that the correlations developed may be used to predict at a semiquantitative level the dissolution behaviour of BLs of other essentially neutral drugs possessing hydrogen bonding acceptor groups only.

  8. Enabling real time release testing by NIR prediction of dissolution of tablets made by continuous direct compression (CDC). (United States)

    Pawar, Pallavi; Wang, Yifan; Keyvan, Golshid; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Muzzio, Fernando


    A method for predicting dissolution profiles of directly compressed tablets for a fixed sustained release formulation manufactured in a continuous direct compaction (CDC) system is presented. The methodology enables real-time release testing (RTRt). Tablets were made at a target drug concentration of 9% Acetaminophen, containing 90% lactose and 1% Magnesium Stearate, and at a target compression force of 24kN. A model for predicting dissolution profiles was developed using a 3(4-1) fractional factorial experimental design built around this targeted condition. Four variables were included: API concentration (low, medium, high), blender speed (150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm), feed frame speed (20rpm, 25rpm, 30rpm), compaction force (8KN, 16KN, 24KN). The tablets thus obtained were scanned at-line in transmission mode using Near IR spectroscopy. The dissolution profiles were described using two approaches, a model-independent "shape and level" method, and a model-dependent approach based on Weibull's model. Multivariate regression was built between the NIR scores as the predictor variables and the dissolution profile parameters as the response. The model successfully predicted the dissolution profiles of the individual tablets (similarity factor, f2 ∼72) manufactured at the targeted set point. This is a first ever published manuscript addressing RTRt for dissolution prediction in continuous manufacturing, a novel and state of art technique for tablet manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Design of PVP/VA S-630 based tadalafil solid dispersion to enhance the dissolution rate. (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Park, Jeong-Sook


    Tadalafil (TDF) is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drug; the efficacy thereof is critically limited by inherent poor water solubility. Solid dispersion (SD) techniques are widely used to improve the bioavailability of drugs that are poorly water-soluble. Herein, we used an SD technique to improve the solubility and in vitro dissolution rate of TDF; a solvent evaporation method was applied involving the use of hydrophilic carriers (PVP/VA S-630) and assistants (malic acid or meglumine). The TDF-SD formulations were evaluated in terms of the solubility, in vitro dissolution, and stability. Physical properties were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). TDF-SD formulations containing assistants (malic acid or meglumine) and various solubilizers exhibited significantly enhanced solubility in distilled water (DW) (up to 27.3-fold; 18.5±0.16μg/mL with PVP/VA S-630) compared with TDF alone (0.73±0.08μg/mL). However, the dissolution rate of malic acid based formulation was decreased as the PVP/VA S-630 content increased compared to meglumine based formulation. Thus, the optimal TDF-SD formulation (TDF/meglumine/PVP/VA S-630/Aerosil 200: 1/3/5/3) exhibited a greater dissolution rate (89.1±3.9%) than TDF alone (6.2±2.5%) and Cialis(®) powder (16.0±1.9%) in DW. The final TDF-SD formulation was amorphous in nature and exhibited good stability. In conclusion, TDF-SD was successfully improved in vitro dissolution rate of TDF compared to commercial products (Cialis(®)) in the dissolution media without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Viewing Molecular and Interface Interactions of Curcumin Amorphous Solid Dispersions for Comprehending Dissolution Mechanisms. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xin; Li, Chang; Fan, Na; Wang, Jian; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin


    Tautomeric curcumin amorphous solid dispersions (Cur ASDs) formulated with various typical polymers (polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), Eudragit EPO (EuD), EuD/hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose E50 (HPMC), and PVP/EuD) were probed using in situ Raman imaging plus spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques, and dissolution mechanism of Cur ASDs were revealed mainly through molecular and interfacial interactions formed between Cur and polymer. The results demonstrated that Cur of keto form existed in Cur-PEG, Cur of enol form was shown in Cur-PVP, while Cur-EuD or Cur ASDs formulated with EuD as component had Cur of keto form and enol form. Hydrogen bond interactions were formed between OH group (PEG, HPMC) with C═O (Cur), and C═O (PVP or EuD) with the OH group (Cur). For Cur ASDs formulated with single polymer, the existed form of Cur was possibly related with the molecular interactions formed between drug and polymer. The wetting effect of excipient and Cur ASDs as well as their fitting equations of contact angle profiles should be seriously considered when analyzing the dissolution mechanism of Cur ASDs. Furthermore, dissolution of Cur-EuD with erosion dissolution pattern was higher than Cur-PVP with diffusion mechanism, and their crystallization pathway can ascribe to solution pathway and solid matrix pathway, respectively. Last but not least, turbidimetry method was effective in determining which excipient was superior and evaluating the function of polymers, including their abilities to improve amorphous Cur loading, drug dissolution, and supersaturation levels. Therefore, both the probing of tautomeric Cur in ASDs at intermolecular level and elucidation of its dissolution mechanism has tremendous value.

  11. Validation of Dissolution Testing with Biorelevant Media: An OrBiTo Study. (United States)

    Mann, James; Dressman, Jennifer; Rosenblatt, Karin; Ashworth, Lee; Muenster, Uwe; Frank, Kerstin; Hutchins, Paul; Williams, James; Klumpp, Lukas; Wielockx, Kristina; Berben, Philippe; Augustijns, Patrick; Holm, Rene; Hofmann, Michael; Patel, Sanjaykumar; Beato, Stefania; Ojala, Krista; Tomaszewska, Irena; Bruel, Jean-Luc; Butler, James


    Dissolution testing with biorelevant media has become widespread in the pharmaceutical industry as a means of better understanding how drugs and formulations behave in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, however, there have been few attempts to gauge the reproducibility of results obtained with these methods. The aim of this study was to determine the interlaboratory reproducibility of biorelevant dissolution testing, using the paddle apparatus (USP 2). Thirteen industrial and three academic laboratories participated in this study. All laboratories were provided with standard protocols for running the tests: dissolution in FaSSGF to simulate release in the stomach, dissolution in a single intestinal medium, FaSSIF, to simulate release in the small intestine, and a "transfer" (two-stage) protocol to simulate the concentration profile when conditions are changed from the gastric to the intestinal environment. The test products chosen were commercially available ibuprofen tablets and zafirlukast tablets. The biorelevant dissolution tests showed a high degree of reproducibility among the participating laboratories, even though several different batches of the commercially available medium preparation powder were used. Likewise, results were almost identicalbetween the commercial biorelevant media and those produced in-house. Comparing results to previous ring studies, including those performed with USP calibrator tablets or commercially available pharmaceutical products in a single medium, the results for the biorelevant studies were highly reproducible on an interlaboratory basis. Interlaboratory reproducibility with the two-stage test was also acceptable, although the variability was somewhat greater than with the single medium tests. Biorelevant dissolution testing is highly reproducible among laboratories and can be relied upon for cross-laboratory comparisons.

  12. Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying. (United States)

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Sacha, Gregory


    The purpose of this study was to perform a rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters, that is, the contact parameter K(cs) and the separation distance l(v), using the sublimation rate profiles measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). In this study, each size of vial was filled with pure water followed by a freeze-drying cycle using a LyoStar II dryer (FTS Systems) with step-changes of the chamber pressure set-point at to 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mTorr. K(cs) was independently determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the sublimation rates measured at the pressure set-point of 25 mTorr. After obtaining K(cs), the l(v) value for each vial size was determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the pooled sublimation rate profiles obtained at 25 to 400 mTorr. The vial heat transfer coefficient K(v), as a function of the chamber pressure, was readily calculated, using the obtained K(cs) and l(v) values. It is interesting to note the significant difference in K(v) of two similar types of 10 mL Schott tubing vials, primary due to the geometry of the vial-bottom, as demonstrated by the images of the contact areas of the vial-bottom. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Co Oxidation Properties Of Selective Dissoluted Metallic Glass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.-Y.


    Full Text Available Porous metallic materials have been widely used in many fields including aerospace, atomic energy, electro chemistry and environmental protection. Their unique structures make them very useful as lightweight structural materials, fluid filters, porous electrodes and catalyst supports. In this study, we fabricated Ni-based porous metallic glasses having uniformly dispersed micro meter pores by the sequential processes of ball-milling and chemical dissolution method. We investigated the application of our porous metal supported for Pt catalyst. The oxidation test was performed in an atmosphere of 1% CO and 3% O2. Microstructure observation was performed by using a scanning electron microscope. Oxidation properties and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller were analyzed to understand porous structure developments. The results indicated that CO Oxidation reaction was dependent on the specific surface area.

  14. Catalysis and chemical mechanisms of calcite dissolution in seawater. (United States)

    Subhas, Adam V; Adkins, Jess F; Rollins, Nick E; Naviaux, John; Erez, Jonathan; Berelson, William M


    Near-equilibrium calcite dissolution in seawater contributes significantly to the regulation of atmospheric [Formula: see text] on 1,000-y timescales. Despite many studies on far-from-equilibrium dissolution, little is known about the detailed mechanisms responsible for calcite dissolution in seawater. In this paper, we dissolve (13)C-labeled calcites in natural seawater. We show that the time-evolving enrichment of [Formula: see text] in solution is a direct measure of both dissolution and precipitation reactions across a large range of saturation states. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer profiles into the (13)C-labeled solids confirm the presence of precipitated material even in undersaturated conditions. The close balance of precipitation and dissolution near equilibrium can alter the chemical composition of calcite deeper than one monolayer into the crystal. This balance of dissolution-precipitation shifts significantly toward a dissolution-dominated mechanism below about [Formula: see text] Finally, we show that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) increases the dissolution rate across all saturation states, and the effect is most pronounced close to equilibrium. This finding suggests that the rate of hydration of [Formula: see text] is a rate-limiting step for calcite dissolution in seawater. We then interpret our dissolution data in a framework that incorporates both solution chemistry and geometric constraints on the calcite solid. Near equilibrium, this framework demonstrates a lowered free energy barrier at the solid-solution interface in the presence of CA. This framework also indicates a significant change in dissolution mechanism at [Formula: see text], which we interpret as the onset of homogeneous etch pit nucleation.

