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Sample records for viable toxoplasma gondii

  1. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and rabbits from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from a feral guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and domestic rabbits from Brazil for the first time. Serum and brains from 10 guinea fowl and 21 rabbits from Brazil were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 2 of 10 fowl and 2 of 21 rabbit...

  2. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  3. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Brown, J; Verma, S K; Cerqueira-Cézar, C K; Banfield, J; Kwok, O C H; Ying, Y; Murata, F H A; Pradhan, A K; Su, C

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69.7%) had MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 28, 1:100 in 34, and 1:200 or higher in 140. Thus most (44.1%) elk had relatively high titers. Seroprevalence was slightly higher in males (76.9%) than females (67.5%, not statistically significant, Chi-square tests, P<0.0001) and was higher in adults (76.5%) than yearlings (46.4%, Odds ratio 3.82; 95% CL 1.72-8.47; P=0.001) or calves (21.7%, Odds ratio 12.58; 95% CL 4.51-35.10; P<0.0001). Annual seroprevalence was relatively stable throughout the period tested and ranged from 66.6% to 72.2%. Of the 101 elk harvested in 2016, hearts were bioassayed from 20 elk and tongues were bioassayed from 56; all tongue samples were negative. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of two female elk, one of these was a seronegative adult and the other was a calf with no serum available for testing. Both T. gondii isolates were cultivated in cell culture and DNA derived from tachyzoites was characterized using the PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'- 3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. One isolate belongs to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 and the other is genotype #5. Both genotypes are frequently identified in animals in North America. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shinuo; Du, Nali; Chen, Heming; Pang, Yu; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Zheng, Jun; Jia, Honglin

    2017-10-17

    Caseinolytic peptidase B (ClpB) plays a pivotal role in suppressing and reversing protein aggregation. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasitic protozoan that infects a wide variety of mammals and birds and therefore is exposed to a broad range of living condition. We screened ToxoDB (http://ToxoDB.org) and identified 10 putative T. gondii genes encoding members of the Clp superfamily of caseinolytic proteases and chaperones. Of these, we focused on characterizing the Class I ATP-dependent molecular chaperones Tg ClpB1, Tg ClpB2, and Tg ClpB3. We found that Tg ClpB1, the most divergent of the five T. gondii Class I Clp ATPases, is cytoplasmic, Tg ClpB2 is found in the mitochondria of the parasites, and Tg ClpB3 is a ClpB with novel apicoplast localization. Knockout strains of Tg ClpB1 and Tg ClpB2 were established by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis, and their complementing strains were constructed with FLAG-tag. Although knockout of Tg ClpB1 or Tg ClpB2 did not affect growth under normal circumstances, Tg ClpB1 was required for T. gondii thermotolerance. The growth, replication, and invasion capabilities of Tg ClpB1-deficient mutants were significantly inhibited after extracellular parasites were pretreated at 45°C. Moreover, Tg ClpB1 were observed at the poles of the Δ Tg ClpB1 FLAG-tagged strain treated at 42°C.

  5. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. Thousands of wild cervids are hunted or killed in traffic accidents yearly bu...

  6. Lack of viable parasites in cured 'Parma Ham' (PDO), following experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Marco; Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Faccini, Silvia; Vicari, Nadia; Rigamonti, Sara; Prati, Paola; Marino, Anna Maria; Kramer, Laura; Fabbi, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Twelve Large White pigs were experimentally infected with 1000 Toxoplasma gondii oocysts/each. Serology was carried out at different time points post infection (p.i.) and animals were slaughtered at four months p.i. One of two thighs was examined for T. gondii infection status by PCR and bioassay in mice. The other thigh was processed for Parma ham production. Four thighs were examined after twelve months of curing, four after fourteen months and four were examined after sixteen months. Cured hams were analyzed by PCR, bioassay and in-vitro cultivation on Vero cells followed by real-time PCR. Pigs seroconverted from day 21 p.i. Bioassays were positive for all fresh thighs, but negative for cured hams. PCR was positive for parasite DNA from most thighs both at slaughter and post curing, but parasite growth was not observed following in vitro cultivation and real-time PCR. Results indicate that the curing process of Parma Ham (PDO), when carried out according to the Parma Ham consortium regulations, can inactivate T. gondii tissue cysts. Results would suggest that food-borne transmission of T. gondii to consumers from Parma ham can be excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Harshita Satija

    2012-01-01

    AbstractImmunity to Toxoplasma gondiiby Harshita Satija GroverDoctor of Philosophy in Molecular and Cellular BiologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Nilabh Shastri, Co-chairProfessor Ellen Robey, Co-chairToxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, and can cause a severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. Protection to T. gondii is largely mediated by CD8 T cells, although CD4 T cells have also ...

  8. Goats reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii: loss of viable prolificacy and gross revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe determined the reproductive parameters and clinical disorders in pregnant goats infected and reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii, and posteriorly the loss of gross revenue due to congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated. Of the 25 non-pregnant females negative for T. gondii, 20 were orally inoculated (ME 49 strain and of these, 15 pregnant females chronically infected were orally reinoculated (VEG strain with T. gondii oocysts. Five groups were formed (n=5: GI, GII and GIII (reinoculations at 40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, respectively, GIV (inoculation and GV (no inoculation. Clinical and serological exams were performed on days 0 (prior to inoculation, 3, 6 9, 15 and 21 and every 7 days post-inoculation. Exams were also performed on day 3 and every 7 days post-reinoculation. Reproductive management was performed on all females and initiated when the females infected displayed IgG titers IFAT<1,024. From the average prolificacy indexes of each experimental group were estimated: total production of kilograms of live weight (total kg LW of goats for slaughter, gross revenue and loss of gross revenue in U.S. dollars (US$, designed for a herd of 1,000 matrices. The unviable prolificacy indexes were 0.8 (GI, 1.2 (GII and 0.2 (GIII. Clinical disorders affected 57.1% (GI, 75.0% (GII and 16.7% (GIII of the offspring of goats reinfected with T. gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis in goats reinfected resulted in the loss of 26.5% of gross revenues, being GI (US$ 10,577.60 or 57.1% and GII (US$ 12,693.12 or 60% holders of the highest values and percentages of economic losses. It was found that congenital toxoplasmosis reinfection cause clinical disorders in goats chronically infected with T. gondii and their offspring with birth of unviable animals and loss of gross revenue, at different stages of pregnancy (40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, being in the initial and intermediate stages of pregnancy the largest estimates of these losses.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplas...ma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  10. Isolation and genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from the central region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they are the only definitive hosts that excrete environmentally resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Little is known of feline toxoplasmosis in China and most of the literature is in Chinese. Here we summarized all published reports on ...

  11. Ongenode gasten: Toxoplasma Gondii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, T.H.; Boer, P. de

    2016-01-01

    Vrijwel alle organismen, ook de mens, hebben last van parasieten: wormen, vlooien, luizen, teken. Toxoplasma gondii is wereldwijd één van de meest voorkomende parasitaire zoönosen. Vooral voor zwangere vrouwen kunnen de gevolgen groot zijn. Wat is het? En hoe is het te voorkomen?

  12. Toxoplasma gondii kissalla

    OpenAIRE

    Näreaho, Anu

    1995-01-01

    Parasitologia. Vain tiivistelmä. Koko työ lainattavissa Viikin tiedekirjastosta. Toxoplasma gondii on alkueläin, joka pystyy elämäänparasiittina useimmissa lämminverisissä eläimissä, myösihmisessä, sekä linnuissa ja matelijoissa. Vainkissaeläimissä tapahtuu toksooplasman suvullistalisääntymistä. Tässä tutkimuksessa pyrittiin kartoittamaan toksoplasma-infektion yleisyyttä suomalaisissa kisasoissa vasta-ainemäärityksen avulla. Näytteiksi kerättiin seerumia 141:ltä kissalta. Nä...

  13. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Elisabeth A.; Bartley, Paul M; Stephen Maley; Frank Katzer; David Buxton

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disea...

  14. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen; Katzer, Frank; Buxton, David

    2009-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  15. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  16. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnekulasuriya, M R; Johnson, J D; Holliman, R E

    1998-12-22

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with acute maternal infection acquired during or shortly before the pregnancy. The mother's infection is initiated by the ingestion of one of the life forms of the parasite but the relative importance of the different sources of toxoplasmosis are not established. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed ingestion of raw meats as a risk factor but also identified consumption of cured meats as being associated with acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. There is little existing information concerning the efficiency of commercial curing processes for inactivating Toxoplasma gondii. We sought to detect the presence of T. gondii in ready-to-eat cured meat samples by amplification of the parasite's P30 gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, tissue culture was used in order to isolate viable parasites. Laboratory inoculated specimens were used to assess the sensitivity of each method. PCR was able to detect parasite contamination down to a level of 5 x 10(3) trophozoites/g while viable toxoplasma could be detected in tissue culture at a level of 10(3) trophozoites/g cured meat. The high salt content of some cured meats limited sensitivity of the PCR assay by inhibition of the polymerase enzyme and reduced the sensitivity of tissue culture due to osmotic pressure causing cytopathic effect. However viable T. gondii was detected in one out of 67 ready-to-eat cured meat samples. Our results highlight the need for improved methods for detecting toxoplasma contamination of food. Health implications of consuming cured meats in pregnancy require careful consideration.

  17. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Backyard and Roaming Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of Toxoplasmosis, can be transmitted to pigs through the ingestion of oocysts, and to humans through consumption of pork containing viable cysts causing neonatal deaths and abortion in animals, and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised humans. The objective of this ...

  18. Detection Method of TOXOPLASMA GONDII Tachyzoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Souzan; Bose, Chhanda; Alusta, Pierre; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Tachyzoites are considered to be the most important stage of Toxoplasma gondii which causes toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is, an obligate intracellular parasite which infects a wide range of cells. The present study was designed to develop a method for an early detection of T. gondii tachyzoites. The method comprised of a binding assay which was analyzed using principal component and cluster analysis. Our data showed that glycoconjugates GC1, GC2, GC3 and GC10 exhibit a significantly higher binding affinity for T. gondii tachyzoites as compared to controls (T. gondii only, PAA only, GC 1, 2, 3, and 10 only).

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease, recognized as a serious public health problem worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection has become a major public health concern in recent years due to the ravaging HIV/AIDS pandemic. A serological survey was carried out in Tanga district of north-eastern Tanzania to assess T. gondii ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those Romania.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Stray Cats

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    M Arbabi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cat as definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii is important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The object of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii as well as parasite isolation from faeces and brain tissues of stray cats in Kashan, central Iran. Methods: The prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces and brain tissue of 50 stray cats. IgG specific antibody to T. gondii was assessed by indirect fluorecent antibody test (IFAT. Results: Overall infection rate was 86% in 1:20 to1:640 titers. The highest percentage (22% was for 1:160 and the least (6% were for 1: 640. T. gondii tissue cyst isolated from 2(4% cats by bioassay in mice. No oocysts detected from cat stool by direct and concentration methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in stray cats is high in Kashan region.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  3. Purine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, E.C.; Marr, J.J.; Berens, R.L.

    1989-06-25

    We have studied the incorporation and interconversion of purines into nucleotides by freshly isolated Toxoplasma gondii. They did not synthesize nucleotides from formate, glycine, or serine. The purine bases hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanine, and adenine were incorporated at 9.2, 6.2, 5.1, and 4.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. The purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and xanthosine were incorporated at 110, 9.0, 2.7, and 0.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. Guanine, xanthine, and their respective nucleosides labeled only guanine nucleotides. Inosine, hypoxanthine, and adenine labeled both adenine and guanine nucleotide pools at nearly equal ratios. Adenosine kinase was greater than 10-fold more active than the next most active enzyme in vitro. This is consistent with the metabolic data in vivo. No other nucleoside kinase or phosphotransferase activities were found. Phosphorylase activities were detected for guanosine and inosine; no other cleavage activities were detected. Deaminases were found for adenine and guanine. Phosphoribosyltransferase activities were detected for all four purine nucleobases. Interconversion occurs only in the direction of adenine to guanine nucleotides.

  4. Crioconservación de toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Duque Beltrán; María Mercedes Santacruz Chaves; Augusto Corredor Arjona

    1992-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii fue crioconservado en nitrógeno líquido usando como preservativo glicerol al 10% con el fin de mantener el protozoo por un largo período de tiempo. El descongelamiento de T. gondii se llevó a cabo, cuando los parásitos fueron requeridos para uso como antígeno, a los 10, 40 y 270 días siguientes a su crioconservación. La viabilidad y patogenicidad del parásito fue confirmada in vivo. La crioconservación de T. gondii disminuyó los costos de mantenimiento in vivo y de recursos ...

  5. Moving towards improved vaccines for Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yawen; Zhou, Huaiyu

    2017-12-08

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasitic protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals and humans, resulting in threats to public health and economic losses. Despite continuous research efforts, there are still very few effective strategies against toxoplasmosis. In the past few years, numerous vaccination experiments have been performed to control T. gondii infection. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the development of T. gondii vaccines with proper adjuvants, ranging from live or live-attenuated vaccines to protein vaccines, DNA vaccines, epitope vaccines and novel vaccines. They also highlight the challenges involved in the development of T. gondii vaccines, including specific impediments and shortcomings. Expert opinion: Moving towards the development of effective vaccines against T. gondii is not only a tedious mission but also a difficult challenge. Future studies should consider new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, particularly novel vaccines and genetic adjuvants, as well as optimizing immunization protocols and evaluation criteria.

  6. RESEARCH NOTE: AUTOFLUORESCENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from two Argentinean provinces raised under different management conditions. A total of 2922 serum samples from adult goats of Córdoba (n=2187) and Buenos Aires provinces (n= 735), Argentina, were ...

  8. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  9. Host immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Miwa; Pradipta, Ariel; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2018-02-02

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells. These T cells and Group 1 innate lymphoid cells are main producers of IFN-γ, which robustly stimulates cell-autonomous immunity in cells infected with T. gondii. IFN-γ-inducible effectors such as IFN-inducible GTPases, inducible nitric oxide synthase and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase differentially play important roles in suppression of T. gondii growth and its direct killing in anti-T. gondii cell-autonomous immune responses. In this review, we will describe our current knowledge of innate, adaptive and IFN-γ-mediated cell-autonomous immunity against T. gondii infection. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  11. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-05-28

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii Chitinase Induces Macrophage Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Almeida

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite found worldwide that is able to chronically infect almost all vertebrate species, especially birds and mammalians. Chitinases are essential to various biological processes, and some pathogens rely on chitinases for successful parasitization. Here, we purified and characterized a chitinase from T. gondii. The enzyme, provisionally named Tg_chitinase, has a molecular mass of 13.7 kDa and exhibits a Km of 0.34 mM and a Vmax of 2.64. The optimal environmental conditions for enzymatic function were at pH 4.0 and 50 °C. Tg_chitinase was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of highly virulent T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites, mainly at the apical extremity. Tg_chitinase induced macrophage activation as manifested by the production of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a pathogenic hallmark of T. gondii infection. In conclusion, to our knowledge, we describe for the first time a chitinase of T. gondii tachyzoites and provide evidence that this enzyme might influence the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii Chitinase Induces Macrophage Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fausto; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Pessoni, André Moreira; Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Alegre-Maller, Ana Claudia Paiva; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Pedersoli, Wellington Ramos; Mineo, José Roberto; Silva, Roberto Nascimento; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite found worldwide that is able to chronically infect almost all vertebrate species, especially birds and mammalians. Chitinases are essential to various biological processes, and some pathogens rely on chitinases for successful parasitization. Here, we purified and characterized a chitinase from T. gondii. The enzyme, provisionally named Tg_chitinase, has a molecular mass of 13.7 kDa and exhibits a Km of 0.34 mM and a Vmax of 2.64. The optimal environmental conditions for enzymatic function were at pH 4.0 and 50 °C. Tg_chitinase was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of highly virulent T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites, mainly at the apical extremity. Tg_chitinase induced macrophage activation as manifested by the production of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a pathogenic hallmark of T. gondii infection. In conclusion, to our knowledge, we describe for the first time a chitinase of T. gondii tachyzoites and provide evidence that this enzyme might influence the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection.

  15. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are protozoans infecting a wide range of mammals; the etiologic agents of Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis respectively, This study investigated the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs from southwestern Nigeria. Materials ...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease/infection of medical and veterinary importance. The causative agent; Toxoplasma gondii, can infect warm blooded animals, birds as well as humans. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs in Makurdi, Nigeria.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potential risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is important in pigs and humans may get infected through the consumption of undercooked infected pork. This study conducted in Oyo state, Nigeria for 15 months (between February, 2012 and April, 2013) investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs reared on farms ...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. 866.3780 Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. (a)...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  1. Current progress toward vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia JL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available João Luis Garcia,1 Elisabeth A Innes,2 Frank Katzer21Department of Preventative Veterinary Medicine, Center of Agricultural Science, State University of Londrina, Parana, Brazil; 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh, ScotlandAbstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect many warm-blooded animal species and humans. Despite substantial knowledge of the biology, epidemiology, and host-pathogen interactions of T. gondii, there are still very few effective control strategies to prevent oocyst shedding in cats, tissue cysts in livestock for consumption, and infection and disease in humans. This article reviews current progress and targets for vaccination against T. gondii.Keywords: toxoplasmosis, vaccination, livestock animals, cats, immune response, organelles

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thulliez, P.; Weigel, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were compared in 1,000 naturally exposed sows, using isolation of viable T gondii as the definitive test. Serum samples obtained from heart blood of 1,000 sows from Iowa were examined for T gondii...... antibodies by use of the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and ELISA. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 170 hearts of 1,000 sows by bioassays in mice and cats. The percentage of samples diagnosed as positive for each of the serologic...

  3. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in HIV/AIDS: Prevalence and Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is common in severely immunecompromised persons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and the risk factors associated with the infection and to investigate the association between T. gondii ...

  4. Novel Toxoplasma gondii inhibitor chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, A G; Schulze, T T; Potluri, L P; Hemsley, R M; Larson, J J; Judge, A K; Zach, S J; Wang, X; Charman, S A; Vennerstrom, J L; Davis, P H

    2018-04-01

    We profiled three novel T. gondii inhibitors identified from an antimalarial phenotypic high throughput screen (HTS) campaign: styryl 4-oxo-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one KG3, tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran KG7, and benzoquinone hydrazone KG8. These compounds inhibit T. gondii in vitro with IC 50 values ranging from 0.3 to 2μM, comparable to that of 0.25 to 1.5μM for the control drug pyrimethamine. KG3 had no measurable cytotoxicity against five mammalian cell lines, whereas KG7 and KG8 inhibited the growth of 2 of 5 cell lines with KG8 being the least selective for T. gondii. None of the compounds were mutagenic in an Ames assay. Experimental gLogD 7.4 and calculated PSA values for the three compounds were well within the ranges predicted to be favorable for good ADME, even though each compound had relatively low aqueous solubility. All three compounds were metabolically unstable, especially KG3 and KG7. Multiple IP doses of 5mg/kg KG7 and KG8 increased survival in a T. gondii mouse model. Despite their liabilities, we suggest that these compounds are useful starting points for chemical prospecting, scaffold-hopping, and optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Parameswaran, N; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodie...

  6. Mechanisms of Toxoplasma gondii persistence and latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William J.; Jeffers, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes opportunistic disease, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Central to its transmission and pathogenesis is the ability of the proliferative stage (tachyzoite) to convert into latent tissue cysts (bradyzoites). Encystment allows Toxoplasma to persist in the host, and affords the parasite a unique opportunity to spread to new hosts without proceeding through its sexual stage, which is restricted to felids. Bradyzoite tissue cysts can cause reactivated toxoplasmosis if host immunity becomes impaired. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms orchestrating bradyzoite development is needed to better manage the disease. Here we will review key studies that have contributed to our knowledge about this persistent form of the parasite and how to study it, with a focus on how cellular stress can signal for the reprogramming of gene expression needed during bradyzoite development. PMID:22091606

  7. Mucosal immunity in Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulthess J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that frequently infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals. This parasite induces abortion and establishes both chronic and silent infections, particularly in the brain. Parasite penetration into the host activates a strong anti-parasite immune response. In the present paper, we will discuss the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity that occurs within the infected intestine to clear the parasite and to maintain intestinal homeostasis despite the exacerbation of an inflammatory immune response.

  8. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-06-21

    -. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Sex, age and breed of each sampled pig was recorded. A total seroprevalence of. 4.4% was obtained. Sex specific seroprevalence was 5.4 and 4.0 % for male and female respectively.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100...

  12. On the determination of Toxoplasma gondii virulence in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful pathogens on earth, capable of infecting mammals and birds. Numerous papers and reports are published on isolation of T .gondii from various natural sources worldwide. The house mouse (Mus musculus) has been used as the laboratory animal model to deter...

  13. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  15. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant plasmid was transformed in E. coli (Bl21 DE3) and induced by 1 mM IPTG and analyzed by 12% SDS-PAGE. Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot analysis. We successfully cloned and expressed T. gondii P22 protein. Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, cloning, ...

  16. Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin D Lafferty

    2006-01-01

    The latent prevalence of a long-lived and common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, explains a statistically significant portion of the variance in aggregate neuroticism among populations, as well as in the ‘neurotic’ cultural dimensions of sex roles and uncertainty avoidance. Spurious or non-causal correlations between aggregate personality and aspects of climate and culture that influence T. gondii transmission could also drive these patterns. A link between culture and T. gondii hypothetic...

  17. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii with a DNA molecular beacon probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cun; Xu, Shichao; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Sun, Shuqing; Feng, Teilin; Zi, Yan; Liang, Chu; Luo, Hao

    2009-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a kind of microscopic parasite that may infect humans, and there are increasing concerns on the early detection of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection in recent years. This research highlights a new type of molecular beacon (MB) fluorescent probe for Toxoplasma DNA testing. We combined high-efficiency fluorescent inorganic core-shell quantum dots-CdTe/ZnS (as fluorescent energy donor) and BHQ-2 (energy acceptor) to the single-strand DNA of Toxoplasma gondii, and a molecular beacon sensing system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was achieved. Core-shell quantum dots CdTe/ZnS was firstly prepared in aqueous solution, and the influencing factor of its fluorescent properties, including CdTe/Na2S/Zn(CH3COO)2 (v/v), dependence of reaction time, temperature, and pH, is investigated systematically. The synthesized quantum dots and molecular beacon were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), fluorescent spectrophotometer (FS), respectively. The TEM results showed that CdTe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots is ~11nm in size, and the quantum dots is water-soluble well. The sensing ability of target DNA of assembled MB was investigated, and results showed that the target Toxoplasma gonddi DNA can be successfully detected by measuring the change of fluorescence intensity. The results showed that the current sensing probe will be a useful and convenient tool in Toxoplasma gondii early detection.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Bolfă, Pompei; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Oltean, Miruna; Villena, Isabelle; Spînu, Marina; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. Pairs of samples, sera and heart tissues, were collected from 82 slaughtered horses. Examination of horse sera by ELISA at a dilution of 1:10, and by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a dilution of 1:6, revealed that 32 (39%) and 31(37.8%) horses, respectively, had antibodies against T. gondii. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, T. gondii DNA was not found in any heart sample collected from horses. By bioassay in mice, we obtained viable isolates of T. gondii from two of ten horses determined to be strongly positive by serological assay/ELISA. The prevalence estimated in horses highlighted the potential risk for human contamination by consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Morales, J A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; González-Barrientos, C R; Hernández-Mora, G; Su, C

    2007-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is of interest because of mortality and mode of transmission. It has been suggested that marine mammals become infected with T. gondii oocysts washed from land to the sea. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of viable T. gondii from a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the first time from this host. An adult female dolphin was found stranded on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, and the animal died the next day. The dolphin had a high (1:6400) antibody titer to T. gondii in the modified agglutination test. Severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis was found in its brain and spinal cord, but T. gondii was not found in histological sections of the dolphin. Portions of its brain and the heart were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of T. gondii. Viable T. gondii was isolated from the brain, but not from the heart, of the dolphin. A cat fed mice infected with the dolphin isolate (designated TgSdCol) shed oocysts. Genomic DNA from tachyzoites of this isolate was used for genotyping at 10 genetic loci, including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and this TgSdCo1 isolate was found to be Type II.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (Psheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening of chemical compound libraries identified new anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluyomi Stephen; Sugi, Tatsuki; Han, Yongmei; Kato, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease that affects nearly one-third of the human population. The primary infection can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals but may prove fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Available treatment options for toxoplasmosis patients are limited, underscoring the urgent need to identify and develop new therapies. Non-biased screening of libraries of chemical compounds including the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as viable approach to achieving this goal. In the present investigation, we screened libraries of natural product and FDA-approved compounds to identify those that inhibited T. gondii growth. We identified 32 new compounds that potently inhibit T. gondii growth. Our findings are new and promising, and further strengthen the prospects of drug repurposing as well as the screening of a wide range of chemical compounds as a viable source of alternative anti-parasitic therapeutic agents.

  2. Specific binding of neoglycoproteins to Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, R; de la Jarrige, P L; Mahaza, C; Cottin, J; Marot-Leblond, A; Senet, J M

    1991-01-01

    Several studies have shown that protozoa bind to glycoproteins or neoglycoproteins. Here we report that Toxoplasma gondii binds strongly to bovine serum albumin-glucosamide. The binding was rapid, time dependent, partially reversible, saturable, and specific. Scatchard analysis showed about 40,000 molecules of bovine serum albumin-glucosamide per toxoplasma cell. The apparent dissociation constant was found to be 4.46 x 10(-8) M. Images PMID:1937826

  3. Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: new developments and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Chen, Jia; Wang, Meng; Petersen, Eskild; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a major public health problem, infecting one-third of the world human beings, and leads to abortion in domestic animals. A vaccine strategy would be an ideal tool for improving disease control. Many efforts have been made to develop vaccines against T. gondii to reduce oocyst shedding in cats and tissue cyst formation in mammals over the last 20 years, but only a live-attenuated vaccine based on the S48 strain has been licensed for veterinary use. Here, the authors review the recent development of T. gondii vaccines in cats, food-producing animals and mice, and present its future perspectives. However, a single or only a few antigen candidates revealed by various experimental studies are limited by only eliciting partial protective immunity against T. gondii. Future studies of T. gondii vaccines should include as many CTL epitopes as the live attenuated vaccines.

  4. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

    2010-10-01

    Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1∶25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...... analysed for Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sheep less than 4 weeks old were further analysed by ELISA for Toxoplasma-specific IgM-antibodies. Data on farm size and location were obtained from slaughterhouse sanitary reports and through...... structured telephone interviews of the veterinary officers from public health districts. The overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG-antibodies were 49.9% (937/1876) by ELISA. Eighty-seven (54/62) percent of the farms had at least one Toxoplasma-positive animal. All the farms fed the animals...

  6. First record of Toxoplasma gondii in Chaetophractus villosus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; Giménez, Hugo D; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that causes abortion and reproductive disorder in domestic animals. T. gondii is a common worldwide disease in homeothermic animals, including birds and humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in the province of La Pampa, Argentina. Serum samples were collected from 150 individuals (70 males and 80 females). For serological detection of T. gondii, a latex agglutination test was first performed and then positive sera were confirmed with an indirect hemagglutination test, using 1:4 to 1:64 dilutions. Results showed that 27% (41) of the samples presented titers for antibodies against T. gondii. There were not significant differences between the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and age or sexes of the armadillos. Results show that presence of T. gondii antibodies in armadillos were associated with presence of pigs, and sheep, however there was not association with chickens and dairy cattle in capture site. T. gondii has an important presence in C. villosus population, suggesting a potential zoonotic risk for humans and wildlife animals when C. villosus meats are consumed raw or undercooked. This is the first record of the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in C. villosus.

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leonard Mboera

    Abstract. Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy, if left untreated, is associated with spontaneous abortions, low birth weight babies, congenital deformities and intrauterine deaths. The infection is also associated with human immune deficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). In.

  8. Population genetics, diversity and spread of virulence in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, an estimated third of the human population harbors infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a single-celled eukaryotic parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa (Dubey, 2010). Most infected persons are unaware of, and evidently unharmed by, the parasite cysts established in their muscles and/...

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy, if left untreated, is associated with spontaneous abortions, low birth weight babies, congenital deformities and intrauterine deaths. The infection is also associated with human immune deficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). In Rwanda, the ...

  11. Phylogeography of Toxoplasma gondii points to a South American origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan found ubiquitously in mammals and birds, is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease causing substantial Public Health burden worldwide, including about 200,000 new cases of congenital toxoplasmosis each year. Clinical severity has been shown to vary across geog...

  12. Anti- toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from Balsamocitrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, characterization and anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1/1) extract of the roots of the cameroonian plant Balsamocitrus camerunensis L. were investigated in this study. Four known coumarins derivatives were isolated, namely, marmin (1), imperatorin (2), xanthoxyletin (3), ...

  13. SPORULATION AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS IN SEA WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1992, we have been collaborating in studies on southern sea otters (Enhdyra lutris nereis) as part of a program to define factors which may be responsible for limiting the growth of the southern sea otter population. We previously demonstrated Toxoplasma gondii in sea otter...

  14. Genetic approaches to defining pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite of warm-blooded vertebrates that also causes opportunistic infections in humans. Rodents are a natural host for transmission to cats, which serve as the definitive host for sexual development. The laboratory mouse provides a model to study pathogenesis. Str...

  15. Toxoplasma gondii in animal reservoirs and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite that is best known as a cause of abortion and abnormalities in newborns if a woman is primary infected during pregnancy, although ocular toxoplasmosis from acquired infection may contribute substantially to the disease burden. Infectious parasites

  16. DNA circles with cruciforms from Isospora (Toxoplasma) gondii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, P.J.; Borst, P.; Overdulve, J.P.; Fase-Fowler, F.; Berg, Marlene van den

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a closed circular duplex DNA fraction from the unicellular parasite Isospora (Toxoplasma) gondii and examined the purified DNA by electron microscopy. A major part of this circular DNA consists of 12-μm circles containing a cruciform with 0.5-μm tails. We also found 23-μm circles

  17. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana ...

  18. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ayse; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Mehpare; Oguz, Melek; Yıldız, Yasemin Tasci

    2013-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, which principally affects the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows a benign infection or vaccination in children. Although a number of infectious agents have been implicated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been described previously in children. Acquired T. gondii infection presents with lymphadenopathy and fever and usually spontaneously resolves in immunocompetent patients. We describe a previously healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection, the symptoms of which initially began with nuchal stiffness, difficulty in walking, and urinary and stool incontinence; he later had development of motor and sensory impairment in both lower extremities and classical magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after the specific therapy for acquired T. gondii infection and pulse prednisolone. Although acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been reported previously in association with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinicians should keep in mind this uncommon cause of a common disease when evaluating a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Tepehuanos in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; García-López, Claudia Rosalba; Rojas-Rivera, Amparo; Sifuentes-Álvarez, Antonio; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection is known to depend on a number of behavioral factors, including contact with animals and eating habits. The epidemiology in specific populations (i.e., in indigenous ethnic groups) is not well studied. We therefore investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 156 Tepehuanos, an indigenous ethnic group in Durango State in northern Mexico, using ELISAs. Of the 156 Tepehuanos (mean age 31.03±16.71 years), 35 (22.4%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. IgG levels of 14-99, 100-150, and >150 IU/mL were found in 15 (42.9%), 1 (2.8%), and 19 (54.3%) anti-Toxoplasma IgG-positive Tepehuanos, respectively. Also, 15 (9.6%) subjects had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Male Tepehuanos aged 31-50 years showed a significantly higher frequency of exposure to T. gondii than female Tepehuanos of the same age. Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was significantly higher in Tepehuanos without education than those with 7-12 years of education. Tepehuanos suffering from frequent headaches had significantly higher seroprevalences of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies than those without this clinical feature. In addition, Tepehuanos suffering from hearing impairment had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies than those without this clinical feature. Logistic regression analysis did not show an association of T. gondii exposure with any behavioral characteristics, including contact with cats or eating habits. The seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Tepehuanos is comparable to that reported in other populations in North America; however, seroprevalence in the largely rural Tepehuanos is higher than that reported in a nearby urban center. Toxoplasma may be impacting the health of Tepehuanos. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in Tepehuanos, and the results should prove useful for the design of preventive measures.

  20. Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jose G

    2002-02-15

    For the past 40 years, the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (TSL-PAMFRI) has been dedicated to the laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. TSL-PAMFRI is the "brain child" of Jack S. Remington. Jack's ceaseless devotion to objectivity and uncompromising excellence has made TSL-PAMFRI the Toxoplasma reference laboratory for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and health care providers and clinical laboratories in the United States and other countries. Jack's leadership and vision created, defined, and significantly contributed to the development of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of the infection and diseases caused by T. gondii. A summary of the laboratory tests currently available at TSL-PAMFRI for the diagnosis of infection and disease caused by the parasite is presented here.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-12-11

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Casey, Sarah Jane; Zajac, Anne Marie; Wildeus, Stephen Arthur; Lindsay, David Scott; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Oliveira, Solange; Kwok, Oliver Chun Hung; Su, Chunlei

    2014-12-01

    Alpacas are important to the economy of several countries. Little is known of Toxoplasma gondii infection in alpacas worldwide. In the present study, T. gondii was isolated and genetically characterized from alpacas for the first time. Alpacas (n = 16) and rams (n = 12) pastured on a farm in Virginia, USA, were examined at necropsy. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined by the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25) and found in 6 of 16 alpacas with titers of 1:100 (2 alpaca), 1:400 (2 alpacas), 1:800 (1 alpaca), and 1:1,600 (1 alpaca), and 5 of 12 rams in titers of 1:50 in one, 1:400 in one, 1:800 in one, 1:1,600 in one, and 1:3,200 in one. Tissues of all 16 alpacas were bioassayed in mice or in cats. Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive sheep by bioassay in mice. Genotyping using cell-cultured tachyzoites revealed four genotypes, including one for ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 (type III), one for genotype #3 (type II variant), one for genotype #170, and two for a new genotype designated as ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #230. Thus, four of the five T. gondii isolates in the present study belonged to different genotypes. These results indicate a higher genetic diversity among T. gondii isolates circulating in the USA than previously realized.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3.3 %). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. T. gondii was associated...

  5. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  6. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Di Loria, Antonio; Sedlak, Kamil; Mariani, Ugo; Fusco, Giovanna; Fulgione, Domenico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important zoonosis, can be transmitted by eating meat or drinking milk of animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Samples were collected from 238 donkeys in the year 2010 in Italy, which included 207 females and 31 males of five breeds and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month-24 years). Sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test and the indirect fluorescent antibody test; 5 and 8% seropositivity were recorded, respectively. We found significant correlation between the presence of T. gondii antibodies and sex, age, grazing and presence of cats on the farms and their access to donkey feed. This is the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in donkeys in Italy.

  8. Towards a molecular architecture of the centrosome in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Daher, Wassim

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. The pathogenicity of this unicellular parasite is tightly linked to its ability to efficiently proliferate within its host. Tachyzoites, the fast dividing form of the parasite, divide by endodyogeny. This process involves a single round of DNA replication, closed nuclear mitosis, and assembly of two daughter cells within a mother. The successful completion of endodyogeny relies on the temporal and spatial coordination of a plethora of simultaneous events. It has been shown that the Toxoplasma centrosome serves as signaling hub which nucleates spindle microtubules during mitosis and organizes the scaffolding of daughter cells components during cytokinesis. In addition, the centrosome is essential for inheriting both the apicoplast (a chloroplast-like organelle) and the Golgi apparatus. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that the T. gondii centrosome diverges in protein composition, structure and organization from its counterparts in higher eukaryotes making it an attractive source of potentially druggable targets. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on T. gondii centrosomal proteins and extend the putative centrosomal protein repertoire by in silico identification of mammalian centrosomal protein orthologs. We propose a working model for the organization and architecture of the centrosome in Toxoplasma parasites. Experimental validation of our proposed model will uncover how each predicted protein translates into the biology of centrosome, cytokinesis, karyokinesis, and organelle inheritance in Toxoplasma parasites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection with a magnetic molecular beacon probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shichao; Yao, Cuicui; Wei, Shuoming; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Han, Qing; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hongming

    2008-12-01

    Toxoplasma Gondii infection is widespread in humans worldwide and reported infection rates range from 3%-70%, depending on the populations or geographic areas, and it has been recognized as a potential food safety hazard in our daily life. A magnetic molecular beacon probe (mMBP), based on theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), was currently reported to detect Toxoplasma Gondii DNA. Nano-sized Fe3O4 were primarily prepared by coprecipitation method in aqueous phase with NaOH as precipitator, and was used as magnetic core. The qualified coreshell magnetic quantum dots (mQDs), i.e. CdTe(symbol)Fe3O4, were then achieved by layer-by-layer method when mol ratio of Fe3O4/CdTe is 1/3, pH at 6.0, 30 °C, and reactant solution was refluxed for 30 min, the size of mQDs were determined to be 12-15 nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Over 70% overlap between emission spectrum of mQDs and absorbance spectrum of BHQ-2 was observed, this result suggests the synthesized mQDs and BHQ-2 can be utilized as energy donor and energy acceptor, respectively. The sensing probe was fabricated and a stem-loop Toxoplasma Gondii DNA oligonucleotide was labeled with mQDs at the 5' end and BHQ-2 at 3' end, respectively. Target Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected under conditions of 37 °C, hybridization for 2h, at pH8.0 in Tris-HCl buffer. About 30% recovery of fluorescence intensity was observed via fluorescence spectrum (FS) after the Toxoplasma gondii DNA was added, which suggested that the Toxoplasma Gondii DNA was successfully detected. Specificity investigation of the mMBP indicated that relative low recovery of fluorescence intensity was obtained when the target DNA with one-base pair mismatch was added, this result indicated the high specificity of the sensing probe. Our research simultaneously indicated that mMBP can be conveniently separated from the unhybridized stem-loop DNA and target DNA, which will be meaningful in DNA sensing and purification process.