  15. Studies on Dissolution Enhancement of Prednisolone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Prednisolone is a class II substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It is a poorly water soluble agent. The aim of the present study was to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone, by a solid dispersion technique. Methods: Solid dispersion of prednisolone was prepared with PEG 6000 or different carbohydrates such as lactose and dextrin with various ratios of the drug to carrier i.e., 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40. Solid dispersions were prepared by coevaporation method. The evaluation of the properties of the dispersions was performed using dissolution studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffractometery. Results: The results indicated that lactose is suitable carriers to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of prednisolone. The data from the x-ray diffraction showed that the drug was still detectable in its solid state in all solid dispersions except solid dispersions prepared by dextrin as carrier. The results from infrared spectroscopy showed no well-defined drug–carrier interactions for coevaporates. Conclusion: Solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone may alleviate the problems of delayed and inconsistent rate of dissolution of the drug.

  16. [Effect of stability and dissolution of realgar nano-particles using solid dispersion technology]. (United States)

    Guo, Teng; Shi, Feng; Yang, Gang; Feng, Nian-Ping


    To improve the stability and dissolution of realgar nano-particles by solid dispersion. Using polyethylene glycol 6000 and poloxamer-188 as carriers, the solid dispersions were prepare by melting method. XRD, microscopic inspection were used to determine the status of realgar nano-particles in solid dispersions. The content and stability test of As(2)0(3) were determined by DDC-Ag method. Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the content of Arsenic and investigated the in vitro dissolution behavior of solid dispersions. The results of XRD and microscopic inspection showed that realgar nano-particles in solid dispersions were amorphous. The dissolution amount and rate of Arsenic from realgar nano-particles of all solid dispersions were increased significantly, the reunion of realgar nano-particles and content of As(2)0(3) were reduced for the formation of solid dispersions. The solid dispersion of realgar nano-particles with poloxamer-188 as carriers could obviously improve stability, dissolution and solubility.

  17. Phosphorus and zinc dissolution from thermally gasified piggery waste ash using sulphuric acid. (United States)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G


    Ash from thermally gasified piggery waste (GA) was treated with sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) using two extraction methods. First different loads (0.39-0.98 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg ash) and concentrations (0.2-2M) were used in 3h extraction. Second, titration of 1:25 (w/w) ash:water suspension was conducted with 4M H(2)SO(4) to determine ash buffer capacity at nine pH steps from 12 to 0.1. Total P and zinc (Zn) dissolution was monitored. Optimal acid load and concentration to dissolve 94% P and 55% Zn from GA was 0.98 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg ash and 0.6M, respectively, which corresponds to acid demand of 19.2 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg P recovered. High concentrations (2M) did not improve P dissolution, but Zn was easier released. Ash buffer capacity was the highest at pH 4 and 0.1, first one due to dissolution of Ca, the second one due to autoprotolysis of water. Acid load had stronger effect on dissolution than concentration in the first method, however in the second; both factors had comparable effect. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.


    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  19. La valoración monetaria de los costes humanos de la siniestralidad vial en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Martínez Pérez


    Full Text Available Los análisis coste-beneficio en el ámbito de la seguridad vial han de computar la totalidad de los costes, y dentro de ellos ocupan un lugar clave los costes humanos. En esta nota se da cuenta de dos estudios promovidos por la Dirección General de Tráfico orientados a la obtención de valores oficiales para España de los costes asociados a las víctimas mortales y no mortales de los accidentes de tráfico. Mediante la combinación del enfoque de la valoración contingente con la técnica de la lotería estándar (modificada, y con muestras amplias (n1 = 2020, n2 = 2000 representativas de la población española, se estimó en 1,4 millones de euros el valor monetario de prevenir un fallecido por accidente de tráfico. Para las lesiones graves y leves, los valores estimados fueron de 219.000 y 6100 euros, respectivamente. Las cifras obtenidas tienen un orden de magnitud similar al de los países de nuestro entorno.

  20. Single vial kit formulation of DOTATATE for preparation of (177) Lu-labeled therapeutic radiopharmaceutical at hospital radiopharmacy. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Archana; Lohar, Sharad; Dash, Ashutosh; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Samuel, Grace; Korde, Aruna


    The clinical applications of radiolabeled somatostatin analogue (177) Lu-DOTA-Tyr(3) -Thr(8) -Octreotide ((177) Lu-DOTATATE) constitute a promising treatment option for patients with disseminated and inoperable neuroendocrine (NET) tumors. Formulation of (177) Lu-DOTATATE in hospital radiopharmacy under aseptic conditions in a safe and reliable manner is a major constraint for its extensive use. The present work was intended to develop a kit for the safe preparation of the therapeutic radiopharmaceutical, viz. (177) Lu-DOTATATE of high quality that can be easily adapted at conventional hospital radiopharmacies. Single vial kits of DOTATATE were formulated and evaluated for suitability for radiolabeling as well as stability on its storage. Patient dose of (177) Lu-DOTATATE (7.4 GBq) could be successfully prepared using semi-automated in-house setup that assures safe handling and high yields of product of pharmaceutical purity suitable for clinical use. Fast clearance of activity via renal route was observed in preclinical biodistribution studies of (177) Lu-DOTATATE carried out in normal Swiss mice. Deployment of in-house produced (177) LuCl3 , cold kits and easy adaptability of synthesis setup at hospital radiopharmacy for preparation is likely to expand applications of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A novel microdialysis-dissolution/permeation system for testing oral dosage forms: A proof-of-concept study. (United States)

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Poulsen, Jessie; Brandl, Martin; Bauer-Brandl, Annette


    A novel microdialysis-dissolution/permeation (M-D/P) system was developed for the biopharmaceutical assessment of oral drug formulations. This system consists of a side-by-side diffusion chamber, a microdialysis unit fixed within the dissolution chamber for continuous sampling, and a biomimetic Permeapad® as the intestinal barrier. In the M-D/P system, the concentration of the molecularly dissolved drug (with MWCO dissolution compartment (representing the gastrointestinal tract) while the concentration of the permeated drug was measured in the acceptor compartment (representing the blood). The kinetics of both the dissolution process and the permeation process were simultaneously quantified under circumstances that mimic physiological conditions. For the current proof-of-concept study, hydrocortisone (HCS) in the form of slowly dissolving solvate crystals and buffer and the biorelevant fasted state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF), were employed as the model drug and dissolution media, respectively. The applicability of the M-D/P system to dissolution and permeation profiling of HCS in buffer and in FaSSIF has been successfully demonstrated. Compared to the conventional direct sampling method (using filter of 0.1-0.45μm), sampling by the M-D/P system exhibited distinct advantages, including (1) showing minimal disturbance of the permeation process, (2) differentiating "molecularly" dissolved drugs from "apparently" dissolved drugs during dissolution of HCS in FaSSIF, and (3) being less laborious and having better sampling temporal resolution. M-D/P system appeared to be a promising, simple and routine tool that allows for the researchers' intensive comprehension of the interplay of dissolution and permeation thus helping for better oral formulation screening and as an ultimate goal, for better dosage forms assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Process optimization and performance evaluation on sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification of sago waste. (United States)

    Lee, Kiat Moon; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May


    The production of reducing sugars from sago waste via sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification was optimized in this study. Ionic liquid dissolution of sago waste with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was conducted prior to the solid acid saccharification with Amberlyst 15 (A15). The effect of time, temperature and substrate loading during dissolution reaction; and the effect of time, temperature and catalyst loading during saccharification reaction were examined by applying central composite design (CCD) separately. Both dissolution and saccharification reactions were respectively modeled into quadratic polynomial equations with good predictive accuracies. A high reducing sugars yield of 98.3% was obtained under the optimized conditions, i.e. dissolution at 1.75h, 160°C, 1.5% substrate loading, and saccharification at 0.5h, 130°C, 4% catalyst loading. From comparison studies of different saccharification schemes, the sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification has proven to be a potential method in reducing sugars production from the lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modifying Surface Chemistry of Metal Oxides for Boosting Dissolution Kinetics in Water by Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Geng, Jiguo; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Wenqiang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Xie, Shaohua; Dai, Hongxing; Chen, Fu-Rong; Sui, Manling


    Dissolution of metal oxides is fundamentally important for understanding mineral evolution and micromachining oxide functional materials. In general, dissolution of metal oxides is a slow and inefficient chemical reaction. Here, by introducing oxygen deficiencies to modify the surface chemistry of oxides, we can boost the dissolution kinetics of metal oxides in water, as in situ demonstrated in a liquid environmental transmission electron microscope (LETEM). The dissolution rate constant significantly increases by 16-19 orders of magnitude, equivalent to a reduction of 0.97-1.11 eV in activation energy, as compared with the normal dissolution in acid. It is evidenced from the high-resolution TEM imaging, electron energy loss spectra, and first-principle calculations where the dissolution route of metal oxides is dynamically changed by local interoperability between altered water chemistry and surface oxygen deficiencies via electron radiolysis. This discovery inspires the development of a highly efficient electron lithography method for metal oxide films in ecofriendly water, which offers an advanced technique for nanodevice fabrication.

  4. Analysis of Formation and Interfacial WC Dissolution Behavior of WC-Co/Invar Laser-TIG Welded Joints (United States)

    Xu, P. Q.; Ren, J. W.; Zhang, P. L.; Gong, H. Y.; Yang, S. L.