  10. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazilian Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jamille Rodrigues; Maciel, Bianca Mendes; de Santana Souza Santos, Luana Karla Nogueira; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; de Santana Rocha, Daniele; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are highly genetically diverse compared to strains from North America and Europe. Dogs are epidemiologically important because they act as sentinels for T. gondii infections in humans and are good indicators of environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize T. gondii strains from tissues of naturally infected Brazilian dogs. For this study, 21 blood samples were collected from dogs at the Zoonosis Control Centers of Ilhéus and Itabuna cities, Bahia, Brazil. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies using the indirect hemagglutination test. Brains and hearts of seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice to isolate and characterize T. gondii parasites by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, newSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, c29-2, GRA6, PK1, APICO, and L358). However, T. gondii was isolated from only 4 (57.1%) dogs, designated TgDgBr6, 13, 17, and 21. All strains were virulent, causing clinical changes (rough hair coat, lethargy, and abdominal distention) and the death of all mice within 8–20 days after inoculation. Genetic analysis of these 4 T. gondii isolates revealed 4 distinct genotypes with different clonal lineage combinations (types I, II, and III) and 2 atypical alleles. Using PCR-RFLP with several markers, this study contributes to evaluations of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Brazil. PMID:28719948

  11. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in goats, cats and humans in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuralev, Eduard A; Shamaev, Nikolai D; Mukminov, Malik N; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Taniguchi, Yuji; Saito, Taizo; Kitoh, Katsuya; Arleevskaya, Marina I; Fedotova, Anastasiya Yu; Abdulmanova, Diana R; Aleksandrova, Natalya M; Efimova, Marina A; Yarullin, Aynur I; Valeeva, Anna R; Khaertynov, Kamil S; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2018-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a most common zoonosis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. However, there is little epidemiological information on T. gondii infections in humans and livestock animals in Russia. Therefore, in this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats in Russia was investigated. A total of 216 goats from 32 farms were investigated and 95 of them were seropositive for T. gondii. The difference in seroprevalence between the examined regions was not statistically significant. We next collected serum samples from 99 cats and 181 humans in Kazan city, the state capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and examined their T. gondii seroprevalences. Thirty-nine of the 99 cat samples and 56 of the 181 human samples showed seropositivity. Logistical regression analysis revealed that the cat breeding history of the human subjects, but not their sex or age is a significant risk factor for T. gondii seropositivity. These findings suggest that the natural environment in Russia may be widely polluted with T. gondii oocysts shed by cats, and ingestion of these oocysts provides a major route for human infection with this parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii: Evidence for the transmission by semen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Tiago Pereira; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Pieroni, Juliana S Pinto; Pinto, Vanessa M R; Sakamoto, Claudio A; Costa, Alvimar José da

    2009-10-01

    Ten male dogs were distributed into three experimental groups for infection with Toxoplasma gondii: GI - three dogs inoculated with 2.0x10(5) P strais oocysts, GII - three dogs infected with 1.0x10(6) RH strain tachyzoites, and GIII - four controls dogs. Several clinical parameters were evaluated. IFAT was performed to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Presence of the parasite in semen was evaluated by PCR and bioassay techniques. Tissue parasitism was examined using bioassays and immunohistochemistry in testicle and epididymis fragments collected after orchiectomy. In semen samples collected from these two groups, the presence of T. gondii was verified by bioassays and PCR. T. gondii was detected by immunohistochemistry in tissues (testicle and epididymis fragments) of all six experimentally infected dogs. The T. gondii-positive seminal samples were used in the artificial insemination (AI) of four female dogs free of toxoplasmic infection. Seven days after AI, all of the female dogs presented serologic conversion (IFAT). Fetal reabsorption occurred in two of the dogs, while the others sustained full-term gestation. Several T. gondii cysts were detected in the brains of four offspring. These results suggest that T. gondii can be sexually transmitted in domestic dogs.

  13. NLRP1 Is an Inflammasome Sensor for Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Sarah E.; Chavarria-Smith, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is able to infect nearly all nucleated cell types of warm-blooded animals. This is achieved through the injection of hundreds of parasite effectors into the host cell cytosol, allowing the parasite to establish a vacuolar niche for growth, replication, and persistence. Here we show that Toxoplasma infection actives an inflammasome response in mice and rats, an innate immune sensing system designed to survey the host cytosol for foreign components leading to inflammation and cell death. Oral infection with Toxoplasma triggers an inflammasome response that is protective to the host, limiting parasite load and dissemination. Toxoplasma infection is sufficient to generate an inflammasome response in germfree animals. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) secretion by macrophage requires the effector caspases 1 and 11, the adapter ASC, and NLRP1, the sensor previously described to initiate the inflammasome response to Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. The allele of NLRP1b derived from 129 mice is sufficient to enhance the B6 bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) inflammasome response to Toxoplasma independent of the lethal factor proteolysis site. Moreover, N-terminal processing of NLRP1b, the only mechanism of activation known to date, is not observed in response to Toxoplasma infection. Cumulatively, these data indicate that NLRP1 is an innate immune sensor for Toxoplasma infection, activated via a novel mechanism that corresponds to a host-protective innate immune response to the parasite. PMID:24218483

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Wang, Y H; Meng, P; Ye, Q; Zhang, D L

    2013-02-18

    Camel is important to the economy of many countries. We report Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus), first for this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in sera of 7 of 234 C. bactrianus from Qinghai Province, northwestern China. Sera were tested by a commercial indirect hemagglutination test at a cut-off of 1:64. Age or the gender of the camel did not significantly affect the seroprevalence. Results are of public health and economic importance because camel milk and meat are used for human consumption in many countries, including China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mousl, Iraq. Fifty two sera (9 males and 43 females were examined by Latex agglutination test, Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test and Indirect ELISA test (Indirect IgG ELISA. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys was 46.15 %. Acute cases 8.33% and chronic cases 91.67 % when differentiated by Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test. The percentages of female and male infections were 51.16% (22/43 and 22.22% (2/9, respectively by using latex agglutination test, and the titeration of antibodies ranged between 1:20 - 1:1280 and for Indirect IgG ELISA it was 22.72% positive cases.

  17. Antibody Detection, Isolation, Genotyping, and Virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in Captive Felids from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, which could excrete oocysts into the environment and provide an infection source for toxoplasmosis in various warm-blooded animal species, particularly the captive felids that live close to human communities. The infection rate of the captive felids is a perfect standard in detecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment. In this study, sera or tissue samples from zoo (1 young tiger, 2 adult tigers, 6 young lions, farm (10 masked palm civets, and pet hospital (28 cats from Henan Province (China were collected. The sera (n = 47 were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against T. gondii by using modified agglutination test (MAT, whereas the hearts tissue (n = 40 were bioassayed in mice to isolate T. gondii strains. The genotype was distinguished by using PCR-RFLP of 10 loci (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, BTUB, L358, c22-8, PK1, c29-2, and Apico. The detection rate for the T. gondii antibody in captive felids was 21.3% (10/47. One viable T. gondii strain (TgCatCHn4 was obtained from a cat heart tissue, and its genotype was ToxoDB#9. The oocysts of ToxoDB#9 were collected from a T. gondii-free cat. The virulence of TgCatCHn4 was low and no cysts were detected in the brain of mice at 60 days post-inoculation. The finding of the present study suggested a widespread exposure of T. gondii for felids in Henan Province of central China, particularly those from the zoological gardens and homes. ToxoDB#9 was the predominant strain in China. Preventive measures against T. gondii oocyst contamination of various components of the environment should thus be implemented, including providing pre-frozen meat, well-cooked cat food, cleaned fruits and vegetables, monitoring birds and rodents, inactive T. gondii oocysts in felids feces, and proper hygiene.

  18. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-­bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii and Epstein Barr retinochoroiditis in an immunocompromised patient

    OpenAIRE

    Carmela Attisano; Monica Cibinel; Guido Strani; Paola Trasendi; Patrizia Melchio; Giuseppe Grandi

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a patient aged 52 years old, who has been hospitalised at Ophthalmic Hospital in Turin (Italy) with entrance diagnosis of right eye anterior and posterior uveitis and retinopathy of suspect micotic origin. Patient underwent vitreal biopsy. Laboratory evaluation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method performed on vitreous sample showed the presence of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii (TG). PCR should be performed either in eyes samples or in blood sampl...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, N; O'Handley, R M; Grigg, M E; Fenwick, S G; Thompson, R C A

    2009-06-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a kappa coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231

  3. New findings: depression, suicide, and Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pao-Chu; Groer, Maureen; Beckie, Theresa

    2014-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the evidence of a potential pathophysiological relationship between depression, suicide, and the Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. It discusses the role of inflammatory processes in depressive illness and the infection theory of psychiatric disease. It also provides guidelines for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression for nurse practitioners (NPs). A narrative review was conducted of the literature from PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. References of identified articles were also reviewed. Seropositivity of the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, T. gondii is related to various mental health disorders including schizophrenia, suicide attempt, depression, and other neuropsychiatric diseases. Depressive symptoms have been linked to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) blocking T. gondii growth by inducing indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation and tryptophan depletion, which results in a decrease of serotonin production in the brain. Although exposure to T. gondii was considered unlikely to reactivate in immune-competent individuals, new findings report that this reactivation may be triggered by immune imbalance. NPs caring for patients with psychiatric illness need to understand the potential mechanisms associated with depression and the T. gondii infection in order to provide effective screening, treatment, and disease prevention. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that gradually evolved to be the most opportunistic parasite that complicates the course of HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIVinfected patients ...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that gradually evolved to be the most opportunistic parasite that complicates the course of HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIV- infected patients ...

  7. Prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in pork from retail meat stores in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Teng; Luo, Qingli; Huo, Xingxing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xu, Xiucai; Wang, Yong; Lu, Fangli; Lun, Zhaorong; Yu, Li; Shen, Jilong

    2012-07-16

    Pork is known as one of the most important sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection in China. In the present study, 416 fresh pork samples were collected from different locations of Anhui province, Eastern China. Tissue fluid ELISA was conducted to detect the antibodies to T. gondii. Real-time PCR and bioassay were performed to identify the presence of T. gondii DNA and viable parasites, respectively. Seventy-five out of 416 samples (18.03%) demonstrated real-time PCR positive reaction and 42 out of 416 samples (10.1%) showed tissue fluid ELISA positive reaction. One isolate (Tgpkfx171) was obtained through bioassay in mice from 14 samples that demonstrated both PCR and ELISA positive reaction. The isolate and seven positive DNA samples were genotyped using 9 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among these, only the isolate and two positive DNA samples were genotyped with complete data for all loci, belonging to ToxoDB#9 (Chinese 1) and ToxoDB#213, respectively. This is the first report of the prevalence and genetic typing of T. gondii from pork in retail meat stores in China. The present results provide an accurate picture of the risk of exposure to T. gondii in retail pork in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Yu, L; Su, C

    2013-11-08

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer of 25). Tissues (hearts, brains or both) of 109 wolves were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 25 and the isolates were further propagated in cell culture. T. gondii DNA from these isolates was characterized using 10 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were detected. Twenty-one isolates were Type 12 (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #5), 2 were Type II clonal (ToxoDB #1), 1 was Type II variant (ToxoDB #3), and 1 was a new genotype designated as ToxoDB genotype #219. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Antigenuria in Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fachado

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was performed with sera and urine of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, taken before, during and after clinically Toxoplasma infection. The tested patients were followed for an average of two years. The titres of the specific IgG and IgM antibodies were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and the appearance of circulating antigens of T. gondii was determined in 36 urine samples of 13 patients with neurotoxoplasmosis by means of the coagglutination test. The presence of T. gondii antigens in the urine of AIDS patients by this test was correlated with the immunoblot technique, with clinical symptoms and also with pathological findings. Our results indicate that the detection of T. gondii antigens in the urine of AIDS patients can be regarded as a rapid and efficient method for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis

  10. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Lauren E; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22121, with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented.

  11. Mechanisms and pathways of Toxoplasma gondii transepithelial migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J; Korcsmaros, Tamas; Carding, Simon R

    2017-01-02

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasite and a prevalent food-borne parasitic pathogen. Infection of the host occurs principally through oral consumption of contaminated food and water with the gastrointestinal tract being the primary route for entry into the host. To promote infection, T. gondii has evolved highly specialized strategies for rapid traversal of the single cell thick intestinal epithelial barrier. Parasite transmigration via the paracellular pathway between adjacent cells enables parasite dissemination to secondary sites of infection where chronic infection of muscle and brain tissue is established. It has recently been proposed that parasite interactions with the integral tight junction (TJ) protein occludin influences parasite transmigration of the intestinal epithelium. We review here the emerging mechanisms of T. gondii transmigration of the small intestinal epithelium alongside the developing role played in modulating the wider TJ-associated proteome to rewire host cell regulatory systems for the benefit of the parasite.

  12. Use and abuse of dendritic cells by Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanecka, Anna; Frickel, Eva-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii stimulates its host’s immune response to achieve quiescent chronic infection. Central to this goal are host dendritic cells. The parasite exploits dendritic cells to disseminate through the body, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, present its antigens to the immune system and yet at the same time subvert their signaling pathways in order to evade detection. This carefully struck balance by Toxoplasma makes it the most successful parasite on this planet. Recent progress has highlighted specific parasite and host molecules that mediate some of these processes particularly in dendritic cells and in other cells of the innate immune system. Critically, there are several important factors that need to be taken into consideration when concluding how the dendritic cells and the immune system deal with a Toxoplasma infection, including the route of administration, parasite strain and host genotype. PMID:23221473

  13. Toxoplasma gondii in women with recent abortion from Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Beatriz Hernández-Cortazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the presence, parasite burden, percentage of avidity and risk factors to seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in women with recent abortion attended at the two main hospitals from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: Seroprevalence and IgG avidity were estimated from 161 blood samples from aborting women and risk factors associated with serological status were determined. Only 130 from 161 samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR and a nested-PCR (nPCR to detect T. gondii-DNA. Results: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgM and IgG was 3.72% (6/161 and 59.00% (95/161, respectively; 98.94% (94/95 of the women showed high-avidity index and only 1.05% (1/95 demonstrated low-avidity. For qPCR, 3.84% (5/130 of the samples were detected with T. gondii-DNA and all positive samples showed a low parasite load (< 1 parasite/mL. For nPCR, 6.92% (9/130 of positivity was found. Logistic regression analysis showed a positive association between IgG-seropositivity and potable-drinking-water intake in households (P < 0.020, odds ratio = 11.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.011–0.683. Conclusions: In this study, the detection of T. gondii-DNA in IgG-positive women suggests in some cases active parasitemia, even when they demonstrated high-avidity index. Reinfection cases could be presented due to the high circulation of the parasite in the study region. T. gondii could play an important role as cause of abortion and municipal potable-water could be an important risk factor of infection.

  14. Proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de León, Carmen T; Díaz Martín, Rubén Darío; Mendoza Hernández, Guillermo; González Pozos, Sirenia; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mondragón Flores, Ricardo

    2014-12-05

    Toxoplasma, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans, has a subpellicular cytoskeleton that is involved in motility, cell shape and invasion. Knowledge of components of the cytoskeleton is necessary to understand the invasion mechanisms as well as for the identification of possible therapeutic targets. To date, most cytoskeletal components of Toxoplasma remain unidentified due mainly to the lack of reproducible methods for their isolation. Based on the successful isolation of the cytoskeleton, it was possible to report for the first time, the proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma formed by 95 cytoskeletal proteins through proteomic analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of one dimension SDS PAGE. By bioinformatic analysis of the data, proteins were classified as: 18 conventional cytoskeletal proteins; 10 inner membrane complex proteins, including 7 with alveolin repeats; 5 new proteins with alveolin like repeats; 37 proteins associated with other organelles and 25 novel proteins of unknown function. One of the alveolin like proteins not previously described in Toxoplasma named TgArticulin was partially characterized with a specific monoclonal antibody. Presence of TgArticulin was exclusively associated with the cytoskeleton fraction with a cortical distribution. Functions for the several molecules identified are proposed. This manuscript describes, for the first time, the proteome of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii. The importance of this study is related to the role of the cytoskeleton in the highly invasive capability of a parasite that causes abortion, blindness, and death by encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Proteomic characterization of the cytoskeleton of T. gondii tachyzoites was possible by the development of a successful procedure for the isolation of the subpellicular cytoskeleton. Knowledge of the composition of the cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma is fundamental for the

  15. Movement of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Unsaturated Natural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Erin; Korte, Caroline; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Dubey, Jitender; Dumetre, Aurélien; Darnault, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a complex lifecycle that involves a wide variety of intermediate hosts with felids as the definitive host. Because of its numerous hosts and the prevalence of cats, T.gondii has spread throughout nearly the entire globe. Oocysts have been found not only in the feces of cats, but also in soils, animal feeds and water. Exposure through consumption of infected meat or following contact with cat feces can cause damage to the eyes, brain and other organs of immunocompromised populations as well as fetuses if they are exposed in utero. The prevalence of T.gondii and potential health risks necessitate a better understanding of the transport of T.gondii through soils, which to this point has not been well studied. This work aims to characterize the transport and retention of T.gondii oocysts in a number of unsaturated natural soils where fast transport and preferential flow paths have been prevented. The soils used are classified as loamy sands and sandy loams. They were placed in soil columns at a known bulk density and were then subjected to an artificial rain of 1 mM KCl solution. Flow in the columns was vertical and gravity driven. After steady state was reached, a pulse containing 2.5 million T.gondii oocysts and KBr as a conservative tracer was applied to the top of the column, after which steady rainfall was resumed. Leachate samples were collected throughout the experiment. qPCR for T.gondii was performed and KBr ions were measured to create breakthrough curves for both. After the completion of the rainfall portion of the experiment, soil columns were cut into 1 to 2 cm sections and analyzed for T.gondii with qPCR to characterize retention within the column and for soil water content.

  16. The Dialogue of Metastasis-Uncovering Juxtacrine Genetic Cascades with a Toxoplasma Gondii Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    1-0574 TITLE: The Dialogue of Metastasis-Uncovering Juxtacrine Genetic Cascades with a Toxoplasma Gondii Enzyme PRINCIPAL...a Toxoplasma Gondii Enzyme 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard A. Steinman, M.D., Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...intact tumors. The proposed investigations overcome these limitations through use of a toxoplasma ghondii enzyme. It should then be feasible for

  17. Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. In the present stud...

  18. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modif...

  19. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clona...

  20. Schizogony and gametogony of the vaccine, oocyst-deficient, strain T-263 of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection become immune to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity app...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infected...

  2. Risk factors related to Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Huifang; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Luttikholt, Saskia; Maas, Miriam; Nielen, Mirjam; Swart, Arno; Vellema, Piet; van der Giessen, Joke; Opsteegh, Marieke

    Toxoplasma gondii can cause disease in goats, but also has impact on human health through food-borne transmission. Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats and to identify the risk factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence. Fifty-two

  3. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neosport caninum antibodies in Spanish ibex (Capra pryenaica hispanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (L...

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Haveman, R.; Swart, A.; Mensink-Beerepoot, M.E.; Hofhuis, A.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cats, as definitive hosts, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in Dutch domestic cats, serum samples of 450 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by indirect ELISA. Binary mixture analysis was

  5. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  6. Research advances in interactions related to Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins (TgMICs), secreted by micronemes upon contact with host cells, are reported to play important roles in multiple stages of the T. gondii life cycle, including parasite motility, invasion, intracellular survival, and egress from host cells. Meanwhile, during these processes, TgMICs participate in many protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions, such as undergoing proteolytic maturation, binding to aldolase, engaging the host cell receptors and forming the moving junction (MJ), relying on different types of ectodomains, transmembrane (TM) domains and cytoplasmic domains (CDs). In this review, we summarize the research advances in protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions related to TgMICs, and their intimate associations with corresponding biological processes during T. gondii infection, which will contribute to an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of T. gondii infection, and provide a basis for developing effective control strategies against T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  8. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in naturally infected sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Rocha, D; de Sousa Moura, R L; Maciel, B M; Guimarães, L A; O'dwyer, H N S; Munhoz, A D; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-07-31

    The objective of this study was to verify whether Toxoplasma gondii is excreted in the milk of naturally infected sheep. In order to accomplish this, 275 lactating ewes were used; these were bred extensively in 17 estates distributed across nine cities. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect T. gondii DNA in milk samples, and the indirect immunofluorescence test was employed for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in the sera, with a cut-off value of 1:64. It was possible to verify the presence of the parasite DNA in 6.5% (18/275) of the studied animals. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in 41.5% of the animals studied (114/275). There was no correlation between parasite excretion in milk and the presence of IgG in 38.9% of the studied animals (7/18). The high seropositivity and the presence of parasite DNA in the milk led to the conclusion that T. gondii infection is present in the sheep population in southern and southwestern Bahia, and that there is a risk of the human population becoming infected due to the consumption of raw, in natura milk.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild birds in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoon which is well known for infecting humans and wild animals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were evaluated in 394 wild birds, belonging to 37 species, from 15 different administrative regions in Taiwan. Using modified agglutination test (MAT), the overall seroprevalence of infection was 23.35% (CI 95% = 19.17%-27.53%). Antibodies were detected in birds of prey (25.73%, CI 95% = 19.76%-31.70%), birds living in freshwater or marine systems (34.29%, CI 95% = 18.56%-50.01%) and ground-feeding birds (18.12%, CI 95% = 11.94%-24.31%). Adult birds showed higher seroprevalence than that in juvenile birds, and the presence of clinical abnormalities was associated with T. gondii seropositivity. The results showed that this pathogen has spread widely in Taiwan. This suggests the zoonotic potential of the disease, with transmission from urban to rural regions, and from terrestrial to aquatic systems. The pathogenicity of T. gondii infection in wild birds in Taiwan needs further investigation. This is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild birds in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) and isolation of T. gondii from farm cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Ness, S L; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Mittel, L D; Divers, T J

    2014-01-17

    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as both companion and working animals throughout the world and in some countries, their meat and milk are used for human consumption. Here we report the first serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the United States. Serum samples from 373 donkeys from eight farms in five states were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-four of 373 (6.4%) of donkeys were seropositive, with MAT titers ranging from 25 to ≥ 200. All seropositive donkeys were Miniature breed. Seropositivity prevalence was 7.0% in female donkeys (20/282) and 4.1% in male donkeys (4/91). No donkeys less than 24 months of age (129) were seropositive, suggesting postnatal transmission of infection. Domestic cats were present on six of the eight farms. Three cats from one farm had MAT titers of 200. Viable T. gondii was isolated from the hearts of two cats, but not from brain tissues. Genotyping of isolate DNA extracted from culture-derived tachyzoites using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico loci) revealed that both isolates were clonal Type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). This is the first serological survey for T. gondii in donkeys in the United States, and suggests that donkey milk and meat should be considered as a potential source for human infection. The role of barn cats in the transmission of T. gondii to donkeys on farms warrents further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection induced by virus-like particles containing Toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 8 against highly virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hwa; Kim, Ah-Ra; Lee, Dong-Hun; Rubino, Ilaria; Choi, Hyo-Jick; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) microneme protein 8 (MIC8) represents a novel, functional distinct invasion factor. In this study, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) targeting Toxoplasma gondii MIC8 for the first time, and investigated the protection against highly virulent RH strain of T. gondii in a mouse model. We found that VLP vaccination induced Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgG1 antibody responses in the sera. Upon challenge infection with RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites, vaccinated mice showed a significant increase of both IgG antibodies in sera and IgA antibodies in feces compared to those before challenge, and a rapid expansion of both germinal center B cell (B220+, GL7+) and T cell (CD4+, CD8+) populations. Importantly, intranasally immunized mice showed higher neutralizing antibodies and displayed no proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ in the spleen. Mice were completely protected from a lethal challenge infection with the highly virulent T. gondii (RH) showing no body weight loss (100% survival). Our study shows the effective protection against T. gondii infection provided by VLPs containing microneme protein 8 of T. gondii, thus indicating a potential T. gondii vaccine candidate.

  12. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN DOGS AND CATS

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    Faiz Ahmad, Azhar Maqbool, Ashar Mahfooz and Sikandar Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in dogs (n=40 and cats (n= 10 was conducted by using a Latex agglutination test (LAT. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was 50%. Out of total 9 dogs were found seropositive at 1:256, giving an evidence of presence of infection. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was inversely related to the age i.e., 52% at 6 months and 33.33% at 4 years of age. Little variation in seropositivity was observed between males (57.89% and females (42.85% or between exotic (46.15% and local (57.14% breeds. However, tremendous variation in seropositivity was found between stray dogs (78.57% and pet dogs (34.61 % and between dogs having close contact with cats (50% and without contact {16.16%. Out of the tested bitches, 66.66% were seropositive, mostly at I: 16 indicating residual immunity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was 60%, three at screening dilution of 1:256, suggesting recent exposure to Toxoplasma. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was directly related to age. A significant difference in seropositivity was observed between stray cats (66.66% and indoor cats (57.14% and between females (70% and males (40%.The seropositive rate in local breeds of cats was high (66.66% as compared with exotic (50%. This test might give false positive results due to interfering factors (rheumatoid factor and IgG class antibodies. So it is not a "Gold standard" test for the concrete diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Stimulates Apoptosis in RH and Tehran Strains of Toxoplasma gondii, in Vitro.

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    Jebreil Shamseddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on apoptosis of tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain (type I and the cyst-forming Tehran strain (type II in vitro.Toxoplasma strains were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. The Tehran strain forms cysts in the brain of mice. Bradyzoites within the cysts are reactivated to proliferative tachyzoites, by dexamethasone. Tachyzoites were aspirated from the peritoneum of infected mice, and the percentage of viable parasites was estimated with trypan blue staining. Tachyzoites were inoculated into HeLa cells cultivated in DMEM medium. Different concentrations of CLA were evaluated on T. gondii in HeLa cells by the tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay. Differentiation between apoptosis and cell death was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. The statistical analysis performed by GraphPad Prism version 6.00.CLA induces apoptosis in virulent (RH and avirulent (Tehran strains of T. gondii. The results of MTT indicated that CLA could decrease the proliferation of tachyzoites of both strains in HeLa cells.Conjugated linoleic acid has anti-toxoplasmacidal activity on tachyzoites of T. gondii. Therefore, we recommended further studies on this component in order to achieve a new drug against the parasite.

  14. A structural analysis of the natural egress of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Lúcio Ayres; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have analysed the process of Toxoplasma gondii egress with the aid of inducers, such as calcium ionophores. Although calcium transients have been successful in triggering T. gondii egress, the structural panorama of "natural" and artificial events should match. The present study approaches the natural egress of this parasite using super-resolution and electron microscopy and reveals lytic and non-lytic events of individual egress; this corroborates the use of calcium ionophore as a reliable tool to trigger parasite egress. Altogether, our data suggest that different signalling routes can converge to similar structural aspects in natural and induced egress. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii: 15 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Ira; Coleman, Bradley; Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the clinical and pathological consequence of acute infection with the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Symptoms result from tissue destruction that accompanies lytic parasite growth. This review updates current understanding of the host cell invasion, parasite replication and eventual egress that comprise the lytic cycle, as well as the ways T. gondii manipulates host cells to assure survival. Since the publication of a previous iteration of this review 15 years ago, important advances have been made in our molecular understanding of parasite growth and mechanisms of host cell egress, and knowledge of the parasite’s manipulation of the host has rapidly progressed. Here we cover molecular advances and current conceptual frameworks that include each of these topics, with an eye to what might be known 15 years from now. PMID:26332089

  16. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen, E-mail: jbosch@jhu.edu [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2014-08-29

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii and sex: essential or optional extra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J P

    2002-08-01

    The evolutionary and biological significance of a female-biased sex ratio within apicomplexan parasites has been the subject of much discussion. It is proposed that the sex allocation theory, as applied to inbreeding populations, can explain the sex ratios observed for this diverse group of parasites. This is based on a mathematical model, which assumes that the majority of microgametes will succeed in fertilizing macrogametes. Is this a realistic assumption? It is possible, for different reasons, that the theory may not to be applicable to either malaria parasites or Toxoplasma gondii.

  18. Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristina Grønbech; Vorslund-Kiær, Mia; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organisation rated toxoplasmosis as one of the most important food borne zoonotic diseases in the world. In addition, recent studies have associated Toxoplasma gondii sero-positivity with severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Intake of raw or insufficiently cooked...... significant (P = 0.14). The next step will be to identify specific risk factors for sero-positivity for indoor and outdoor production as well as for finishers and sows, and to use this information to help swine producers to prevent infection in their pigs....

  19. Toxoplasma gondii and Epstein Barr retinochoroiditis in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Attisano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient aged 52 years old, who has been hospitalised at Ophthalmic Hospital in Turin (Italy with entrance diagnosis of right eye anterior and posterior uveitis and retinopathy of suspect micotic origin. Patient underwent vitreal biopsy. Laboratory evaluation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR method performed on vitreous sample showed the presence of Epstein Barr virus (EBV and Toxoplasma gondii (TG. PCR should be performed either in eyes samples or in blood samples, furthermore, it is essential to include EBV and TG in the differential diagnosis of ocular lesions.

  20. Biochemical characterization of aminopeptidase N2 from Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qingwei; Jia, Honglin; Cao, Shinuo; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2017-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) is a member of the highly conserved M1 family of metalloproteases, and is considered to be a valuable target for the treatment of a variety of diseases, e.g., cancer, malaria, and coccidiosis. In this study, we identified an APN gene (TgAPN2) in the Toxoplasma gondii genome, and performed a biochemical characterization of the recombinant TgAPN2 (rTgAPN2) protein. Active rTgAPN2 was first produced and purified in Escherichia coli. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was...

  1. [Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs and owners in Hangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei-min; Wang, Heng; Yang, Yang; Jin, Xing-yi; Huang, Yang-mei

    2014-12-01

    Sixty pet feeding families were obtained by random sampling in Hangzhou. The positive rate of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in pet owners was 3.3% (4/120). The rate in males and females was 8.6% (3/35) and 1.2% (1/85) (χ2=4.207, Ppet dogs was 13.3% (8/60). The positive rate in dogs fed with a raw-meat diet (33.3%, 4/12) were significantly higher than that of others (4.2%, 2/48) (χ2=6.123, P<0.05).

  2. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Haroon

    Full Text Available Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+ imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host.

  3. Genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from North America revealed widespread and high prevalence of the fourth clonal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Velmurugan, G.V.; Ragendran, C.; Yabsley, M.J.; Thomas, N.J.; Beckmen, K.B.; Sinnett, D.; Ruid, D.; Hart, J.; Fair, P.A.; McFee, W.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Ferreira, L.R.; Choudhary, S.; Faria, E.B.; Zhou, H.; Felix, T.A.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study wild animals, from the USA were examined for T. gondii infection. Tissues of naturally exposed animals were bioassayed in mice for isolation of viable parasites. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 31 animals including, to our knowledge for the first time, from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), five gray wolves (Canis lupus), a woodrat (Neotoma micropus), and five Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). Additionally, 66 T. gondii isolates obtained previously, but not genetically characterised, were revived in mice. Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from these 97 samples (31+66) was characterised using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). A total of 95 isolates were successfully genotyped. In addition to clonal Types II, and III, 12 different genotypes were found. These genotype data were combined with 74 T. gondii isolates previously characterised from wildlife from North America and a composite data set of 169 isolates comprised 22 genotypes, including clonal Types II, III and 20 atypical genotypes. Phylogenetic network analysis showed limited diversity with dominance of a recently designated fourth clonal type (Type 12) in North America, followed by the Type II and III lineages. These three major lineages together accounted for 85% of strains in North America. The Type 12 lineage includes previously identified Type A and X strains from sea otters. This study revealed that the Type 12 lineage accounts for 46.7% (79/169) of isolates and is dominant in wildlife of North America. No clonal Type I strain was identified among these wildlife isolates. These results suggest that T. gondii strains in wildlife from North America have limited diversity, with the occurrence of only a few major clonal types.

  4. Seroprevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from pigs intended for human consumption in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Tiantian; Zhang, Guoxin; Yuan, Gaoming; He, Jianbin; Su, Chunlei; Yang, Na

    2016-04-29

    Genetic information for Toxoplasma gondii isolates from pigs in eastern, south, and southwestern regions of China has been reported previously. However, there are no data from pigs in the northeastern area of the country. To better understand the epidemiology of T. gondii, we determined the seroprevalence and genotypes of T. gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Out of 2063 pigs examined, 233 (11.26%) were seropositive for T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and viable parasites were isolated by bioassay in mice from 23 (9.87%) of the 233 seropositive pigs. Fifteen out of 23 isolates were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. One isolate was identified as ToxoDB genotype #3 (type II-variant), and one was genotype #1 or #3. The other 13 isolates were ToxoDB #9 (type Chinese 1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii isolation and genotyping from pigs in northeastern China. This study indicates that pigs are a potential source for transmission of T. gondii to humans, therefore poses a potential public health concern. The genotyping results revealed the presence of genotype Chinese 1 in northeastern China, enriching the scope of T. gondii genotypes distribution in eastern Asia.

  5. Seroprevalence, isolation and co-infection of multiple Toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Sweeny, Amy R; Lovallo, Matthew J; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Grigg, Michael E; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats. Hearts from all bobcats were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from 21; these strains were further propagated in cell culture. Additionally, DNA was extracted from digests of tongues and hearts of all 35 bobcats; T. gondii DNA was detected in tissues of all 35 bobcats. Genetic characterisation of DNA from cell culture-derived isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using 10 PCR-RFLP markers. Results showed that ToxoDB genotype #5 predominated (in 18 isolates) with a few other types (#24 in two isolates, and #2 in one isolate). PCR-DNA sequencing at two polymorphic markers, GRA6 and GRA7, detected multiple recombinant strains co-infecting the tissues of bobcats; most possessing Type II alleles at GRA7 versus Type X (HG-12) alleles at GRA6. Our results suggest that individual bobcats have been exposed to more than one parasite strain during their life time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A novel multifunctional oligonucleotide microarray for Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are invaluable tools for genome interrogation, SNP detection, and expression analysis, among other applications. Such broad capabilities would be of value to many pathogen research communities, although the development and use of genome-scale microarrays is often a costly undertaking. Therefore, effective methods for reducing unnecessary probes while maintaining or expanding functionality would be relevant to many investigators. Results Taking advantage of available genome sequences and annotation for Toxoplasma gondii (a pathogenic parasite responsible for illness in immunocompromised individuals and Plasmodium falciparum (a related parasite responsible for severe human malaria, we designed a single oligonucleotide microarray capable of supporting a wide range of applications at relatively low cost, including genome-wide expression profiling for Toxoplasma, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping of both T. gondii and P. falciparum. Expression profiling of the three clonotypic lineages dominating T. gondii populations in North America and Europe provides a first comprehensive view of the parasite transcriptome, revealing that ~49% of all annotated genes are expressed in parasite tachyzoites (the acutely lytic stage responsible for pathogenesis and 26% of genes are differentially expressed among strains. A novel design utilizing few probes provided high confidence genotyping, used here to resolve recombination points in the clonal progeny of sexual crosses. Recent sequencing of additional T. gondii isolates identifies >620 K new SNPs, including ~11 K that intersect with expression profiling probes, yielding additional markers for genotyping studies, and further validating the utility of a combined expression profiling/genotyping array design. Additional applications facilitating SNP and transcript discovery, alternative statistical methods for quantifying gene expression, etc. are also pursued at

  7. Toxoplasma gondii gamma irradiation using Co-60; Irradiacao do Toxoplasma gondii com gama do {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia Animal; Maliska, Carmelindo [Hospital Central do Exercito, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Norberg, Antonio Neres [Instituto de Biologia do Exercito (IBEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microorganisms which cause food deterioration, infections and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa responsible for illnesses in humans and animals. One of the most common ways of transmission is through raw or poorly cooked meat. There is little information on the resistance of T. gondii to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of gamma radiation for those microorganisms. Suspensions of T. gondii containing approximately one million taquizoites/ml were irradiated with doses between up 0,01 up to 0,15 kGy (Kilogray) and inoculated to mice. The surviving T. gondii were re-irradiated with 0,01 up to 0,16 kGy. The irradiated protozoa were totally destroyed with a 0,15 kGy dose (MLD). Taquizoites issued from live protozoa of 0,14 kGy also were completely destroyed with dose of 0,15 kGy. No increase in resistance was observed regarding the non irradiated protozoa. (author)

  8. [Investigation of different pregnant results of pregnant women infected with toxoplasma gondii in Nanjing region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi-Wei

    2011-04-01

    To explore the influence of Toxoplasma gondii infection on pregnant results during different pregnancies of women. The antibodies of IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA in 6 849 pregnant women and the antibody of IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in cord blood was also detected in 1 032 newborns in Nanjing City. The general status of these women was investigated with questionnaire, and the outcome of pregnancies of the women was followed up. A total of 6 849 pregnant women were screened, 438 persons were found with antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and the positive rate was 6.4%. Among them, 87 women were IgM positive accounting for 19.9%, and 351 IgG positive accounting for 80.1%. Totally 1 032 newborns were screened and they were divided into a normal group and a deformed group according to their health. Among them, the IgM positive rates were 0.6% in the normal group and 28.13% in the deformed group respectively, and there was a statistically significant deference between 2 groups (P bad eating habits were the main risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Toxoplasma infection can lead to different pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The detection of IgM antibody against Toxoplasma gondii may contribute to screening deformed newborns.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sam; Dubey, J P; Smith, Judith E; Boag, Brian

    2015-09-01

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.

  10. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Abreu Moreira-Souza

    Full Text Available Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane--subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies--whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection.

  11. The Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Kinome Is Essential for Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Fox

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes an acute infection that leads to chronic infection of the host. To facilitate the acute phase of the infection, T. gondii manipulates the host response by secreting rhoptry organelle proteins (ROPs into host cells during its invasion. A few key ROP proteins with signatures of kinases or pseudokinases (ROPKs act as virulence factors that enhance parasite survival against host gamma interferon-stimulated innate immunity. However, the roles of these and other ROPK proteins in establishing chronic infection have not been tested. Here, we deleted 26 ROPK gene loci encoding 31 unique ROPK proteins of type II T. gondii and show that numerous ROPK proteins influence the development of chronic infection. Cyst burdens were increased in the Δrop16 knockout strain or moderately reduced in 11 ROPK knockout strains. In contrast, deletion of ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35, or ROP38/29/19 (ROP38, ROP29, and ROP19 severely reduced cyst burdens. Δrop5 and Δrop18 knockout strains were less resistant to host immunity-related GTPases (IRGs and exhibited >100-fold-reduced virulence. ROP18 kinase activity and association with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane were necessary for resistance to host IRGs. The Δrop17 strain exhibited a >12-fold defect in virulence; however, virulence was not affected in the Δrop35 or Δrop38/29/19 strain. Resistance to host IRGs was not affected in the Δrop17, Δrop35, or Δrop38/29/19 strain. Collectively, these findings provide the first definitive evidence that the type II T. gondii ROPK proteome functions as virulence factors and facilitates additional mechanisms of host manipulation that are essential for chronic infection and transmission of T. gondii.

  12. The detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajonina, Caroline; Buzie, Christopher; Möller, Julia; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    To increase current knowledge on the epidemiology of protozoan parasites in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the occurrence of Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii in raw and treated wastewater was investigated. Samples were collected from WWTP twice a month over a period of 8 months. Determination of protozoa was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and light microscopy. After concentration and purification of wastewater samples, DNA extraction was conducted followed by PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of E. histolytica and B1 gene of T. gondii. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) primer set was designed from E. histolytica hemolysin gene HLY6. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was monitored by naked eye as a blue color solution after addition of, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) to the reaction tube. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba in all raw wastewater samples and treated water samples. PCR amplification of DNA products revealed that all, (9/9) wastewater samples were positive for Entamoeba. None was positive for Toxoplasma. These findings, which corroborate recent observations, indicate that E. histolytica may pose a public health risk.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of Neospora caninum--associated dermatitis in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with concurrent Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhey, Jitender P; Whitesell, Leah E; Culp, William E; Daye, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    A 3-mo-old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of one leg. Histologic examination of skin lesion biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites. The protozoa stained positively with antibodies to Neospora caninum but not to Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride (10 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.) for 1 mo completely resolved lesions, and protozoa were not demonstrable in biopsy of skin after treatment. The fox had agglutinating antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, titer 1:3200) and N. caninum (Neospora agglutination test, titer 1:25), and viable T. gondii (genotype III) was isolated from the skin biopsy after treatment. This is the first report of clinical neosporosis in a wild canid.

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S J; Elkin, B T; Panayi, D; Dubey, J P

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 147 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from 5 herds in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, northern Canada, by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the mainland herds (Bluenose, Bathurst, and Beverly), antibodies were found in 43 (37%) of 117 caribou, and MAT titers were 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 24, and 1:500 in 9. In the island herds, only 1 (4.3%) of 23 animals sampled from the North Baffin Island herd was positive (titer = 1:25) and no antibodies were detected in 7 caribou from the Dolphin and Union herd. The high prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mainland caribou herds indicates that caribou meat may contain viable T. gondii.

  15. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  16. Literature Reference for Toxoplasma gondii (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2004. 70(7): 4035–4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  17. Obtaining Highly Purified Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by a Discontinuous Cesium Chloride Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan pathogen that commonly infects humans. It is a well characterized apicomplexan associated with causing food- and water-borne disease outbreaks. The definitive host is the feline species where sexual replication occurs res...

  18. Toxoplasma gondii Actively Inhibits Neuronal Function in Chronically Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii–infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca2+) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  20. Intersection of Endocytic and Exocytic Systems in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Olivia L; Rivera-Cuevas, Yolanda; Kannan, Geetha; Narwold, Andrew; Carruthers, Vern B

    2018-02-13

    Host cytosolic proteins are endocytosed by Toxoplasma gondii and degraded in its lysosome-like compartment, the VAC, but the dynamics and route of endocytic trafficking remain undefined. Conserved endocytic components and plant-like features suggest T. gondii endocytic trafficking involves transit through early and late endosome-like compartments (ELCs) and potentially the trans-Golgi network (TGN) as in plants. However, exocytic trafficking to regulated secretory organelles, micronemes and rhoptries, also proceeds through ELCs and requires classical endocytic components including a dynamin-related protein, DrpB. Here we show that host cytosolic proteins are endocytosed within 7 min post-invasion, trafficked through ELCs en route to the VAC, and degraded within 30 min. We could not definitively interpret if ingested protein is trafficked through the TGN. We also found that parasites ingest material from the host cytosol throughout the parasite cell cycle. Ingested host proteins colocalize with immature microneme proteins, proM2AP and proMIC5, in transit to the micronemes, but not with the immature rhoptry protein proRON4, indicating that endocytic trafficking of ingested protein intersects with exocytic trafficking of microneme proteins. Finally, we show that conditional expression of a DrpB dominant negative mutant increases T. gondii ingestion of host-derived proteins, suggesting that DrpB is not required for parasite endocytosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii: further studies on the subpellicular network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lemgruber

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The association of the pellicle with cytoskeletal elements in Toxoplasma gondii allows this parasite to maintain its mechanical integrity and makes possible its gliding motility and cell invasion. The inner membrane complex (IMC resembles the flattened membrane sacs observed in free-living protozoa and these sacs have been found to associate with cytoskeletal proteins such as articulins. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to characterise the presence and distribution of plateins, a sub-family of articulins, in T. gondii tachyzoites. A dispersed labelling of the whole protozoan body was observed. Electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cells revealed the presence of a network of 10 nm filaments distributed throughout the parasite. These filaments were labelled with anti-platein antibodies. Screening the sequenced T. gondii genome, we obtained the sequence of an IMC predicted protein with 25% identity and 42% similarity to the platein isoform alpha 1 present in Euplotes aediculatus, but with 42% identity and 55% similarity to that found in Euglena gracilis, suggesting strong resemblance to articulins.

  2. The Import of Proteins into the Mitochondrion of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Giel G; Yeoh, Lee M; Striepen, Boris; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2016-09-09

    Outside of well characterized model eukaryotes, relatively little is known about the translocons that transport proteins across the two membranes that surround the mitochondrion. Apicomplexans are a phylum of intracellular parasites that cause major diseases in humans and animals and are evolutionarily distant from model eukaryotes such as yeast. Apicomplexans harbor a mitochondrion that is essential for parasite survival and is a validated drug target. Here, we demonstrate that the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii harbors homologues of proteins from all the major mitochondrial protein translocons present in yeast, suggesting these arose early in eukaryotic evolution. We demonstrate that a T. gondii homologue of Tom22 (TgTom22), a central component of the translocon of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex, is essential for parasite survival, mitochondrial protein import, and assembly of the TOM complex. We also identify and characterize a T. gondii homologue of Tom7 (TgTom7) that is important for parasite survival and mitochondrial protein import. Contrary to the role of Tom7 in yeast, TgTom7 is important for TOM complex stability, suggesting the role of this protein has diverged during eukaryotic evolution. Together, our study identifies conserved and modified features of mitochondrial protein import in apicomplexan parasites. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric history and infertility: a five-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Abida Malik; Meher Rizvi; Fatima Khan; Nazia Khan; Tamkin Rabbani; Khan, Haris M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric (BOH) history and in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital for a period of 5 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Quantitative determination of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection was done by IgM capture ELISA in patients with history of BOH or infertility. Re...

  5. Detection and dissemination of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected calves, a single test does not tell the whole story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrells, Alison; Taroda, Alessandra; Opsteegh, Marieke; Schares, Gereon; Benavides, Julio; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Bartley, Paul M; Chianini, Francesca; Villena, Isabella; van der Giessen, Joke; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2018-01-18

    Although the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in bovine tissues is rare, beef might be an important source of human infection. The use of molecular techniques, such as magnetic capture qPCR (MC-qPCR), in combination with the gold standard method for isolating the parasite (mouse bioassay), may increase the sensitivity of T. gondii detection in infected cattle. The risk of transmission of the parasite to humans from undercooked/raw beef is not fully known and further knowledge about the predilection sites of T. gondii within cattle is needed. In the current study, six Holstein Friesian calves (Bos taurus) were experimentally infected with 10 6  T. gondii oocysts of the M4 strain and, following euthanasia (42 dpi), pooled tissues were tested for presence of the parasite by mouse bioassay and MC-qPCR. Toxoplasma gondii was detected by both MC-qPCR and mouse bioassay from distinct pools (100 g) of tissues comprising: liver, tongue, heart, diaphragm, semitendinosus (hindlimb), longissimus dorsi muscle (sirloin) and psoas major muscle (fillet). When a selection of individual tissues which had been used for mouse bioassay were examined by MC-qPCR, parasite DNA could only be detected from two animals, despite all calves showing seroconversion after infection. It is apparent that one individual test will not provide an answer as to whether a calf harbours T. gondii tissue cysts. Although the calves received a known number of infectious oocysts and highly sensitive methods for the detection of the parasite within bovine tissues were applied (mouse bioassay and MC-qPCR), the results confirm previous studies which report low presence of viable T. gondii in cattle and no clear predilection site within bovine tissues.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-18

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotyping of polymorphic effectors of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China

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    Weisheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan apicomplexan and obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of animals and humans. Rhoptry proteins 5 (ROP5, ROP16, ROP18 and dense granules 15 (GRA15 are the important effectors secreted by T. gondii which link to the strain virulence for mice and modulate the host’s response to the parasite. Little has been known about these molecules as well as GRA3 in type Chinese 1 strains that show polymorphism among strains of archetypical genotypes. This study examined the genetic diversity of these effectors and its correlated virulence in mice among T. gondii isolates from China. Results Twenty-one isolates from stray cats were detected, of which 15 belong to Chinese 1, and 6 to ToxoDB #205. Wh6 isolate, a Chinese 1 strain, has an avirulent phenotype. PCR-RFLP results of ROP5 and ROP18 presented few variations among the strains. Genotyping of GRA15 and ROP16 revealed that all the strains belong to type II allele except Xz7 which carries type I allele. ROP16 amino acid alignment at 503 locus demonstrated that 17 isolates are featured as type I or type III (ROP16I/III, and the other 4 as type II (ROP16II. The strains investigated may be divided into four groups based on GRA3 amino acid alignment, and all isolates of type Chinese 1 belong to the μ-1 allele except Wh6 which is identical to type II strain. Conclusions PCR-RFLP and sequence alignment analyses of ROP5, ROP16, ROP18, GRA3, and GRA15 in T. gondii revealed that strains with the same genotype may have variations in some of their key genes. GRA3 variation exhibited by Wh6 strain may be associated with the difference in phenotype and pathogenesis.

  8. Changing climate-changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we describe the effects of global climate change for one specific pathogen: the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is postulated that an increase of T. gondii prevalence in humans can occur in some regions of North-Western Europe as a result of changing environmental conditions. Such a

  9. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  10. Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.C.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838578; van Eerden, E.; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Augustijn, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836680; Graat, E.A.M.; Franssen, F.F.J.; Gorlich, K.; Buschtöns, S.; Tenter, A.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.; Bergwerff, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023553; van Knapen, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114749

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fifty-four pigs were divided

  11. Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.; Eerden, van E.; Opsteegh, M.; Augustijn, M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Franssen, F.; Görlich, K.; Buschtöns, S.; Tenter, A.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fiftyfour pigs were divided

  12. High seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in Elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Central Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. Although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe, little is known about T. gondii impacts on the closely related North American ...

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management in systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large...

  14. Non-lethal infection parameters in mice separate sheep Type II Toxoplasma gondii isolates by virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Jensen, L; Rask, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals, but virulence of isolates has previously been characterised mainly by the ability to kill mice after experimental infections. In the present study, 15 Type II strains of T. gondii, isolated from five adult sheep...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii anti-antibodies in adult goats and sheep from different parts of Zimbabwe were determined. A total of 225 (67.9 %) of the 335 serum samples tested were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with the indirect fluorescent antibody test. There were...

  16. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  17. Sequence variation in TgROP7 gene among Toxoplasma gondii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect a wide range of hosts including mammals and birds, causing toxoplasmosis which is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses worldwide. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry 7 (ROP7) gene among different T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical ...

  18. Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii on blueberries using low dose irradiation without affecting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common protozoan parasite, whose environmentally-resistant stage, the oocyst, can contaminate irrigation water and fresh edible produce. Current washing steps in produce processing may not be effective for eliminating T. gondii from at-risk varieties of produce. The objective ...

  19. The role of rodents and shrews in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Craeye, de S.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    Inadequate rodent control is considered to play a role in Toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs. This issue was addressed in the current study by combining a 4-month rodent control campaign and a 7-month longitudinal analysis of T. gondii seroprevalence in slaughter pigs. Three organic pig farms with

  20. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits is of public health importance because rabbit meat is consumed by humans, and rabbits are preyed upon by cats that then shed environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 429 domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico using the mo...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infections in red-tailed hawks inoculated orally with tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1991-04-01

    The response to inoculation of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was examined in 3 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). One hawk (hawk 1) was inoculated orally with 3.000 tissue cysts of the GT-1 isolate of T. gondii and 2 hawks (hawks 2 and 3) each were inoculated orally with 12,000 tissue cysts of a mixture of 8 isolates of T. gondii. None of the hawks developed clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. Serum antibodies were measured with the modified direct agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites. Hawk 1 had a titer of 1:40 prior to inoculation and did not have an increase in titer during the study. Hawks 2 and 3 had titers of 1:5 and 1:10, respectively, prior to inoculation, and both had increased titers (titers greater than or equal to 1:60) by 1 wk postinoculation and remained T. gondii antibody positive throughout the 10 wk of the study. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the heart and breast muscle of hawk 1. The biologic behavior of this T. gondii isolate was different from the 1 inoculated, and it probably represents a prior natural infection. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the brain, heart, breast muscle, and a mixture of gizzard and proventriculus from hawk 2 and from breast muscle of hawk 3. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the eye, lung, liver, kidney, or spleen of any red-tailed hawk.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...

  3. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Recombinant Antigens in Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pietkiewicz, H.; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E.; Kur, J.; Petersen, E.; Nielsen, H. V.; Stankiewicz, M; Andrzejewska, I; Myjak, P.

    2004-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii SAG1, GRA1, and GRA7 recombinant antigens may be regarded as tools for the detection of T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies in persons with chronic and acute toxoplasmosis. GRA7 is more correlated with acute toxoplasmosis. A combination of these antigens will increase the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...

  5. The sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in British marine mammals

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    Dan Forman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 101 stranded or bycatch cetaceans from British waters were screened for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test. Relatively high seropositivity was recorded in short-beaked Delphinus delphis and this study presents the first documented case of Toxoplasma in a humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae.

  6. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in Huicholes in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rodríguez-Acevedo, Francisco Javier Imard; Beristain-García, Isabel; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Campillo-Ruiz, Federico; Güereca-García, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ethnic groups in Mexico. Huicholes are an indigenous ethnic group living in a remote mountainous region in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in Huicholes; and to determine the association of Toxoplasma seropositivity with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of Huicholes. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey in Huich...

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in Huicholes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rodríguez-Acevedo, Francisco Javier Imard; Beristain-García, Isabel; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Campillo-Ruiz, Federico; Güereca-García, Oscar Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ethnic groups in Mexico. Huicholes are an indigenous ethnic group living in a remote mountainous region in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in Huicholes; and to determine the association of Toxoplasma seropositivity with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of Huicholes. We performed a cross sectional survey in Huicholes from September 2013 to January 2014. A convenience sampling method was used. We investigated the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 214 Huicholes using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the characteristics of the Huicholes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Toxoplasma exposure and Huicholes' characteristics. Of the 214 Huicholes studied (mean age: 37.98 ± 15.80 years), 71 (33.2%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 47 (66.2%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with age, sex, or occupation. However, seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was significantly higher in female than in male Huicholes. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with consumption of turkey meat (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.16-4.46; P = 0.01). In addition, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Huicholes suffering from dizziness and memory impairment than those without such clinical characteristics. Our results demonstrate serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Huicholes which may be impacting their health. Results of this first study of T. gondii infection in Huicholes may be useful for the design of optimal preventive measures against infection with T. gondii.

  9. Quantitative studies of the mutagenesis of Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, E.R.; Pfefferkorn, L.C.

    1979-06-01

    The induction of mutants resistant to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) was used to measure the efficiency of various physical and chemical mutagens on extracellular and intracellular Toxoplasma gondii. The frequency of resistant mutant was measured by plaque assay in human fibroblast cultures in the presence and absence of FUDR. When considered as a function of lethality, the most efficient mutagenesis was obtained with nitrosoguanidine treatment of extracellular parasites and with ethylmethane sulfonate treatment of actively growing intracellular parasites. Each of these treatments increased the frequency of FUDR-resistant mutants from less than one to more than 200 per million parasites. Ultraviolet irradiation, X-rays, and the alkylating mustard ICR-191 also induced FUDR-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent fashion.

  10. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  11. The crystal structure of Toxoplasma gondii pyruvate kinase 1.

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    Rebecca Bakszt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PK, which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population.We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers.We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two α-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  12. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

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    Yaghub gharadaghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40 were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip (n=10, group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip, plus fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10, group three received just fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10 and control group (n=10 that received nothing. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 30 day after inducing Toxoplasma infection, 5cc blood was collected for serum protein and TAC levels. Kidney tissues of Rat in whole groups were removed and prepared for apopetosis analysis. Results: Serum protein and kidneys weights were significantly decreased in groups that were infected with T. gondii, in comparison to control and onions groups. Kidneys Apopetosis in toxoplasma group significantly increased in comparison to control group (P<0.05.level of TAC was significantly increased in groups that received onio juice (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that T. gondii have significantly effect on serum protein and TAC, apopetosis and fresh onion juice returned and treated this harmful effect, so it is suggested that eating of onion is useful in toxoplasma infection.

  13. [Parasitology and human medical preventive importance of Toxoplasma gondii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, P; Deplazes, P; Heimann, P; Gottstein, B

    1995-01-01

    Present knowledge of the biology and distribution of Toxoplasma gondii allows to provide recommendations for primary prevention of infection with the parasite. The recommendations are chiefly designed for "seronegative" pregnant women without specific serum anti-T.-gondii-IgG and for persons with continuous or temporary immune deficiencies. Prevention should focus on 3 main sources of infection risk: Meat: meat should only be eaten when well cooked or when it has been frozen prior to preparation; do not prepare raw food in the same place and with the same utensils as for raw meat preparation; no mouth-finger-contact while handling raw meat. fruit and vegetables should be carefully washed prior to consumption (also including fruit and vegetables from the consumer's own garden or orchard). Cats: household cats should be preferably fed with canned food rather than with raw meat; contact with any utensil which may have been contaminated by cat's feces, as well as with the cat's litter, must be strictly avoided. If cleaning the cat's toilet is inevitable, plastic gloves must be worn. Disinfect the cat's toilet daily with boiling water. All primary prevention measures apply also to the areas of agriculture, veterinary practices, pet shops and gastronomy. Secondary prevention by means of serological monitoring of seronegative pregnant women can only be envisaged when associated with precise primary prevention recommendations.

  14. Calcium uptake and proton transport by acidocalcisomes of Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Peter Rohloff

    Full Text Available Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to humans. They possess an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, which are mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. Calcium uptake occurs through a Ca(2+/H(+ countertransporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. We report the purification and characterization of an acidocalcisome fraction from T. gondii tachyzoites after subcellular fractionation and further discontinuous iodixanol gradient purification. Proton and calcium transport activities in the fraction were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using acridine orange and arsenazo III, respectively. This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these organelles.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii: II. Tachyzoite antigenic characterization of eigth strains

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    Regina Mitsuka

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Toxoplasma gondii strains were analyzed using ELISA and Western blot techniques, in order to demonstrate possible immunological differences. The analyzed strains were: LIV IV, LIV V and S 11 isolated from swine, RH and VPS from a human being, AS 28 from a wild mouse, HV III from a dog and CN from a cat. With the ELISA assay the eight strains showed similar reactivity with homologous and heterologous sera. The antigenic suspension, consisting of total cellular extract of tachyzoites, was effective in the indirect ELISA assay, with the positive sera reacting strongly and the negative not reacting with the antigens. The Western blot analysis showed that the T. gondii strains have similar antigenic profiles with a few variations. Three bands were observed in all strains: one of about 33 kDa (p33, another of 54 kDa (p54 and a third one of 66 kDa (p66. The HV III strain, isolated from a dog, did not show three antigens (50, 70 and 75 kDa that were present in the others. However, this difference was not detected by the ELISA assay. Only two antigens (62 kDa of the CN and 67 kDa of the LIV IV were strain-specific antigens.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: a review of published RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlton, Sam D

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 60 years, accumulating evidence has suggested that acute, chronic, and maternal Toxoplasma gondii infections predispose to schizophrenia. More recent evidence suggests that chronically infected patients with schizophrenia present with more severe disease. After acute infection, parasites form walled cysts in the brain, leading to lifelong chronic infection and drug resistance to commonly used antiparasitics. Chronic infection is the most studied and closely linked with development and severity of schizophrenia. There are currently four published randomized controlled trials evaluating antiparasitic drugs, specifically azithromycin, trimethoprim, artemisinin, and artemether, in patients with schizophrenia. No trials have demonstrated a change in psychopathology with adjunctive treatment. Published trials have either selected drugs without evidence against chronic infection or used them at doses too low to reduce brain cyst burden. Furthermore, trials have failed to achieve sufficient power or account for confounders such as previous antipsychotic treatment, sex, age, or rhesus status on antiparasitic effect. There are currently no ongoing trials of anti-Toxoplasma therapy in schizophrenia despite ample evidence to justify further testing.

  17. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells in Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunay, I R; Diefenbach, A

    2018-02-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors. Infection of mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by a strong Th1-mediated immune response. Previous studies indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the production of IFN-γ and TNF and cytotoxicity during acute T. gondii infection. Upon oral infection, the parasite infects intestinal enterocytes, and within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control although the infection disseminates widely and persists long-term in immune privileged sites despite adaptive immunity. Upon parasite entry into the small intestine, during the acute stage, ILC1 produce high levels of IFN-γ and TNF protecting barrier surfaces, thus essentially contributing to early parasite control. We will discuss here the role of innate lymphocytes during T. gondii infection in the context of the only recently appreciated diversity of ILC subsets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

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    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  19. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2014-05-01

    A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Serology and Outcomes After Heart Transplantation: Contention in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrazi-Raffle, A; Luu, M; Yu, Z; Liou, F; Kittleson, M; Hamilton, M; Kobashigawa, J

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an endemic pathogen to which approximately half of healthy patients develop antibodies. Toxoplasma serology is routinely assessed prior to heart transplantation. It has been suggested that donor or recipient toxoplasma serologic status may be associated with poor long-term outcomes post-transplantation, but current literature reveals conflicting results. From 1995 to 2012 at our single center, we retrospectively reviewed 785 heart transplant patients for pre-transplantation T. gondii serology. Patients were divided into T. gondii seronegative and seropositive groups. Subgroups in each group were created based on whether the donor was seropositive or seronegative. We assessed survival, freedom from nonfatal major adverse cardiac events, and freedom from cardiac allograft vasculopathy at 5 years post-transplantation. No significant difference was found between 5-year outcomes of pre-transplant T. gondii seronegative and T. gondii seropositive recipients post-heart transplantation. However, in the donor-seropositive/recipient-seronegative subgroup (D+/R-), there was a significantly lower 5-year survival rate compared to the cohort of donor-seronegative/recipient-seronegative (D-/R-) patients (60% vs 87%, P = .04). After adjustment by multivariate analysis, D+/R- status conferred a trend towards increased mortality (HR 3.0, P = .06). Toxoplasma serology prior to heart transplantation does not appear to impact post-transplantation outcome. However, toxoplasma seronegative patients who receive toxoplasma seropositive hearts appear to have poorer 5-year survival compared to toxoplasma seronegative patients who received toxoplasma seronegative hearts. Due to the small sample size, the association between T. gondii serology mismatch and long-term survival warrants further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild dolphins from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, O; Resendes, A R; Domingo, M; Raga, J A; Agustí, C; Alegre, F; Mons, J L; Dubey, J P; Almería, S

    2004-06-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection has been found occasionally in cetaceans, little is known of the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in wild dolphins. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 58 dolphins stranded in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Modified agglutination test was used to determine T. gondii antibodies, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 4 of 36 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), in 2 of 4 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), in 4 of 7 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and in 1 harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Antibodies were not found in 9 Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and in 1 long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) surveyed. The results indicate that T. gondii infection is frequent in at least 3 dolphin species from the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Chinese Population With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, CaiXiao; Li, ZhanZhan; Chen, Peng; Chen, LiZhang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxoplasmosis is fatal in the immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients with chemotherapy. Clinical toxoplasmosis in cancer patients is a great public health concern in China. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the seroprevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of Toxoplasma gondii in Chinese population with cancer compared with those without. A methodical literature search was conducted with the help of the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP database. Case-control studies published from their inception until April 2015, reporting the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Chinese population with cancer, were covered as well. The nonweighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of ORs, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were all calculated. Nineteen studies including 4493 cases and 6797 controls were incorporated in the meta-analysis. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was higher in population with cancer compared with those without ((20.59% vs 6.31%, P cancer patients is further subgrouped according to publication year, sample size, and diagnostic methods. The pooled OR estimates were 4.80 (95% CI 2.57–8.99) from 1991 to 1999, 4.96 (95% CI 3.03–8.12) during 2000 to 2005, and 2.94 (95% CI 2.46–3.50) during 2006 to 2015. The pooled OR estimates were 6.16 (95% CI 3.87–9.78) when the sample size was below 400, 5.37 (95% CI 3.84–7.53) when the sample size was between 400 and 500, and 2.58 (95% CI 2.17–3.07) when the sample size was above 500. The pooled OR estimates were 5.50 (95% CI 3.98–7.62) by using indirect hemagglutination assay method, and 3.15 (95% CI 2.67–3.72) by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The meta-analysis study found Chinese population with cancer had higher seroprevalence rates of T. gondii compared with those without. PMID:26683951

  4. A survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection in urban rodents from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, Vanessa; Ferreira, Leandra Ribeiro; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Esmerini, Patricia de Oliveira; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2012-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and other warm-blooded animals; it uses feral and domestic cats as the definitive hosts. Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals whose life cycle is very similar to T. gondii but uses canids as definitive hosts. Small rodents play an important role in the life cycle of T. gondii , and a few findings indicated that they may be natural intermediate hosts for N. caninum . The present study was aimed at identifying infections by T. gondii and N. caninum in urban rodents. Infections by T. gondii were quantified using isolation of the parasite by bioassay in mice; molecular methods were also used for both parasites. Overall, 217 rodents were captured. Brain and heart tissues of all rodents were bioassayed in mice for the detection of T. gondii infection. Brain and heart tissues of 121 rodents had the DNA extracted for molecular analysis. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay from a single rodent. From the 121 rodents tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA, 2 animals were positive. In contrast, DNA of N. caninum was not detected in any of the samples. In conclusion, the surveys of N. caninum and T. gondii infection in Rattus rattus , Rattus norvegicus , and Mus musculus captured in urban areas of São Paulo reveal a striking low frequency of occurrence of these infections.

  5. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RECENTLY INFECTED ABORTED EGYPTIAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Mohamed S; Attia, Samar S; El-Sherbiny, Walid S; Abd-Allah M A, El Ebidi; Hefny, Hesham M; Salem, Ahmed N M

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in human beings. Human toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious clinical manifestations, particularly in developing fetus. The aim of the current study was to identify the possible lineage type of Toxoplasma gondii, molecularly detected in placental samples of women whose pregnancies were spontaneously terminated in the first trimester. Preliminary detection of Toxoplasma genomic materials was done by a SYBR green qPCR technology. Subsequent identification of Toxoplasma strain was done for the positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the SAG2 loci of T. gondii using restriction enzymes HhaI and Sau3AI. Out of 72 tested samples, Toxoplasma B1 gene was detected in 9 cases. Toxoplasma genotypes I and II in addition to unknown type were identified in 4, 3 and 2 cases respectively, while type III was not detected in our samples, hence excluded as a leading cause of abortion in humans in our preliminary study. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain to what extent the genotype of the parasite directly contributes to the clinical severity of human toxoplasmosis. Certainly, advanced molecular techniques targeting different Toxoplasma strains are crucial for better understanding of human toxoplasmosis. For more elucidation, additional studies are recommended intended for genetic characterization of such serious parasitic infection using larger number of samples.

  6. Quantifying the risk of human Toxoplasma gondii infection due to consumption of fresh pork in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the leading foodborne pathogens in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that T. gondii accounts for 24% of deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Consumption of undercooked pork products in which T. gondii has enc...

  7. Risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in hunting, pet and watchdogs from Southern Spain and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs can act as reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infections for humans and other hosts. Here we determined seroprevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in dogs from Andalusia (Southern Spain) and Ceuta (Northern Africa). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 235 out of 769 dogs (30.6%; C...

  8. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n=1185) obtained from the local markets were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:2...

  9. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  10. Evaluation of ELISA test characteristics and estimation of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch sheep using mixture models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Teunis, P.; Mensink, M.; Zuchner, L.; Titilincu, A.; Langelaar, M.; van der Giessen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Lamb and mutton are considered important sources of human Toxoplasma gondii infections, but actual data on the prevalence of T. gondii in sheep in The Netherlands is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii in slaughtered sheep to get more insight in the

  11. Toxoplasma gondii: Induction of egress by the potassium ionophore nigericin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruth, Ingrid A.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen of humans and animals. Some of the devastating consequences of toxoplasmosis are in part due to the lysis of the host cell during parasite egress. The process of egress is poorly understood and since it is asynchronous in tissue culture its study has been limited to those conditions that induce it, such as artificial permeabilization of the host cell and induction of calcium fluxes with ionophores. Given that permeabilization leads to egress by the activation of motility upon a drop in host cell potassium concentration, we investigated whether the ionophore nigericin, which selectively causes efflux of potassium from the cell without the need for permeabilization, would cause egress. Nigericin effectively causes intracellular parasites to exit their host cell within 30 min of treatment with the drug. Our results show that nigericin-induced egress depends on an efflux of potassium from the cell and requires phospholipase C function and parasite motility. This novel method of inducing and synchronizing egress mimics the effect of artificial permeabilization in all respects. Nevertheless, since the membrane remains intact during the treatment, in our nigericin-induced egress we are able to detect parasite-dependent permeabilization of the host cell, a known step in induced egress. In addition, consistent with the model that loss of host cell potassium leads to egress through the activation of intraparasitic calcium fluxes, a previously isolated Toxoplasma mutant lacking a sodium hydrogen exchanger and defective in responding to calcium fluxes does not undergo nigericin-induced egress. Thus, the discovery that nigericin induces egress presents a novel assay that allows for the genetic and biochemical analysis of the signaling mechanisms that lead to the induction of motility and egress. PMID:17618633

  12. Association between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and memory function in nondemented older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Cynthia P; Gale, Shawn D; Hedges-Muncy, Ariana; Erickson, Lance D; Wilson, Eric; Hedges, Dawson W

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) seropositivity may be associated with decreased memory in older adults. To further investigate the association between T. gondii seropositivity and memory in nondemented older adults, we obtained serum samples from 114 nondemented older adults evaluated by the Alzheimer's Disease and Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. We determined T. gondii seropositivity and anti-T. gondii IgG antibody titer and examined associations with memory function while controlling for socioeconomic status, education level, age, and apolipoprotein E4 status. There were few associations between T. gondii seropositivity or anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and memory, although there was some support suggesting an interaction between anti-T. gondii and sex. In the seropositive-only sample, there was an inverse relationship between anti-T. gondii titer and performance on the selective reminding test. Overall, we found little evidence of an association between impaired memory function and T. gondii seropositivity and anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in this sample of nondemented older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sieroepidemiologia delle infezioni da Toxoplasma gondii, virus della Rosolia e Citomegalovirus in una coorte di gravide

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    Marco Moretti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Citomegalovirus are responsible for maternal-fetal infections that can cause severe consequences in fetus. The surveillance of these infections in pregnancy is made by specific antibodies detection and when necessary by demostrating the presence of the infectious agent in body fluids. We have evaluated the seroprevalence of antibodies in a cohort of 1100 pregnant women against Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Citomegalovirus. Our data show a low seroprevalence against Toxoplasma gondii, a suboptimal immunitary coverage against Rubella virus and a significative increase of incidence in Citomegalovirus infection. The study suggests the need of a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach for the right management of these maternal-fetal infections and underlines the pivot role played by Clinical Pathologists.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. © N. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  15. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and intestinal parasites in stray cats from Nigde, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT in 72 stray cats from Nigde, Turkey. A total of 55 (76.4% of the analysed sera had antibodies to T. gondii. The seropositivity of T. gondii was 77.1% in male and 75.7% in female cats (P>0.05. Faeces of these cats were also examined by zinc sulphate flotation method for the presence of parasite oocysts and eggs of other parasites. Two protozoan parasites were identified as Isospora spp. (12.5% and Eimeria spp. (4.1% in cats. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. Two parasitic helminth species were observed: Toxocara cati (15.2% and Toxascaris leonina (20.8%. These common ascarids were recorded for the first time in cats from Nigde.

  17. The Effect of Fluphenazine and Thioridazine on Toxoplasma gondii In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad SARAEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common parasite causing latent cerebral infections in human. It has been shown that some anti-psychotic drugs are able to inhibit the proliferation of the parasite in in vitro study. There is very limited data regarding the inhibitory effect of anti-psychotics on Toxoplasma in in vivo. In this study, we evaluated anti-Toxoplasma activity of fluphenazine and thioridazine drugs on T. gondii in mice.Methods: Mice were divided into six groups: Control, sesame as vehicle, thioridazine 10 mg/kg, thioridazine 20 mg/kg, fluphenazine 0.06 mg/kg and fluphenazine 0.6 mg/kg. They were inoculated intraperitoneally with brain suspension containing tissue cysts of T. gondii Tehran strain. Two months after inoculation, the number of cysts in crushed smears of mice brain were counted microscopically and considered as an indicator of anti-Toxoplasma activity. This work has conducted in Qazvin, central Iran, 2014.Results: Our study showed that fluphenazine and thioridazine could not significantly inhibit the brain cystogenesis of T. gondii in mice. However, the number of brain cysts was less at higher dose compared to lower doses for both drugs. Conclusion: Further studies need to clear the mechanism of different structure of anti-psychotic drugs on activity of Toxoplasma.

  18. Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Rodrigo Costa da; Machado, Gustavo Puglia [UNESP; Cruvinel, Tatiane Morosini de Andrade; Cruvinel, Ciro Alexandre; Langoni, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite,Toxoplasma gondii, that affects all warm-blooded animals, including wild animals. The increased number of cases of parasitic infections is mainly due to the destruction of environmental conservation areas, which is driving wild animals out of their habitats and towards urban areas. In this study, the occurrence of T. gondii infection was investigated by the modified agglutination test (MAT...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Parkinson's disease: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; M?ndez-Hern?ndez, Edna Madai; Salas-Pacheco, Jos? Manuel; Ruano-Calder?n, Luis ?ngel; Hern?ndez-Tinoco, Jes?s; Arias-Carri?n, Oscar; S?nchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Castellanos-Ju?rez, Francisco Xavier; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Ramos-Nev?rez, Agar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Case–control study. Setting: Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. Participants: 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease. Primary and secondar...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in swine matrices in Nova Mutum and Diamantino, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Lívia Saab; Caramori Júnior, João Garcia; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Pereira, Joyce Alves; Filho, João Xavier de Oliveira; Vicente, Regiane Trigueiro; Neves, Leandro Batista; Nicolau, José Leonardo; Igarashi, Michelle; Moura, Saulo Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    This report aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 708 swine matrices in Nova Mutum and Diamantino in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil. Serum samples were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). It was found a seroprevalence of 12.8%, considering titers ≥ 64. Therefore, the data reinforce the need for appropriate management of swine raising to minimize the risk of infection of pigs with T. gondii.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigens as Tools for Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis: Current Status of Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum ...