    During the valve fabrication, hard metal is welded to stainless steel or invar alloy for sealing purposes because of its good heat resistance operating at 500 °C. However, WC (tungsten carbide) dissolution in weld pool softens the hard metal and decreases mechanical properties near the hard metal/weld interface. In order to analyze the WC dissolution in welded joint, joining of hard metal and invar alloy was carried out using laser-tungsten inert gas hybrid welding method. Microstructures of the weld region, chemical composition were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and EDAX, respectively. Mechanical properties such as microhardness and four-point bend strength test were performed. Larger and smaller WC dissolution and WC dissolution through transition layer based on thermo-dynamics were discussed. The results thus indicate that WC dissolution led to cellular microstructure, columnar crystal, and transition layer under the effect of laser beam and tungsten arc. WC dissolution was affected by metal ions Fe+, Ni+, Co+ exchange in W-M-C system, and WC grain growth was driven by forces caused by laser beam and tungsten arc in larger WC, smaller WC, and liquid Fe, Ni systems.

  5. Helium enrichment during convective carbon dioxide dissolution (United States)

    Larson, T.; Hesse, M. A.


    Motivated by observed variations of the CO2/He ratios in natural carbon dioxide (CO2) reservoirs, such as the Bravo Dome field in northeastern New Mexico, we have performed laboratory experiments equilibrating gas mixtures containing Helium (He) and CO2 with water, at close to ambient conditions in a closed system. The experimental design allows for continuous measurement of headspace pressure as well as timed interval measurements of the CO2/He ratios and the δ13C value of CO2 in the headspace. Results from three dissolution experiments are reported: 1) pure Helium system, 2) 98% CO2 + 2% Nitrogen system, and 3) 97% CO2 and 3% Helium. Final equilibrated experimental results are compared to theoretical results obtained using Henry's Law relationships. The evolution of the amount of dissolved CO2 computed from gas pressure and gas compositions are in good agreement with Henry's Law relationships. For example, the CO2 + N2 system was initially pressurized with pure CO2 to 1323 mbar and after six days it equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 596 mbar. This compares very well with a calculated equilibrium headspace pressure of 592 mbar for this system. The CO2 + He system was pressurized to 1398 mbar CO2 and after six days equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 397 mbar. This measured pressure is slightly higher than the predicted equilibrated headspace pressure of 341 mbar, indicating a possible leak in the system during this particular experiment. In both experiments the initial pH of the water was 9.3 and the final equilibrated pH was 5.4. The δ13C value of equilibrated headspace CO2 was within 0.25‰ of its starting δ13C value, demonstrating insignificant carbon isotope fractionation at low pH. Measured Helium/ CO2 ratios throughout the CO2+Helium experiment preserve a non-linear trend of increasing He/ CO2 ratios through time that correlate very well with the measured pressure drop from CO2 dissolution. This indicates that gas composition

  6. The impact of ART on union dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Vassard, Ditte; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted


    : Findings regarding marital stability and infertility treatments have been sparse and controversial. While there is data showing higher divorce rates among women who go through infertility treatments, there is also some evidence of this experience bringing couples closer by forcing them to communicate more...... was prospectively sampled. Participants could change status during follow-up if they entered ART. The final sample had 148 972 couples, followed until marital dissolution, death of self/spouse, migration or until 31 December 2010. We used Cox regression models adjusting for female and male age, education, marriage......, common child at baseline and live-born child during follow-up. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: At baseline, the majority of couples were married (69%). More non-ART couples opted for marriage (70% versus 64%; P

  7. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the Dissolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Original Research Article. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the. Dissolution Behavior of Ketoprofen ... dissolution behavior studies were carried out. The physical stability of the crystals were also evaluated ..... Safety evaluation of toothpaste containing chloroform. III. Long-term study in beagle dogs. J. Environ ...

  8. The effect of fuel chemistry on UO2 dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda; Hanson, Brady; Miller, William


    The dissolution rate of both unirradiated UO2 and used nuclear fuel has been studied by numerous countries as part of the performance assessment of proposed geologic repositories. In the scenario of waste package failure and groundwater infiltration into the fuel, the effects of variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water and fuel chemistry on the dissolution rates of the fuel are necessary to provide a quantitative estimate of the potential release over geologic time frames. The primary objective of this research was to determine the influence these parameters have on the dissolution rate of unirradiated UO2 under repository conditions and compare them to the rates predicted by current dissolution models. Both unirradiated UO2 and UO2 doped with varying concentrations of Gd2O3, to simulate used fuel composition after long time periods where radiolysis has minor contributions to dissolution, were examined. In general, a rise in temperature increased the dissolution rate of UO2 and had a larger effect on pure UO2 than on those doped with Gd2O3. Oxygen dependence was observed in the UO2 samples with no dopant and increased as the temperature rose; in the doped fuels less dependence was observed. The addition of gadolinia into the UO2 matrix showed a significant decrease in the dissolution rate. The matrix stabilization effect resulting from the dopant proved even more beneficial in lowering the dissolution rate at higher temperatures and dissolved O2 concentrations in the leachate where the rates would typically be elevated.

  9. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The matrix tablets were formed by compressing the wax matrix granules at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale). The tablets were evaluated for tablet tensile strength, packing fraction, friability and in vitro dissolution profile. The dissolution data were analysed with different mathematical models namely zero.

  10. 12 CFR 710.8 - Certificate of dissolution and liquidation. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate of dissolution and liquidation. 710.8 Section 710.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION § 710.8 Certificate of dissolution and liquidation. Within 120 days after...

  11. Thermal dissolution of maize starches in aqueous medium (United States)

    Starches are not soluble in neutral water at room temperature. However, if they are heated in a closed container beyond the boiling point of water, they eventually dissolve. The dissolution temperature depends on the type of starch. The dissolution process was monitored in real time by measuring ...

  12. 29 CFR 511.5 - Vacancies and dissolution of committees. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacancies and dissolution of committees. 511.5 Section 511.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE ORDER PROCEDURE FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.5 Vacancies and dissolution of committees. The...

  13. 50 CFR 270.23 - Dissolution of Councils. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissolution of Councils. 270.23 Section 270.23 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.23 Dissolution of Councils. (a) Petition for termination. (1) A petition to terminate a Council...

  14. Uranium carbide dissolution in nitric solution: Sonication vs. silent conditions (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Chave, Tony; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I.


    The dissolution of uranium carbide (UC) in nitric acid media is considered by means of power ultrasound (sonication) or magnetic stirring. The induction period required to initiate UC dissolution was found to be dramatically shortened when sonicating a 3 M nitric solution (Ar, 20 kHz, 18 W cm-2, 20 °C). At higher acidity, magnetic stirring offers faster dissolution kinetics compared to sonication. Ultrasound-assisted UC dissolution is found to be passivated after ∼60% dissolution and remains incomplete whatever the acidity which is confirmed by ICP-AES, LECO and SEM-EDX analyses. In general, the kinetics of UC dissolution is linked to the in situ generation of nitrous acid in agreement with the general mechanism of UC dissolution; the nitrous acid formation is reported to be faster under ultrasound at low acidity due to the nitric acid sonolysis. The carbon balance shared between the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases is strongly influenced by the applied dissolution procedure and HNO3 concentration.

  15. Frogging It: A Poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L.


    Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection…

  16. Dissolution kinetics and mechanism of pandermite in acetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 7, 2010 ... reaction temperature. Conversion rate increased up to 3 M, acid concentration then decreased with increasing acid concentration.It was observed that there was no important effect of stirring speed on the dissolution rate. Furthermore, it was observed that the dissolution mechanism was dependent on.

  17. Dissolution kinetics of pyrite ore by hydrochloric acid | Baba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of HCl concentration, tem-perature and particle size on the dissolution rate indicated that about 76.4 % of the ore of < 0.1 mm particle size was dissolved at 80 ¢ªC and stirring rate of 360 rpm. The dissolution rate was also dependence on hydrogen ion concentration of the reaction system. Activation energy of ...

  18. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vanderkamp tablet disintegration tester was used to assess the disintegration time, while the dissolution rate test was carried out according to British Pharmacopoeia specifications. Five tablets of each coded sample were singly placed in a dry basket of the dissolution tester and the contents of which were immersed in ...

  19. Dissolution enhancement of drugs. part i: technologies and effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V Saharan, V Kukkar, M Kataria, M Gera, P Choudhury ... Since aqueous solubility and slow dissolution rate of BCS class II and class IV drugs is a major challenge in the drug development and delivery processes, improving aqueous solubility and slow dissolution of BCS Class II and Class IV drugs have been investigated ...

  20. Effect of Bulk and Interfacial Rheological Properties on Bubble Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Meinders, M.


    This paper describes theoretical calculations of the combined effect of bulk and interracial rheological properties on dissolution behavior of a bubble in an infinite medium at saturated conditions. Either bulk or interracial elasticity can stop the bubble dissolution process, and stability criteria

  1. determination of personal and common property during dissolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those established legal effects of marriage would be terminated. The dissolution would consequently entail other various legal effects. One of such legal effects of dissolution of marriage is the liquidation of pecuniary effects. This inevitably imports the crucial issue of the determination of personal and common property at the ...

  2. Effect of guest drug character encapsulated in the cavity and intermolecular spaces of γ-cyclodextrins on the dissolution property of ternary γ-cyclodextrin complex. (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Higashi, Kenjirou; Ueda, Keisuke; Moribe, Kunikazu


    Various ternary Guest 2/(Guest 1/γ-cyclodextrin (CD)) complexes were prepared using a cogrinding and subsequent heating method, wherein Guest 1 was incorporated in the cavity of γ-CD and Guest 2 was incorporated into the intermolecular spaces between γ-CD columns. Dissolution fluxes of Guest 1 and Guest 2 from all ternary complexes were almost identical. The dissolution flux of flurbiprofen (Guest 1) from the ternary complexes depended on the solubility of Guest 2 drugs (naproxendissolution medium of pH 1.2. It is noteworthy that the dissolution flux of flurbiprofen from the ternary complexes with ketoprofen and ethenzamide as Guest 2 drugs was further enhanced compared with that from the flurbiprofen/γ-CD inclusion complex. The ternary complex of the acidic drug ketoprofen as Guest 1 and the neutral drug hydrocortisone as Guest 2 showed an increased dissolution flux, which was dependent on the increase in pH of the dissolution medium. The pH-dependent dissolution should reflect the solubility of ketoprofen/γ-CD inclusion complex in each dissolution medium. These results indicated that the dissolution flux of the ternary γ-CD complexes could be controlled by selecting the appropriate Guest 1 and Guest 2 species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancement of dissolution rate of class II drugs (Hydrochlorothiazide); a comparative study of the two novel approaches; solid dispersion and liqui-solid techniques. (United States)

    Khan, Amjad; Iqbal, Zafar; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Ismail; Ullah, Zia; Ullah, Aman


    Liqui-solid technique and solid dispersion formation are two novel approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of BCS class II drugs. Liqui-solid compact converts a liquid drug or drug solution into a free flowing powder with enhanced dissolution rate. In case of solid dispersion drug is molecularly dispersed in a hydrophilic polymer in solid state. In the present study, Liqui-solid and solid dispersion techniques were applied to enhance the dissolution of the Hydrochlorothiazide. Three formulations of Hydrochlorothiazide were prepared by liqui-solid technique using micro crystalline cellulose as carrier material and colloidal silicon dioxide as coating material. Water, poly ethylene glycol-400 and Tween-60 were used as solvent system. Solid dispersions of Hydrochlorothiazide were prepared by solvent fusion method using PEG-4000 as carrier polymer. Tablets were subjected to evaluation of various physical and chemical characteristics. Dissolution profiles of tablets prepared by the novel techniques were compared with marketed conventional tablets. Model independent techniques including similarity factor, dissimilarity factor and dissolution efficiency were applied for comparison of dissolution profiles. The results obtained indicated that liqui-solid compact formulations were more effective in enhancing the dissolution rate compared with solid dispersion technique. The liqui-solid compacts improved the dissolution rate up to 95% while the solid dispersion increased it to 88%.

  4. Influence of dissolution media pH and USP1 basket speed on erosion and disintegration characteristics of immediate release metformin hydrochloride tablets. (United States)

    Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Tang, Dan; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Guo, Hang; Hsieh, Daniel; Timmins, Peter


    To investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on immediate release 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablets. A traditional wet granulation method was used to manufacture metformin hydrochloride tablets with or without a disintegrant. Tablet dissolution was conducted using the USP apparatus I at 100 rpm. In spite of its pH-independent high solubility, metformin hydrochloride tablets dissolved significantly slower in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and 50 mM pH 4.5 acetate buffer compared with 50 mM pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the dissolution medium in the USP. Metformin hydrochloride API compressed into a round 1200 mg disk showed a similar trend. When basket rotation speed was increased from 100 to 250 rpm, the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets was similar in all three media. Incorporation of 2% w/w crospovidone in the tablet formulation improved the dissolution although the pH-dependent trend was still evident, but incorporation of 2% w/w croscarmellose sodium resulted in rapid pH-independent tablet dissolution. In absence of a disintegrant in the tablet formulation, the dissolution was governed by the erosion-diffusion process. Even for a highly soluble drug, a super-disintegrant was needed in the formulation to overcome the diffusion layer limitation and change the dissolution mechanism from erosion-diffusion to disintegration.

  5. Chemical Dissolution of Simulant FCA Cladding and Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has received some fast critical assembly (FCA) fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for disposition. Among the JAEA FCA fuel are approximately 7090 rectangular Stainless Steel clad fuel elements. Each element has an internal Pu-10.6Al alloy metal wafer. The thickness of each element is either 1/16 inch or 1/32 inch. The dimensions of each element ranges from 2 inches x 1 inch to 2 inches x 4 inches. This report discusses the potential chemical dissolution of the FCA clad material or stainless steel. This technology uses nitric acid-potassium fluoride (HNO3-KF) flowsheets of H-Canyon to dissolve the FCA elements from a rack of materials. Historically, dissolution flowsheets have aimed to maximize Pu dissolution rates while minimizing stainless steel dissolution (corrosion) rates. Because the FCA cladding is made of stainless steel, this work sought to accelerate stainless steel dissolution.

  6. Laboratory Evidence for Microbially Mediated Silicate Mineral Dissolution in Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullman, W. J.; Kirchman, D. L.; Welch, S. A.; Vandevivere, P.


    Bacteria may potentially enhance or inhibit silicate mineral dissolution in nature by a variety of mechanisms. In the laboratory, some microbial metabolites enhanced dissolution rates by a factor of ten above the expected proton-promoted rate by an additional ligand-promoted mechanism focused principally at Al sites at the mineral surface. In investigations with bacteria, it was found that organic acids are produced in organic-rich/nutrient-poor cultures, resulting in increased mineral dissolution rates compared to abiotic controls. Alginate and poly-aspartate inhibited dissolution rates either by a reduction in surface reactivity or reactive surface area (or both). Bacteria may also influence dissolution rates by creating and maintaining microenvironments where metabolite concentrations are higher than in the bulk solution.

  7. Dissolution Model of Multiple Species: Leaching of Highly Soluble Minerals (United States)

    Moreno, Luis; Ordóñez, Javier I.; Cisternas, Luis A.


    Dissolution of multi-species from a solid matrix is widely extended in different processes such as leaching of minerals; however, its modeling is often focused on a single species. A model for the simultaneous dissolution of soluble species was developed, which considers different solubilities and dissolution rates and considers that particle collapses when the rapidly soluble species is depleted. The collapsed matter is formed by inert material and a fraction of the soluble species with lower dissolution rate that has not dissolved yet. The model is applied to the leaching of a water-soluble mineral (caliche) with two soluble species dissolving simultaneously with different rates. Measured outlet concentrations of nitrate and magnesium were used to validate the model. Results showed that the model reproduced adequately the leaching of species with rapid and intermediate dissolution rate. Effect of the operating and kinetic parameters on the leaching process is also shown using the actual conditions of heap leaching for caliche mineral.

  8. Factors associated with relationship dissolution and post-dissolution adjustment among lesbian adoptive couples. (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H


    Same-sex adoptive couples are increasingly visible, yet few studies have addressed relationship stability and dissolution among these couples. In this study, using a theoretical framework based on Investment Models and Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Theory, factors associated with dissolution and post-dissolution adjustment among 27 lesbian adoptive couples were examined across two points. At Wave 1, all 27 couples were together; children were on average 3 years old. Results revealed that nearly one third broke up over 5 years (between Waves 1 and 2). Factors related to shorter relationship length and undermining coparenting at Wave 1 distinguished women who later broke up versus stayed together. Worse mental health at Wave 2 characterized women in dissolved rather than sustained relationships, even with comparable individual adjustment at Wave 1. Weaker parenting alliance and greater dissatisfaction with childcare divisions were reported by women no longer with their partners at Wave 2 as compared with those in enduring partnerships. This research has implications for understanding lesbian relationship dynamics and associations with individual adjustment.

  9. Sherwood correlation for dissolution of pooled NAPL in porous media (United States)

    Aydin Sarikurt, Derya; Gokdemir, Cagri; Copty, Nadim K.


    The rate of interphase mass transfer from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) entrapped in the subsurface into the surrounding mobile aqueous phase is commonly expressed in terms of Sherwood (Sh) correlations that are expressed as a function of flow and porous media properties. Because of the lack of precise methods for the estimation of the interfacial area separating the NAPL and aqueous phases, most studies have opted to use modified Sherwood expressions that lump the interfacial area into the interphase mass transfer coefficient. To date, there are only two studies in the literature that have developed non-lumped Sherwood correlations; however, these correlations have undergone limited validation. In this paper controlled dissolution experiments from pooled NAPL were conducted. The immobile NAPL mass is placed at the bottom of a flow cell filled with porous media with water flowing horizontally on top. Effluent aqueous phase concentrations were measured for a wide range of aqueous phase velocities and for two different porous media. To interpret the experimental results, a two-dimensional pore network model of the NAPL dissolution kinetics and aqueous phase transport was developed. The observed effluent concentrations were then used to compute best-fit mass transfer coefficients. Comparison of the effluent concentrations computed with the two-dimensional pore network model to those estimated with one-dimensional analytical solutions indicates that the analytical model which ignores the transport in the lateral direction can lead to under-estimation of the mass transfer coefficient. Based on system parameters and the estimated mass transfer coefficients, non-lumped Sherwood correlations were developed and compared to previously published data. The developed correlations, which are a significant improvement over currently available correlations that are associated with large uncertainties, can be incorporated into future modeling studies requiring non-lumped Sh

  10. Investigating the impact of drug crystallinity in amorphous tacrolimus capsules on pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence using discriminatory in vitro dissolution testing and PBPK modeling and simulation. (United States)

    Purohit, Hitesh S; Trasi, Niraj S; Sun, Dajun D; Chow, Edwin C Y; Wen, Hong; Zhang, Xinyuan; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S


    Delivering a drug in amorphous form in a formulated product is a strategy used to enhance the apparent solubility of a drug substance and its oral bioavailability. Drug crystallization in such products may occur during the manufacturing process or upon storage, reducing the solubility advantage of the amorphous drug. However, the impact of partial drug crystallization in the drug product on the resulting bioavailability and pharmacokinetics is unknown. In this study, dissolution testing of commercial tacrolimus capsules (which are formulated to contain amorphous drug), both fresh and those containing different amounts of crystalline drug, was conducted using both USP and non-compendial dissolution tests with different dissolution media and volumes. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was developed to predict the impact of crystallinity extent on the oral absorption of the products and to evaluate the discriminatory ability of the different dissolution methods. Virtual bioequivalence simulations between partially crystallized tacrolimus capsules versus fresh Prograf or generic tacrolimus capsules were performed using the PBPK model and in vitro dissolution data of the various fresh and partially crystallized capsules under USP and non-compendial dissolution conditions. The results suggest that compendial dissolution tests may not be sufficiently discriminatory with respect to the presence of crystallinity in an amorphous formulation. Non-sink dissolution tests using lower dissolution volumes generate more discriminatory profiles that predict different pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus capsules containing different extents of drug crystallinity. In conclusion, the PBPK modeling approach can be used to assess the impact of partial drug crystallinity in the formulated product and to guide the development of appropriate dissolution methods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Calibration-free sensor for pressure and H2O concentration in headspace of sterile vial using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Cai, Tingdong; Gao, Guangzhen; Liu, Ying