  2. Chemokine Secretion of Human Cells in Response to Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Denney, Carolyn F.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.

    1999-01-01

    The ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Both acute invasion and reactivation of latent infection result in an inflammatory reaction with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. The mechanisms responsible for triggering the local host response to toxoplasmosis are not fully understood. Infection of monolayers of human HeLa epithelial cells and fibroblasts with T. gondii resulted in a marked incr...

  3. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation. [Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytes exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin.

  4. Assessment of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Toxoplasma gondii

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    Sercin OZLEM-CALISKAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on Toxoplasma gondii have not been explained yet. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of ELF-EMF on growth, survival time and viability of Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the life span of Toxoplasma infected animals was investigated.Methods: Sixty adult male BALB/c mice were used for in vivo and in vivo experiments in Laboratory of Biopyhsics and Parasitology of Medical Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey, in 2010. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMFs were applied for 5 d to the infected mice. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMF was applied to the tachyzoites within peritoneal exudates for 8 h/d at 4 °C and the tachyzoites were then injected to mice. In both experiments, the number of T. gondii in peritoneal exudates was counted and T. gondii protein bands patterns were investigated with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western Blotting. Results: Pulsed and continuous EMF exposure reduced the number of T. gondii tachyzoites in comparison to controls. However, no statistically significant differences were observed at the patterns of protein bands among the samples.Conclusion: EMF exposure induces a decrease in the number of T. gondii. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of EMF on intracellular parasites.

  5. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondi...... in definitive feline hosts. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America....

  6. Toxoplasmosis and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Macropus rufus and Macropus giganteus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, G; Pardini, L; Basso, W; Machuca, M; Bacigalupe, D; Villanueva, M C; Schares, G; Venturini, M C; Venturini, L

    2010-04-19

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is frequently asymptomatic; however, it can be severe or even fatal to some hosts. In this study, diagnosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis in one red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one great grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) from the La Plata Zoo, Argentina and the isolation and molecular characterization of T. gondii are reported. Both male kangaroos showed depression and sudden death. Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed by fresh examination, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR and bioassay in mice. During fresh examination many protozoan cysts were observed in diaphragm, heart and hind limb muscles of M. rufus. Cysts were also observed in samples from M. giganteus, although in lower number. Cysts from both kangaroos stained strongly with T. gondii anti-serum by immunohistochemistry. The M. rufus showed more considerable histopathological lesions like non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, myositis and myocarditis. All mice inoculated with tissues from both kangaroos developed IFAT titers to T. gondii (titer >or=800) and brain cysts at necropsy. Both T. gondii isolates were maintained by mice passages and the M. rufus isolate was also maintained in cell culture. Toxoplasma gondii DNA from tissue samples was analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis using the markers 5'SAG2, 3'SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico. Genotyping revealed that the T. gondii isolate from M. rufus was clonal type III and the isolate from M. giganteus was clonal type II. This is the first report of disseminated toxoplasmosis in M. rufus and M. giganteus in Argentina caused by genotypes of T. gondii considered non-virulent in a mouse model.

  7. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood. Presentation of the hypothesis Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs, which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs. Testing the hypothesis The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. Expected outcome The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified. Implications of the hypothesis Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and

  8. Efficient genome engineering of Toxoplasma gondii using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima M Sidik

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of humans and animals, and a model for other apicomplexans including Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria. Despite many advances, manipulating the T. gondii genome remains labor intensive, and is often restricted to lab-adapted strains or lines carrying mutations that enable selection. Here, we use the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to efficiently generate knockouts without selection, and to introduce point mutations and epitope tags into the T. gondii genome. These methods will streamline the functional analysis of parasite genes and enable high-throughput engineering of their genomes.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Liaoning Province, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Li, Hongkui; He, Jianbin; Mu, Mingyang; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern China. In the present study, serum samples from 566 domestic sheep were collected from Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies using an indirect hemagglutination antibody test. Twenty-five of 566 samples (4.4%) were seropositive at the cutoff of 1:64 serum dilution. No difference was found among 6 geographic regions (P > 0.05). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Liaoning Province.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joanne P; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C; McConkey, Glenn A

    2013-01-01

    We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term 'T. gondii-rat manipulation-schizophrenia model' and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective.

  11. Sensorineural hearing loss due to Toxoplasma gondii in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, S; Memari, F; Farhadi, M; Tabatabaei, A

    2008-06-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can follow congenital toxoplasmosis. Treatment in the first year of life is associated with diminished occurrence of this sequel. In various parts of Iran, the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii ranges from 24% to 57.7%. We evaluate the possible role of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the occurrence of SNHL in children. This case-control study was performed in a tertiary care center in Tehran between 2002 and 2003. This study was carried out based on diagnostic parameters of the American Academy of Otolaryngology criteria for SNHL and a healthy control group. We compared the specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgM & IgG) measured by ELISA in 95 blood samples of infants with SNHL and 63 healthy matched infants. Acute (IgM) and previous (IgG) immunity to Toxoplasma gondii was found in 12 and 21.2% of SNHL children, respectively. Most cases with previous infections (IgG positive) were children aged less than 1 year old (i.e. maternal immunity), but acute infection (IgM positive) was higher in 3-5 year old age group. Acute infection (IgM) was significantly more frequent in the SNHL group, and previous immunity was higher in the controls (CI 95%, P-value = 0.01; 0.01). With respect to seropositive children, as we were unable to differentiate congenital from acquired cases, we recommend prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis by treatment of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and treatment of acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection after birth to minimise the risk of SNHL in children.

  12. Diagnosis and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Brazilian slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Fernanda; Garcia, João Luis; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Ewald, Maria Paula de Carvalho; Pagliari, Sthefany; Almeida, Jonatas Campos de; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in Brazil. We collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six Brazilian states. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT cut-off titre ≥ 1:64), and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. Among the 398 horses, positivity for T. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6%) by IFAT and in 14 (3.5%) by mouse bioassay. In 12 of those 14 bioassays, mice were positive only by IFAT (cut-off titre ≥ 1:16), T. gondii being isolated in the remaining two. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 18S rDNA to differentiate among T. gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis neurona, we found that two of the 14 brains were positive for T. gondii only. For genotyping of the two isolates and the PCR-positive brain, we performed PCR-RFLP based on 13 markers, and SAG2 all samples were Toxoplasma gondii type I. Collectively, IFAT of horse sera and mouse bioassay identified positivity in 60 (15%) of the samples. Our results show that some horses sent to slaughter in Brazil have been exposed to T. gondii.

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in fresh and frozen semen from rams in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M J G; Cruz, J A L O; Kung, E S; Albuquerque, P P F; Kim, P C P; Moraes, E P B X; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Mota, R A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in semen samples from commercial rams in artificial insemination centres in Brazil, as well as in fresh semen from rams in the northeast of Brazil. In total, 108 semen samples were obtained from artificial insemination centres, and genomic DNA of T. gondii was detected in 24 of 108 (22.2%). The prevalence of antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii among sheep on rural properties was 9.2% (10/109), and 100% of the semen samples of these animals were positive in the PCR for T. gondii DNA. The molecular identity was confirmed through sequencing, which indicated 99.9% similarity with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. This study reports the first occurrence of T. gondii DNA in the semen of rams, which came from artificial insemination centres in Brazil, as well as the occurrence of T. gondii DNA in the fresh semen of naturally infected rams in the northeast of Brazil. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. DMPD: Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. Denkers EY, Butcher BA, Del Rio L, Kim L. I...in kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma...appaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. Authors Denkers EY, Butcher BA, De

  15. Parkinson's disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection: Sero-molecular assess the possible link among patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali; Birjandi, Mehdi; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Spotin, Adel

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the possible association between Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and Toxoplasma gondii infection, the most common neurotropic protozoan parasitic infection, using serological and molecular techniques. One hundred and fifteen patients with confirmed PD and 115 healthy subjects in the same age and sex distribution were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were taken from each participant and the sera was screened for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and IgM). PCR assay was performed in duplicate using the primer pair targeting the B1 gene of Toxoplasma. Amplicons were directly sequenced to conduct the phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection based on IgG titer was 53% in case and 55.6% in the control groups, revealing no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma seropositivity and PD (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.54-1.51; P=0.691). According to PCR assay, the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections was 19.3% in the case and 10.4% in control groups which the difference was statistically significant (OR=3.02; 95% CI=1.46-6.27; P=0.002). Multiple sequence alignment of Toxoplasma gondii isolates manifested a common haplotype by the identity: 93.6-100% and divergence: 0-6.7%. We concluded that T. gondii infection not only could not be a risk factor to PD, but even it could be concluded that patients with PD are in more risk to acquisition of infection. These results provide fresh insights into the ambiguous association between T. gondii infection and PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors...... of the moose was not shown in the present study, but moose hunted in Estonia should be considered a potential T. gondii infection source to other hosts, including humans. Seropositivity indicates previous exposure, and because the seroprevalence was higher in adults than in calves and because moose...... are herbivores, the exposure was likely exposure to and ingestion of T. gondii oocysts. The results can thus be interpreted to indicate that the environment in Estonia was widely contaminated with T. gondii oocysts, in particular in the northern part of the country. Investigation of samples from a free...

  17. Effect of irradiation on the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in tissues of mice and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, J.P.; Brake, R.J.; Murrell, K.D.; Fayer, R.

    1986-03-01

    Muscles from tongue, heart, and limbs of 14 pigs inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were irradiated with 10, 20, 25, and 30 krad of gamma (cesium-137 and cobalt-60) irradiation. Viability of T gondii cysts was assayed by feeding porcine muscles to T gondii-free cats and/or by inoculation of sediment from acid-pepsin digested porcine muscle into mice. Cats fed 500-g samples of muscles irradiated with up to 20 krad shed T gondii oocysts. Cats fed muscles irradiated with 25 or 30 krad did not shed oocysts. Mice were inoculated with 8 isolates of T gondii, and tissue cysts in their brains irradiated with up to 40 krad were infective to mice; however, there was a 10,000-fold reduction in the viability of organisms in tissue cysts irradiated with 40 krad, compared with that in nonirradiated cysts. At 50 krad of gamma irradiation, there were no detectable infective organisms in infected mouse brains.

  18. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in meningo-encephalitis affected striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Cesare, Angela; Otranto, Domenico; Casalone, Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Mignone, Walter; Tittarelli, Cristiana; Meloni, Silvana; Castagna, Giuseppe; Forster, Fiona; Kennedy, Seamus; Traversa, Donato

    2011-12-29

    This study reports the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of three striped dolphins (Stenella ceoruleoalba) found stranded on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy between 2007 and 2008. These animals showed a severe, subacute to chronic, non-purulent, multifocal meningo-encephalitis, with the cerebral parenchyma of two dolphins harbouring protozoan cysts and zoites immunohistochemically linked to T. gondii. Molecular, phylogenetic and mutation scanning analyses showed the occurrence of Type II and of an atypical Type II T. gondii isolates in one and two dolphins, respectively. In spite of the different molecular patterns characterizing the above T. gondii genotypes, the brain lesions observed in the three animals showed common microscopic features, with no remarkable differences among them. The role of T. gondii in causing the meningo-encephalitis is herein discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Mu, Mingyang; Li, Hongkui; Hu, Jianmin; Gao, Weifan; Yang, Shuhua; He, Jianbin

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported throughout the world, including China. However, information is lacking regarding the prevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in northeastern China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China. Sera samples from 328 pet dogs in 5 districts were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect hemagglutination antibody (IHA) test; 10.0% tested seropositive. There were no significant differences in terms of sex, age, and locality (P > 0.05). The results indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in pet dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China, which has potential implications for public health in this area.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in Huicholes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ethnic groups in Mexico. Huicholes are an indigenous ethnic group living in a remote mountainous region in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in Huicholes; and to determine the association of Toxoplasma seropositivity with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of Huicholes. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey in Huicholes from September 2013 to January 2014. A convenience sampling method was used. We investigated the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 214 Huicholes using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the characteristics of the Huicholes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Toxoplasma exposure and Huicholes’ characteristics. Results Of the 214 Huicholes studied (mean age: 37.98 ± 15.80 years), 71 (33.2%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 47 (66.2%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with age, sex, or occupation. However, seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was significantly higher in female than in male Huicholes. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with consumption of turkey meat (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.16-4.46; P = 0.01). In addition, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Huicholes suffering from dizziness and memory impairment than those without such clinical characteristics. Conclusions Our results demonstrate serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Huicholes which may be impacting their health. Results of this first study of T. gondii infection in Huicholes may be useful for the design of optimal preventive measures against infection with T

  1. Toxoplasma gondii-A Gastrointestinal Pathogen Associated with Human Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, E G; Xiao, J; Jones-Brando, L; Sabunciyan, S; Li, Y; Pletnikov, M; Prandovszky, E; Yolken, R

    2016-01-01

    Serious psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression are important causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While these are primarily diseases involving altered brain functioning, numerous studies have documented increased rates of gastrointestinal inflammation and dysfunction in many individuals with these disorders. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan intracellular parasite with a widespread distribution in both developed and developing countries. Toxoplasma organisms enter the ecosystem through the shedding of oocysts by Toxoplasma-infected felines. In almost all cases of postnatal human infection, Toxoplasma enters its hosts through the intestinal tract either by the ingestion of oocysts or by the consumption of meat from food animals which themselves were infected by Toxoplasma oocysts. It had previously been thought that most cases of Toxoplasma infection in immune competent children and adults were inapparent and asymptomatic. However, recent studies cast doubt on this concept as exposure to Toxoplasma has been associated with a range of acute and chronic symptoms. Of particular note has been the finding of an increased rate of a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with serological evidence of Toxoplasma exposure. A role of Toxoplasma infection in brain diseases is also supported by the consistent finding of altered cognition and behavior in animal models of infections. Much of the attention relating to the role of Toxoplasma infection in neuropsychiatric disorders has focused on the brain, where Toxoplasma tissue cysts can persist for extended periods of time. However, recent discoveries relating to the role of the gastrointestinal tract in cognition and behavior suggest that Toxoplasma may also increase susceptibility to human brain diseases through immune activation, particularly involving the gastrointestinal mucosa. The study of the pathways relating to the pathobiology and

  2. Characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Takano, Ryo; Gong, Haiyan; Ishiwa, Akiko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2016-07-21

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa and a major pathogen of animals and immunocompromised humans, in whom it causes encephalitis. Understanding the mechanism of tachyzoite invasion is important for the discovery of new drug targets and may serve as a model for the study of other apicomplexan parasites. We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is important for host cell invasion. In this study, to identify novel targets for the treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection (another apicomplexan parasite), we sought to identify a CaMK-like protein in the T. gondii genome and to characterize its role in the life-cycle of this parasite. An in vitro kinase assay was performed to assess the phosphorylation activities of a novel CaMK-like protein in T. gondii by using purified proteins with various concentrations of calcium, calmodulin antagonists, or T. gondii glideosome proteins. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect the localization of this protein kinase by using the antibodies against this protein and organellar maker proteins of T. gondii. We identified a novel CaMK homolog in T. gondii, T. gondii CaMK-related kinase (TgCaMKrk), which exhibits calmodulin-independent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activity. However, calmodulin antagonists had no effect on its kinase activity. In T. gondii-infected cells, TgCaMKrk localized to the apical ends of extracellular and intracellular tachyzoites. TgCaMKrk phosphorylated TgGAP45 for phosphorylation in vitro. Our data improve our understanding of T. gondii motility and infection, the interaction between parasite protein kinases and glideosomes, and drug targets for protozoan diseases.

  3. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2015-10-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic animals of Mohmand agency, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassir Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among domestic animals of Mohmand Agency, Pakistan. Methods: Indirect haemagglutination test was used to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii antibodies in the sera. Results: Out of 384 domestic animals, 124 (32.29% were seropositive for antibodies of T. gondii. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 56 out of 104 examined goats (53.84%. The seropositivity in male and female goats were 20 (38.46% and 36 (69.23% respectively. The seropositivity of T. gondii in sheep was 36% (n=100 while the prevalence in female sheep was higher (41.66% as compared to male sheep (30.76%. A total of 8 out of 48 male cows were detected seropositive (16.66% and 8 out of 32 female cows were detected seropositive (25%. Lowest prevalence was detected in buffaloes which was 16% (n=100. Out of 52 male buffaloes 4 were detected seropositive for T. gondii antibodies (7.69% while in female buffaloes was 25% (n=48. The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was higher in goats and lower in buffaloes. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that T. gondii infection is high in domestic animals in Mohmand agency, Pakistan, which has implications for public health in this region. Essential control strategies and suitable measures should be carried out rationally in this region, in order to lower the risk of exposure to T. gondii.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domiciled cats from rio branco Municipality, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Figueiredo de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 89 cats to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and the possible risk factors associated with feline Toxoplasma gondii infection. An epidemiological questionnaire was developed and implemented for owners of domestic cats domiciled in Rio Branco, Acre. The results were statistically evaluated with the odds ratio and chi-square tests, considering the significance level of 5%. Of 89 animals’ samples, 22 had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Among the 22 reactive animals, 15 (68.19% were female, 15 (68.19% were less than one year old and 20 (90% were cross breed. Concerning risk factors, there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the variables evaluated by the chi-square test. Moreover, 16 (72% cats were fed a mixed diet, 20 (90% of the cats had hunting habits, 18 (81% had contact with animals of another species, 11 (50% had access to the street, and 22 (95% lived in homes that had areas of grass or dirt. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats was 22.7%, and there were no significant risk factors for feline toxoplasmosis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  8. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  10. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...

  11. Cats and Goat Whey Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Riel, van J.W.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Kijlstra, A.; Mul, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    In organic livestock production systems, farm-management factors are thought to play an important role in the on-farm prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii. Serological results and the results of an HACCP analysis were combined to determine important risk factors for the prevalence of this protozoan

  12. Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de Norbert; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leopold, Mardik; Begeman, Lineke; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; IJzer, Jooske; Brownlow, Andrew; Davison, Nicholas; Haelters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and

  13. Early Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and the Later Development of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    Early exposure to several infectious agents has been associated with the later development of schizophrenia. Two recent studies assessed in utero or early postnatal exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. In one study of 63 individuals, who developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders, maternal sera obtained...

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported am...

  15. Adjuvanted multi-epitope vaccines protect HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We created and tested multi-epitope DNA or protein vaccines with TLR4 ligand emulsion adjuvant (gluco glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE)) for their ability to protect against Toxoplasma gondii in HLA transgenic mice. Our constructs each included five of our best down selecte...

  16. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic agents of importance to public health, with domestic cats as potential reservoirs for both protozoal infections. The present study aimed at assessing for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population l...

  17. Uptake and transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by migratory filter-feeding fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasitic protozoan known to cause disease and death in warm-blooded animals. Bottlenose dolphins, walruses, sea otters, and other marine animals worldwide have died from toxoplasmosis, but the source of this parasite in the marine environment h...

  18. Surface binding properties of aged and fresh (recently excreted) Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface properties of aged (stored for 10 years) and fresh (recently excreted) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were investigated using monoclonal antibody (mAb) and lectin-binding assays. Fresh oocysts bound a wall-specific mAb labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate while aged oocysts did not. In ...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii strain 119 identify recently isolated Danish strains as one group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Petersen, E.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Four mAb raised against the Danish Toxoplasma gondii strain 119, were selected by screening hybridoma supernatants by indirect immunofluorescence against tachyzoites of the RH strain in order to obtain strain restricted markers. Strain restriction extended beyond discrimination of the 119 and RH...

  20. Macrophages facilitate the excystation and differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites into tachyzoites following oocyst internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of humans and domestic animals, which is transmitted via oocysts in cat faeces or tissue cysts in contaminated meat. The oocyst and sporocyst walls are multilayered polymeric structures that protect the infective sporozoites from deleterious physical and chemic...

  1. A study of virulence parameters for Toxoplasma gondii infections in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of establishing assessments of the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii isolates for mice, we investigated weight loss, serum levels of haptoglobin, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as alternative parameters to mouse mortality. Groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated...

  2. Preliminary characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe, with stage-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cell-culture-derived clones of eight Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe were characterised in IFAT with a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Each clone had been established from a single murine brain cyst. The antibodies were bradyzoite-specific (4.3), tachyzoite-specific (4.25, 5...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among turkeys on family farms in the state of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination T...

  4. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs slaughtered in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunden, A.; Lind, Peter; Engvall, E.O.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Swedish pigs was investigated by analysis of 807 meat juice samples collected in 1999 from 10 abattoirs in different parts of the country. When analysed using ELISA, 42 (5.2%) of the samples were found to be positive. The seroprevalence was 3...

  5. Protein disulfide isomerase of Toxoplasma gondii is targeted by mucosal IgA antibodies in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Bob; Back, Jaap Willem; Klaren, Vincent N. A.; Speijer, Dave; Peek, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis identified a 49 kDa antigen from Toxoplasma gondii as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). This antigen is generally recognized by IgA in tears of healthy humans. We determined the complete open reading frame and expressed PDI recombinantly. Recombinant PDI was recognized

  6. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the scavenging black vultures (Coragyps atratus) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in black vultures (Coragyps atratus) that are are obligate scavenging birds found throughout the American continent. Serum samples from 121 wild black vultures captured in urban areas of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were tested for the pr...

  7. Behavioral and memory changes in Mus musculus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sousa, Susana; Dubey, Jp; Ribeiro, Ana J.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cotovio, Mário; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Cardoso, Luís; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were

  9. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the

  10. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  11. Association of Ocular Toxoplasmosis with Type I Toxoplasma gondii Strains: Direct Genotyping from Peripheral Blood Samples▿

    OpenAIRE

    Switaj, Karolina; Master, Adam; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Zaborowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii strains were genotyped directly from blood samples of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Analysis of nontranscribed spacer 2 revealed that all detected strains belonged to type I, suggesting an association of ocular toxoplasmosis with this type. The method shows the usefulness of blood samples for genotyping in ocular toxoplasmosis.

  12. Kayseri Kapalı Cezaevi mahkumlarında toxoplasma gondii seroprevalansı

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BALCI, Elçin; PEHLİVAN, İsmail; YAZAR, Süleyman; ŞAHİN, İzzet; TEMEL, Hanife, Özcan; YAMAN, Ozan; ÇETİNKAYA, Ülfet

    2009-01-01

    ... hiçbirinde IgM antikorları pozitif olarak bulunmamıştır Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and can be found in humans, domestic animals and wild animals almost everywhere around the world...

  13. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in a pig from a local abattoir in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inoculation of pepsin digested muscle (mixed heart and diaphragm) from a slaughter pig into six Balb C mice resulted in the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii which proved to be pathogenic to mice. These infected mice were retarded in growth when compared to the two uninoculated control animals. Mouse No.3 and Mouse ...

  14. Immunity in the spleen and blood of mice immunized with irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Sato, Maria Notomi; do Nascimento, Nanci; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong and long-lasting immune response that is able to prevent most reinfections but allows tissue cysts. Irradiated, sterilized T. gondii tachyzoites are an interesting vaccine, and they induce immunity that is similar to infection, but without cysts. In this study, we evaluated the cellular immune response in the blood and spleen of mice immunized with this preparation by mouth (v.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) and analyzed the protection after challenge with viable parasites. BALB/c mice were immunized with three i.p. or v.o. doses of irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites. Oral challenge with ten cysts of the ME-49 or VEG strain at 90 days after the last dose resulted in high levels of protection with low parasite burden in the immunized animals. There were higher levels of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in the serum, and the i.p. immunized mice had higher levels of the high-affinity IgG and IgM antibodies than the orally immunized mice, which had more high-affinity IgA antibodies. B cells (CD19(+)), plasma cells (CD138(+)) and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were increased in both the blood and spleen. Cells from the spleen of the i.p. immunized mice also showed antigen-induced production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). The CD4(+) T cells, B cells and likely CD8(+) T cells from the spleens of the i.p. immunized mice proliferated with a specific antigen. The protection was correlated with the spleen and blood CD8(+) T cell, high-affinity IgG and IgM and antigen-induced IL-10 and IL-4 production. Immunization with irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites induces an immune response that is mediated by B cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with increased humoral and cellular immune responses that are necessary for host protection after infection. The vaccine is similar to natural infection, but free of tissue cysts; this immunity restrains infection at challenge and can be an

  15. Epigenomic modifications predict active promoters and gene structure in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gissot

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model organism Toxoplasma gondii, we characterized the epigenetic organization and transcription patterns of a contiguous 1% of the T. gondii genome using custom oligonucleotide microarrays. We show that methylation and acetylation of histones H3 and H4 are landmarks of active promoters in T. gondii that allow us to deduce the position and directionality of gene promoters with >95% accuracy. These histone methylation and acetylation "activation" marks are strongly associated with gene expression. We also demonstrate that the pattern of histone H3 arginine methylation distinguishes certain promoters, illustrating the complexity of the histone modification machinery in Toxoplasma. By integrating epigenetic data, gene prediction analysis, and gene expression data from the tachyzoite stage, we illustrate feasibility of creating an epigenomic map of T. gondii tachyzoite gene expression. Further, we illustrate the utility of the epigenomic map to empirically and biologically annotate the genome and show that this approach enables identification of previously unknown genes. Thus, our epigenomics approach provides novel insights into regulation of gene expression in the Apicomplexa. In addition, with its compact genome, genetic tractability, and discrete life cycle stages, T. gondii provides an important new model to study the evolutionarily conserved components of the histone code.

  16. Portugal and Angola: similarities and differences in Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and risk factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, M L; Patrocinio, G; Sevivas, T; DE Sousa, B; Matos, O

    2017-01-01

    In this study we determined the presence of IgM/IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera of 155 and 300 pregnant women from Lisbon (Portugal) and Luanda (Angola), respectively, and evaluated the potential risk factors associated with this infection. DNA detection was performed by PCR assays targeting T. gondii regions (RE/B1). Overall, 21·9% (10·9% IgG, 10·9% IgG/IgM) of the Lisbon women and 27·3% (23·7%, IgG, 2% IgM, 1·7% IgG/IgM) of the Luanda women had antibodies to T. gondii. Single variable and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Based on the latter, contacts with cats (family/friends), and having more than two births were identified as risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Lisbon women. In Luanda, the risk factors for T. gondii infection suggested by the single variable analysis (outdoor contact with cats and consumption of pasteurized milk/dairy products) were not confirmed by binary logistic regression. This study shows original data from Angola, and updated data from Portugal in the study of infection by T. gondii in pregnant women, indicating that the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies is high enough to alert the government health authorities and implement appropriate measures to control this infection.

  17. Detection of fibronectin and laminin in Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts: immunocytochemical assays = Detecção de fibronectina e laminina em cistos teciduais de Toxoplasma gondii: ensaios imunocitoquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães, Erick Vaz

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The presence of both laminin and fibronectin in secretory organelles and in the apical region of bradyzoites suggests that exocytosis of these glycoproteins can contribute to their interaction with host cells, besides composing the cyst matrix of Toxoplasma gondii

  18. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in elderly individuals treated under the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil/Soroepidemiologia de Toxoplasma gondii em idosos atendidos pela Estrategia Saude da Familia, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engroff, Paula; Scheer Ely, Luisa; Roversi Guiselli, Samilla; Henriques Goularte, Fabiana; Gomes, Irenio; Viegas, Karin; Attilio De Carli, Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and relate it to the socioeconomic, hygienic, sanitary and health conditions of the elderly of the Family Health Strategy (FHS...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency.

  20. Frecuencia de anticuerpos anti Toxoplasma gondii en gestantes de Cúcuta, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Denny; Lozano, Claudia; Castillo, Zaida; Cedeño, Jessenia; Galvis, Viannis; Rios, Jessica; Tórres, Madalhene

    2016-01-01

    La toxoplasmosis es una infección ocasionada por Toxoplasma gondii, peligrosa durante la gestación. La presencia de anticuerpos IgG específicos implica contacto previo individuo-parásito, mientras que la detección de IgM anti-T. gondii, es considerada marcador de infección aguda, fase en la que se incrementa además el título IgG. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y título de anticuerpos contra Toxoplasma gondii en gestantes. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, se determinó el título de ...

  1. Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bocanegra, I; Dubey, J P; Martínez, F; Vargas, A; Cabezón, O; Zorrilla, I; Arenas, A; Almería, S

    2010-01-20

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. In the present study, seroprevalence and associated risk factors for T. gondii infection in a large population of Iberian lynx in Spain were determined. Serum samples from 129 Iberian lynx collected from 2005 to 2009 and 85 wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), sharing the habitat with the Iberian lynx, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 81 of 129 (62.8%) Iberian lynx. Seroprevalence to T. gondii in Iberian lynx significantly increased with age (Plynx (69% of 84) but significantly lower in captive-born lynx (22.5% of 40). Seroprevalence was higher in lynx with concurrent Cytauxzoonfelis (88% of 25) but not with concurrent Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infection (53.8% of 13). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence between sexes, geographic region and year of sample collection (2005-2009). Oocysts of T. gondii were not detected microscopically in fecal samples from 58 lynx. Wild rabbits are considered the most important food for the lynx. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 14 (11.9%) of 85 rabbits tested. The present results indicate that T. gondii infection is widespread in the two areas where Iberian lynx survive in Spain. The fact that four captive-born lynx seroconverted was indication of contact with T. gondii also in the Captive Breeding Centers, hence, control measures to prevent T. gondii infection would be necessary in these centers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Discovery of New Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii via the Pathogen Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalenka, Jérémy; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Bakiri, Ali; Hubert, Jane; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Velard, Frédéric; Duchateau, Simon; Aubert, Dominique; Huguenin, Antoine; Villena, Isabelle

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite which affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. The drugs currently used against toxoplasmosis are few in number and show several limitations, such as drug intolerance, poor bioavailability, or drug resistance mechanism developed by the parasite. Thus, it is important to find new compounds able to inhibit parasite invasion or proliferation. In this study, the 400 compounds of the open-access Pathogen Box, provided by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) foundation, were screened for their anti- Toxoplasma gondii activity. A preliminary in vitro screening performed over 72 h by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 15 interesting compounds that were effective against T. gondii at 1 μM. Their cytotoxicity was estimated on Vero cells, and their 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) were further calculated. As a result, eight anti- Toxoplasma gondii compounds with an IC 50 of less than 2 μM and a selectivity index (SI) value of greater than 4 were identified. The most active was MMV675968, showing an IC 50 of 0.02 μM and a selectivity index value equal to 275. Two other compounds, MMV689480 and MMV687807, also showed a good activity against T. gondii , with IC 50 s of 0.10 μM (SI of 86.6) and 0.15 μM (SI of 11.3), respectively. Structure-activity relationships for the eight selected compounds also were discussed on the basis of fingerprinting similarity measurements using the Tanimoto method. The anti- Toxoplasma gondii compounds highlighted here represent potential candidates for the development of new drugs that could be used against toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Spalenka et al.

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), cats (Felis domesticus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), black bear (Ursus americanus), and cougar (Puma concolor) from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Quirk, T; Pittt, J A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Leclair, D; Hill, R; Su, C

    2008-02-01

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats (Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Genotyping of these T. gondii isolates using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including SAGI, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker Apico revealed 4 genotypes. None of the isolates was clonal archetypal Types I, II, and III found in the United States. These results are in contrast with the Type II genotype that is widespread in domestic animals and humans throughout the United States and Europe. This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolates from this part of North America.

  4. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of reproductive age in northern Kosovska Mitrovica

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    Aritonović-Pribaković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is one of the causative agents from the groups of TORCH infections, which are commonly associated with congenital anomalies. Objective: Defining risk factors for infection by Toxoplasma gondii of women in reproductive ages in the territory of Kosovska Mitrovica, as well as determination of seroprevalence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in prenatal screening of pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study that included 49, pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been conducted. The pregnant women have been monitored on regularly base, or some women have been treated in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of the Health Center in Kosovska Mitrovica. Ages, place of residence, education, gynecological history and exposure to the potential risk factors associated with Toxoplasma have been collected by questionnaires. Sera have been tested on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondi by ELISA standard manufacturer's protocol (Euroimmun, Luebeck, Germany. Results: Our study shows that 32 (65.3% women were seronegative, while 17 women (34.7% were seropositive. Significant seropositivity has been recorded for the women who were in contact with the ground (42.9%, compared to the women who did not have this contact (23.8%. Uses of undercooked meat in the diet did not show any effect to the seropositive status of the respondents, i.e. greater percentage of analyzed patients (75.5% used inadequately cooked meat. Even 93.3% of respondents deny contact with a cat. It is observed that seropositivity increased with the age. Conclusion: Seroprevalence to Toxoplasma gondii infection of women of childbearing in the territory of northern Kosovska Mitrovica is not high, which implied that there is a higher possibility for acquiring primary toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy especially for women who come in contact with the ground.

  5. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii imparts a considerable burden to public health. Human toxoplasmosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals, has been associated with psychiatric disorders, and can cause severe congenital pathologies, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth. Enviro...

  6. Evaluation of Four RNA Extraction Methods for Gene Expression Analyses of Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii Oocys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are important coccidian parasites that have caused waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide. Techniques like subtractive hybridization, microarrays, and quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (...

  7. RNA Extraction Methods for Real-Time PCR and Microarray Analyses of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts - 2nd Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of infectious oocyst forms of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp. to resist disinfection treatments and cause disease may have significant public health implications. Currently, little is known about oocyst-specific factors involved during host cell invasion pr...

  8. RNA Extraction Methods for Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR and Microarray Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of infectious oocyst forms of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp. to resist disinfection treatments and cause disease may have significant public health implications. Currently, little is known about oocyst-specific factors involved during host cell invasion p...

  9. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cells recovered from vitreous fluid of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Feron (Eric); V.N. Klaren; E.A. Wierenga (Eddy); A. Kijlstra Prof. Dr; G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: The mechanisms involved in reactivations of latent ocular Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) infections in immunocompetent patients are poorly understood. In view of the possible role of T cells in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, ocular infiltrating T cells

  10. Using Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR and Cell Culture Plaque Assays to Determine Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts to Chemical Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are highly resistant to many chemical sanitizers. Current methods used to determine oocyst infectivity have relied exclusively on mouse, chicken, and feline bioassays. Although considered gold standards, they only provide a qualitative assessment of oocyst infectivity. I...

  11. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic South American camelids of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Velásquez, Amanda; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Casas-Astos, Eva; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Casas-Velásquez, Gina; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii- and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic South American camelids (SAC) (llamas and alpacas) from the Peruvian Andes through a cross-sectional study. A wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main SAC production areas of Peru was selected. Immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G in serum samples. The association between T. gondii and N. caninum seroprevalence and the geographical origin (Central and South Peruvian Andes) was evaluated. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 460 (24.9 %) llamas and 706 (24.6 %) alpacas, whereas anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 153 (8.3 %) llamas and 425 (14.8 %) alpacas. Toxoplasma gondii infection was strongly associated with the South Peruvian Andes where moderate climate conditions, larger human population, compared to the Central region, and the presence of wildlife definitive hosts could favor horizontal transmission to SAC. In contrast, N. caninum infection was not associated with the geographical region. These results indicate that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are highly and moderately widespread, respectively, in both species of domestic SAC studied in the sampled areas and appropriate control measures should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of both parasitic infections.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacán State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Silva-Aguilar, D; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-06-01

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico, is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma were found in 52 (15.2%) of 341 goats, with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 9, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 9, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 or higher in 3. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms sampled, and seroprevalence varied significantly among farms (1.9-90%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with age, municipality, altitude, and climate but not with breed. Increased seroprevalence was found in goats aged 13-24 and 49-86 mo old (25% and 22.9%, respectively). Goats raised in farms in a municipality with semi-warm humid climate at 1,700 m of altitude had the highest seroprevalence (62.1%). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in goats in Michoacán State, Mexico, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii and semi-warm humid climate. Results indicate that infected goats are likely an important source of infection with T. gondii in humans in Michoacán State.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 107 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in red deer from Central Italy

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    Guido Rocchigiani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cosmopolite protozoan parasites impacting on human and animal health. In particular, T. gondii commonly infects human beings and all warm-blooded animals, while N. caninum is responsible for bovine abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. The aim of the presented survey was to evaluate the occurrence and prevalence of these parasites in the most numerous Italian red deer population. The sera of 60 red deer (Cervus elaphus inhabiting Central Italy (43°56’N 10°55’E and killed by selective hunting were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT for both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies. White blood cells (buffy coat were also checked by PCR and T. gondii DNA was genotyped. Thirteen out of 60 sera (22% scored positive for Toxoplasma, 17 samples (28% were Neospora positive. Coinfection was recorded in 5 cases (8%. T. gondii (genotype II and N. caninum DNA was detected in one and 3 samples of buffy coat, respectively. The presented study is the first to examine the occurrence of these parasites in the most numerous red deer Italian population, confirming this animal species as carrier of the investigated pathogens. These animals spread near human settlements, co-inhabiting with final hosts of [i]T. gondii[/i] and N. caninum and could contribute to their transmission to domestic ruminants and humans. In particular, the seroprevalence value for N. caninum was the highest among European records.