    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials using a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.4 μm are reported. A H2O line located near 7161.41 cm(-1) is selected based on its strong absorption strength and isolation from interference of neighboring transitions. Direct absorption spectra of H2O are obtained for the measurement path as well as the reference path by scanning the laser wavelength. The pressure and H2O vapor concentration in the headspace of a vial are inferred from a differential absorption signal, which is the difference between the measured and the referenced absorbance spectra. This sensor is calibration-free and no purge gas is needed. The demonstrated capability would enable measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials within 2.21% and 2.86%, respectively. A precision of 1.02 Torr and 390 ppm is found for the pressure and H2O concentration, respectively. A set of measurements for commercial freeze-dried products are also performed to illustrate the usefulness of this sensor.

  12. Through-vial impedance spectroscopy of critical events during the freezing stage of the lyophilization cycle: the example of the impact of sucrose on the crystallization of mannitol. (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Smith, Geoff; Polygalov, Eugene; Ermolina, Irina


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of through-vial impedance spectroscopy in the measurement of eutectic crystallization during the freezing stage of the lyophilisation cycle. Impedance measurements of various sugar solutions (mannitol 5%, 10% and 15% w/v, sucrose 5% w/v and mannitol 5% w/v, and sucrose 5% w/v solutions) were taken during a freeze-thaw cycle, over a frequency range 10-10(6) Hz with a scan interval of 1.5 min, using measurement vials with externally attached electrodes connected to a high resolution impedance analyzer. Estimates for the electrical resistance of the mannitol solutions record the exothermic crystallization of mannitol at a temperature of -24 °C during the temperature ramp down stage of the freezing cycle, which is in close agreement with the off-line DSC measurement of -22 °C. The freezing profile of a 5% mannitol solution with 5% sucrose (a component that does not crystallize in the frozen solution) demonstrated the inhibition of mannitol crystallization (with the implication that the product will then require sub-Tg' freezing and drying). The work suggests a role for through-vial impedance spectroscopy in the concurrent development of the product formulation and freeze drying cycle without the uncertainty introduced when using off-line date to define the critical process parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of multicomponent amorphous bufadienolides nanosuspension with wet milling improves dissolution and stability. (United States)

    Zuo, Wenbao; Qu, Wenjing; Li, Na; Yu, Rui; Hou, Yanhui; Liu, Yanhua; Gou, Guojing; Yang, Jianhong


    Multicomponent formulations have attracted increasing attention because of their favourable patient compliance and greater therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was to develop a multicomponent nanosuspension formulation of bufadienolides, the antitumor components of a traditional Chinese medicine, toad venom, using a wet-milling technique to improve its dissolution behaviour. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were chosen as the combined stabilizers of the nanosuspension. A Taguchi orthogonal array design was used for this study to optimize the formulation and process parameters. The optimized nanosuspension was characterized by its particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, crystallinity, molecular interactions, stability and dissolution. The results showed that the nanosuspension was a homogeneous amorphous system with average particle sizes of <100 nm and significantly improved dissolution behaviour. It was also physically stable for at least 2 months; steric and kinetic stabilization were its main stability mechanisms. These findings suggested that the use of wet milling to fabricate nanosuspensions is a promising method for achieving the fast and synchronized dissolution of multicomponent formulations, presumably increasing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  14. Modulation of solubility and dissolution of furosemide by preparation of phospholipid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Semalty


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the solubility and dissolution of furosemide (a potent high ceiling diuretic used for the treatment of hypertension and a Class IV drug that is low solubility and low permeability drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System by preparing its phospholipid complexes or pharmacosomes. Materials and Methods: Furosemide was complexed with phosphatidylcholine in four different molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 by conventional solvent-evaporation technique. The pharmacosomes prepared were evaluated for drug content, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and in-vitro dissolution study. Results: Pharmacosomes of furosemide showed high drug content ranging from 88.30% to 100%. XRPD studies confirmed the formation of phospholipid complex and the amorphization of drug in the complex. The water solubility was found to be increased up to six-fold in the complexes. The octanol solubility also increased in the complexes indicating the probable increase in permeability. The in-vitro dissolution profile of the prepared complexes was found to be much better than furosemide. Conclusion: It was concluded that the phospholipid complexes can be effectively used for improving the solubility, dissolution, permeability and hence the bioavailability of furosemide like Class IV drugs.

  15. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha ES


    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 In-hwan Baek,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8 and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. Keywords: solubility, wettability, sucrose laurate, cellulose

  16. Latent variable modeling to analyze the effects of process parameters on the dissolution of paracetamol tablet. (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang


    The dissolution is one of the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of oral solid dosage forms because it relates to the absorption of drug. In this paper, the influence of raw materials, granules and process parameters on the dissolution of paracetamol tablet was analyzed using latent variable modeling methods. The variability in raw materials and granules was understood based on the principle component analysis (PCA), respectively. A multi-block partial least squares (MBPLS) model was used to determine the critical factors affecting the dissolution. The results showed that the binder amount, the post granulation time, the API content in granule, the fill depth and the punch tip separation distance were the critical factors with variable importance in the projection (VIP) values larger than 1. The importance of each unit of the whole process was also ranked using the block importance in the projection (BIP) index. It was concluded that latent variable models (LVMs) were very useful tools to extract information from the available data and improve the understanding on dissolution behavior of paracetamol tablet. The obtained LVMs were also helpful to propose the process design space and to design control strategies in the further research.

  17. Variable-focus microscopy and UV surface dissolution imaging as complementary techniques in intrinsic dissolution rate determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Adam; Walton, Karl; Box, Karl


    This work reports a novel approach to the assessment of the surface properties of compacts used in Surface Dissolution Imaging (SDI). SDI is useful for determining intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), an important parameter in early stage drug development. Surface topography, post-compaction and pos...

  18. Insight into Flufenamic Acid Cocrystal Dissolution in the Presence of a Polymer in Solution: from Single Crystal to Powder Dissolution. (United States)

    Guo, Minshan; Wang, Ke; Qiao, Ning; Fábián, László; Sadiq, Ghazala; Li, Mingzhong


    Effects of three polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP-VA), on the dissolution behavior of the cocrystals of flufenamic acid with theophylline (FFA-TP CO) and nicotinamide (FFA-NIC CO) were investigated at multiple length scales. At the molecular level, the interactions of crystal surfaces with a polymer were analyzed by observing etching pattern changes using atomic force microscopy. At the macroscopic scale, dissolution rates of particular faces of a single crystal were determined by measurement of the physical retreat velocities of the faces using optical light microscopy. In the bulk experiments, the FFA concentration in a dissolution medium in the absence or presence of a polymer was measured under both sink and nonsink conditions. It has been found that the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-TP CO are controlled by the defect sites of the crystal surface and by precipitation of the parent drug FFA as individual crystals in the bulk fluid. In contrast, the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-NIC CO are controlled by surface layer removal and by a surface precipitation mechanism, where the parent drug FFA precipitates directly onto the surface of the dissolving cocrystals. Through controlling the dissolution environment by predissolving a polymer, PVP or PVP-VA, which can interact with the crystal surface to alter its dissolution properties, improved solubility, and dissolution rates of FFA-TP CO and FFA-NIC CO have been demonstrated.

  19. Development and validation of a dissolution test with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis for rupatadine in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Dalmora


    Full Text Available A dissolution test for in vitro evaluation of tablet dosage forms containing 10 mg of rupatadine was developed and validated by RP-LC. A discriminatory dissolution method was established using apparatus paddle at a stirring rate of 50 rpm with 900 mL of deaerated 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. The proposed method was validated yielding acceptable results for the parameters evaluated, and was applied for the quality control analysis of rupatadine tablets, and to evaluate the formulation during an accelerated stability study. Moreover, quantitative analyses were also performed, to compare the applicability of the RP-LC and the LC-MS/MS methods.

  20. Carbonate ions and arsenic dissolution by groundwater (United States)

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.


    solutions. The effects of pH and redox conditions on As dissolution were examined. Results showed that As was not leached significantly out of the Marshall Sandstone samples after 3 d using either deionized water or groundwater, but As was leached efficiently by sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and ferric chloride solutions. The leaching rate with sodium bicarbonate was about 25% higher than that with potassium bicarbonate. The data indicated that bicarbonate ion was involved primarily in As dissolution and that hydroxyl radical ion did not affect As dissolution to any significant degree. The amount of As leached was dependent upon the sodium bicarbonate concentration, increasing with reaction time for each concentration. Significant As leaching was found in the extreme pH ranges of <1.9 and 8.0-10.4. The resulting arseno-carbonate complexes formed were stable in groundwater.

  1. Evaluación del pavimento de la carretera “cumbe – oña (tramo i)” de 20 km de longitud, ubicada en la provincia del Azuay mediante equipos de auscultación vial


    Bravo Castro, María Fernanda


    Evaluacion del Pavimento de la Carretera “Cumbe – Oña (Tramo I)” de 20 Km de longitud, ubicada en la Provincia del Azuay mediante Equipos de Auscultación Vial Evaluacion del Pavimento de la Carretera “Cumbe – Oña (Tramo I)” de 20 Km de longitud, ubicada en la Provincia del Azuay mediante Equipos de Auscultación Vial

  2. Alternative dissolution methods for analysis of niobium containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    extensively in the production of jet and rocket engines,3 used in the frame systems for the Gemini space programme as well as in various sophisticated materials such ..... Information, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1993,. Appendix B. 22 Optima Simultaneous Spectrometers Wavelength Tables. Perkin Elmer.

  3. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements. (United States)

    Pettersson, Maria; Bryant, Michael; Schmidt, Susann; Engqvist, Håkan; Hall, Richard M; Neville, Anne; Persson, Cecilia


    In this study, the dissolution rate of SiNx coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiNx coatings with N/Si ratios of 0.3, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiNx coatings was evaluated to 0.2-1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7-1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si-N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si-N and/or Si-Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si-O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiNx coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiNx coatings for joint replacements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Olivine dissolution from Indian dunite in saline water. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit Kumar; Mehra, Anurag


    The rate and mechanism of olivine dissolution was studied using naturally weathered dunite FO98.21(Mg1.884Fe0.391SiO4) from an Indian source, that also contains serpentine mineral lizardite. A series of batch dissolution experiments were carried out to check the influence of temperature (30-75 ∘C), initial dunite concentration (0.5 and 20 g/L), and salinity (0-35 g/L NaCl) under fixed head space CO2 pressure (P[Formula: see text] = 1 barg) on dunite dissolution. Dissolved Mg, Si, and Fe concentrations were determined by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. End-product solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Initially, rates of dissolution of Si and Mg were observed to be in stoichiometric proportion. After 8 h, the dissolution rate was observed to decline. At the end of the experiment (504 h), an amorphous silica-rich layer was observed over the dunite surface. This results in decay of the dissolution rate. The operating conditions (i.e., salinity, temperature, and mineral loading) affect the dissolution kinetics in a very complex manner because of which the observed experimental trends do not exhibit a direct trend.

  5. Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid Solid Dosage Forms in Two Compendial and Biorelevant (FaSSIF) Media. (United States)

    Nurhikmah, Wilda; Sumirtapura, Yeyet Cahyati; Pamudji, Jessie Sofia


    Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. Mefenamic acid belongs to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug which has lower water solubility but high permeability. There are two different compendial methods available for dissolution tests of mefenamic acid solid dosage forms, i.e. methods of United States Pharmacopeia 37 (USP) and Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010 (PPRC). Indonesian Pharmacopeia V ed. (FI) adopted the USP method. On the other hand, many researches focused on the use of a 'biorelevant' medium to develop the dissolution test method. The aim of this research was to study the dissolution profile of mefenamic acid from its solid dosage forms (caplet and capsule) available in the Indonesian market with three different dissolution medium: USP, PPRC, and biorelevant fasted simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) media. The tested products consisted of the innovator's product (available only in caplet dosage form, FN caplet) and generic products (available as caplet and capsule). The dissolution test of the drug products in all dissolution media was performed in 900 mL of medium using apparatus II (paddle) at a temperature of 37°C and rotation speed of 75 rpm, except for the capsule product and for USP medium, both of which tests were done using apparatus I (basket) with rotation speed of 100 rpm. The solubility test of mefenamic acid was carried out in all media at temperature of 37°C. The result obtained from the solubility test showed that the the highest solubility of mefenamic acid was obtained in USP medium (approximately 2 mg/mL), followed by PPRC medium (about 0.5 mg/mL), and FaSSIF medium (approximately 0.06 mg/ml). In the dissolution test, percentage of drug dissolved in in the USP and PPRC media after 45 min for all products reached more than 75%, except for the PN caplet in USP medium which reached only about 44

  6. Dissolution of materials in artificial skin surface film liquids. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J


    The dissolution of chemical constituents from jewelry, textiles, cosmetics, drugs, industrial chemicals, and particles in direct and prolonged contact with human skin is often assessed in vitro using artificial skin surface film liquids (SSFL). To provide meaningful results, the composition of artificial SSFL should accurately mimic human sweat and sebum, and the conditions of the in vitro test system should accurately reflect in vivo skin conditions. We summarized the reported composition of human SSFL and compared it to 45 different formulations of artificial sweat and 18 formulations of artificial sebum (studies published from 1940 to 2005). Conditions of in vitro dissolution test systems were reviewed and compared to in vivo skin conditions. The concentrations of individual constituents and pH of artificial sweat and concentrations of artificial sebum constituents are not always within ranges reported for human SSFL. Nearly all artificial SSFL lack many of the constituents in human SSFL. To develop a comprehensive model SSFL, we propose a standard SSFL, modified from the two best published sweat and sebum formulations. Little is known concerning the influence of test system conditions on dissolution, including SSFL temperature, container material composition, agitation, and physicochemical properties of the test article on dissolution. Thus, both a need and an opportunity exist for standardizing the composition of artificial SSFL and in vitro dissolution test methodologies. To standardize in vitro dissolution test systems, we recommend: maintaining artificial SSFL at a biologically relevant temperature appropriate to the human activity being modeled, carefully selecting test and sample storage containers to avoid bias in dissolution measurements, accounting for friction between a test article and skin in a biologically plausible manner, and physicochemical characterization of the test article or material to better understand mechanisms of dissolution and

  7. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions (United States)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.


    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP 8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and sea surface temperature (SST) on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest temperature-pCO2 condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with temperature-pCO2 . The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +271 μatm pCO2 and 0.75 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that (i) dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification and (ii) that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors; this highlights the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  8. Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin. (United States)

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L


    Ego-disturbances have been a topic in schizophrenia research since the earliest clinical descriptions of the disorder. Manifesting as a feeling that one's "self," "ego," or "I" is disintegrating or that the border between one's self and the external world is dissolving, "ego-disintegration" or "dissolution" is also an important feature of the psychedelic experience, such as is produced by psilocybin (a compound found in "magic mushrooms"). Fifteen healthy subjects took part in this placebo-controlled study. Twelve-minute functional MRI scans were acquired on two occasions: subjects received an intravenous infusion of saline on one occasion (placebo) and 2 mg psilocybin on the other. Twenty-two visual analogue scale ratings were completed soon after scanning and the first principal component of these, dominated by items referring to "ego-dissolution", was used as a primary measure of interest in subsequent analyses. Employing methods of connectivity analysis and graph theory, an association was found between psilocybin-induced ego-dissolution and decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and high-level cortical regions. Ego-dissolution was also associated with a "disintegration" of the salience network and reduced interhemispheric communication. Addressing baseline brain dynamics as a predictor of drug-response, individuals with lower diversity of executive network nodes were more likely to experience ego-dissolution under psilocybin. These results implicate MTL-cortical decoupling, decreased salience network integrity, and reduced inter-hemispheric communication in psilocybin-induced ego disturbance and suggest that the maintenance of "self"or "ego," as a perceptual phenomenon, may rest on the normal functioning of these systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Influence of Pressure on the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate of Amorphous Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Löbmann


    Full Text Available New drug candidates increasingly tend to be poorly water soluble. One approach to increase their solubility is to convert the crystalline form of a drug into the amorphous form. Intrinsic dissolution testing is an efficient standard method to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of a drug and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence of different compression pressures on the IDR was determined from powder compacts of amorphous (ball-milling indomethacin (IND, a glass solution of IND and poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP and crystalline IND. Solid state properties were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and the final compacts were visually observed to study the effects of compaction pressure on their surface properties. It was found that there is no significant correlation between IDR and compression pressure for crystalline IND and IND–PVP. This was in line with the observation of similar surface properties of the compacts. However, compression pressure had an impact on the IDR of pure amorphous IND compacts. Above a critical compression pressure, amorphous particles sintered to form a single compact with dissolution properties similar to quench-cooled disc and crystalline IND compacts. In such a case, the apparent dissolution advantage of the amorphous form might be underestimated. It is thus suggested that for a reasonable interpretation of the IDR, surface properties of the different analyzed samples should be investigated and for amorphous samples the IDR should be measured also as a function of the compression pressure used to prepare the solid sample for IDR testing.

  10. Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-induced Ego Dissolution. (United States)

    Millière, Raphaël


    There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). While these substances act on different neurotransmitter receptors, they all produce strong subjective effects that can be compared to the symptoms of acute psychosis, including ego dissolution. It has been suggested that neuroimaging of DIED can indirectly shed light on the neural correlates of the self. While this line of inquiry is promising, its results must be interpreted with caution. First, neural correlates of ego dissolution might reveal the necessary neurophysiological conditions for the maintenance of the sense of self, but it is more doubtful that this method can reveal its minimally sufficient conditions. Second, it is necessary to define the relevant notion of self at play in the phenomenon of DIED. This article suggests that DIED consists in the disruption of subpersonal processes underlying the "minimal" or "embodied" self, i.e., the basic experience of being a self rooted in multimodal integration of self-related stimuli. This hypothesis is consistent with Bayesian models of phenomenal selfhood, according to which the subjective structure of conscious experience ultimately results from the optimization of predictions in perception and action. Finally, it is argued that DIED is also of particular interest for philosophy of mind. On the one hand, it challenges theories according to which consciousness always involves self-awareness. On the other

  11. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Maria [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bryant, Michael [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Susann [Thin Film Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hall, Richard M. [Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (iMBE), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Persson, Cecilia, E-mail: [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)


    In this study, the dissolution rate of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiN{sub x} coatings with N/Si ratios of 0.3, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiN{sub x} coatings was evaluated to 0.2–1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7–1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si–N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si–N and/or Si–Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si–O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiN{sub x} coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiN{sub x} coatings for joint replacements. - Graphical abstract: Dissolution rates of SiN{sub 0.3}, SiN{sub 0.8}, and SiN{sub 1.1} coatings on CoCrMo compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Dissolution rates were obtained from i) electrochemical measurements of I{sub corr}, ii) the step height between covered and solution-exposed surfaces, measured using VSI, and iii) the ion concentration in the solution, measured with ICP. - Highlights: • The dissolution of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated in comparison to (bulk) CoCrMo. • The coatings gave a lower or similar dissolution rate to CoCrMo, of 0.2–1.2 nm/day. • An increased nitrogen content in the coatings gave lower dissolution rates. • SiN{sub x} coatings on CoCrMo reduced the metal ion release

  12. The dissolution of language in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Kertesz, A; Appell, J; Fisman, M


    Language impairment in Alzheimer's disease has become an important clinical issue. It has been recognized for some time that the disease may begin with aphasia and even before frank aphasia develops, some of the earliest changes in a large number of individuals consist of impairment of word fluency and semantic access manifesting itself in word finding difficulty. The second major issue concerning language in Alzheimer's disease is that the cases which have early severe language impairment may represent a more progressive familial variety of disease as it has been suggested in the literature. This is still subject to controversy. Finally, it will be documented that the later stage of the disease shows language invariably impaired and goes through stages of dissolution that resemble anomic, transcortical sensory. Wernicke's and global aphasias. Accurate assessment of language may turn out to be one of the most reliable predictors of the stages of Alzheimer's disease and provides important insights into the cerebral organization of language, semantic access, relationship of semantic and episodic memory and the pathophysiology of the disease.