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  16. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Hamidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in a group of peritoneal dialysis patients with hemodialysis patients and a general local population as a control group in Tabriz, Northwest Iran. Methods: A total of 176 individuals were participated in the present study. Among them, 42 were peritoneal dialysis patients, 84 were hemodialysis patients and 50 were healthy volunteers. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M serologic study was administered on the collected serums and then the obtained data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: In the present research, 70.2% of hemodialysis patients, 66.6% of peritoneal dialysis patients and 68% of control group had positive results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G antibody. All individuals of the groups had negative serologic results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. There was no significant difference between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients and general population (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The findings showed that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis doesn’t increase the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity in our region (Northwest Iran. It could be explained by the fact that the present research is carried out in a high seroprevalent area scale in which the majority of normal population had previous exposure to this parasitical infection.

  17. Sequence Diversity in MIC6 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals including humans with a worldwide distribution. Micronemes play an important role in invasion process of T. gondii, associated with the attachment, motility, and host cell recognition. In this research, sequence diversity in microneme protein 6 (MIC6) gene among 16 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions and 1 reference strain was examined. The results showed that the sequence of all the examined T. gondii strains was 1,050 bp in length, and their A + T content was between 45.7% and 46.1%. Sequence analysis presented 33 nucleotide mutation positions (0-1.1%), resulting in 23 amino acid substitutions (0-2.3%) aligned with T. gondii RH strain. Moreover, T. gondii strains representing the 3 classical genotypes (Type I, II, and III) were separated into different clusters based on the locus of MIC6 using phylogenetic analyses by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML), but T. gondii strains belonging to ToxoDB #9 were separated into different clusters. Our results suggested that MIC6 gene is not a suitable marker for T. gondii population genetic studies.

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Slaughter Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Ya-Lin; Yang, Zhao; Li, Xi-Lai; Li, Zong-Ren; Lin, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can infect endothermic animals, including pigs. However, data on T. gondii in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province were still lacking. To detect the seroprevalence and analyze the risk factors of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China, a total of 784 serum samples were collected from four administrative regions and detected by indirect hemagglutination test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.9% (156/784) slaughter pigs. Moreover, the seropositive rate was different among rearing systems (31% in nonintensive pig farms and 6.7% in intensive pig farms), genders (19.8% in male and 20.0% in female), and regions (ranging from 6.7% in Shenmu to 38.2% in Zhouzhi). Rearing system and region were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results showed that T. gondii is highly prevalent in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, and it could cause a serious risk to public health. This study provided fundamental information for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in China.

  19. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Lanzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in birds has epidemiological significance because birds are indeed considered as a good indicator of environmental contamination by T. gondii oocysts. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii in 313 house sparrows in Lanzhou, northwestern China was assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were positive in 39 (12.46%) of 313 samples (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Tissues of heart, brain, and lung from the 39 seropositive house sparrows were tested for T. gondii DNA, 11 of which were found to be positive for the T. gondii B1 gene by PCR amplification. These positive DNA samples were typed at 9 genetic markers, including 8 nuclear loci, i.e., SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8 and an apicoplast locus Apico. Of them, 4 isolates were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and 2 genotypes (Type II variants; ToxoDB #3 and a new genotype) were identified. These results showed that there is a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in house sparrows in China.

  20. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray and owned dogs of Grenada, West Indies

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    Ravindra N. Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This serological survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in two populations of dogs (stray and owned dogs in Grenada. Dogs get infected with oocysts voided from cats, definitive hosts of T. gondii. In dogs, T. gondii causes subclinical to clinical disease. Earlier studies conducted in Grenada on a small population of owned dogs showed evidence of exposure to T. gondii. Materials and Methods: Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 625 dogs (368 stray and 257 owned dogs from around all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies, using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 123 (33.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28.58-38.22% of stray dogs and in 64 (25%; 95% CI: 19.71-30.29% of the owned dogs. Seropositivity was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (p=0.026. Whereas, there was no sex predisposition to seropositivity in owned dogs (p=1.0, female stray dogs showed a higher prevalence than male stray dogs (p=0.04. Conclusion: These results support previous findings that T. gondii is prevalent in Grenada. In this study, overall seropositivity for T. gondii in dogs in Grenada is lower than noted in 2008, but is still higher in stray dogs than in owned dogs.

  1. Comparison of different commercial serological tests for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum of naturally exposed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinparzer, R; Reisp, K; Grünberger, B; Köfer, J; Schmoll, F; Sattler, T

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of the zoonotic disease toxoplasmosis and transmitted among other ways by chemically and physically untreated, that is, raw pork to humans. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii is impossible by currently practiced meat inspection, but serological tests can be used to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pig herds and can consequently be helpful to identify potentially contaminated pork. Therefore, appropriate serological tests are required. In this study, serum samples of 1368 naturally exposed slaughter pigs from 73 Austrian farms were collected. Serum samples of at least 16 slaughter pigs per farm were tested. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum was measured by a commercial available modified agglutination test (MAT) and compared to three different commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The MAT detected 6.5%, ELISA I 6.7%, ELISA II 4.8% and ELISA III 4.3% of the pigs as Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive. The agreement, according to the kappa coefficient (κ), was substantial between the MAT and ELISA I (κ = 0.62), II (κ = 0.64) and III (κ = 0.67). A better agreement was determined between ELISA I and II (κ = 0.715), ELISA I and III (κ = 0.747) and ELISA II and III (κ = 0.865). At least one pig per farm was detected Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive in 17 (23.3%) farms by the MAT, 26 (35.6%) farms by ELISA I, 16 (21.9%) farms by ELISA II and 11 (15.1%) farms by ELISA III. Pig farms with a high number of Toxoplasma gondii antibody-positive pigs or high antibody titres were identified by all of the four used serological tests. Concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Austrian pig farms, a monitoring and surveillance programme would be reasonable to find high-risk farms. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in Carcasses of Pigs Reared in Intensive Systems in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Roberto; di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Marangi, Marianna; Ghidini, Sergio; Zanardi, Emanuela; Vergara, Alberto; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Nardoni, Simona; Rocchigiani, Guido; Mancianti, Francesca; Ianieri, Adriana

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and to genetically characterize its isolates in carcasses of industrial fattening pigs, blood, diaphragm, and heart samples were collected from 375 carcasses of pigs slaughtered to be processed for Parma ham production. Pigs had been bred on approved farms (n = 75) located in the so-called Food Valley in Italy. Sera were examined for immunoglobulin G antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Both heart and diaphragm samples from seropositive carcasses were processed for the presence of T. gondii DNA (B1 locus) by real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) assay. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 2.1% of pig carcasses, with titers from 1:10 to 1:320. T. gondii DNA was detected in all (eight) seropositive carcasses and in 11 (5 heart and 6 diaphragm samples) of 16 samples; that is, it was detected in heart tissue in two subjects, in diaphragm tissue in three subjects, and in both muscle tissues in three subjects. Toxoplasma genotypes were determined in seven of eight carcasses: type III was identified in four carcasses, type II in two, and both III and II in one carcass. The serological findings and the molecular detection of T. gondii strains suggest that cured meat products obtained from industrially bred pigs may be potential sources of toxoplasmosis for humans. Our results provide novel, important information regarding the seroprevalence and molecular prevalence of T. gondii in intensively reared pigs within this specific region of Italy, particularly because Parma ham from this region is known and consumed worldwide. On-farm preventive measures combined with slaughterhouse monitoring of carcasses of pigs bred for cured meat production should never be overlooked to prevent the introduction of T. gondii into the food chain and to ensure safety for consumers of these products.

  3. [Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Wuxi region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao-jiao; Tao, Li-li

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Wuxi City of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for developing the preventive and control interventions of T. gondii infection. The anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by using ELISA in the sera sampled from 3 014 pregnant women from 2011 to 2014, and the pregnant outcomes were followed up. The risk factors of T. gondii infection were identified with questionnaires. Among the 3 014 pregnant women, 215 cases were found positive to anti-Toxoplasma antibody (7.13%), including 49 cases positive to IgM antibody (49/215, 22.79%), and 166 cases positive to IgG antibody (166/215, 77.21%). The follow-up revealed that 46 T. gondii-infected pregnant women developed adverse pregnant outcomes (46/215, 21.40%), including 35 cases positive to IgM antibody (35/46, 76.09%) and 11 cases positive to IgG antibody (11/ 46, 23.9.1%). Of the 275 pregnant women without T. gondii infection, 7 cases were found to have adverse pregnant outcomes (2.55%) , which was significantly lower than that in T. gondii-infected pregnant women (P pregnant women, compared with the uninfected group (all P values pregnant outcomes among pregnant women. Reduction of close contact with animals, development of good diet and hygiene habits and monitoring of T. gondii infection during pregnancy are effective approaches to avoid the development of adverse pregnant outcomes.

  4. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in the State of Rio de Janeiro

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    Nathalie Costa da Cunha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Cunha N.C., Cordeiro M.D., Bravo S.A.C., Matos P.C.M., Almosny N.R.P. & da Fonseca A.H. [Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in the State of Rio de Janeiro.] Soroepidemiologia de Toxoplasma gondii em cães no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 38(supl. 3: 114-121, 2016. Departamento de Saúde Coletiva Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. E-mail: nathaliecunha@id.uff.br Toxoplasmosis is a serious public health problem worldwide as it can cause prenatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in humans. Although dogs are not definitive hosts of T. gondii, they play an important role in the mechanical dissemination of oocysts. This study aimed to carry out a seroepidemiological investigation of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic dogs from seven municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A crosssectional epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate the profile of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in dogs from canine sera from different municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The municipalities studied were Cachoeiras de Macacu, Guapimirim, Itaboraí, Magé, Resende, Seropédica and Silva Jardim. The detection of antibodies of the IgG class anti-Toxoplasma gondii was performed using the indirect enzyme immunoadsorption (ELISA assay and the statistical analyzes used were the chi-square test and the prevalence ratio. Of the 651 samples tested, 300 were reactive for T. gondii, representing a relative frequency of 46.08% of seroreactive dogs. It was concluded that dogs are good sentinels for evaluations of risk for occurrence of T. gondii, emphasizing those coming from rural areas and that there was no difference in the occurrence of serorreative dogs in front of different municipalities studies of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Effect van plaagdierbestrijding op Toxoplasma gondii infecties bij enkele probleembedrijven in de welzijnsvriendelijke varkenshouderij = Effect of rodent control on Toxoplasma gondii infections in animal friendly pig farms with a rodent problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Meerburg, B.G.; Jongert, E.; Craeye, de S.

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an underestimated food borne zoönoses with a human disease burden that probably equals salmonellosis. Modern pig production systems have led to a disappearance of Toxoplasma infections, but a reemergence has recently been observed on animal friendly pig farms. This project

  6. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in waste pickers and waste workers in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Liesenfeld, O; Márquez-Conde, J A; Cisneros-Camacho, A; Estrada-Martínez, S; Martínez-García, S A; González-Herrera, A; García-Corral, N

    2008-08-01

    Municipal waste is a potential source of infection for Toxoplasma gondii as it may contain contaminated meat with parasite tissue cysts and cat excrement with parasite oocysts. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated characteristics in two populations exposed to municipal solid waste in Durango, Mexico. Ninety waste pickers and 83 waste workers of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. They were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics from each participant were obtained. Nineteen (21.1%) of the 90 waste pickers and seven (8.4%) of the 83 waste workers were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. The difference in prevalence among the groups was statistically significant (P =0.03). Waste pickers aged 31-50 years showed a significantly higher prevalence (40.9%) than waste workers of the same age group (2.9%, P waste pickers but in none of the waste workers. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in workers of the waste transfer station (25.0%) than in drivers or helpers of waste vehicles (2.5%) (P =0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with consuming food found in the garbage [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-11.8] and with lack of education (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-8.8). From this study, we conclude: (i) waste pickers may represent a risk group for T. gondii infection; (ii) lack of education might be a contributing factor for T. gondii infection; (iii) the higher the exposure to garbage, the higher the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection; (iv) Eating food products from the garbage may represent an important route for T. gondii infection.

  7. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

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    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  8. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Pavlo; Zerweck, Johannes; Dubey, Jitender P.; Pantchev, Nikola; Frey, Caroline F.; Maksimov, Aline; Reimer, Ulf; Schutkowski, Mike; Hosseininejad, Morteza; Ziller, Mario; Conraths, Franz J.; Schares, Gereon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clonal types prevailing in cats as intermediate hosts in Germany. Methodology To establish a peptide-microarray serotyping test, we identified 24 suitable peptides using serological T. gondii positive (n=21) and negative cat sera (n=52). To determine the clonal type-specific antibody response of cats in Germany, 86 field sera from T. gondii seropositive naturally infected cats were tested. In addition, we analyzed the antibody response in cats experimentally infected with non-canonical T. gondii types (n=7). Findings Positive cat reference sera reacted predominantly with peptides harbouring amino acid sequences specific for the clonal T. gondii type the cats were infected with. When the array was applied to field sera from Germany, 98.8% (85/86) of naturally-infected cats recognized similar peptide patterns as T. gondii type II reference sera and showed the strongest reaction intensities with clonal type II-specific peptides. In addition, naturally infected cats recognized type II-specific peptides significantly more frequently than peptides of other type-specificities. Cats infected with non-canonical types showed the strongest reactivity with peptides presenting amino-acid sequences specific for both, type I and type III. Conclusions Cats are able to mount a clonal type-specific antibody response against T. gondii. Serotyping revealed for most seropositive field sera patterns resembling those observed after clonal type II-T. gondii infection. This finding is in accord with our previous results on the occurrence of T. gondii clonal types in oocysts shed by cats in Germany. PMID:24244652

  9. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii infection: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaotang; Zhou, Hui; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Dan; Wang, Zhiling; Ren, Haitao

    2018-02-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been recognized as the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in children. Several infectious agents have been implicated in anti-NMDA encephalitis. A previously healthy immunocompetent 9-year-old girl first presented with seizures, headaches and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. After one week onset, the patient gradually developed unexplained personality and behavior changes, accompanied by fever and seizures again. Repeated CSF analysis revealed a slightly lymphocytic predominant pleocytosis and positive anti-NMDAR antibody. A variety of pathogenic examinations were negative, except for positive toxoplasma IgM and IgG. The patient was diagnoses for anti-NMDA encephalitis associated with acute acquired toxoplasma gondii infection. The patient received 10 days azithromycin for treatment of acquired toxoplasma infection. The parents refuse immunotherapy because substantial recovery from clinical symptoms. The patient was substantially recovered with residual mild agitation after therapy for acquired toxoplasma gondii infection. Two months later, the patient was completely devoid of symptoms, and the levels of serum IgM and IgG of toxoplasma gondii were decreased. Acquired toxoplasma gondii infection may trigger anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children, which has not been reported previously. Clinicians should assess the possibility of toxoplasma gondii infection when evaluating a patient with anti-NMDA encephalitis.

  10. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  11. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

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    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  12. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, M; Noh-Pech, H; Puerto-Hernández, R; Reyes-Hernández, B; Panti-May, A; Hernández-Betancourt, S; Yeh-Gorocica, A; González-Herrera, L; Zavala-Castro, J; Puerto, F I

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Antigens in Sera and Urine of Experimentally Infected Mice by Capture ELISA

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    S Shojaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite which infects a broad range of hosts. The classical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis relies on serological methods. Detection of parasite or its components could be useful tool for early diag­nosis of the infection.Methods: Fifty mice were infected by the intraperitoneal route with 5000 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain. Five of them sacrificed every day from day 1 up to day 7 post infection. Sera and urine of mice were tested by capture ELISA.Results: T.gondii antigens were detected from 3rd and 2nd day in serum and urine, respectively, after infection until their death on day 7.Conclusion: Antigenemia detection of antigens of parasite was possible in a short period of acute infection with T. gondii by capture ELISA.

  14. The protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii targets the paracellular pathway to invade the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight, Caroline M; Carding, Simon R

    2012-07-01

    Abstract  Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasite found within all mammals and birds worldwide that can cause fatal infections in immunocompromised persons and fetuses. The parasite causes chronic infections by residing in long-living tissues of the muscle and brain. T. gondii infects the host through contaminated meat and water consumption with the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) being the first point of contact with the host. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades the host through the GI tract are unknown, although it has been suggested that the paracellular pathway is important for parasite dissemination. Studies indicate that epithelial tight junction-associated proteins are affected by T. gondii, although which junctional proteins are affected and the nature of host protein-parasite interactions have not been established. We have uncovered evidence that T. gondii influences the cellular distribution of occludin to transmigrate the intestinal epithelium and suggest how candidate binding partners can be identified. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin identified several atypical genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Nolden, C A; Samuel, M D; Velmurugan, G V; Bandini, L A; Kwok, O C H; Bodenstein, B; Su, C

    2007-12-01

    During 2005-2006, sera and tissues from raccoons (Procyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from the state of Wisconsin were tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 of 54 (59.2%) raccoons, 18 of 35 (51.4%) coyotes, and 5 of 7 (71.4%) skunks using the modified agglutination test and a cut-off titer of 1:20. Pooled tissues (brains, hearts, and tongues) from 30 raccoons, 15 coyotes, and 1 skunk were bioassayed for T. gondii infection in mice or cats. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 5 of 30 (16.7%) raccoons, 6 of 15 (40.0%) coyotes, and the skunk. Genetic characterization of the 12 parasite isolates by multilocus PCR-RFLP markers revealed 6 different genotypes including 5 atypical and I archetypal II lineages. The results indicate the prevalence of T. gondii in wildlife mammals is high and that these animals may serve as an important reservoir for transmission of T. gondii.

  16. Solution structure and dynamics of ADF from Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rahul; Pathak, Prem Prakash; Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Jain, Anupam; Srivastava, Shubhra; Tripathi, Sarita; Krishna Pulavarti, S V S R; Mehta, Simren; Sibley, L David; Arora, Ashish

    2011-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii ADF (TgADF) belongs to a functional subtype characterized by strong G-actin sequestering activity and low F-actin severing activity. Among the characterized ADF/cofilin proteins, TgADF has the shortest length and is missing a C-terminal helix implicated in F-actin binding. In order to understand its characteristic properties, we have determined the solution structure of TgADF and studied its backbone dynamics from ¹⁵N-relaxation measurements. TgADF has conserved ADF/cofilin fold consisting of a central mixed β-sheet comprised of six β-strands that are partially surrounded by three α-helices and a C-terminal helical turn. The high G-actin sequestering activity of TgADF relies on highly structurally and dynamically optimized interactions between G-actin and G-actin binding surface of TgADF. The equilibrium dissociation constant for TgADF and rabbit muscle G-actin was 23.81 nM, as measured by ITC, which reflects very strong affinity of TgADF and G-actin interactions. The F-actin binding site of TgADF is partially formed, with a shortened F-loop that does not project out of the ellipsoid structure and a C-terminal helical turn in place of the C-terminal helix α4. Yet, it is more rigid than the F-actin binding site of Leishmania donovani cofilin. Experimental observations and structural features do not support the interaction of PIP2 with TgADF, and PIP2 does not affect the interaction of TgADF with G-actin. Overall, this study suggests that conformational flexibility of G-actin binding sites enhances the affinity of TgADF for G-actin, while conformational rigidity of F-actin binding sites of conventional ADF/cofilins is necessary for stable binding to F-actin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Cecilia A. M.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found

  18. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E.; Edvinsson, B.; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected Canada goose (Branta canadensis) detected two new atypical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread goose in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in bo...

  20. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  1. Quantifying the risk of human Toxoplasma gondii infection due to consumption of domestically-produced lamb in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent protozoan parasite worldwide. Human toxoplasmosis is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Meat products have been identified as an important source of T. gondii infections in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a...

  2. Seroprevalence, isolation, and co-infection of multiple Toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures of the parasite are likely to occur in nature because of high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infe...

  3. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  4. Beyond the association. Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterland, A. L.; Fond, G.; Kuin, A.; Koeter, M. W. J.; Lutter, R.; van Gool, T.; Yolken, R.; Szoke, A.; Leboyer, M.; de Haan, L.

    2015-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis on studies reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in any psychiatric disorder compared with healthy controls. Our secondary objective was to analyze factors possibly moderating heterogeneity. A systematic search was performed to identify studies

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in sympatric domestic and wild ungulates in the Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; Cabezón, O; Paniagua, J; Cano-Terriza, D; Jiménez-Ruiz, S; Arenas-Montes, A; Dubey, J P; García-Bocanegra, I

    2018-01-17

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan of worldwide distribution. The present study provides information on risk factors affecting T. gondii infection in domestic and free-ranging wild ungulates sharing habitats in Mediterranean ecosystems in Spain. Serum samples from 482 extensively reared domestic ruminants and 2351 wild ungulates were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was 41.2% of 194 sheep, 18.6% of 199 cattle and 5.6% of 89 goats. The main risk factors associated with infection in livestock were the presence of cats, feeding on the ground and at stubble fields. In wild ungulates, T. gondii antibodies were detected in 10.5% of 1063 red deer, 15.6% of 294 fallow deer, 5.6% of 216 European mouflon, 5.6% of 90 Spanish ibex, 13.6% of 22 roe deer and 18.6% of 666 wild boars. The risk factors affecting T. gondii infection in wildlife were species, age and hunting season. Significantly higher seroprevalence was found in domestic ruminants, particularly in sheep, compared to the wild species tested. The present study indicates widespread exposure to T. gondii among domestic and wild ungulates in Southern Spain, with significant differences among species sharing the same ecosystem. The high seroprevalence observed in domestic ruminants, particularly in sheep, reinforces the need for farm management practices to control the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in extensively reared livestock. Consumption of raw and undercooked food products from domestic and wildlife species may have important implications for public health.

  6. Relationship between Toxoplasma gondii infection and bipolar disorder in a French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Nora; Daban-Huard, Claire; Lajnef, Mohamed; Richard, Jean-Romain; Delavest, Marine; Godin, Ophélia; Le Guen, Emmanuel; Vederine, François-Eric; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Jamain, Stéphane; Houenou, Josselin; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Aoki, Masayuki; Moins-Teisserenc, Helene; Charron, Dominique; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Yolken, Robert; Dickerson, Faith; Tamouza, Ryad; Leboyer, Marion

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to viruses or parasites with tropism for the central nervous system is one of the risk factors for psychotic disorders. However, the relationship between past exposure to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and incidence of bipolar disorders (BD) is poorly documented across populations. We explored the potential association between T. gondii exposure and BD in France, a country of high prevalence of Toxoplasmosis, comparing the prevalence of serological markers (IgG/IgM class antibodies) for T. gondii infection in 110 BD patients and 106 healthy controls all living in France. In a subgroup of 42 patients and 42 controls we also evaluated the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) transcripts, an adjunct marker of inflammation. We found that the sero-positive group for IgG antibodies to T. gondii had a 2.7 fold odds of having BD as compared to the sero-negative group (OR=2.17 CI 95%=1.09-4.36, p=0.028). Despite the fact that BD patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6 than the non-patient controls, no notable association between T. gondii status and IL-6 transcript levels was found. We did not find any clinical or demographic correlates of Toxoplasma exposure in the study population. Our results are to be interpreted with caution because of our small sample size. We confirm the association between seropositive status to T. gondii and bipolar disorders reported in other populations and extend it to French patients. Our data strengthen the importance of early detection of T. gondii infected patients in order to propose specific and adequate treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of increased exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in individuals with recent onset psychosis but not with established schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolken, Robert; Torrey, E Fuller; Dickerson, Faith

    2017-11-01

    A possible role for Toxoplasma gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is supported by epidemiological studies and animal models of infection. However, recent studies attempting to link Toxoplasma to schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. We performed a nested case-control study measured serological evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in a cohort of 2052 individuals. Within this cohort, a total of 1481 individuals had a psychiatric disorder and 571 of were controls without a psychiatric disorder. We found an increased odds of Toxoplasma exposure in individuals with a recent onset of psychosis (OR 2.44, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-4.4, p Toxoplasma exposure was not found in individuals with schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorder who did not have a recent onset of psychosis. By identifying the timing of evaluation as a variable, these findings resolve discrepancies in previous studies and suggest a temporal relationship between Toxoplasma exposure and disease onset.

  8. The calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 from Toxoplasma gondii as target for structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardew, Emily M; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Pohl, Ehmke

    2018-02-01

    The apicomplexan protozoan parasites include the causative agents of animal and human diseases ranging from malaria (Plasmodium spp.) to toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii). The complex life cycle of T. gondii is regulated by a unique family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) that have become the target of intensive efforts to develop new therapeutics. In this review, we will summarize structure-based strategies, recent successes and future directions in the pursuit of specific and selective inhibitors of T. gondii CDPK1.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, P.S.; Albuquerque, G.R.; da Silva, V.M.F.; Martin, A.R.; Marvulo, M.F.V.; Souza, S.L.P.; Ragozo, A.M.A.; Nascimento, C.C.; Gennari, S.M.; Dubey, J.P.; Silva, J.C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Rico-Almochantaf, Yazmin Del Rosario; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Diaz-Herrera, Arturo; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The influence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on clinical features in women with this disorder has not been studied. Therefore, we determined the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. We performed a cross-sectional study of 151 women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in sera of the participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs). In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in whole blood of IgG seropositive participants using polymerase chain reaction. We obtained the clinical data of women with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of T. gondii infection with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.6%) of the 151 women studied. Of the 10 IgG seropositive women, four (40.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and one (10.0%) for T. gondii DNA. Mean number (25.8 ± 7.58) of premenstrual clinical characteristics in seropositive women was similar to that (29.22 ± 9.13) found in seronegative women (P = 0.25). Logistic regression showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with difficulty concentrating (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.91; P = 0.03), and positively associated with out of control feeling or overwhelmed (OR: 9.00; 95% CI: 1.32 - 62.00; P = 0.02). Results of this first study on the association of T. gondii infection and clinical characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder suggest that this infection might be linked to some symptoms of this disorder. We report for the first time the association of T. gondii infection and out of control feeling or overwhelmed. Results warrant for further research on the role of T. gondii in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Rico-Almochantaf, Yazmin del Rosario; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Diaz-Herrera, Arturo; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The influence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on clinical features in women with this disorder has not been studied. Therefore, we determined the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 151 women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in sera of the participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs). In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in whole blood of IgG seropositive participants using polymerase chain reaction. We obtained the clinical data of women with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of T. gondii infection with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.6%) of the 151 women studied. Of the 10 IgG seropositive women, four (40.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and one (10.0%) for T. gondii DNA. Mean number (25.8 ± 7.58) of premenstrual clinical characteristics in seropositive women was similar to that (29.22 ± 9.13) found in seronegative women (P = 0.25). Logistic regression showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with difficulty concentrating (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.91; P = 0.03), and positively associated with out of control feeling or overwhelmed (OR: 9.00; 95% CI: 1.32 - 62.00; P = 0.02). Conclusions Results of this first study on the association of T. gondii infection and clinical characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder suggest that this infection might be linked to some symptoms of this disorder. We report for the first time the association of T. gondii infection and out of control feeling or overwhelmed. Results warrant for further research on the role of T. gondii in premenstrual dysphoric

  12. Azithromycin is able to control Toxoplasma gondii infection in human villous explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is normally asymptomatic, severe cases of toxoplasmosis may occur in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected newborns. When a fetal infection is established, the recommended treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid (PSA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of azithromycin to control T. gondii infection in human villous explants. Methods Cultures of third trimester human villous explants were infected with T. gondii and simultaneously treated with either PSA or azithromycin. Proliferation of T. gondii, as well as production of cytokines and hormones by chorionic villous explants, was analyzed. Results Treatment with either azithromycin or PSA was able to control T. gondii infection in villous explants. After azithromycin or PSA treatment, TNF-α, IL-17A or TGF-β1 levels secreted by infected villous explants did not present significant differences. However, PSA-treated villous explants had decreased levels of IL-10 and increased IL-12 levels, while treatment with azithromycin increased production of IL-6. Additionally, T. gondii-infected villous explants increased secretion of estradiol, progesterone and HCG + β, while treatments with azithromycin or PSA reduced secretion of these hormones concurrently with decrease of parasite load. Conclusions In conclusion, these results suggest that azithromycin may be defined as an effective alternative drug to control T. gondii infection at the fetal-maternal interface. PMID:24885122

  13. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii Type I, predominant genotype isolated from sheep in South of Iran

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    Belal Armand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to determine the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep using nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: The tissue samples of diaphragm and heart from 125 sheep were collected from the main slaughterhouses of Jahrom district in South of Fars province, Iran, between Aprils and June 2013. The DNA were extracted and analyzed by nested-PCR using specific primers for SAG2 and GRA6 loci. RFLP was used to classify strains into one of the three major lineages of T. gondii. Results: T. gondii Type I was predominant in this area. The data obtained from both loci demonstrated that the frequency of each genotype was 72% Type I, 2.4% Type III, 7.2% mixed Type I and II, 16.8% mixed Type I and III, 0.8% mixed Type II and III, and 0.8% mixed Type I, II and III. Conclusion: Although the previously published data indicated that Type II is the predominant T. gondii genotype in sheep in the other parts of the world, this study showed that genotype I is the dominant genotype of T. gondii in the southern Iran; however, other genotypes were detected. High diversity of T. gondii genotypes including mix genotypes in lambs is of importance for the public health. These studies depict a new mapping of T. gondii genotypes pattern which could be very helpful in toxoplasmosis control and prevention.

  15. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; Cruz-Romero, Anabel; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Peniche-Cardeña, Alvaro; Ibarra-Priego, Nelly; Ahuja-Aguirre, Concepción; Pérez-de-León, Adalberto A; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-08-20

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Sixty eight (67.3%) of 101 dogs were seropositive with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 8, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 10, 1:400 in 10, 1:800 in 10, 1:1600 in 3, and 1:3200 or higher in 2. None of the dogs' characteristics studied including age, sex, breed, and history of deworming, rabies vaccination and contact with cats was associated with seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. Using the dogs as sentinel animals, the results indicate high contamination with T. gondii of the environment in Veracruz, Mexico. Results have public health implications, and further studies in Veracruz should be conducted to establish the sources of environmental contamination with T. gondii and to determine optimal preventive measures against T. gondii infection in humans.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Kunming, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Gang; Tian, Yi-Ming; Li, Bi-Feng; Yang, Jian-Fa; Liu, Zi-Li; Yuan, Fei-Zhou; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-06-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. However, little is known of T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, southwest China. The objective of this investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area. A total of 611 serum samples were collected from 7 pet hospitals in Kunming, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination (IHA) using a commercially-marked kit. 132 (21.6%) pet dogs were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 17.3% to 34.7% among different sampling regions, the difference was statistically significant (P dogs were 20.8% and 22.4%, respectively, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence ranged from 17.5% to 23.6% among different age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), and there were no interactions in statistics (P > 0.05) between gender and age of pet dogs in the region. The findings of the present survey indicate high T. gondii seroprevalance in pet dogs in Kunming, southwest China, posing significant public health concern. It is necessary to enhance integrated strategies and measures to prevent and control T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María Del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A cross-sectional survey. Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; pAguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Does Toxoplasma gondii infection impact liver transplantation outcomes? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Ramírez, Maria de la Luz; Sánchez-Orozco, Laura V; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Adrián Fernando; Rodriguez Pérez, Laura Roció

    2018-02-12

    Approximately one-third of the world's population has Toxoplasma gondii infection, and one of the main routes of transmission is organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Toxoplasma infection on liver transplantation patients. We searched PubMed, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Springer, Wiley, Ovid and Google Scholar for reports published up to June 2017, and a systematic review was performed. Twenty cases were analysed before and after liver transplantation. Primary and reactivated infections were investigated. Before transplantation, positive IgG antibodies were the predominant serological markers in donors and recipients: 40 % (D+/R-), 20 % (D+/R+) and 20 % (D-/R+). IgM was present in only 5 % of the donors (D+/R-). In four cases, the serological markers were not specified or were negative (D?/R? or D?/R-). After transplantation, IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were found in 30 % of the recipients, and in 67 % of the seronegative recipients the presence of Toxoplasma DNA or tachyzoites was reported, suggesting a primary infection. Clinical symptoms were meningitis, massive cerebral oedema, encephalitis and seizures. Treatment was administered in 70 % of the patients, and 40 % died after presenting symptoms associated with Toxoplasma infection. Although we review Toxoplasma infection and liver transplantation cases, problems associated with the parasite may be greater than identified. Hence, follow-up studies on Toxoplasma infection in liver transplantation patients are recommended.