  13. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.


    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 µm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  14. The Dissolution of Multiculturalism. Causes and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lates


    Full Text Available The last financial and economic crisis, whose effects are fully felt, has disrupted the social relations domain as well, with unpredictable consequences on the relations between people. The poor balance, obtained by official and public recognition of cultural differences is increasingly questioned not only by politicians but also by philosophers and sociologists. Otherness has taken precedence over the ego. The identity markers which form the European cultural mosaic through increased quantity and dominance in public development generate unpredictable risks in the preservation of national identity. The countries receiving the flows of migrants, older or newer, confront a strange phenomena namely the otherness of their own cultural identity, the newcomers are usually of the kind who prefer to live in ethnic enclaves and marginal which decline the opportunities for cultural integration. What is natural, somehow, at the level of the adults is that it reverberates negatively at the level of the children, who cannot follow the same educational route as their natives and thus they cancel their chances of integration in the receiving societies. The effects of multiculturalism dissolution are observed at each step and therefore public policies are increasingly restrictive, preferring the ethnocentric solution of conservation / preservation of their own cultural identity.

  15. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires. (United States)

    Perez, Jose E; Contreras, Maria F; Vilanova, Enrique; Felix, Laura P; Margineanu, Michael B; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jürgen


    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  16. Modeling Dissolution and Precipitation Dynamics During Dedolomitization (United States)

    Edery, Y.; Scher, H.; Berkowitz, B.


    We simulate the process of dedolomitization and the precipitation of calcium carbonate using particle tracking. The study is stimulated by the results of a laboratory experiment of reactive transport of injected CaCl2/HCl in a constant flow field in a column of sucrosic dolomite particles. The injected fluid basically supplied Ca2+ and H+ and the dedolomitization is a protonation reaction yielding carbonic acid, which in a deprotonation reaction yields CO32-, and reacting with the abundant Ca2+ forms the precipitate CaCO3. The novelty of the simulation is to treat the dynamics of the rate limiting reactants with particle tracking. At each time step the local concentration of H+ determines the probability (assuming local carbonate equilibria) of precipitation and dissolution. The precipitation changes the porosity which in turn changes the local flow field. The particle tracking is governed by spatial and temporal distributions within a continuous time random walk framework. This includes the option of either advective-dispersive (Fickian) transport or the effects of disorder of heterogeneous media --- non-Fickian behavior. The dynamics of dedolomitization are examined for different flow conditions and for different spectra of velocity tails of the reactants. The fluctuations in the local velocity distributions, due to porosity changes, create conditions for positive feedbacks leading to preferential pathways and large-scale nonlinearity and precipitation banding. This feature has been observed in the laboratory experiments and is now accounted for by the simulation results at similar time frames, velocities and pH levels.

  17. Development of a discriminative biphasic in vitro dissolution test and correlation with in vivo pharmacokinetic studies for differently formulated racecadotril granules. (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Bodmeier, Roland


    The purpose of this study was to discriminate the release behavior from three differently formulated racecadotril (BCS II) granules and to establish an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Three granule formulations of the lipophilic drug were prepared with equivalent composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes (dry granulation, wet granulation with or without binder). In vitro release of the three granules was investigated using a biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) and compared to the conventional single phase USP II dissolution test performed under sink and non-sink conditions. In vivo studies with each granule formulation were performed in rats. Interestingly, the granule formulations exhibited pronouncedly different behavior in the different dissolution systems depending on different wetting and dissolution conditions. Single phase USP II dissolution tests lacked discrimination. In contrast, remarkable discrimination between the granule formulations was observed in the octanol phase of biphasic dissolution system with a rank order of release from granules prepared by wet granulation with binder>wet granulation without binder>dry granulation. This release order correlated well with the wettability of these granules. An excellent correlation was also established between in vitro release in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo data (R(2)=0.999). Compared to conventional dissolution methods, the biphasic method provides great potential to discriminate between only minor formulation and process changes within the same dosage form for poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction. (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng


    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  19. Entalpía de disolución de sulfacetamida sódica en agua: comparación entre la calorimetría isoperibólica de solución y el método de van't Hoff Dissolution enthalpy of sodium sulfacetamide in water: comparison between solution isoperibolic calorimetry and the van't Hoff method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Torres


    Full Text Available The dissolution enthalpy (ΔH0soln of sodium sulfacetamide in water was determined by means of isoperibolic solution calorimetry. It was found that ΔH0soln diminishes as the drug concentration increases. Otherwise, the calorimetric values obtained as a function of the drug concentration were significantly different than those predicted by the van't Hoff method. It was demonstrated that the later is not a fully reliable method for the determination of ΔH0soln values in the specific case of highly soluble sodium salts. The observed phenomenon could be explained by the presence of strong solute-solute interactions at high salt concentrations, in addition to solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions.

  20. Modelling of the UO{sub 2} dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater solutions. Dissolution experiments carried out under oxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J. [EnvirosQuantiSci (Spain); Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The analytical data generated during the last three years within the 4th framework program of the European Community at VTT Chemical Technology concerning UO{sub 2} dissolution under oxidising conditions have been modelled in the present work. The modelling work has been addressed to perform a kinetic study of the dissolution data generated by Ollila (1999) under oxidising conditions by using unirradiated uranium dioxide as solid sample. The average of the normalised UO{sub 2} dissolution rates determined by using the initial dissolution data generated in all the experimental tests is (6.06 {+-} 3.64)* 10{sup -7} mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. This dissolution rate agrees with most of the dissolution rates reported in the literature under similar experimental conditions. The results obtained in this modelling exercise show that the same bicarbonate promoted oxidative dissolution processes operate for uranium dioxide, as a chemical analogue of the spent fuel matrix, independently of the composition of the aqueous solution used. (orig.)

  1. Combinational approach using solid dispersion and semi-solid matrix technology to enhance in vitro dissolution of telmisartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faisal Ali


    Full Text Available The present investigation was focused to formulate semi-solid capsules (SSCs of hydrophobic drug telmisartan (TLMS by encapsulating semi-solid matrix of its solid dispersion (SD in HPMC capsules. The combinational approach was used to reduce the lag time in drug release and improvise its dissolution. SDs of TLMS was prepared using hot fusion method by varying the combinations of Pluronic-F68, Gelucire 50/13 and Plasdone S630. A total of nine batches (SD1-SD9 were characterized for micromeritic properties, in vitro dissolution behavior and surface characterization. SD4 with 52.43% cumulative drug release (CDR in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, in 120 min, t50% 44.2 min and DE30min 96.76% was selected for the development of semi-solid capsules. Differential scanning calorimetry of SD4 revealed molecular dispersion of TLMS in Pluronic-F68. SD4 was formulated into SSCs using Gelucire 44/14 and PEG 400 as semi-solid components and PEG 6000 as a suspending agent to achieve reduction in lag time for effective drug dissolution. SSC6 showed maximum in vitro drug dissolution 97.49 % in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 with in 20 min that was almost a three folds reduction in the time required to achieve similar dissolution by SD. Thus, SSCs present an excellent approach to enhance in vitro dissolution as well as to reduce the lag time of dissolution for poorly water soluble drugs especially to those therapeutic classes that are intended for faster onset of action. Developed approach based on HPMC capsules provided a better alternative to target delivery of telmisartan to the vegetarian population.

  2. Mechanism of the dissolution of enflurane and isoflurane into human, dog and bovine blood


    多田, 恵一


    This study was performed to elucidate the difference in the mechanism of the dissolution of enflurane and isoflurane into human, dog and bovine blood in terms of changes in the hematocrit using the highly accurate analytical method of direct gas chromatography. With enflurane, as the hematocrit increased, the blood-gas partition coefficient for human and bovine blood decreased linearly (P < 0.001), and that for dog blood increased linearly (P < 0.001). With isoflurane, as the hematocrit incre...

  3. Ionic liquids and cellulose: dissolution, chemical modification and preparation of new cellulosic materials. (United States)

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David


    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.



    E. Hari Krishna*, V. Ram Mohan Gupta and S. Jyothi


    The present work deals with the spherical crystallization process by Spherical agglomeration method applied to Zaltoprofen, a novel NSAID drug. The object of present study was to prepare and characterize the spherical agglomeration of water insoluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Zaltoprofen spherical agglomerates prepared with poly ethylene glycol, which is hydrophilic polymer by using simple spherical agglomeration technique for enhancing micromeritic properties and dissolution rate...