  19. Virtual screening reveals allosteric inhibitors of the Toxoplasma gondii thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hitesh; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Todd J; Kumar, Vidya P; Dahlgren, Markus K; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-02-15

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii can lead to toxoplasmosis in those who are immunocompromised. To combat the infection, the enzyme responsible for nucleotide synthesis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) is a suitable drug target. We have used virtual screening to determine novel allosteric inhibitors at the interface between the two TS domains. Selected compounds from virtual screening inhibited TS activity. Thus, these results show that allosteric inhibition by small drug-like molecules can occur in T. gondii TS-DHFR and pave the way for new and potent species-specific inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge gaps in host-parasite interaction preclude accurate assessment of meat-borne exposure to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, M; Limon, G; Blake, D P; Guitian, J

    2017-11-16

    Toxoplasma gondii is recognized as a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite worldwide. Although several studies clearly identified meat products as an important source of T. gondii infections in humans, quantitative understanding of the risk posed to humans through the food chain is surprisingly scant. While probabilistic risk assessments for pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes or Escherichia coli have been well established, attempts to quantify the probability of human exposure to T. gondii through consumption of food products of animal origin are at early stages. The biological complexity of the life cycle of T. gondii and limited understanding of several fundamental aspects of the host/parasite interaction, require the adoption of numerous critical assumptions and significant simplifications. In this study, we present a hypothetical quantitative model for the assessment of human exposure to T. gondii through meat products. The model has been conceptualized to capture the dynamics leading to the presence of parasite in meat and, for illustrative purposes, used to estimate the probability of at least one viable cyst occurring in 100g of fresh pork meat in England. Available data, including the results of a serological survey in pigs raised in England were used as a starting point to implement a probabilistic model and assess the fate of the parasite along the food chain. Uncertainty distributions were included to describe and account for the lack of knowledge where necessary. To quantify the impact of the key model inputs, sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. The overall probability of 100g of a hypothetical edible tissue containing at least 1 cyst was 5.54%. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the variables exerting the greater effect on the output mean were the number of cysts and number of bradyzoites per cyst. Under the best and the worst scenarios, the probability of a single portion of fresh pork meat containing at least 1

  1. Isolation and characterization of new genetic types of Toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of Trichinella murrelli from black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hill, D; Zarlenga, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Driscoll, C P; Spiker, H; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are hosts for two important zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. and bears are hunted for human consumption in the USA. Little is known of the genetic diversity of T. gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were found in juice from tongues of 17 (25.7%) of 66 wild black bear from Maryland during the hunting season of 2010 and 2011. Antibodies to T. gondii were assessed by the modified agglutination test. Tongues of 17 seropositive bears were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from three samples. These three T. gondii isolates (TgBbMd1-3) were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Results revealed three genotypes. TgBbMd1 is a Type 12 strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #4) and TgBbMd2 is ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #216, and TgBbMd3 is a Type II clonal strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). The isolate TgBbMd2 was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice; all infected mice died of acute toxoplasmosis. Results indicate that mouse virulent strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife in the USA. These 66 tongues in addition to tongues collected during hunts in previous years were further investigated for the presence of muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. Tongues from 40 bears in 2005, 41 in 2006, 51 in 2007, 56 in 2008, 68 in 2009, 67 in 2010, and 66 in 2011 were subjected to digestion with pepsin/HCl and microscopic examination. Two bears were infected with Trichinella spp.; one in 2008 and one in 2009. Genotyping of collected muscle larvae revealed that the infecting species in both cases was Trichinella murrelli. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Mic1-3 Knockout Toxoplasma gondii is a good candidate for a vaccine against T. gondii-induced abortion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mévélec, Marie-Noëlle; Ducournau, Céline; Bassuny Ismael, Alaa; Olivier, Michel; Sèche, Edouard; Lebrun, Maryse; Bout, Daniel; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a mutant strain of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) lacking the mic1 and mic3 genes (Mic1-3KO) against Toxoplasma abortion in sheep. Ewes were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) Mic1-3KO tachyzoïtes in three independent experiments. Following vaccination, Mic1-3KO induced a mild febrile response and serum IgG antibodies, which persisted throughout the experiments. Tissue cysts formed in the sheep, but were not, under our experimental conditions, infectious when given orally. Ewes were mated two months after vaccination and were orally challenged with the PRU strain of T. gondii at mid-gestation (400 oocysts in Experiments 1 and 2; 100 oocysts in Experiment 3). Challenge of vaccinated pregnant ewes resulted in a slight febrile response, whereas unvaccinated ewes developed a more severe, characteristic febrile response of longer duration. After challenge, all unvaccinated ewes aborted whereas 62%, 91% and 64% (Experiments 1, 2 and 3 respectively) of the lambs from vaccinated ewes were viable, with no clinical signs of infection. Mic1-3KO was as effective as S48, the strain used as a live vaccine for sheep (Toxovax). A dose of 10(5) Mic1-3KO tachyzoites was sufficient to induce protection (versus a dose of 2x10(6)). Both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections were effective. Moreover, preliminary results showed the potential of Mic1-3KO to reduce the development of tissue cysts in lambs born to vaccinated ewes. This study demonstrates that Mic1-3KO is a potent vaccine candidate. Copyright (c) INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Parkinson's disease: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Méndez-Hernández, Edna Madai; Salas-Pacheco, José Manuel; Ruano-Calderón, Luis Ángel; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Case–control study. Setting Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. Participants 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease. Primary and secondary outcome measures Serum samples of participants were analysed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Prevalence of T. gondii DNA was determined in seropositive subjects using PCR. The association between clinical data and infection was examined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 6/65 cases (9.2%) and in 21/195 controls (10.8%) (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.32 to 2.18; p=0.81). The frequency of high (>150 IU/mL) antibody levels was similar among cases and controls (p=0.34). None of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive cases and four of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (p=0.54). The prevalence of T. gondii DNA was comparable in seropositive cases and controls (16.7% and 25%, respectively; p=1.0). Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was associated with a young age onset of disease (p=0.03), high Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores (p=0.04) and depression (p=0.02). Seropositivity to T. gondii infection was lower in patients treated with pramipexole than in patients without this treatment (p=0.01). However, none of the associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The results do not support an association between T. gondii infection and Parkinson's disease. However, T. gondii infection might have an influence on certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Further research to elucidate the role of T. gondii exposure on Parkinson's disease

  4. Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Méndez-Hernández, Edna Madai; Salas-Pacheco, José Manuel; Ruano-Calderón, Luis Ángel; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar

    2017-02-13

    To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. Case-control study. Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease. Serum samples of participants were analysed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Prevalence of T. gondii DNA was determined in seropositive subjects using PCR. The association between clinical data and infection was examined by bivariate analysis. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 6/65 cases (9.2%) and in 21/195 controls (10.8%) (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.32 to 2.18; p=0.81). The frequency of high (>150 IU/mL) antibody levels was similar among cases and controls (p=0.34). None of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive cases and four of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (p=0.54). The prevalence of T. gondii DNA was comparable in seropositive cases and controls (16.7% and 25%, respectively; p=1.0). Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was associated with a young age onset of disease (p=0.03), high Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores (p=0.04) and depression (p=0.02). Seropositivity to T. gondii infection was lower in patients treated with pramipexole than in patients without this treatment (p=0.01). However, none of the associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The results do not support an association between T. gondii infection and Parkinson's disease. However, T. gondii infection might have an influence on certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Further research to elucidate the role of T. gondii exposure on Parkinson's disease is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  5. Prevalence and genotyping ofToxoplasma gondii among Saudi pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  6. Clonal types of Toxoplasma gondii among immune compromised and immune competent individuals in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Irene; Kwofie, Kofi Dadzie; Blay, Emmanuel Awusah; Osei, Joseph Harold Nyarko; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyeremeh; Koku, Roberta; Ghansah, Anita; Lartey, Margaret; Suzuki, Takashi; Boakye, Daniel Adjei; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    There are three major clonal lineages, types I, II, and III, of Toxoplasma gondii known to cause human toxoplasmosis worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infections have, however, not been genotyped in Ghana. This study detected the clonal types infecting immune compromised and immune competent individuals in Accra, Ghana. Blood samples were obtained from 148 HIV seropositive pre-antiretroviral therapy individuals (0 ≤ CD4(+) T-cell count/μl blood ≤ 200) at the Fevers Unit and 149 HIV seronegative apparently healthy blood donors at the blood bank, all of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Genomic DNA was extracted and multilocus genotyping conducted by nested PCR-RFLP analysis using GRA6, SAG3, and BTUB gene markers. Among the HIV seropositive participants, 54.7% (81/148) were T. gondii DNA positive for any of the markers. Out of the 81, 42.0% (34) were positive for SAG3 only, 30.9% (25) for GRA6 only, 24.7% (20) for both SAG3 and GRA6, and 2.5% (2) for SAG3, GRA6, and BTUB. Overall, 93.8% of the positives were of clonal type II, 1.2% type I, while 4.9% (4) were atypical or mixed types (I and II). In the healthy blood donors, prevalence of T. gondii DNA positivity was 3.4% (5/149) by SAG3 and/or GRA6; among them, 60.0% (3/5) were type I, and the remaining 40.0%, type II. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of active T. gondii infections in immune compromised patients and low prevalence in immune competent individuals in Accra. Type II was highly prevalent. Detection of T. gondii in blood donors raises public health concerns and screening for T. gondii should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  8. The histone code of Toxoplasma gondii comprises conserved and unique posttranslational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Sheila C; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O; Sullivan, William J; Angeletti, Ruth H; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M

    2013-12-10

    Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. Toxoplasma gondii is among the most common parasitic infections in humans. The transition between the different stages of the T. gondii life cycle are essential for parasite virulence and survival. These differentiation events are accompanied by significant

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, circulating antigens and DNA in stray cats in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent in most areas of the world and may cause abortions or neonatal complications in humans. As the only definitive host, cats play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Infection rates in cats, especially stray or free-living cats, are considered to be the best sentinels of the level of T. gondii in the environment. The T. gondii infection can be diagnosed in different ways with different methods depending on the target. However, little information on T. gondii infection in cats was available in Shanghai, China. Moreover reports on prevalence of circulating antigens, antibodies and DNA of T. gondii in the same study are rare. Methods In the present study, the presence of antibodies (Ab, circulating antigens (CA, and/or DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in samples from 145 stray or unwanted cats from 6 animal shelters in Shanghai (China was determined in order to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infection, by Ab-ELISA, CA-ELISA, and nested-PCR, respectively. Results The positive rates for the antibodies, circulating antigen and DNA of T. gondii were 11.7% (17 of 145, 5.5% (8 of 145 and 5.71% (2 of 35, respectively. No cat tested was positive by both the Ab-ELISA and the CA-ELISA, but the results of the PCR were consistent with the CA-ELISA assay. Therefore, the overall estimated prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 17.2% (25 of 145. According to our results, the positive rates of specific antibodies and circulating antigen of T. gondii were significantly different between adult cats (>1 year old and juvenile cats (≤1 year old; the former was 13.5% versus 3.9% by Ab-ELISA, while the latter was 1.7% versus 23.1% by CA-ELISA. From the results obtained with all three detection methods used in this study, the rate of infection was not significantly different between male and female cats (P ≥0.05; and the overall rate was 17.9% for males versus 16.4% for females. Conclusions The results

  10. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms in Maryland, Ohio and Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yuqing; Verma, Shiv K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Alibana, Fatima; Mcleod, Rima; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P; Pradhan, Abani K

    2017-05-01

    Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n = 1185) obtained from grocery stores were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:25, and 1:100 dilutions. MAT antibodies were detected in 222 hearts at 1:5 dilution and 8 hearts at 1:25 dilution, but none were positive at 1:100 dilution. Seropositive (n = 230, 19.4%) chicken hearts were bioassayed in mice and seronegative (n = 157) chickens were bioassayed in cats. Viable T. gondii was not isolated from any hearts by bioassays in mice. The 2 cats fed 60 and 97 hearts did not excrete T. gondii oocysts. The results indicate a low prevalence of viable T. gondii in chickens from grocery stores. Molecular typing of 23 archived T. gondii strains isolated from free-range chickens from Ohio and Massachusetts using the 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed that seven were ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, 11 were genotype #2, one was genotype #3, three were genotype #170, and one was mixed genotype. These results indicate that the clonal genotypes #1 (type II), #2 (type III), and #3 (type II variant) are common in free-range chickens.

  11. Aborto espontâneo e toxoplasmose ocular em um casal infectado com Toxoplasma gondii = Spontaneous abortion and ocular toxoplasmosis in a couple infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Carla Zangari de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Relatar os casos de um casal, em que a esposa apresentou toxoplasmose na gestação e o esposo, após 15 anos, foi diagnosticado com toxoplasmose ocular. Relato dos casos: Gestante, grávida de gêmeos, residente de um estado na região Sul do Brasil. No primeiro mês de gestação apresentou sorologia não reagente para IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii. Na sétima semana de gestação houve soroconversão (IgM e IgG anti-T. gondii reagentes e aborto natural. O esposo, após 15 anos desde o episódio da esposa, queixou-se de visão embaçada/irritada. O exame de fundoscopia revelou lesões típicas de coriorretinite recidivante por toxoplasmose no olho direito. Os exames sorológicos foram IgG anti-T. gondii reagente e IgM anti-T. gondii não reagente. Conclusões: Este relato, de um casal com desfechos clínicos importantes de toxoplasmose, em diferentes formas, enfatiza a relevância do problema da toxoplasmose, que nas suas diversas manifestações, pode trazer graves consequências para a vida de uma família

  12. Host cell egress and invasion induce marked relocations of glycolytic enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

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    Sebastien Pomel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are dependent on an F-actin and myosin-based motility system for their invasion into and escape from animal host cells, as well as for their general motility. In Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species, the actin filaments and myosin motor required for this process are located in a narrow space between the parasite plasma membrane and the underlying inner membrane complex, a set of flattened cisternae that covers most the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Here we show that the energy required for Toxoplasma motility is derived mostly, if not entirely, from glycolysis and lactic acid production. We also demonstrate that the glycolytic enzymes of Toxoplasma tachyzoites undergo a striking relocation from the parasites' cytoplasm to their pellicles upon Toxoplasma egress from host cells. Specifically, it appears that the glycolytic enzymes are translocated to the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane complex as well as to the space between the plasma membrane and inner membrane complex. The glycolytic enzymes remain pellicle-associated during extended incubations of parasites in the extracellular milieu and do not revert to a cytoplasmic location until well after parasites have completed invasion of new host cells. Translocation of glycolytic enzymes to and from the Toxoplasma pellicle appears to occur in response to changes in extracellular [K(+] experienced during egress and invasion, a signal that requires changes of [Ca(2+](c in the parasite during egress. Enzyme translocation is, however, not dependent on either F-actin or intact microtubules. Our observations indicate that Toxoplasma gondii is capable of relocating its main source of energy between its cytoplasm and pellicle in response to exit from or entry into host cells. We propose that this ability allows Toxoplasma to optimize ATP delivery to those cellular processes that are most critical for survival outside host cells and those required for growth and

  13. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt

    2017-01-01

    in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had...... antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species....

  14. Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon

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    Sérgio Neto Vitaliano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin. M METHODS: The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231. IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3% and IgM by 14 (10.7% of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05; however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05 community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.

  15. Molecular detection and genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats in four provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Cong, Wei; Liu, Ye; Li, Nan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

    2014-12-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Limited information about T. gondii infection in bats is available in China. The objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in bats in Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces, China. During May 2005 to August 2013, bats were sampled from Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi, and Guangdong provinces, China, and liver tissues were collected for the detection of T. gondii by a nested PCR targeting the B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'-and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 626 bats representing 10 species were examined for T. gondii infection, 38 (6.1%) were tested positive with by PCR, 8 positive DNA samples were completely genotyped, of which 3 samples (2 from Cynopterus sphinx, and 1 from Murina leucogaster) represented ToxoDB#10, and 5 samples (2 from Murina leucogaster, 2 from Myotis chinensis, and 1 from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) belonged to ToxoDB#9 ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ). The present study revealed an overall T. gondii prevalence of 6.1% in bats from Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces in China, and reported two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and #10) having a wide geographical distribution in China. These results provide new genetic information about T. gondii infection in bats, and have implications for better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. gondii in China and elsewhere.

  16. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in inmates: A case control study in Durango City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Ramos-Nevárez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Sáenz-Soto, L.; Liesenfeld, O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43–5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29–11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). Conclusions The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed. PMID:24678408

  17. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Black Bears (Ursus americanus), Bobcats (Lynx rufus), and Feral Cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cassinelli, Ana B; Kwok, Oliver C H; Van Why, Kyle; Su, Chunlei; Humphreys, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In the present study, we tested black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and feral cat (Felis catus) from the state of Pennsylvania for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 (84.2%) of 38 bears, both bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats tested by the modified agglutination test (cut off titer 1:25). Hearts from seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice, and viable T. gondii was isolated from 3 of 32 bears, 2 of 2 bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these isolates was characterized using multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Three genotypes were revealed, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 or #3 (Type II, 1 isolate), #5 (Type 12, 3 isolates), and #216 (3 isolates), adding to the evidence of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wildlife in Pennsylvania. Pathogenicity of 3 T. gondii isolates (all #216, 1 from bear, and 2 from feral cat) was determined in outbred Swiss Webster mice; all three were virulent causing 100% mortality. Results indicated that highly mouse pathogenic strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife, and these strains may pose risk to infect human through consuming of game meat. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii: demonstration of intrinsic peroxidase activity during lacto-peroxidase mediated radioiodination of tachyzoites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, Y.; Tricaud, A.; Foussard, F.; Hodbert, J.; Girault, A.; Mauras, G.; Dubremetz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii have been radioiodinated under various conditions with or without lactoperoxidase, with glucose oxidase being used to generate hydrogen peroxide. Erythrocytes were iodinated simultaneously as a control. In our conditions, tachyzoites were more intensely labelled in the absence of lactoperoxidase. This result can be explained by the existence of an intrinsic peroxidase activity which interfere with the exogenously added enzyme during surface radioiodination.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii AP2IX-4 Regulates Gene Expression during Bradyzoite Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sherri Huang; Holmes, Michael J.; Radke, Joshua B.; Dong-Pyo Hong; Ting-Kai Liu; White, Michael W.; Sullivan, William J.; Margaret Phillips

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of great importance to human and animal health. In the host, this obligate intracellular parasite persists as a tissue cyst that is imperceptible to the immune response and unaffected by current therapies. The tissue cysts facilitate transmission through predation and give rise to chronic cycles of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Transcriptional changes accompany conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites into the encysted...

  20. Effect of Estuarine Wetland Degradation on Transport of Toxoplasma gondii Surrogates from Land to Sea▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Karen; Conrad, Patricia A.; Jonna A K Mazet; Wallender, Wesley W.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Largier, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The flux of terrestrially derived pathogens to coastal waters presents a significant health risk to marine wildlife, as well as to humans who utilize the nearshore for recreation and seafood harvest. Anthropogenic changes in natural habitats may result in increased transmission of zoonotic pathogens to coastal waters. The objective of our work was to evaluate how human-caused alterations of coastal landscapes in California affect the transport of Toxoplasma gondii to estuarine waters. Toxopla...

  1. Datation de l'infection a Toxoplasma gondii chez 128 femmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de ce test dans les laboratoires de biologie médicale au Togo pourrait contribuer à améliorer la prise charge adéquate des femmes enceintes au Togo. Mots clés: Toxoplasmose, sérologie, test d'avidité, femmes enceintes, Togo. English Title: Datation of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in a ...

  2. ISOLATION OF PURIFIED OOCYST WALLS AND SPOROCYSTS FROM TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxaplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrates, including humans. This report describes methods that have been developed for separation of oocyst components starting with the mechanical fragmentation of oocysts. Use of iodixoanol gradients a...

  3. Toxoplasma gondii dissemination: a parasite's journey through the infected host

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harker, K. S; Ueno, N; Lodoen, M. B

    2015-01-01

    ... with T. gondii typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, but the parasite then breaches the intestinal epithelial barrier and spreads from the lamina propria to a large variety...

  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Improves Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by Toxoplasma gondii Infection

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    Hossein MAHMOUDVAND

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Here, we established the mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis by T. gondii Tehran strain to provide a good understanding about defining the possible association between T. gondii exposure and learning and memory impairments. Moreover, as secondary objective of the present study, we hypothesized whether administration of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitor could reduce learning and memory impairments induced by T. gondii infection.Methods: Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were used to establishment of latent toxoplasmosis. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. Donepezil (2 mg/kg an AChE inhibitor to treat Alzheimer disease was injected intraperitoneally once a day for two weeks starting from post-infection day 90. Morris water maze (MWM task was used to assay spatial learning and short term spatial memory in all groups. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test was used to assess differences between experimental groups.  P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Toxoplasma infection impaired spatial leaning and short term spatial memory of the infected BALB/c mice, whereas donepezil, an AChE inhibitor, improved impairments induced by Toxoplasma infection.Conclusion: T. gondii infection through increasing AChE reduces the level of Acetylcholine (Ach and consequently affects learning and memory activity in infected hosts, whereas, donepezil as an AChE inhibitor improves these impairments by restoring ACh levels at synapses of neurons in brain.

  5. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV Positive Patients from West of Iran by ELISA and PCR.

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    Ali Rostami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, the obligate intracellular parasite is life threatening in AIDS patients. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on serological methods especially increasing of IgM and IgG titers, but finding of parasite or its components (antigenemia may be beneficial method in order to detection of acute toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients.Ninety-four serum samples from HIV positive patients were collected from Sanandaj, Kordistan west of Iran. These patients were lived in Sanandaj of whom 26 were prisoners infected with HIV virus in prison. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were determined by IgG ELISA. T. gondii antigen was identified by capture-ELISA. PCR was performed on samples with T. gondii antigenemia. CD4+ T cells counts had been determined by flowcytometry and were obtained from records of each patient.Among the examined HIV seropositive individuals, 19.1% (18/94 and 5.3% (5/94 were positive for Toxoplasma-IgG and antigenemia, respectively. Besides, one of the samples was positively detected by PCR method. Mean age of participants was 37.9 ± 9.5 year. Prevalence of IgG antibody and antgenemia was higher in age group of 40-50 years old. The Mean of CD4+ T cells counts of participants (total of HIV+ patients, IgG positive patients and patients with antigenemia was 699.2 ± 345.2, 655.1 ± 237.9 and 620.2 ± 215.1 respectively.Capture-ELISA and PCR could confirm the T. gondii acute infection in HIV positive patients. For precise diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in HIV positive patient, performance of more studies based on more sensitive types of PCR is suggested.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii effectors are master regulators of the inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mariane B.; Jensen, Kirk D.C.; Saeij, Jeroen P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma is a highly successful parasite that establishes a life-long chronic infection. To do this it must carefully regulate immune activation and host cell effector mechanisms. Here we review the latest developments in our understanding of how Toxoplasma counteracts the host’s immune response, and in some cases provokes it, through the use of specific parasite effector proteins. An emerging theme from these discoveries is that Toxoplasma effectors are master regulators of the pro-inflammatory response, which elicits many of the host’s toxoplasmacidal mechanisms. We speculate that combinations of these effectors present in certain Toxoplasma strains work to maintain an optimal parasite burden in different hosts to ensure parasite transmission. PMID:21893432

  7. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Activity of Root Extract/Fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    Kavitha Nowroji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection causes toxoplasmosis, an infectious disease with worldwide prevalence. The limited efficiency of drugs against this infection, their side effects and the potential appearance of resistant strains make the search of novel drugs an essential need. We examined Eurycoma longifolia root extract and fractions as potential sources of new compounds with high activity and low toxicity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the anti-T. gondii activity of crude extract (TACME and four fractions (TAF 273, TAF 355, TAF 191 and TAF 401 from E. longifolia, with clindamycin as the positive control. Methods In vitro toxoplasmacidal evaluation was performed using Vero cells as host for T. gondii. Light microscopy technique was used to study in situ antiparasitic activity. Results Significant anti-T. gondii activity was observed with clindamycin (EC50 = 0.016 μg/ml, follow by TAF 355 (EC50 = 0.369 μg/ml and TAF 401 (EC50 = 0.882 μg/ml. Light microscopy revealed that most Vero cells were infected after 3 h of exposure to T. gondii. After 36 h of exposure to the E. longifolia fraction, the host Vero cells showed no visible intracellular parasite and no remarkable morphological changes. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that TAF 355 and TAF401 fractions may be the sources of new anti-T. gondii compounds.

  9. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Tuberculosis Patients in China.

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    Zhao, Yun-Jiao; Zhao, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Sun, Xue-Juan; Liu, Yu-Qin; Hou, Yan-Jie; Wu, Jing-Qiu; Jia, Hui; Han, Yi-Nan; Dong, Wei; Yan, Shi-Ming; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, coinfection of tuberculosis (TB) and parasitosis in humans is an emerging problem in coendemic areas, which has been increasingly highlighted in developing countries. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in TB patients. Therefore, through a case-control study, 924 TB patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in northeastern and eastern China, and 924 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched with gender, age, and residence were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of TB patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in TB patients (122/924, 13.2%) was significantly higher than control subjects (90/924, 9.7%) (p = 0.019), and 26 (2.8%) TB patients and 19 (2.1%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (p = 0.291), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with keeping cats at home, presence of stray cats, and consumption of raw/undercooked meat. The present study first revealed the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in TB patients in China. Moreover, parasitological surveys should be regularly carried out among TB patients, aiming to prevent the possibility of severe toxoplasmosis.

  10. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil

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    Arthur Willian de Lima Brasil

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1% for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%. Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99 and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33 were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.

  11. Detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 (Pinnipedia, Phocidae from Elephant Island

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    Tony Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in Mirounga leonina (M. leonina Linnaeus from Elephant Island, Antarctica. Methods: The animals were anesthetized, restrained, measured, weighed and had their blood collected by venipuncture of intervertebral lumbar epidural vein. Blood samples were collected from 102 individuals. Indirect hemagglutination and serum dilution at a proportion of 1:25 was used for specific immunoglobulin G anti-T. gondii detection. Results: Only one (0.98% specimen, a newly weaned calf, was seropositive. Conclusions: This study is the highest serological survey for antibody detection against T. gondii in M. leonina. The results suggest a low level of exposure to T. gondii, probably due to the absence of felids in the study area. The seropositivity presented by the elephant seal may be related to the presence of oocysts in water or cysts in their preys. Despite being reported the presence of the parasite in fish and molluscs, there are no records of tissue cysts or oocysts in squid or fish of the diet of M. leonina. Thus, further parasitological studies focused on preys of elephant seals are needed for a better understanding of infection of M. leonina by T. gondii.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Central Europe.

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    Heddergott, M; Frantz, A C; Stubbe, M; Stubbe, A; Ansorge, H; Osten-Sacken, N

    2017-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes toxoplasmosis in warm-blooded animals. Most mammals, including humans, can become intermediate host, resulting in subclinical infection or even death. Generally, there is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii of game species in Germany. As omnivores, raccoons, which are particularly widespread and abundant in Germany, are particularly exposed to infection the parasite. Here, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies from 15 study sites located in Luxembourg and Germany. Using the indirect modified agglutination test (MAT), 170 (37.4%; 95% CI: 33.0-41.9) out of 454 raccoons were surveyed to be T. gondii seropositive. While values ranged from 19.0% to 53.3%, there was no significant difference in seroprevalence between study areas. Animal weight had a strong influence on the presence of T. gondii antibodies in raccoon sera, with heavier animals more likely to be seropositive. Our results show that T. gondii infection is widespread in central European raccoons, suggesting a high degree of ecosystem circulation of the parasite.

  13. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.

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    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1∶20 to 1∶160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ≧20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (≧12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR) = 9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola.

  14. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from eared doves (Zenaida auriculata in Brazil

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    Luiz Daniel de Barros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eared doves (Zenaida auriculata, which are common in urban, rural and wild areas in many regions of Brazil, are frequently prey for domestic cats. Therefore Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from doves may reflect greater environmental diversity than those from other hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate T. gondii seroprevalence, isolate and genotype strains from Z. auriculata. Serum and tissue samples were collected from 206 doves for use in the modified agglutination test (MAT and mouse bioassay. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the doves was 22.3% (46/206, with titers ranging from 16 to 4096, and T. gondii strains were isolated from 12 of these doves. Five genotypes were detected by means of PCR-RFLP, including ToxoDB genotypes #1, #6, #17 and #65, and one genotype that had not previously been described (ToxoDB#182. This was the first report on isolation of T. gondii from Z. auriculata. This study confirmed the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates and the existence of clonal type II (ToxoDB genotype #1 in Brazil.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; García-Machado, C; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i.e., mountainous (n  =  68), semi-desert (n  =  132), and valley (n  =  311). Overall, T. gondii antibodies were found in 77 (15.1%) of 511 sheep, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 27, 1∶50 in 10, 1∶100 in 11, 1∶200 in 11, 1∶400 in 8, 1∶800 in 3, 1∶1,600 in 4, and 1∶3,200 in 3. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection increased significantly with age, indicating post-natal transmission. In contrast, gender, breed, flock size, and geographic region did not significantly influence the seroprevalence. Seropositive sheep were found in 7 of 8 farms sampled. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Durango State, Mexico. Results indicate that infected sheep are probably an important source of T. gondii infection for humans in Durango State.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Lanzhou, Northwest China.

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    Wu, Song-Ming; Huang, Si-Yang; Fu, Bao-Quan; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Mu-Xin; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Ye, De-He

    2011-05-04

    In recent years, surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Northwest China. In the present study, the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Lanzhou, China was investigated using the modified agglutination test (MAT). In this survey, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28 of 259 (10.81%) pet dogs, with MAT titers of 1:20 in 14 dogs, 1:40 in nine, 1:80 in four, and 1:160 or higher in one dog. The prevalence ranged from 6.67% to 16.67% among dogs of different ages, with low rates in young pet dogs, and high rates in older pet dogs. The seroprevalence in dogs >3 years old was higher than that in dogs ≤1 years old, but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). The seroprevalence in male dogs was 12.50% (17 of 136), and in female dogs it was 8.94% (11 of 123), but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). A high prevalence of T. gondii infection was found in pet dogs in Lanzhou, Northwest China, which has implications for public health in this region. In order to reduce the risk of exposure to T. gondii, further measures and essential control strategies should be carried out rationally in this region.

  18. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus).

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    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Papini, Roberto; Mugnaini, Linda; Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The purpose of the present paper was to detect the presence of parasite DNA in milk of T. gondii positive donkeys. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 11 out of 44 healthy lactating donkeys by IFAT. T. gondii DNA was detected by PCR in blood of 6 and milk of 3 seropositive jennies. Results of limited RFLP-PCR genotyping indicated the presence of T. gondii genotype II or III, commonly found in Europe. The occurrence of T. gondii DNA in milk suggests that the consumption of raw milk from seropositive donkeys could be a potential source of human infection.

  19. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

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    House, Patrick K; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  20. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

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    Patrick K House

    Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  1. Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Kimberly M Cirelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded species. Rats vary in their susceptibility to this parasite. The Toxo1 locus conferring Toxoplasma resistance in rats was previously mapped to a region of chromosome 10 containing Nlrp1. This gene encodes an inflammasome sensor controlling macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT induced rapid cell death (pyroptosis. We show here that rat strain differences in Toxoplasma infected macrophage sensitivity to pyroptosis, IL-1β/IL-18 processing, and inhibition of parasite proliferation are perfectly correlated with NLRP1 sequence, while inversely correlated with sensitivity to anthrax LT-induced cell death. Using recombinant inbred rats, SNP analyses and whole transcriptome gene expression studies, we narrowed the candidate genes for control of Toxoplasma-mediated rat macrophage pyroptosis to four genes, one of which was Nlrp1. Knockdown of Nlrp1 in pyroptosis-sensitive macrophages resulted in higher parasite replication and protection from cell death. Reciprocally, overexpression of the NLRP1 variant from Toxoplasma-sensitive macrophages in pyroptosis-resistant cells led to sensitization of these resistant macrophages. Our findings reveal Toxoplasma as a novel activator of the NLRP1 inflammasome in rat macrophages.

  2. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden.

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    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Bröjer, Caroline; Mörner, Torsten; Jansson, Désirée S; Lundén, Anna; Uggla, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Sweden, serosanguinous fluids and feces were collected from 207 carcasses of lynx killed or found dead from 1996 to 1998. Sera were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the direct agglutination test, and 156 (75.4%) of the sera tested positive at antibody titers>or=40. Antibody prevalence was significantly lower in lynx originating from the northern parts of Sweden than in lynx from the more southern regions that are more densely populated by humans. Age-related differences also were found, with a significantly lower prevalence (55%) in juvenile (<1-yr-old) than in subadult and adult animals (82%). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between males and females. Oocysts typical of T. gondii were not detected in any of the fecal samples.

  3. Interleukin 17 receptor signaling is deleterious during Toxoplasma gondii infection in susceptible BL6 mice.

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    Guiton, Rachel; Vasseur, Virginie; Charron, Sabine; Arias, Marbel Torres; Van Langendonck, Nathalie; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Ryffel, Bernhard; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle

    2010-08-15

    Th17 cells are involved in host defense against several pathogens. Using interleukin (IL) 17RA-deficient mice, we demonstrated reduced ileitis with diminished neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory lesions in the ileum, in the regional lymph node, in the spleen, and in the liver at day 7 and prolonged survival after Toxoplasma gondii infection. In addition, IL-17A antibody neutralization reduced inflammation and enhanced survival in BL6 mice. Diminished inflammation is associated with augmented interferon (IFN) gamma serum levels and enhanced production of IL-10 and IFN-gamma in cultured splenocytes upon antigen restimulation. Finally, cyst load and inflammation in the brain at 40 days are greater in surviving BL6 mice than in IL-17RA-deficient mice. In conclusion, oral T. gondii infection increases IL-17 expression and contributes to the inflammatory response, and IL-17 neutralization has a partial protective effect against fatal T. gondii-associated inflammation.

  4. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuoles by the Mouse p47-Resistance GTPases.

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    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The p47 GTPases are essential for interferon-gamma-induced cell-autonomous immunity against the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in mice, but the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. We show that the p47 GTPases, including IIGP1, accumulate at vacuoles containing T. gondii. The accumulation is GTP-dependent and requires live parasites. Vacuolar IIGP1 accumulations undergo a maturation-like process accompanied by vesiculation of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This culminates in disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and finally of the parasite itself. Over-expression of IIGP1 leads to accelerated vacuolar disruption whereas a dominant negative form of IIGP1 interferes with interferon-gamma-mediated killing of intracellular parasites. Targeted deletion of the IIGP1 gene results in partial loss of the IFN-gamma-mediated T. gondii growth restriction in mouse astrocytes.

  5. Frequency of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in stray dogs of Oaxaca, México.

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    Cedillo-Peláez, C; Díaz-Figueroa, I D; Jiménez-Seres, M I; Sánchez-Hernández, G; Correa, D

    2012-08-01

    We studied the frequency of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in stray dogs in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico through the evaluation of 154 sera by indirect ELISA. A frequency of 61.7% was found; it was higher in males (45 of 65, 69.2%) than in females (49 of 89, 55.0%), although this difference was not statistically significant. An increase in frequency was observed with age, the lowest being among animals younger than 1 yr (4 of 20, 20.0%) and the highest in dogs older than 7 yr (21 of 25, 84.0%). This is the first study in dogs of this region of Mexico and revealed high T. gondii transmission and evidence of early exposure in animals that are in close contact with contaminated water or raw meat, or both. Further studies are needed in order to understand the role of T. gondii infection in public health.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

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    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  7. Comparison of detection methods for Toxoplasma gondii in naturally and experimentally infected swine.

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    Hill, Dolores E; Chirukandoth, Sreekumar; Dubey, J P; Lunney, Joan K; Gamble, H Ray

    2006-10-10

    Results from recent serological surveys and epidemiological studies show that pigs raised in a variety of management systems can be carriers of the tissue cyst stage of Toxoplasma gondi. This parasite can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of improperly prepared pork, making detection and removal of infected swine carcasses from the food chain an important food safety issue. Several methods are available for detection of T. gondii infected swine, including serological assays, polymerase chain reaction, and animal bioassays. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection sensitivities of six of these commonly used methods for detection of T. gondii infection in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The results indicate that a serum-based ELISA is the most sensitive method, of those tested, for detection of T. gondii infected swine.

  8. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Mariane B Melo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available UNC93B1 associates with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 3, TLR7 and TLR9, mediating their translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endolysosome, hence allowing proper activation by nucleic acid ligands. We found that the triple deficient '3d' mice, which lack functional UNC93B1, are hyper-susceptible to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We established that while mounting a normal systemic pro-inflammatory response, i.e. producing abundant MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ, the 3d mice were unable to control parasite replication. Nevertheless, infection of reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and 3d mice with T. gondii demonstrated a primary role of hemopoietic cell lineages in the enhanced susceptibility of UNC93B1 mutant mice. The protective role mediated by UNC93B1 to T. gondii infection was associated with impaired IL-12 responses and delayed IFNγ by spleen cells. Notably, in macrophages infected with T. gondii, UNC93B1 accumulates on the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, upon in vitro infection the rate of tachyzoite replication was enhanced in non-activated macrophages carrying mutant UNC93B1 as compared to wild type gene. Strikingly, the role of UNC93B1 on intracellular parasite growth appears to be independent of TLR function. Altogether, our results reveal a critical role for UNC93B1 on induction of IL-12/IFNγ production as well as autonomous control of Toxoplasma replication by macrophages.

  9. First genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in stray cats from Algeria.

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    Yekkour, Feriel; Aubert, Dominique; Mercier, Aurélien; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Khames, Mammar; Nguewa, Paul; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Villena, Isabelle; Bouchene, Zahida

    2017-05-30

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution and a major public health problem. In Algeria, no data are currently available about genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from animals or humans. The present study assesses for the first time the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats, and provides molecular characterization of T. gondii strains circulating in this feline population in Algiers, the capital city of Algeria. Sera from 96 stray cats were tested for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test. The seroprevalence was 50% (48/96) using 1:6 as the positivity cut-off. Different organs samples from stray cats, including heart samples, were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA using real-time PCR. T. Gondii DNA was detected in 90.6% (87/96) of hearts. Of these parasitic DNAs, 22 were submitted to genotyping through the analysis of 15 microsatellite markers. The identified genotypes (12 of 22) mainly belonged to the type II lineage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

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    Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Development of Its Replicative Niche: in Its Host Cell and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens can replicate efficiently only after they manipulate and modify their host cells to create an environment conducive to replication. While diverse cellular pathways are targeted by different pathogens, metabolism, membrane and cytoskeletal architecture formation, and cell death are the three primary cellular processes that are modified by infections. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects ∼30% of the world's population and causes severe and life-threatening disease in developing fetuses, in immune-comprised patients, and in certain otherwise healthy individuals who are primarily found in South America. The high prevalence of Toxoplasma in humans is in large part a result of its ability to modulate these three host cell processes. Here, we highlight recent work defining the mechanisms by which Toxoplasma interacts with these processes. In addition, we hypothesize why some processes are modified not only in the infected host cell but also in neighboring uninfected cells. PMID:24951442

  12. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA in tears of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis: immunodiagnostic validation by ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch,Maria Isabel; Malagueño,Elizabeth; Lynch,Luiz Felipe; Ferreira,Silvana; Stheling,Raphael; Oréfice,Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes posterior uveitis and the specific diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The presence of anti-T. gondii secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies in patients' tears has been reported and an association was found between ocular toxoplasmosis and the anti-T. gondii sIgA isotype in Brazilian patients. The purpose of this study was to provide an objective validation of the published ELISA test for determining the presence of anti-T. gondii sIgA in the tears of individuals with o...

  13. Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii phosphoglycerate mutase 2 confers protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Long; Wen, Li-Min; Pei, Yan-Jiang; Wang, Fen; Yin, Li-Tian; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Guo, Rui; Wang, Chun-Fang; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses worldwide. It has a high incidence and can result in severe disease in humans and livestock. Effective vaccines are needed to limit and prevent infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, we evaluated the immuno-protective efficacy of a recombinant Toxoplasma gondii phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (rTgPGAM 2) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. We report that the mice nasally immunised with rTgPGAM 2 displayed significantly higher levels of special IgG antibodies against rTgPGAM 2 (including IgG1, IgG2a and IgAs) and cytokines (including IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) in their blood sera and supernatant of cultured spleen cells compared to those of control animals. In addition, an increased number of spleen lymphocytes and enhanced lymphocyte proliferative responses were observed in the rTgPGAM 2-immunised mice. After chronic infection and lethal challenge with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain by oral gavage, the survival time of the rTgPGAM 2-immunised mice was longer (P < 0.01) and the survival rate (70%) was higher compared with the control mice (P < 0.01). The reduction rate of brain and liver tachyzoites in rTgPGAM 2-vaccinated mice reached approximately 57% and 69% compared with those of the control mice (P < 0.01). These results suggest that rTgPGAM 2 can generate protective immunity against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice and may be a promising antigen in the further development of an effective vaccine against T. gondii infection. © H.-L. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii in raw and dry-cured ham: The influence of the curing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze Toxoplasma gondii in raw hams by mouse bioassay and to evaluate the effect of curing on the viability of the parasite to assess the risk of infection from eating dry-cured ham. After a serology study of 1200 pigs in Aragón (Spain), forty-one naturally infected pigs with different serological titers against T. gondii were selected. Two cured periods (9 and 12 months) were evaluated as well as the influence of the physicochemical composition of hams on T. gondii survival. Although the parasite burden was low, a high number of seropositive pigs with Toxoplasma tissues cysts in raw hams were found (31.6%). Viability of T. gondii was influenced by the curing, with statistically significant differences between fresh and cured hams (p < 0.001). The viability was higher in hams cured for 9 months compared to those cured for 12 months. However, this period of curing resulted in the reduction but not in a complete elimination of the risk. Thus, from a public health point of view, under the conditions of this study it is safer to consume dry-cured ham with periods of curing higher than 12 months. Analysis of physicochemical results did not identify any variable with significant influence on the presence and viability of T. gondii in cured ham, but loss of viability of T. gondii was observed in hams with a lower fat content. Further research is required to validate combinations of salts concentration and time of curing that can be used as preventive measures in the HACCP system of dry-cured ham industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Efficiency of in vitro culture of Toxoplasma gondii in THP1 and Vero cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Jorge Andrés; Hernández, Alejandro; Villegas, Enrique; Gómez, Jorge Enrique

    2012-09-01

    Cell culture is an important method for isolating Toxoplasma gondii to make clinical diagnosis or for biotechnological purposes. The percentage of invasion and production levels of T. gondii was determined for THP1 and Vero cell lines. The growth conditions for T. gondii in Vero and THP1 cell lines were determined by counting in hemocytometer chamber. The percentage of invasion of T. gondii in THP1 and Vero cells was determined by flow cytometry in different cell/tachyzoite ratios: 1/5, 1/20, 1/50. The growth performance index of the T. gondii RH strain and the CIBM1 isolate was calculated for THP1 cells. Vero cells multiplied faster than the THP1 cells, showing an exponential and a sigmoidal growth curve respectively, within a period of 7 days. The CIBM1 isolate infected the THP1 cells in three different parasite concentrations: 1/5, 1/20 and 1/50, with invasion percentages in THP1 cells of 57.1%, 15.5% and 12.2% and for the Vero cells 25.3%, 17.8% and 8.8% respectively. The RH strain of T. gondii had the lowest invasion percentage with 32.6%, 14.8% and 8.1% in THP1 cells and 22.3%, 14.1% and 3.4% in Vero cells. The CIBM1 isolate had a higher yield than the RH strain of T. gondii in THP1 cells. THP1 cells were indicated to be a good model for the study of invasion and for the assays of new pharmacological candidates against T. gondii.