  5. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials (United States)

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David


    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  6. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Isik


    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  7. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...... are not important for the overall transition rate from singlehood to partnership. The results suggest that the workplace constitutes a more important marriage market segment for individuals who are already in a partnership presumably due to higher search cost for (alternative) partners in general....

  8. Kinetics of reductive bulk dissolution of lepidocrocite, ferrihydrite, and geothite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, O.; Postma, Diederik Jan


    The variation in Fe-oxide reactivity was investigated by studying the kinetics of bulk reductive dissolution of a suite of synthetic Fe-oxides in 10 mM ascorbic acid at pH 3. The Fe-oxides comprised three different ferrihydrites, five lepidocrocites, and a poorly crystalline goethite. During one...... of the reduction experiments, lepidocrocite crystals were subsampled and the change in crystal habit and size distribution was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The rate of complete dissolution was described by the function J/m0 5 k9(m/m0)g where J is the overall rate of dissolution (mol/s), m0...... for lepidocrocite showed strong etch-pitting of the crystals parallel to the c-axis resulting ultimately in disintegration of the crystals. For the different iron oxides, the initial rate was independent of the specific surface area, emphasizing the importance of the crystal structure for the dissolution rate...

  9. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquid: A review (United States)

    Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. S.; Salleh, M. S. N.; Yusof, N. B.


    Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) lets the comprehensive dissolution of cellulose. Basically, cellulose can be dissolved, in some hydrophilic ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Chloride based ionic liquids are suitable solvents for cellulose dissolution. Although the ILs is very useful in fine chemical industry, its application in the pharmaceutical and food industry have been very limited due to issues with toxicity, purity, and high cost. Seeing to these limitations, new green alternative solvent which is DES was used. This green solvents, may be definitely treated as the next-generation reagents for more sustainable industrial development. Thus, this review aims to discuss the dissolution of cellulose either with ionic liquids or DES and its application.

  10. A rotating disk study of gold dissolution by bromine (United States)

    Pesic, Batric; Sergent, Rodney H.


    Gold dissolution with bromine was studied using the rotating disk technique with Geobrom™ 3400 as a source of bromine. The parameters studied were speed of rotation, lixiviant concentration, pH, temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid concentrations, and the concentrations of various cations (i.e., copper, iron, zinc, aluminum, manganese, potassium, and sodium) and anions (i.e., chloride, bromide, sulfate, nitrate, and iodide). According to the Lavich plot and activation energy, gold dissolution is controlled by a chemical reaction rate. Copper, iron, and manganese in their highest oxidation states, as well as aluminum, zinc, sodium, and potassium, have no effect on the rate of gold dissolution. The presence of manganous ion substantially decreases the gold dissolution rate. The kinetic performance of bromine was found to be dramatically better than the performance of cyanide and thiourea.

  11. Evolution, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with variable flux density) in the presence of nonionic micelle, TX-100. Even their cyano complexes break down in TX-100 under UV and hence dissolution and reevolution of almost monodispersed nanoparticles (∼ 3 nm) are possible.

  12. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudigel, H; Yayanos, A; Chastain, R; Davies, G.T.; Verdurmen, E.A Th; Schiffmann, P; Bourcier, R; de Baar, H.J.W.


    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice

  13. The shell dissolution of various empty hard capsules. (United States)

    Chiwele, I; Jones, B E; Podczeck, F


    The shell dissolution properties of gelatine, gelatine/polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules were studied as a function of temperature, dissolution medium, and after different storage conditions. In any dissolution medium with a pH below or equal to 5.8, HPMC capsule shells dissolved rapidly, and there was no difference in the time in which dissolution occurred in the tested temperature interval of 10 to 55 degrees C. Gelatine and gelatine/PEG capsule shells, generally, did not dissolve at temperatures below 30 degrees C. The shell dissolution time of all capsules tested was prolonged and more variable in mixed phosphate buffer pH = 6.8. The addition of enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin) to any dissolution medium was found not to enhance the differences between the different types of capsules investigated. In practical terms, the results indicated that capsule formulations should not be taken with drinks from the carbonated Cola-type. Gelatine containing capsules should preferably be administered with a warm drink, whereas HPMC capsules could be given with cold or warm drinks. The latter type of capsules should also be preferred for preparations to be taken in the fasted state. A short storage of gelatine containing capsules under hot humid tropical conditions appeared not to alter the dissolution properties of the shells, and changes in disintegration times and dissolution times of formulations filled in such capsules might be a reflection of changes of the powders incorporated rather than of the capsule shells. However, a short storage of HPMC capsules under such conditions appeared to influence the capsule shell matrix.

  14. Hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurd, Ralph E.; Yen, Yi‐Fen; Chen, Albert


    This article describes the basic physics of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution‐DNP), and the impact of the resulting highly nonequilibrium spin states, on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. The hardware requirements for clinical translation of this techn......This article describes the basic physics of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution‐DNP), and the impact of the resulting highly nonequilibrium spin states, on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. The hardware requirements for clinical translation...

  15. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar


    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as how the morphological features of the crystals dictates how the dissolution process proceeds, and how materials can be purified by re-crystallization techniques.

  16. Thermodynamics of dissolution of thiourea in triethylene glycol (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Wanren


    The solubility of thiourea in triethylene glycol was determined in the temperature range of 318.35-357.75 K. The experimental data were approximated by the modified Apelblat equation. The dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy were calculated from the experimental data. The mutual interactions between solvent and solute were discussed in brief. The obtained data may be useful for development of the processes involving thiourea.

  17. Development and Validation of Dissolution Test for Fluconazole Capsules by HPLC and Derivative UV Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene Chaves Ruela Corrêa


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a dissolution test for fluconazole, an antifungal used for the treatment of superficial, cutaneous, and cutaneomucous infections caused by Candida species, in capsules dosage form. Techniques by HPLC and UV first derivative spectrophotometry (UV-FDS were selected for quantitative evaluation. In the development of release profile, several conditions were evaluated. Dissolution test parameters were considered appropriate when a most discriminative release profile for fluconazole capsules was yielded. Dissolution test conditions for fluconazole capsules were 900 mL of HCl 0.1 M, 37 ± 0.5 °C using baskets with 50 rpm for 30 min of test. The developed HPLC and UV-FDS methods for the antifungal evaluation were selective and met requirements for an appropriate and validated method, according to ICH and USP requirements. Both methods can be useful in the registration process of new drugs or their renewal. For routine analysis application cost, simplicity, equipment, solvents, speed, and application to large or small workloads should be observed.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of photopromoted oxidative dissolution of antimony trioxide. (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang


    Light (sunlight, ultraviolet, simulated sunlight) irradiation was used to initiate the dissolution of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3). Dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was accelerated and dissolved trivalent antimony (Sb(III)) was oxidized in the irradiation of light. The photopromoted oxidative dissolution mechanism of Sb2O3 was studied through experiments investigating the effects of pH, free radicals scavengers, dissolved oxygen removal and Sb2O3 dosage on the release rate of antimony from Sb2O3 under simulated sunlight irradiation. The key oxidative components were hydroxyl free radicals, photogenerated holes and superoxide free radicals; their contribution ratios were roughly estimated. In addition, a conceptual model of the photocatalytic oxidation dissolution of Sb2O3 was proposed. The overall pH-dependent dissolution rate of Sb2O3 and the oxidation of Sb(III) under light irradiation were expressed by r = 0.08 ·[OH(-)](0.63) and rox = 0.10 ·[OH(-)](0.79). The present study on the mechanism of the photo-oxidation dissolution of Sb2O3 could help clarify the geochemical cycle and fate of Sb in the environment.

  19. Oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles: A new theoretical approach. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Lupa, Dawid


    A general model of an oxidative dissolution of silver particle suspensions was developed that rigorously considers the bulk and surface solute transport. A two-step surface reaction scheme was proposed that comprises the formation of the silver oxide phase by direct oxidation and the acidic dissolution of this phase leading to silver ion release. By considering this, a complete set of equations is formulated describing oxygen and silver ion transport to and from particles' surfaces. These equations are solved in some limiting cases of nanoparticle dissolution in dilute suspensions. The obtained kinetic equations were used for the interpretation of experimental data pertinent to the dissolution kinetics of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. In these kinetic measurements the role of pH and bulk suspension concentration was quantitatively evaluated by using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). It was shown that the theoretical model adequately reflects the main features of the experimental results, especially the significant increase in the dissolution rate for lower pH. Also the presence of two kinetic regimes was quantitatively explained in terms of the decrease in the coverage of the fast dissolving oxide layer. The overall silver dissolution rate constants characterizing these two regimes were determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Entrapment and dissolution of DNAPLs in heterogeneous porous media. (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Rathfelder, Klaus M; Lang, John; Abriola, Linda M


    Two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport simulators were refined and used to numerically investigate the entrapment and dissolution behavior of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in heterogeneous porous media containing spatial variations in wettability. Measured hydraulic properties, residual saturations, and dissolution parameters were employed in these simulations. Entrapment was quantified using experimentally verified hydraulic property and residual saturation models that account for hysteresis and wettability variations. The nonequilibrium dissolution of PCE was modeled using independent estimates of the film mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area for entrapped and continuous (PCE pools or films) saturations. Flow simulations demonstrate that the spatial distribution of PCE is highly dependent on subsurface wettability characteristics that create differences in PCE retention mechanisms and the presence of subsurface capillary barriers. For a given soil texture, the maximum and minimum PCE infiltration depth was obtained when the sand had intermediate (an organic-wet mass fraction of 25%) and strong (water- or organic-wet) wettability conditions, respectively. In heterogeneous systems, subsurface wettability variations were also found to enhance or diminish the performance of soil texture-induced capillary barriers. The dissolution behavior of PCE was found to depend on the soil wettability and the spatial PCE distribution. Shorter dissolution times tended to occur when PCE was distributed over large regions due to an