  16. Detection and molecular analysis of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum from dogs with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langoni, Helio; Matteucci, Guilherme; Medici, Bruno; Camossi, Lucilene Granuzio; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Silva, Rodrigo Costa da

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are related Apicomplexa parasites responsible for systemic diseases in many species of animals, including dogs. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum infections in 50 dogs with neurological signs that were admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of Universidade Estadual Paulista, City of Botucatu, Brazil. All animals were screened for antibodies using an immunofluorescent antibody test for both parasites. Tissues of positive animals were bioassayed in mice (T. gondii) and gerbils (N. caninum), and DNA was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples for T. gondii by PCR were typed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR for 11 markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'-SAG2 and alt.SAG2), SAG3, Btub, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1 and Apico, and CS3 marker for virulence analysis. Specific antibodies were detected in 11/50 (22%; 95% confidence interval (CI95%), 12.8-35.3%) animals for T. gondii and 7/50 (14%; CI95%, 7.02-26.3%) for N. caninum. In the bioassay and PCR, 7/11 (63.6%; CI95%, 34.9-84.8%) samples were positive for T. gondii and 3/7 (42.9%; CI95%I, 15.7-75.5%) samples were positive for N. caninum. Three different genotypes were identified, but only 1 was unique. These data confirm the presence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dogs from Brazil, indicating the importance of this host as a sentinel of T. gondii for human beings, and the genotypic variation of this parasite in Brazil.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunodeficiency patients in Kashan and Qom during 2014-2015

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    Malihe Hassanzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasitic protozoon, which is a causative agent of serious complications such as encephalitis in immunodeficiency patients. Considering insufficient data on toxoplasmosis in these patients, the present study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of T. gondii among immunodeficiency patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on cancer, ADIS, hemodialysis and renal transplant patients (case group and healthy persons (control group in Kashan and Qom cities. Totally, 317 serum samples were collected from the case group and 120 samples from the control group. The ELISA method was used to determine the anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Results: Totally, 60.3% of the samples from the case and 33.3% from the control groups were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG (P<0.001. In the case group, only 2 persons (0.6% were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM. The anti-T. gondii IgG detected in immunodeficiency patients was 55.2% in Kashan and 68% in Qom, which were higher than in the control group (P<0.001, P<0.006, respectively. The highest prevalence of T. gondii were seen in 40-59 years old (49.8% and illiterate (60% patients. There was a meaningful correlation between toxoplasmosis and blurry vision and dermal rash (P=0.001 and P=0.003, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of T. gondii was higher in different immunodeficiency patients compared to healthy persons. Screening examinations were recommended for the diagnosis and treatment of patients to prevent serious side-effects and health education.

  18. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  19. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  20. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ernest J; Schiehser, Guy A; Milhous, Wilbur K; Hsu, Honghue; Roberts, Craig W; Kirisits, Michael; Muench, Stephen; Rice, David; Dubey, J P; Fowble, Joseph W; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Queener, Sherry F; Liu, Susan R; Jacobus, David P; McLeod, Rima

    2008-03-05

    Toxoplasma gondii causes substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare in the developed and developing world. Current medicines are not well tolerated and cause hypersensitivity reactions. The dihydrotriazine JPC-2067-B (4, 6-diamino-1, 2-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-1-(3'(2-chloro-, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)propyloxy)-1, 3, 5-triazine), which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), is highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and apicomplexans related to T. gondii. JPC-2067-B is the primary metabolite of the orally active biguanide JPC-2056 1-(3'-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyloxy)propyl oxy)- 5-isopropylbiguanide, which is being advanced to clinical trials for malaria. Efficacy of the prodrug JPC-2056 and the active metabolite JPC-2067-B against T. gondii and T. gondii DHFR as well as toxicity toward mammalian cells were tested. Herein, we found that JPC-2067-B is highly effective against T. gondii. We demonstrate that JPC-2067-B inhibits T. gondii growth in culture (IC50 20 nM), inhibits the purified enzyme (IC50 6.5 nM), is more efficacious than pyrimethamine, and is cidal in vitro. JPC-2067-B administered parenterally and the orally administered pro-drug (JPC-2056) are also effective against T. gondii tachyzoites in vivo. A molecular model of T. gondii DHFR-TS complexed with JPC-2067-B was developed. We found that the three main parasite clonal types and isolates from South and Central America, the United States, Canada, China, and Sri Lanka have the same amino acid sequences preserving key binding sites for the triazine. JPC-2056/JPC-2067-B have potential to be more effective and possibly less toxic treatments for toxoplasmosis than currently available medicines.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Kunming, Southwest China

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    Duan Gang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. However, little is known of T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, southwest China. The objective of this investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area. Methods A total of 611 serum samples were collected from 7 pet hospitals in Kunming, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination (IHA using a commercially-marked kit. Results 132 (21.6% pet dogs were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 17.3% to 34.7% among different sampling regions, the difference was statistically significant (P T. gondii seroprevalence in female and male dogs were 20.8% and 22.4%, respectively, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalence ranged from 17.5% to 23.6% among different age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, and there were no interactions in statistics (P > 0.05 between gender and age of pet dogs in the region. Conclusions The findings of the present survey indicate high T. gondii seroprevalance in pet dogs in Kunming, southwest China, posing significant public health concern. It is necessary to enhance integrated strategies and measures to prevent and control T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area.

  2. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

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    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  3. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

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    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  4. HLA-DQBl*0402 alleles polymorphisms detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hartono, Adnan, Zainal Arifin

    2017-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 gene polymorphisms may associated with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients. The HLA-DQB1*0402 in HIV-1-positive patients could be considered risk factors for developing neurological opportunistic infections, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis. However, the HLA-DQB1*0402 gene polymorphisms status in the Javanese HIV patients is unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of HLA-DQB*0402 alleles polymorphisms in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status. Since 2009 our research group performing a molecular epidemiology of blood borne viruses in Central Java Indonesia, by collecting the epidemiological and clinical data from the high risk communities. All blood samples were screened for blood borne pathogens by serological and molecular assays including for HIV and Toxoplasma gondii. The genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood samples. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique. The genotypes were defined according to generated fragment patterns in the agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. All of the samples were tested at least in duplicate. HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected in 20.8% (16/77) patients and not detected in all HIV positive samples with negative anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status (n= 200). The HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles polymorphisms were detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. The polymorphisms found may have association with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: A case-control study of Californian horses.

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    James, K E; Smith, W A; Packham, A E; Conrad, P A; Pusterla, N

    2017-06-01

    While toxoplasmosis is not commonly considered a clinical disease of equines, previous seroprevalence studies have reported differing background rates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible associations between T. gondii seroprevalence and clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses. Using a case-control study design, 720 Californian horses with neurologic signs compatible with EPM were compared to healthy, non-neurologic horses for the presence of T. gondii antibodies (using indirect fluorescent antibody tests [IFAT]). Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence among cases and controls was determined at standard serum cut-offs: 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640. At a T. gondii titre cut-off of 320, horses with clinical signs compatible with EPM had 3.55 times the odds of a seropositive test compared to those without clinical signs (P<0.01) when adjusted for covariates. When restricted to the autumn season and at the same titre cut-off, an EPM suspect horse had 6.4 times the odds of testing seropositive to T. gondii, compared to non-neurologic horses. The association between high T. gondii titres and clinical signs compatible with EPM is potentially reflective of toxoplasmosis in equines. Serologic testing of cerebrospinal fluid and isolation of T. gondii in EPM suspect cases should be considered. Future studies investigating the relationship between T. gondii and EPM are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seroprevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cancer patients in Anhui Province, Eastern China.

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    Wang, Lin; He, Liu-yuan; Meng, De-di; Chen, Zhao-wu; Wen, He; Fang, Gong-si; Luo, Qing-li; Huang, Kai-quan; Shen, Ji-long

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have indicated the predominance of Toxoplasma gondii genotype Chinese 1 in animals in China. However, little is known of the genetic features of the parasite in humans. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies based on which the genetic character of the parasite was identified in cancer patients in China. A total of 1014 serum samples with malignant neoplasms were collected from six tertiary-care hospitals (HAUCM, APH, HAMU, XAH, FHH and HBMC) from January, 2012 to August, 2013. Antibodies against T. gondii were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood samples were subsequently used for PCR assay to detect T. gondii DNA (gra6). The DNA positive samples were subjected to genotyping using a multiplex multilocus nested PCR-RFLP at 10 loci, including sag1, sag2, sag3, btub, gra6, l358, c22-8, c29-2, pk1 and apico. Samples from the patients were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available at sample collection. Overall, 8.38% (85/1014) of the examined patients showed positive antibodies against T. gondii. Among them, 61 (6.02%) were seropositive only for IgG, 16 (1.58%) were only for IgM, and 8 (0.79%) were found to be positive for both IgG and IgM. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma ranged from 5.8% to 11.0%, without regional difference (χ(2) = 4.764, P = 0.445). No significant differences of the positive rates of T. gondii infection were noted in genders (male, 8.96%; female, 7.45%) (χ(2) = 0.707, P = 0.400) and in ages (χ(2) = 1.172, P = 0.947). Of 1014 DNA samples, 36 (3.55%) were positive for T. gondii by nested PCR at gra6 locus and nine gave rise to complete genotyping results. All samples with achieved PCR-RFLP genotyping showed a common genetic character of type Chinese 1 (ToxoDB#9). Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed individuals is rarely reported in China and we presented a positive rate of 8.38% in cancer patients

  7. Evaluating Recombinant Antigen ROP1 Efficacy in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection

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    F Keshavarzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite with a relatively broad host range infecting both mammals and birds. Toxoplasma proteins are strong antigens that can begin strong immune reactions, among which Rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1 can be named discharging from rhoptry cell-organ. ROP1 is regarded as a competitor for recombinant vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the cloning and expression of ROP1 Toxoplasma gondii in a cloning vector as well as to create this recombinant antigen in order to be applied for later uses. Methods:Genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii was removed and reproduced by PCR, then the PCR product was cloned into the EcoR1 and BamH1 sites of cloning vector, pUET1, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 plysS strain. Moreover, pcROP1 was sub-cloned into the HindIII and EcoRI sites of the pcDNA3 in order to produce recombining eukaryotic declaration vector. The cloned ROP1 was verified by PCR, limitation enzymes (HindIII and BglΙ digestion and nucleotide sequencing. Then, this recombinant antigen was covered applying IgM and ELISAIgG. Results:The study results demonstrated that a fragment of 757 bp was separated. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the ROP1 cloned in pUET1vector revealed high homology (96% with RH strain Gene Bank Accession (No. M71274. Conclusion:The recombinant ROP1 antigen in an IgM Rec-ELISA test can be replaced with the tachyzoite antigen in IgG and IgM serologic tests.

  8. Effects of cobalt 60 ionizing radiation on the metabolism and infectivity of a parasitic protozoa, Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto M.; Galisteo Junior, Andres J.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo

    1999-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection causes severe and lethal disease on fetus, AIDS patients and recipients of organ transplants. There are few reports of the use of ionizing radiation to attenuate or abolish parasite growth, without and detailed study on induced alterations or effective doses. We reported that the lower dose of {sup 60} Co radiation that abolishes parasite growth was 200 Gy, and in this report, we described the viability, cell invasion, metabolism and immunogenicity of this parasite after irradiation. We analyze the viability (vital staining), metabolism, by MTT oxidative conversion, protein metabolism, by {sup 3} H-proline and nucleic acid synthesis, by {sup 3} H-hypoxanthine incorporation in short terms cultures. Parasite invasion was tested in LLC-MK2 cell in culture. The irradiated parasites show the same viability and invasiveness of viable parasites, without any interference of the radiation in the oxidative, proteic or nucleic acid metabolism. When mice injected with 10{sup 7} irradiated parasites by intraperitoneal route, were challenged 6 weeks later with viable parasites, they showed partial resistance to infection, with higher survival time. Antibody specificity was tested in sera from those animals, before challenging, and presented the same epitopic specificity of infected and treated animals, but diverse from mice injected with formaldehyde killed parasite, by Western-blot analysis against SDS-PAGE isolated T. gondii antigens. Those data suggests that irradiated parasites maintain its invasiveness, inducing a partial immunity and similar humoral immunogenicity than viable parasites, but without any evidence of reproductive capacity. (author) 18 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in patients with vision and hearing impairments, cancer, HIV, or undergoing hemodialysis in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection may cause a variety of symptoms involving virtually all organs. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in different patient groups in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated epidemiological characteristics in...

  10. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Tian, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in the cities of Beijing and Weifang in north China were tested using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-six (8.36%) out of 311 serum samples were positive for T. gondii at the cutoff of 1:5. Among the four species, a higher seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in Cockatiels (13.64%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-27.98), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.61). Seropositivity rates against T. gondii in male parrots (10.43%, 95% CI 5.74-15.12) were not statistically different from that in female parrots (6.08%, 95% CI 2.23-9.93, p=0.17). The seropositivity of T. gondii in parrots from Weifang and Beijing was 11.11% (95% CI 6.13-16.09) and 5.70% (95% CI 2.08-9.31), respectively. The seroprevalence varied in parrots of different age groups, ranging from 5.71% (95% CI 1.27-10.15) to 13.00% (95% CI 6.41-19.69), however, the difference among age groups was not statistically significant (p=0.12). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in parrots in summer (11.63%, 95% CI 6.84-16.42) was significantly higher than in spring (4.32%, 95% CI 0.94-7.70, p=0.02). The results of the present survey indicated that parrots in China are exposed to T. gondii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in parrots in China.

  11. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Campylobacter fetus fetus in sheep from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, R P; Wilkins, M; Green, R S; de Lisle, G W

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of antibody titres to Toxoplasma gondii and Campylobacter fetus fetus in sheep from New Zealand. As part of a free screening service, unsolicited blood samples were supplied by veterinarians wishing to gauge the exposure of their clients' ewe flocks to T. gondii and C. fetus fetus. Blood samples were submitted from mixed-age ewes throughout New Zealand, from 2006 to 2009, that had not been vaccinated for T. gondii and C. fetus fetus. A total of 2,254 sera were serologically titrated for T. gondii and 3,429 for C. fetus fetus. A latex agglutination kit available commercially was used to quantify antibodies to T. gondii, and an agglutination test developed in-house was used for C. fetus fetus. For T. gondii, titres of ≥1:16 and ≥1:64 were used to define a positive response, and for C. fetus fetus a titre of ≥1:10 was defined as positive. A flock was defined as positive if ≥1 ewe had a positive titre. Of the sera tested for T. gondii, 1,917/2,254 (85%) were positive, using a titre of ≥1:16, and 1,384/2,254 (61%) with a titre of ≥1:64. All 198 ewe flocks tested were seropositive to T. gondii, at a titre of ≥1:16, and all but three were at a titre of ≥1:64. A bimodal distribution was evident in the prevalence of titres to T. gondii suggesting that a percentage of titres ≤1:64 may have been non-specific. Of the sera tested for C. fetus fetus, 1,644/3,429 (48%) were positive to at least one of the four test antigens at titre of ≥1:10. Only 34/298 (11%) flocks tested for C. fetus fetus were completely seronegative. The percentage of seropositive ewes to both T. gondii and C. fetus fetus was significantly higher in the North Island than the South Island. The study demonstrated that exposure to these two important infectious abortifacients was both considerable and widespread. Minimum titres were postulated to establish a 'cut-off' for a positive result and to allow comparison with past and future studies. The bimodal

  12. Brazilian contribution for a better knowledge on the biology of Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, scientists in Brazil has significantly contributed to the biology, cultivation and structural organization of the pathogenic protozoan Toxoplasma gondiiand its interaction with host cells, starting with the description of the protozoan by Splendore in 1908. The intracellular and extracellular corpuscoli observed in rabbits, corresponded to what we now as tachyzoites. Later on, a pioneering method to grow T. gondii in tissue cultures was developed by Guimarães and Meyer, 1942. They also observed for the first time T. gondii by transmission electron microscopy and made the initial description of the cytoskeleton of T. gondii by observing negatively stained cells. In the 1980's, the relation of the cytoskeleton with the sub-pellicular microtubules was reveled by freeze-fracture. More recently, several Brazilian groups have analyzed in detail basic aspects of the early interaction of the protozoan with the host cell, such as the role of protein phosphorylation, transfer of host cell surface components to the protozoan and genesis and organization of the parasitophorous vacuole. Tachyzoites strategically inhibit nitric oxide production during active invasion of activated macrophages. In vitro studies on the sexual cycle of T. gondii using primary cultures of cat enterocytes and the egress from host cells are being carried out. Perspectives are that the contribution of Brazilian science to the knowledge on T. gondii biology will continue to flourish in years to come.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild boars hunted for human consumption in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Velström, Kaisa; Lassen, Brian

    2015-08-04

    Although the prevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infections is high in Estonia, no information is available on the prevalence of infections in the local animal populations. Wild boars are a good indicator species for estimating the prevalence and spread of T. gondii and were thus investigated in this nationwide cross-sectional study. Volunteer hunters sampled cardiac or skeletal muscle of 471 wild boars legally hunted for human consumption in Estonia during the hunting season of 2012-2013. Serosanguineous meat juice samples were obtained from thawed tissue samples, diluted 1:40, and screened for specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a commercial direct agglutination test. Almost one-quarter (113; 24%) of the wild boars examined were seropositive for T. gondii. The seroprevalence did not differ significantly between age groups or sexes. The seroprevalence was lowest in Viljandimaa, which is located in the southern part of Estonia. In other counties, the infection was evenly prevalent. In Estonia, wild boars are commonly exposed to T. gondii, which is endemic and widespread. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat of Estonian wild boars may pose an infection risk to humans and other hosts.

  14. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT) specific to Leishmania and by the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Low seroprevalences were detected for both L. infantum and T. gondii in the horse population in Israel; of the 338 horses tested, 6 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive for L. infantum and 11 (2.5%) for T. gondii, with no significant association between seroprevalence and demographic/environmental factors. An ongoing geographical expansion of L. infantum, previously reported in humans and dogs in Israel, was also supported by our results in horses. Here we present evidence of exposure of horses to L. infantum and T. gondii in Israel. Continuous seroprevalence surveillance in horses, such as the one performed in this study, might further elucidate the eco-epidemiology of these two important zoonotic parasites in this country.

  15. Improved techniques for endogenous epitope tagging and gene deletion in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Rajendra; Kim, Kami; Hogue-Angeletti, Ruth; Weiss, Louis M

    2011-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an excellent model organism for studies on the biology of the Apicomplexa due to its ease of in vitro cultivation and genetic manipulation. Large-scale reverse genetic studies in T. gondii have, however, been difficult due to the low frequency of homologous recombination. Efforts to ensure homologous recombination have necessitated engineering long flanking regions in the targeting construct. This requirement makes it difficult to engineer chromosomally targeted epitope tags or gene knock out constructs only by restriction enzyme mediated cloning steps. To address this issue we employed multisite Gateway® recombination techniques to generate chromosomal gene manipulation targeting constructs. Incorporation of 1.5 to 2.0 kb flanking homologous sequences in PCR generated targeting constructs resulted in 90% homologous recombination events in wild type T. gondii (RH strain) as determined by epitope tagging and target gene deletion experiments. Furthermore, we report that split marker constructs were equally efficient for targeted gene disruptions using the T. gondii UPRT gene locus as a test case. The methods described in this paper represent an improved strategy for efficient epitope tagging and gene disruptions in T. gondii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between Toxoplasma gondii types and outcomes of human infection: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Cheng, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2017-09-01

    The virulence and pathogenicity of various types of Toxoplasma gondii differ considerably in mice. Recent studies have claimed that similar phenomenon was observed in humans, but no relevant studies have been performed to validate this finding. In addition, reports showing association between a given T. gondii type and outcomes of human infection yielded conflicting results. To provide a more precise estimation of the association and a more reliable conclusion on this subject, we performed this meta-analysis. Relevant literatures were identified in multiple databases and selected based on strict screening. T. gondii-type proportions among different severities of infection were calculated and compared using Fisher's exact test. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Our results showed that the difference among T. gondii-type proportions was significant (p < 0.0001). In addition, significant associations were detected between Type I strains infection and congenital toxoplasmosis (OR: 1.91, p = 0.0009), Type III strains infection and pulmonary toxoplasmosis (OR: 5.15, p = 0.04). In our subgroup analysis, Type I strains were significantly associated with cerebral toxoplasmosis in offspring (OR: 1.81, p = 0.02). This result indicated that different types of T. gondii exhibited different virulence and caused different outcomes in humans.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Promotes Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction of Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Marisol Pallete; Nascimento, Layane Alencar Costa; Nogueira, Nathalia Pires; Barenco, Paulo Victor Czarnewski; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Alves, Patrícia Terra; Barbosa, Bellisa de Freitas; Lima, Wânia Rezende; Silva, Neide Maria

    2016-01-01

    After oral infection, Toxoplasma gondii invades intestinal cells, induces breakdown of intestinal physiology and barrier functions, and causes intestinal pathology in some animal species. Although parasites’ invasion into host cells is a known phenomenon, the effects of T. gondii infection in the intestinal barrier are still not well established. To evaluate morphological and physiological modifications on the colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 cell line during T. gondii infection, microvilli, tight junction integrity, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were investigated under infection. It was observed that the dextran uptake (endocytosis) and distribution were smaller in infected than in noninfected Caco-2 cells. The infection leads to the partial loss of microvilli at the cell surface. Claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and occludin expressions were colocalized by immunofluorescence and presented discontinuous net patterns in infected cells. Immunoblotting analysis at 24 hr postinfection revealed decreasing expression of occludin and ZO-1 proteins, whereas claudin-1 presented similar expression level compared with noninfected cells. T. gondii decreased TEER in Caco-2 cells 24 hr after infection. Our results suggest that T. gondii infection may lead to the loss of integrity of intestinal mucosa, resulting in impaired barrier function. PMID:27370796

  18. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Psychiatric Patients in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Shafiei, Reza; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Kalantar, Kurosh; Fata, Abdolmajid

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric patients have an increased risk of some infections like toxoplasmosis. Investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection among psychiatric patients have been limited in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. In this case-control study, prevalence of T. gondii was investigated by serological method. This case-control study was performed among psychiatric patients admitted to Avicenna Hospital in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Three hundred and fifty inpatients and 350 controls were examined in 2012-2013 for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii in their blood sera by ELISA. Socio-demographic and clinical manifestations of the patients were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was found in 164 (46.85%) of 350 psychiatric inpatients and 120 (34.28%) of 350 controls. Seventeen (4.85%) of psychiatric individuals and 3 (0.85%) of control group were IgM+/IgG- indicating acute form of toxoplasmosis. There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups. In patient group, schizophrenic patients had the highest positive rate (46.28%) and bipolar mood disorder had the second most prevalent rate (20%). Of 162 schizophrenia patients, 65 (40.1%) had latent infection which was higher than that observed in controls. The prevalence of T. gondii infection among psychiatric patients suffering from schizophrenia was more in Mashhad, compared with control group.

  19. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in exotic ruminants and camelids in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Kobédová, Kateřina; Lamka, Jiří; Kotrba, Radim; Vodička, Roman; Sedlák, Kamil

    2017-07-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are the protozoan parasites with definitive hosts from order Carnivora. Due to vertical transmission, both parasites can cause abortions and neonatal mortality that lead to significant productive and economic losses in the domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to describe N. caninum and T. gondii seroprevalence in the group of frequently farmed captive exotic ruminants (n = 184) including Bovidae (barbary sheep, bezoar goat, common eland, American bison, water buffalo, and yak) and Camelidae (bactrian camel, guanaco, llama, and alpaca). Antibodies were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies (31% in IFAT and 52% in ELISA) was detected compared to N. caninum (24% in IFAT and 17% in cELISA). Mixed infection was found in 18 (10%) and 22 (12%) animals by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of both N. caninum and T. gondii was found in Camelidae compared to Bovidae. To author knowledge, this is the first detection of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in common elands and bezoar goats.

  20. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M; Silva, Murilo V; Ferreira, Flávia B; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G; Mota, Caroline M; Faria, Matheus S; Silva Filho, Hercílio H; Silva, Deise A O; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P; Mineo, José R; Mineo, Tiago W P

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  2. Genetic diversity among Toxoplasma gondii isolates from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sequence variation in ROP13 gene among 14 T. gondii isolates from different geographical locations and hosts was examined. The ROP13 gene was amplified from individual isolates and sequenced. Results show that the length of the ROP13 sequences was 1203 bp. In total, there were 44 variable ...

  3. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic rabbits of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Débora Costa Viegas; Santos, André de Souza; da Silva, Luana Thamires Rapôso; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; da Silva, José Givanildo; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to conduct a serosurvey of toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits of Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and tissue fragments (brain, heart and diaphragm) were collected from 150 and 54 rabbits from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, respectively. The serum samples were subjected to serological analysis (Modified Agglutination Test - MAT) and the tissue samples were assessed by PCR and histopathological analysis. Data collected through questionnaires were subjected to analysis of risk factors. According to the MAT and the PCR results, 6.7% (10/150; CI 3.2%-11.9%) of the rabbits were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies and 9.25% (5/54) of the tissue fragments were positive for T. gondii DNA, respectively. Lesions associated with T. gondii infection, mainly characterized by granuloma, mononuclear cell infiltrates, degeneration areas and necrosis in brain and heart, were detected in the histopathological analysis. The risk factors associated with T. gondii infection identified in the present study were homemade food (odds ratio = 39.00) and contact between cats and rabbits (odds ratio = 52.00). This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in rabbits of Northeastern Brazil. The management problems identified in the present study must be corrected to reduce the frequency of positive animals in herds of rabbits.

  4. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Backyard and Wandering Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall frequency of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was 25%, More antibodies were detected in exotic breeds (31.5%) than the local breed (20%), and in pigs raised under the free-range (35.7%) than backyard (20.8%) management systems. The result of this survey showed that animal raised from both backyard and ...

  5. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed in E. coli (Bl21 DE3) and induced by 1 mM. IPTG and analyzed by 12% SDS-PAGE. Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot analysis. We successfully cloned and expressed T. gondii P22 protein.

  6. Optimization of the cryopreservation of biological resources, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzabi, Alexandre; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Le Naour, Richard; Ortis, Naïma; Audonnet, Sandra; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The conservation of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans and animals is essential for conducting studies on Toxoplasma. Conservation is the main function of the French Biological Toxoplasma Resource Centre (BRC Toxoplasma, France, http://www.toxocrb.com/). In this study, we have determined the suitability of a standard cryopreservation methodology for different Toxoplasma strains using the viability of tachyzoites assayed by flow cytometry with dual fluorescent labelling (calcein acetoxymethyl ester and propidium iodide) of tachyzoites. This method provides a comparative quantitative assessment of viability after thawing. The results helped to define and refine quality criteria before tachyzoite cryopreservation and optimization of the cryopreservation parameters. The optimized cryopreservation method uses a volume of 1.0 mL containing 8 × 10(6) tachyzoites, in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) containing 10% foetal calf serum (FCS). The cryoprotectant additive is 10% v/v Me2SO without incubation. A cooling rate of ∼1 °C/min to -80 °C followed, after 48 h, by storage in liquid nitrogen. Thawing was performed using a 37 °C water bath that produced a warming rate of ∼100 °C/min, and samples were then diluted 1:5 in IMDM with 5% FCS, and centrifuged and resuspended for viability assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signalling pathway in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert-Gangneux F.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about signalling in Toxoplasma gondii, but it is likely that protein kinases might play a key role in the parasite proliferation, differentiation and probably invasion. We previously characterized Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP kinases in T. gondii lysates. In this study, cultured cells were tested for their susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection after tachyzoite pretreatment with drugs interfering with AMP kinase activation pathways. Protein kinases inhibitors, i.e. genistein, R031-8220 and PD098059, reduced tachyzoite infectivity by 38 ± 4.5 %, 85.5 ± 9 % and 56 ± 10 %, respectively. Conversely, protein kinases activators, i.e. bombesin and PMA, markedly increased infectivity (by 202 ± 37 % and 258 ± 14 %, respectively. These results suggest that signalling pathways involving PKC and AAAP kinases play a role in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal....... Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). RESULTS: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper...... of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18...

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-06-21

    Jun 21, 2017 ... University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. *Correspondence: Tel. ... a worldwide distribution and is of public health importance (Dubey ... specific anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. The assay was validated and carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. Statistical analysis. Data were analyzed ...

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production

  11. High seroprevalence of specific Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced HIV disease. However, there is limited data on the magnitude of toxoplasmosis among HIV patients with immunological treatment failure. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of specific Toxoplasma ...

  12. Overlapping Toxoplasma gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals and humans in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Letícia A; Andrade, Renata O; Carneiro, Ana Carolina A V; Vitor, Ricardo W A

    2014-01-01

    Although several Toxoplasma gondii genotyping studies have been performed in Brazil, studies of isolates from animals in the state of Minas Gerais are rare. The objective of this study was to conduct a genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from dogs, free-range chickens, and humans in Minas Gerais and to verify whether the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals correspond to the genotypes detected in humans. Genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism at 11 loci (SAG1, 5'+3'SAG2, SAG2 alt, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Twelve different genotypes were identified among the 24 isolates studied, including 8 previously identified genotypes and 4 new genotypes. The genetic relationship of the 24 T. gondii isolates, together with the genotypes previously described from 24 human newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, revealed a high degree of similarity among the genotypes circulating in humans and animals in Minas Gerais. The most common genotypes among these species were BrII, BrIII, ToxoDB #108, and ToxoDB #206. Restricted fragment length polymorphism at the CS3 locus of these 48 isolates showed that the majority of isolates presented alleles I (50%) or II (27%). Isolates harboring allele III at the CS3 locus presented low virulence for mice, whereas those harboring alleles I or II presented higher virulence. These results confirm the utility of marker CS3 for predicting the virulence of Brazilian isolates of T. gondii in mice. No association was found between the allele type and clinical manifestations of human congenital toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotyping that verifies the overlapping genotypes of T. gondii from humans and animals in the same geographic region of Brazil. Our results suggest that there is a common source of infection to the species studied, most likely oocysts contaminating the environment.

  13. An Experimental Toxoplasma gondii Dose Response Challenge Model to Study Therapeutic or Vaccine Efficacy in Cats

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    Cornelissen, Jan B. W. J.; van der Giessen, Joke W. B.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter F. M.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10), and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application. PMID:25184619

  14. Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies Among Lebanese Pregnant Women.

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    Nahouli, Hasan; El Arnaout, Nour; Chalhoub, Elias; Anastadiadis, Elie; El Hajj, Hiba

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is a zoonotic obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for the infection of almost one-third of the world's population. T. gondii is particularly threatening for primo-infected pregnant women and may lead, following vertical transplacental transmission, to spontaneous abortion, miscarriage, or severe manifestations in the newborn. The aim of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies among a group of Lebanese pregnant women and its seroconversion rate. This is a retrospective cohort study, in which medical records of 11,000 pregnant women were screened. These women visited a private Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic located in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, during the period of January 1994 till September 2015. Serological results of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) results of 2456 Lebanese pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Seropositivity and seroconversion rates for women with repeated tests were reported according to age and area of residence. The overall anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM seropositivity among 2456 Lebanese pregnant women was 82.6% and 1.8% respectively. The highest IgG seropositivity is among the age group of 35-44 years (87.81%) and at the governorate of "Mount Lebanon" (82.95%). Sixty-four seroconversions were detected and two abortions due to T. gondii infection during pregnancy were recorded. The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG among the screened pregnant women in Lebanon is the highest in the Arab region. These results highlight the importance of running a national sample survey to estimate the real potential burden of this infection and its impact on maternal and fetal health.

  15. Interferon-γ +874A/T polymorphism associated with Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in HIV patients

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    Sri Haryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of polymorphisms in genes that code for interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10, which play important roles in Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection, with the occurrence of T. gondii co-infection in HIV patients. Methods: The IFN-γ +874A/T and IL-10 -1082A/G polymorphism statuses of 306 HIV seropositive samples were characterized using PCR. The polymorphism statuses were analyzed together with the clinical data for each patient. Results: Immunoglobulin M anti-T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high IL-10 levels [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 0.4, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.181–0.825; P = 0.014], but not with either the IL-10 -1082A/G or IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism. In addition, the IFN-γ +874A allele was associated with immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.043–2.193; P = 0.029. In patients with CD4+ T cell levels ≥ 200 cells/µL, the IFN-γ +874 AA genotype was associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (adjusted OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.278–4.950; P = 0.008. Conclusions: The IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism is associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity. This polymorphism might be useful to predict the susceptibility of HIV patients to toxoplasmosis.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in feral American minks at the Maullín river, Chile.

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    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Rosenfeld, Carla; Jara, Rocio; Pelican, Katharine M; Hill, Dolores

    2011-01-10

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a commercial latex agglutination test where a titer ≥ 1:32 was considered positive. Of 30 mink analyzed, 21 (70%) were positive to T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 1:32 to 1:2048. As expected, adult mink showed higher seroprevalence of exposure to T. gondii (18/21) than young mink (3/9) (P=0.008). There was not statistically significant difference between sex groups (P=0.687). Differences in seroprevalence were observed between the two sample sites with a higher proportion of positive individuals in the peri-urban area, and therefore, closer to human settlements (35.7% vs. 100%, P=0.0001). Individuals positive to T. gondii using PCR and/or serology showed similar differences by site with higher infected individuals in peri-urban areas (58.8% vs. 100%, P=0.007). Diet of American mink based in fecal composition analyses was mainly based on crustaceans (frequency of occurrence: crustaceans=100%, birds and rodents<7%), suggesting that the high observed prevalence of T. gondii infection might be more associated with its aquatic behavior (e.g. ingestion of oocysts in contaminated fresh water) than with their trophic behavior (e.g. preying over species that can have T. gondii cysts in their tissues). As an invasive species potentially subject to routine culling to maintain population sizes under control, minks could be used as a sentinel species to monitor pathogens of public and wildlife health importance, such as T. gondii, in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico.

  18. Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals

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    Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Saldaña-Simental, Diana Elizabeth; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01). No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii. PMID:25544890

  19. Clustering of Toxoplasma gondii Infections Within Families of Congenitally Infected Infants

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    Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Wheeler, Kelsey M.; Ramirez, Raymund; Press, Cindy; Mui, Ernest; Zhou, Ying; Van Tubbergen, Christine; Prasad, Sheela; Maldonado, Yvonne; Withers, Shawn; Boyer, Kenneth M.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Rabiah, Peter; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Grigg, Michael E.; Montoya, Jose G.; McLeod, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Background. Family clusters and epidemics of toxoplasmosis in North, Central, and South America led us to determine whether fathers of congenitally infected infants in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) have a high incidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Methods. We analyzed serum samples collected from NCCCTS families between 1981 and 2013. Paternal serum samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies with immunoglobulin (Ig) G dye test and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additional testing of paternal serum samples was performed with differential-agglutination and IgG avidity tests when T. gondii IgG and IgM results were positive and serum samples were collected by the 1-year visit of the congenitally infected child. Prevalence of paternal seropositivity and incidence of recent infection were calculated. We analyzed whether certain demographics, maternal parasite serotype, risk factors, or maternal/infant clinical manifestations were associated with paternal T. gondii infection status. Results. Serologic testing revealed a high prevalence (29 of 81; 36%) of T. gondii infection in fathers, relative to the average seropositivity rate of 9.8% for boys and men aged 12–49 years in the United States between 1994 and 2004 (P < .001). Moreover, there was a higher-than-expected incidence of recent infections among fathers with serum samples collected by the 1-year visit of their child (6 of 45; 13%; P < .001). No demographic patterns or clinical manifestations in mothers or infants were associated with paternal infections, except for sandbox exposure. Conclusions. The high prevalence of chronic and incidence of recent T. gondii infections in fathers of congenitally infected children indicates that T. gondii infections cluster within families in North America. When a recently infected person is identified, family clustering and community risk factors should be investigated for appropriate clinical management

  20. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pet dogs in mainland China: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Meng; Ding, Huan; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Lu, Da-Bing

    2016-10-15

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common zoonosis in the world, and can cause severe adverse consequences in pregnant women and immunosuppressed people. Throughout the world dogs are popular companion animals, however they are also important intermediate host of T. gondii and may play an instrumental role in mechanically transmitting Toxoplasma infection to humans. Therefore, an assessment of the level of T. gondii infection in pet dogs is of public health importance. To estimate the overall serological prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pet dogs in mainland China, we performed a meta-analysis using five bibliographic databases: CNKI, WanFang, VIP Chinese Journal Databases, PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 60 articles, including data on 78719 pet dogs, published between 1998 and 2016 fulfilled the final eligibility criteria. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1% to 12.1%). The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in >one-year-old dogs was 1.59 times more than that in ≤one-year-old group (RR=1.59, 95%CI=1.15, 2.21). There was no significant difference observed in pooled seroprevalence between male and female dogs (RR=1.02, 95%CI=0.91, 1.16). In terms of geographical regions, the lowest seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis infection (5.8%) was in North China and the highest (16.8%) was in Southwest of China. Results from this study showed that toxoplasmosis is common in pet dogs in mainland China, indicating that control measures by owners may reduce human exposure to T. gondii via dog contacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

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    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram

  2. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T. gondii

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAs.

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    Gusti M Zeiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. Here we have investigated whether Toxoplasma modulates the levels of host microRNAs (miRNAs during infection.Using microarray profiling and a combination of conventional molecular approaches we report that Toxoplasma specifically modulates the expression of important host microRNAs during infection. We show that both the primary transcripts for miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 and the pivotal miRNAs that are derived from miR-17 approximately 92 display increased abundance in Toxoplasma-infected primary human cells; a Toxoplasma-dependent up-regulation of the miR-17 approximately 92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase. The abundance of mature miR-17 family members, which are derived from these two miRNA clusters, remains unchanged in host cells infected with the closely related apicomplexan Neospora caninum; thus, the Toxoplasma-induced increase in their abundance is a highly directed process rather than a general host response to infection.Altered levels of miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 are known to play crucial roles in mammalian cell regulation and have been implicated in numerous hyperproliferative diseases although the mechanisms driving their altered expression are unknown. Hence, in addition to the implications of these findings on the host-pathogen interaction, Toxoplasma may represent a powerful probe for understanding the normal mechanisms that regulate the levels of key host miRNAs.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in donkeys (Equus asinus) from the U.S.A. and isolation of T. gondii from cats on donkey farms

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    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as companion animals, in leisure activities as working animals, for onotherapy, and their meat and milk is used for human consumption in certain countries. Here we report first serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the U.S.A. Serum samples were collec...

  5. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

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    von Klitzing, Eliane; Ekmekciu, Ira; Kühl, Anja A; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2017-01-01

    Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based) methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i.) with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma) mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney) and systemic compartments including spleen and serum. With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display acute ileitis

  6. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

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    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  7. An atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in a rural Brazilian dog co-infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis are two worldwide zoonoses caused by the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp., respectively. This report describes the clinical and laboratorial findings of a co-infection with both parasites in a 4-year-old female dog suspected of ehrlichiosis that presented anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, tachyzoite-like structures to the lung imprints, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR results positive for T. gondii (kidney, lung, and liver and Leishmania spp. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania braziliensis was confirmed by sequencing; restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR confirmed an atypical T. gondii genotype circulating in dogs that has been reported to cause human congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Dolphin Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

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    Mazzariol, Sandro; Marcer, Federica; Mignone, Walter; Serracca, Laura; Goria, Mariella; Marsili, Letizia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Casalone, Cristina

    2012-03-07

    Although Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii have emerged as important pathogens for several cetaceans populations over the last 20 years, they have never been identified together in a Mysticete. In particular, morbilliviral infection has been never described in the Mediterranean fin whale population. On January 2011 an adult male of fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) stranded along the Tyrrhenian coastline of Italy. During necropsy, tissue samples from heart, skeletal muscle, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were collected and subsequently analyzed for Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii by microscopic and molecular methods. Following the detailed necropsy carried out on this whale, molecular analysis revealed, for the first time, the simultaneous presence of a Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) and T. gondii infection coexisting with each other, along with high organochlorine pollutant concentrations, with special reference to DDT. This report, besides confirming the possibility for Mysticetes to be infected with DMV, highlights the risk of toxoplasmosis in sea water for mammals, already immunodepressed by concurrent factors as infections and environmental contaminants.

  9. Dolphin Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus

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    Mazzariol Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii have emerged as important pathogens for several cetaceans populations over the last 20 years, they have never been identified together in a Mysticete. In particular, morbilliviral infection has been never described in the Mediterranean fin whale population. Case presentation On January 2011 an adult male of fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus stranded along the Tyrrhenian coastline of Italy. During necropsy, tissue samples from heart, skeletal muscle, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were collected and subsequently analyzed for Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii by microscopic and molecular methods. Following the detailed necropsy carried out on this whale, molecular analysis revealed, for the first time, the simultaneous presence of a Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV and T. gondii infection coexisting with each other, along with high organochlorine pollutant concentrations, with special reference to DDT. Conclusion This report, besides confirming the possibility for Mysticetes to be infected with DMV, highlights the risk of toxoplasmosis in sea water for mammals, already immunodepressed by concurrent factors as infections and environmental contaminants.

  10. An evaluation of a recombinant multiepitope based antigen for detection of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajissa, Khalid; Zakaria, Robaiza; Suppian, Rapeah; Mohamed, Zeehaida

    2017-12-29

    The inefficiency of the current tachyzoite antigen-based serological assays for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection mandates the need for acquirement of reliable and standard diagnostic reagents. Recently, epitope-based antigens have emerged as an alternative diagnostic marker for the achievement of highly sensitive and specific capture antigens. In this study, the diagnostic utility of a recombinant multiepitope antigen (USM.TOXO1) for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis was evaluated. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to evaluate the usefulness of USM.TOXO1 antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human sera. Whereas the reactivity of the developed antigen against IgM antibody was evaluated by western blot and Dot enzyme immunoassay (dot-EIA) analysis. The diagnostic performance of the new antigens in IgG ELISA was achieved at the maximum values of 85.43% and 81.25% for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively. The USM.TOXO1 was also proven to be reactive with anti- T. gondii IgM antibody. This finding makes the USM.TOXO1 antigen an attractive candidate for improving the toxoplasmosis serodiagnosis and demonstrates that multiepitope antigens could be a potential and promising diagnostic marker for the development of high sensitive and accurate assays.

  11. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Myocastor coypus in a protected Italian wetland

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    Nardoni Simona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent for a major zoonosis with cosmopolitan distribution. Water has been implicated in outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in recent years. Coypus (Myocastor coypus, commonly nutria, are large semi-aquatic invasive rodents, naturalized throughout European countries, including most wetlands of Central Italy. The habitat of these animals is both terrestrial and aquatic, making them a species highly exposed to the parasite. Findings The occurrence of the infection was evaluated using a modified agglutination test (MAT in 74 adult coypus from a naturalized population living in a wetland of Central Italy. Nested PCR (n-PCR assay was carried out on some of them. Positive T. gondii MAT results were found in 44 animals (59·4%, 30 males (68·2% and 14 females (31·8%. Antibody titers were ranging from 20 to 40960, while 12 out of 23 (52·2%, examined animals, 8 males (66·7% and 4 females (33·3%, resulted positive to n-PCR. All n-PCR positive animals were seropositive, showing antibody titers ranging from 640 to 40960. Conclusions Our results indicate that examined animals are heavily parasitized with Toxoplasma. This suggests that coypus could be a reservoir of this parasite, because they can be eaten both by scavenger animals and by humans, and that these animals would play a role in maintaining the cycle of T. gondii.

  12. SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS FORSTER, 1781).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Cláudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor C L; Dias, Ricardo A; Ribeiro, Jéssica D; Lassalvia, Cristiane; Maracini, Pryscilla; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Mayorga, Luis F S P; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-03-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northward as far as Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from three zoos and two rehabilitation centers (RCs) in Brazil were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off ≥ 20). The penguins were categorized as young (≤4 yr old) or adults (≥4 yr old) and sexed (male, female, or not identified), and data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 28% of penguins: 25.8% males, 27.8% females, 30.3% unknown sex, 25.4% young, and 31.1% adults. Statistical analyses did not find any difference (P > 0.05) with respect to age, sex, or source of birds. This is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in S. magellanicus.

  13. A preliminary study on the quality and safety of milk in donkeys positive for Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M; Altomonte, I; Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Mugnaini, L; Salari, F

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the five parasitic diseases considered as a priority for public health action. The consumption of raw milk products represents a possible risk, in particular for certain categories of people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of Toxoplasma gondii on milk yield and quality in sero-positive animals with parasitemia. Eighteen healthy lactating Amiata jennies, between 90 and 180 days were included in the study. Four donkeys scored positive for immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and each IFAT positive donkey presented parasitic DNA both in the blood and milk. No significant differences were found between milk yield in PCR-positive donkeys compared with the negative cases, however the former tended to have a greater production. Milk quality in the positive donkeys showed a significantly lower percentage of casein (0.72% v. 0.81%) and ash (0.32% v. 0.37%). Positive cases had a highly significant larger average diameter of globules (2.35 µm) and fewer globules/ml (2.39 × 10(8)). Somatic cell and bacterial counts were normal and in agreement with the literature. Toxoplasma gondii did not seem to present clinical forms in lactating jennies. Further in vivo studies are needed to further assess the risk of T. gondii transmission through donkey milk, together with the impact of different stages of infection on milk quality.

  14. Dual Role for Inflammasome Sensors NLRP1 and NLRP3 in Murine Resistance to Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfu, Gezahegn; Cirelli, Kimberly M.; Melo, Mariane B.; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Crown, Devorah; Koller, Beverly H.; Masters, Seth; Sher, Alan; Leppla, Stephen H.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.; Grigg, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Induction of immunity that limits Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice is critically dependent on the activation of the innate immune response. In this study, we investigated the role of cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing a pyrin domain (NLRP) inflammasome sensors during acute toxoplasmosis in mice. We show that in vitro Toxoplasma infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in the rapid production and cleavage of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), with no measurable cleavage of IL-18 and no pyroptosis. Paradoxically, Toxoplasma-infected mice produced large quantities of IL-18 but had no measurable IL-1β in their serum. Infection of mice deficient in NLRP3, caspase-1/11, IL-1R, or the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC led to decreased levels of circulating IL-18, increased parasite replication, and death. Interestingly, mice deficient in NLRP1 also displayed increased parasite loads and acute mortality. Using mice deficient in IL-18 and IL-18R, we show that this cytokine plays an important role in limiting parasite replication to promote murine survival. Our findings reveal T. gondii as a novel activator of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in vivo and establish a role for these sensors in host resistance to toxoplasmosis. PMID:24549849

  15. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal....... Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). RESULTS: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper...

  16. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nataly Díaz-Ayala; Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso; Constanza Cabello-Araya; Francisco Carvallo-Chaigneau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Toxoplasmosis is an infectious, zoonotic and parasitic disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In this manucript, two cases of infection with T. gondii in captive animals from a zoological park in the central region of Chile are described. One case was a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), which is highly susceptible to the infection, and the other was a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a rodent in which there is no previous report of the infection. Both animals had myocarditis, with...

  17. Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Isabel; Rubio, Jose M; Ramírez, Carmen; Alvar, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determination was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii, collected from immunocompromised patients and congenital infection cases, were analyzed. Restriction fragment length polym...

  18. DETECTION OF INFECTION WITH Toxoplasma gondii IN MANATEES (Trichechus inunguis OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON Detección de infección por Toxoplasma gondii en manatíes (Trichechus inunguis de la Amazonía peruana

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    PATRICK MATHEWS DELGADO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis is an aquatic mammal that inhabits freshwater environments and is endemic to the Amazon Basin. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in 19 manatees in one rescue unit in the northern region of Peru. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 12 (63.2 % of 19 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (p El manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis es un mamífero acuático que habita en ambientes de agua dulce y es endémico de la cuenca del Amazonas. La presencia de Toxoplasma gondii se investigó en 19 manatíes, en una unidad de rescate en la región norte del Perú. Los anticuerpos contra T. gondii fueron detectados en 12 (63,2 %, de 19 animales mediante el uso de la prueba de aglutinación modificada (título, 1:25. No fue observada asociación entre el sexo y edad de los animales con la presencia de anticuerpos de T. gondii (p < 0,05. Los resultados sugieren la contaminación por ooquistes de T. gondii en el medio acuático donde viven estos animales.

  19. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in raw caprine, ovine, buffalo, bovine, and camel milk using cell cultivation, cat bioassay, capture ELISA, and PCR methods in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Borujeni, Mohammad Reza Haghighi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Abdizadeh, Rahman

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. From a total of 395 dairy herds in three provinces of Iran, 66 bovine, 58 ovine, 54 caprine, 33 buffalo, and 30 camel herds were studied, and from these parts of Iran, 200 bovine, 185 ovine, 180 caprine, 164 buffalo, and 160 camel milk samples were collected from various seasons. Samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii by cell line culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Only the results of cell line cultivation were confirmed by bioassay in cat. Results indicated that all herds were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The culture method showed that 51 out of 889 milk samples (5.73%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, and all 51 positive culture results were positive with bioassay in cat. The Fars province had the highest prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (6.84%). The ELISA test showed that 41 milk samples (4.61%) were positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, while the PCR showed that 46 milk samples were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. The results showed higher sensitivity of PCR and higher specificity of ELISA. Caprine had the highest (10%) and camel had the lowest (3.12%) prevalence rate of parasite. The summer season had the highest (76.47%) but winter (3.92) had the lowest incidence of Toxoplasma gondii. This study is the first prevalence report of direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran.

  20. First report of genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from wild birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Peng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wu, Song-Ming; Xu, Min-Jun; Zou, Feng-Cai; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important cosmopolitan opportunistic protozoan parasite, which threatens the health of human beings and animals. Genetic characterization of isolates from South America has revealed high genetic diversity. In contrast, isolates from North America and Europe were highly clonal, with 3 major lineages known as the Types I, II, and III. However, limited information on T. gondii genotypes has been reported in The People's Republic of China. Here we conducted a survey to determine genetic diversity of this parasite in wild birds of China. In total, tissues from breast muscle of 178 wild birds, including 98 common pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ), 35 tree sparrows ( Passer montanus ), 22 house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ), 20 saxaul sparrows ( Passer ammodendri ), and 1 cinnamon sparrow ( Passer rutilans ), were tested for T. gondii infection, 4 of which were found to be positive for the T. gondii B1 gene by PCR amplification. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers, including 9 nuclear loci, i.e., SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and an apicoplast locus Apico. Of these, 3 isolates were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and 2 genotypes (Type I and Type II variant) were identified. This is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from wild birds from different regions in China. The results suggest that the Type I and II variant strains are circulating in wild birds in China, and these birds are potential reservoirs for T. gondii transmission.

  1. The global seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among wild boars: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Fakhri, Yadollah; Saber, Vafa; Hanifehpour, Hooman; Valizadeh, Soghra; Gholizadeh, Majid; Pouya, Rokhsane Hosseini; Gamble, H Ray

    2017-09-15

    This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the worldwide seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among wild boar. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in wild boars between January 1995 and March 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. We estimated the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild boars using a random-effects model, and evaluated overall seroprevalence in different geographical areas. A total of 43 articles that included 16788 wild boar from 23 countries fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Of these, 4759 wild boar had been defined T. gondii seropositive and we estimated the pooled worldwide seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in wild boars to be 23% (95% CI: 19-27%). The pooled seroprevalence in North America (32%, 20-45%; odds ratio [OR] 2.09) and Europe (26%, 21-30%; OR 1.72), was higher than Asia (13%, 5-23%). The lowest seroprevalence was estimated in South America (5%, 3-8%). An increased seropositivity was observed with elevation in geographical latitude. In subgroup analyses, the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii was higher in wild boar older than 12 months of age (28%, 22-35%; OR 1.57) compared to those up to 12 months of age (20%, 16-25%). Our findings suggest that wild boar have an important role in human infection and the epidemiological cycle of T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transport and Retention of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Loamy Sand and Sandy Loam Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, E. N.; Korte, C.; L'Ollivier, C.; Dubey, J. P.; Aurélien, D.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasites affecting warm-blooded animals and humans. It has a complex life cycle that involves a wide variety of intermediate hosts with felids as a definitive host. Humans may contract it through consumption of infected, undercooked meat or by water or food sources contaminated with the oocyst form of the parasite. Infection of pregnant women can cause stillbirth, neurological effects or blindness. Because of the prevalence of cats, including on farms where oocyst-contaminated cat feces, animal feed, soil and water have been found, T. gondii is spread almost throughout the entire globe. It has been implicated or suspected in waterborne infections since the 1990s. This study aims to characterize the transport and retention of T. gondii oocysts in field soils. The four soils used were collected from fallow and cultivated fields in Illinois and Utah, USA. They are classified as loamy sands and sandy loams. Soil columns were subjected to continuous artificial rainfall until they reached steady state at which point pulses that included 2.5 million T. gondii oocysts (Me49 strain) and KBr as a tracer were added. After the pulse infiltrated, continuous rainfall was resumed. Rain applied all columns was a 1 mM KCl solution. Leachate samples were collected, analyzed using qPCR for T. gondii and bromide ions and breakthrough curves were produced. Soil was sliced into 1 to 2 cm sections, for which water content and T. gondii concentration were measured to access degree of saturation and oocyst retention.

  3. toxoMine: an integrated omics data warehouse for Toxoplasma gondii systems biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, David B; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Shieh, Kevin R; Sullivan, Julie; Micklem, Gos; Kim, Kami; Golden, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite that must monitor for changes in the host environment and respond accordingly; however, it is still not fully known which genetic or epigenetic factors are involved in regulating virulence traits of T. gondii. There are on-going efforts to elucidate the mechanisms regulating the stage transition process via the application of high-throughput epigenomics, genomics and proteomics techniques. Given the range of experimental conditions and the typical yield from such high-throughput techniques, a new challenge arises: how to effectively collect, organize and disseminate the generated data for subsequent data analysis. Here, we describe toxoMine, which provides a powerful interface to support sophisticated integrative exploration of high-throughput experimental data and metadata, providing researchers with a more tractable means toward understanding how genetic and/or epigenetic factors play a coordinated role in determining pathogenicity of T. gondii. As a data warehouse, toxoMine allows integration of high-throughput data sets with public T. gondii data. toxoMine is also able to execute complex queries involving multiple data sets with straightforward user interaction. Furthermore, toxoMine allows users to define their own parameters during the search process that gives users near-limitless search and query capabilities. The interoperability feature also allows users to query and examine data available in other InterMine systems, which would effectively augment the search scope beyond what is available to toxoMine. toxoMine complements the major community database ToxoDB by providing a data warehouse that enables more extensive integrative studies for T. gondii. Given all these factors, we believe it will become an indispensable resource to the greater infectious disease research community. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Cognitive deterioration among bipolar disorder patients infected by Toxoplasma gondii is correlated to interleukin 6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Nora; Daban-Huard, Claire; Lajnef, Mohamed; Gadel, Rémi; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Delavest, Marine; Carde, Soufiane; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Jamain, Stéphane; Houenou, Josselin; Galeh, Bijan; Richard, Jean-Romain; Aoki, Masayuki; Charron, Dominique; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Yolken, Robert; Dickerson, Faith; Tamouza, Ryad; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive deficits are present in a large majority of Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients and known to be a marker of bad prognosis. Because, these deficits encompass several domains and no specific medical treatment seems to be effective, it is important to better understand the mechanisms underlying cognitive deterioration. As Toxoplasma gondii is known to induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, we will explore here the possible role of T. gondii in the cognitive decline observed in BD. 42 euthymic BD patients and 36 controls were assessed for episodic verbal memory using the CVLT and for working memory and verbal ability using the WAIS III. Patients and controls were also screened for seropositivity to T. gondii and evaluated for the levels of IL-6 transcripts. The seropositivity for T. gondii was significantly higher in BD patients as compared to controls (p=0.005). The cognitive deterioration index (DI) was higher in BD patients (p=5.10(-6)) and correlated to high IL-6 mRNA expression only among those infected by T. gondii (rho=0.43, p=0.01). Among deteriorated patients (defined by scores above 0.10 according to Weschler׳s definition), the IL-6 mRNA expression was twice greater (p=0.01). Our results are to be interpreted with caution because of our small sample size and the cross-sectional design. A long-term exposure to inflammation, measured here with IL-6 mRNA expression in T. gondii infected BD may alter cognitive functioning. IL-6 could thus be a useful predictive marker of cognitive deterioration in BD and may help to design personalized treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-gluten immune response following Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

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    Emily G Severance

    Full Text Available Gluten sensitivity may affect disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals who have schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or autism. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is a known risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, presumably through a direct pathological effect of the parasite on brain and behavior. A co-association of antibodies to wheat gluten and to T. gondii in individuals with schizophrenia was recently uncovered, suggesting a coordinated gastrointestinal means by which T. gondii and dietary gluten might generate an immune response. Here, we evaluated the connection between these infectious- and food-based antigens in mouse models. BALB/c mice receiving a standard wheat-based rodent chow were infected with T. gondii via intraperitoneal, peroral and prenatal exposure methods. Significant increases in the levels of anti-gluten IgG were documented in all infected mice and in offspring from chronically infected dams compared to uninfected controls (repetitive measures ANOVAs, two-tailed t-tests, all p≤0.00001. Activation of the complement system accompanied this immune response (p≤0.002-0.00001. Perorally-infected females showed higher levels of anti-gluten IgG than males (p≤0.009 indicating that T. gondii-generated gastrointestinal infection led to a significant anti-gluten immune response in a sex-dependent manner. These findings support a gastrointestinal basis by which two risk factors for schizophrenia, T. gondii infection and sensitivity to dietary gluten, might be connected to produce the immune activation that is becoming an increasingly recognized pathology of psychiatric disorders.

  6. Anti-Gluten Immune Response following Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G.; Kannan, Geetha; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Xiao, Jianchun; Alaedini, Armin; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Gluten sensitivity may affect disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals who have schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or autism. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is a known risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, presumably through a direct pathological effect of the parasite on brain and behavior. A co-association of antibodies to wheat gluten and to T. gondii in individuals with schizophrenia was recently uncovered, suggesting a coordinated gastrointestinal means by which T. gondii and dietary gluten might generate an immune response. Here, we evaluated the connection between these infectious- and food-based antigens in mouse models. BALB/c mice receiving a standard wheat-based rodent chow were infected with T. gondii via intraperitoneal, peroral and prenatal exposure methods. Significant increases in the levels of anti-gluten IgG were documented in all infected mice and in offspring from chronically infected dams compared to uninfected controls (repetitive measures ANOVAs, two-tailed t-tests, all p≤0.00001). Activation of the complement system accompanied this immune response (p≤0.002–0.00001). Perorally-infected females showed higher levels of anti-gluten IgG than males (p≤0.009) indicating that T. gondii-generated gastrointestinal infection led to a significant anti-gluten immune response in a sex-dependent manner. These findings support a gastrointestinal basis by which two risk factors for schizophrenia, T. gondii infection and sensitivity to dietary gluten, might be connected to produce the immune activation that is becoming an increasingly recognized pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23209841

  7. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Opsteegh

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673 or the "Veluwe" (n = 241. A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685 and accompanying sensitivity (90.6% and specificity (93.6%. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%. The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I and seronegatives as either susceptible (S or resistant (R. A model with a recovery rate (SIS was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI. This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction in-Vitro

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    Genevieve Syn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Upon invasion of host cells, the ubiquitous pathogen Toxoplasma gondii manipulates several host processes, including re-organization of host organelles, to create a replicative niche. Host mitochondrial association to T. gondii parasitophorous vacuoles is rapid and has roles in modulating host immune responses. Here gene expression profiling of T. gondii infected cells reveals enrichment of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS and mitochondrial dysfunction 6 h post-infection. We identified 11 hub genes (HIF-1α, CASP8, FN1, POU5F1, CD44, ISG15, HNRNPA1, MDM2, RPL35, VHL, and NUPR1 and 10 predicted upstream regulators, including 4 endogenous regulators RICTOR, KDM5A, RB1, and D-glucose. We characterized a number of mitochondrial parameters in T. gondii infected human foreskin fibroblast cells over a 36 h time-course. In addition to the usual rapid recruitment and apparent enlargement of mitochondria around the parasitophorous vacuole we observed fragmented host mitochondria in infected cells, not linked to cellular apoptosis, from 24 h post-infection. An increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels in T. gondii infected cells was observed that required active parasite invasion and peaked at 30 h post-infection. Measurement of OXPHOS proteins showed decreased expression of Complex IV in infected cells at 24 h post-infection, followed by decreased expression of Complexes I and II at 36 h post-infection. No change occurred in Complex V. No difference in host mitochondrial membrane potential between infected and mock-infected cells was observed at any time. Our results show perturbation of host mitochondrial function following T. gondii infection that likely impacts on pathogenesis of disease.

  9. Human impact on genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: example of the anthropized environment from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, A; Ajzenberg, D; Devillard, S; Demar, M P; de Thoisy, B; Bonnabau, H; Collinet, F; Boukhari, R; Blanchet, D; Simon, S; Carme, B; Dardé, M-L

    2011-08-01

    In French Guiana, severe cases of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are associated with atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii linked to a wild neotropical rainforest cycle and a higher genetic diversity than usually observed for T. gondii isolates from anthropized environment. This raises the question of the impact of anthropization of the natural environment, on genetic diversity and on the population structure of T. gondii. However, few data are available on strains circulating in the anthropized areas from French Guiana. Seropositive animals originating mainly from anthropized sub-urban areas and punctually from wild environment in French Guiana were analyzed for T. gondii isolation and genotyping. Thirty-three strains were obtained by bioassay in mice and compared with 18 previously reported isolates chiefly originating from the Amazon rainforest. The genotyping analysis performed with 15 microsatellite markers located on 12 different chromosomes revealed a lower genetic diversity in the anthropized environment. Results were analyzed in terms of population structure by clustering methods, Neighbor-joining trees reconstruction based on genetic distances, F(ST,) Mantel's tests and linkage disequilibrium. They clearly showed a genetic differentiation between strains associated to the anthropized environment and those associated to the wild, but with some inbreeding between them. The majority of strains from the anthropized environment were clustered into additional lineages of T. gondii that are common in the Caribbean. In conclusion the two environmental populations "wild" and "anthropized" were genetically well differentiated. The anthropization of the environment seems to be accompanied with a decreased diversity of T. gondii associated with a greater structure of the populations. We detected potential interpenetration and genetic exchanges between these two environmental populations. As a higher pathogenicity in human of "wild" genotypes has been

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Hsp90: potential roles in essential cellular processes of the parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Sergio O.; Figueras, Maria J.; Alomar, Maria L.; Echeverria, Pablo C.; Deng, Bin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hsp90 is a widely distributed and highly conserved molecular chaperone that is ubiquitously expressed throughout nature, being one of the most abundant proteins within non-stressed cells. This chaperone is up-regulated following stressful events and has been involved in many cellular processes. In Toxoplasma gondii, Hsp90 could be linked with many essential processes of the parasite such as host cell invasion, replication and tachyzoite-bradyzoite interconversion. A Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network approach of TgHsp90 has allowed inferring how these processes may be altered. In addition, data mining of T. gondii phosphoproteome and acetylome has allowed the generation of the phosphorylation and acetylation map of TgHsp90. This review focuses on the potential roles of TgHsp90 in parasite biology and the analysis of experimental data in comparison with its counterparts in yeast and humans. PMID:24560345

  11. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and risk factors in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy

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    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated water and foods, by soil contaminated with cat feces, especially while handling it, and congenitally via the placenta. The diagnosis of maternal infection is made by serological detection of either IgM or IgG antibodies. This study assessed the seropositivity in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: The study was performed in 19 FHS units and included 148 childbearing women. The outcomes evaluated were IgM and IgG seropositivity and behavioral variables. RESULTS: IgG yielded positive results in 16% of the pregnant women, whereas IgM was positive in only 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The 1% IgM positivity rate for T. gondii indicates congenital toxoplasmosis is not common in Lages.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and risk factors in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho; da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Romagna, Getúlio; de Oliveira, Juliana Pellizzoni; Ribeiro, Dadryhan Morghani; Marques, Sandra Márcia Tietz

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated water and foods, by soil contaminated with cat feces, especially while handling it, and congenitally via the placenta. The diagnosis of maternal infection is made by serological detection of either IgM or IgG antibodies. This study assessed the seropositivity in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study was performed in 19 FHS units and included 148 childbearing women. The outcomes evaluated were IgM and IgG seropositivity and behavioral variables. IgG yielded positive results in 16% of the pregnant women, whereas IgM was positive in only 1%. The 1% IgM positivity rate for T. gondii indicates congenital toxoplasmosis is not common in Lages.

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in a free-ranging giant anteater

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    Thais Oliveira Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which establishes acute and chronic infections in birds and mammals, including humans. This note reports, for the first time, the detection and sequencing of DNA from T. gondii in the peripheral blood of a young free range giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. For the diagnosis, the following methods were used: polymerase chain reaction (PCR and positive serology (1:800 by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT. Since this species may be consumed by humans and predated by wild felids, its importance is emphasized as a probable source of zoonotic infection, in addition to its possible participation in the infection enzootic cycle. Although, parasitemia has been confirmed in this specimen, it presented no clinical sign of infection.

  14. Development of CRISPR/Cas9 for Efficient Genome Editing in Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Shen, Bang; Brown, Kevin; Long, Shaojun; Sibley, L David

    2017-01-01

    Efficient and site-specific alteration of the genome is key to decoding and altering the genomic information of an organism. Over the last couple of years, the RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases derived from the prokaryotic type 2 CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems have drastically improved our ability to engineer the genomes of a variety of organisms including Toxoplasma gondii. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for using the CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted from Streptococcus pyogenes to perform efficient genetic manipulations in T. gondii such as gene disruption, gene tagging and genetic complementation. The technical details of the strategy, including CRISPR plasmid construction, target construct generation, parasite transfection and positive clone identification are also provided. These methods are easy to customize to any gene of interest (GOI) and will greatly accelerate studies on this important pathogen.

  15. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies

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    Marcos de Assis Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs from Korea.

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    Nguyen, Thuy Thi-Dieu; Choe, Se-Eun; Byun, Jae-Won; Koh, Hong-Bum; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Seung-Won

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites, they share many common hosts, and can cause neurological diseases in dogs. Dogs can have close contacts with humans and livestock and therefore they can act as reservoirs of these parasites. The aim of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum and their co-infection rate in dogs in Korea. In total, sera from 553 domestic dogs were collected from different breeds, sexes, and ages of dogs from nine provinces across the country of Korea during 2006 and 2007. The presence of antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum was analyzed using the latex agglutination test (LAT) with a cut-off value of 1:32, and the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using a serum titer of 1:100. In the total dog population, 71 (12.8%) dogs were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies and only 20 (3.6%) were positive for anti-N. caninum antibodies. Relatively higher seropositive frequencies of antibodies against T. gondii (20.1%) and N. caninum (4.9%) were detected in the dog population from the Gyeonggi. A higher proportion of animals seropositive for anti-T. gondii antibodies was found in stray dog populations as compared to household dog populations: 18.5% (59/319) vs 5.1% (12/234), respectively. The Chi-square tests revealed significant differences in the seropositive frequencies of antibodies against T. gondii between stray and household dogs in the total population (pdogs from the Gyeonggi (p0.05). The first serological survey on antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum parasites across the entire country showed that co-infection was not common in these canine populations with a seropositive level of 0.72%. The significantly higher positive frequency of T. gondii antibodies in stray dogs in both, Gyeonggi and in the total dog populations suggests that further investigation on the seroprevalence of parasites should focus on stray dogs.

  17. Detecção de Toxoplasma gondii no sêmen de ovinos naturalmente infectados

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    Érica P.B.X Moraes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a eliminação de Toxoplasma gondii no sêmen de carneiros naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 65 reprodutores submetidos inicialmente à pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii por meio da técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. Os carneiros sorologicamente positivos foram submetidos à colheita de sêmen para detecção do DNA de T. gondii. Na sorologia observaram-se 6/65 (9,2% carneiros positivos, enquanto no PCR nested de sêmen 4/6 (66,6% carneiros foram positivos. Conclui-se que a detecção, por meio da técnica da PCR nested, da forma proliferativa de T. gondii no sêmen de carneiros naturalmente infectados, reforça a necessidade de se pesquisar sobre a possibilidade da transmissão horizontal do parasito via sêmen na espécie ovina.

  18. Lacrimal secretory IgA in active posterior uveitis induced by Toxoplasma gondii

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    Maria Isabel Lynch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available It is quite difficult to diagnose active toxoplasmosis in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Active posterior uveitis presumably due to Toxoplasma gondii infection (APUPT is seldom produced during a prime-infection; hence most patients do not show high IgM antibodies. High levels of IgA have been described in active toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible association between APUPT and the specific anti-parasite sIgA in tears. The study was carried out as case-control. Tears of 25 clinically confirmed APUPT patients and 50 healthy control subjects were analyzed. All were IgG seropositive. Specific sIgA was determined by ELISA assay using T. gondii RH strain crude extract. Anti-T. gondii sIgA was found in 84% of the cases and in 22% of the control subjects. The intensity of the reaction was higher in APUPT cases (P = 0.007. There was strong association between APUPT patients and lacrimal sIgA (odds-ratio 18.61, P = 0.0001. ELISA test sensitivity was 84% and specificity 78% . Our data suggest that anti-T.gondii secretory IgA found in tears may become an important marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection can induce retinal DNA damage:an experimental study

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection of mice can induce retinal DNA damage.METHODS: A total of 20 laboratory-bred male Swiss albino mice were used and divided into four groups:control group (non-infected animals; T. gondiiinfected group; immunosuppressed infected group; and infected#$NLgroup treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Mice eyes were collected 6wk post infection and retinas were obtained. Each retina was immediately processed for comet assay and the frequency of tailed nuclei (DNA damage was calculated. In addition, retinal DNA damage was revealed by various comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software including tail length, percentage of DNA in the tail, percentage of tailed cells and tail moment.RESULTS: The obtained results showed that T. gondii infectioninduced a statistically significant increase in the frequency of tailed nuclei, tail length, percentage of DNA in the tail, and tail moment in mice retinal cells compared to the control group (which showed some degree of DNA damage. In immunosuppressed infected group, retinal DNA damage was severing and there wassignificant increase in various comet assay parameters compared to both control and infected groups. After treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, retinal DNA damage decreased and all comet assay parameters showed a statistical significant decrease compared to infected groups.CONCLUSION: T. gondii infectioncan induce DNA damage in mice retinal cells.

  20. Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.

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    Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ≤ 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection.

  1. Meningoencephalitis and Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. coinfection in a dolphin in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattarola, Carla; Giorda, Federica; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Pautasso, Alessandra; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Maria; Romano, Angelo; Peletto, Simone; Varello, Katia; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Marsili, Letizia; Bozzetta, Elena; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dondo, Alessandro; Mignone, Walter; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-02-25

    Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin.

  2. In vitro activity of the interaction between taxifolin (dihydroquercetin) and pyrimethamine against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugri, Daniel A; Witola, William H; Russell, Albert E; Troy, Roberta M

    2018-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most neglected zoonotic foodborne parasitic diseases that cause public health and socioeconomic concern worldwide. The current drugs used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have been identified to have clinical limitations. Hence, new drugs are urgently needed to eradicate T.gondii infections globally. Here, an in vitro anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of taxifolin (dihydroquercetin) and dihydrofolate inhibitor (pyrimethamine) alone and in combination with a fixed concentration of pyrimethamine were investigated against the rapidly proliferating T.gondii RH strain at 48 hr using colorimetric assay. Pyrimethamine showed the highest anti-T. gondii activity with IC 50P of 0.84 μg/ml (p > .05), respectively. The combination of pyrimethamine with dihydroquercetin gave a significant inhibitory activity against tachyzoites in in vitro with IC 50p of 1.39 μg/ml (p < .05). The IC 50p ranges obtained for the individual and the combination of taxifolin with pyrimethamine inhibition of parasite growth were not cytotoxic to the infected HFF and Hek-293 cell lines used. These compounds combination should be investigated further using in vivo model of toxoplasmosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Rapid discovery of inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii using hybrid structure-based computational approach

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    Kortagere, Sandhya; Mui, Ernest; McLeod, Rima; Welsh, William J.

    2011-05-01

    Toxoplasma (T.) gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen that infects individuals worldwide, and is a leading cause of severe congenital neurologic and ocular disease in humans. No vaccine to protect humans is available, and hypersensitivity and toxicity limit the use of the few available medicines. Therefore, safer and more effective medicines to treat toxoplasmosis are urgently needed. Using the Hybrid Structure Based (HSB) method, we have previously identified small molecule inhibitors of P. falciparum that seem to target a novel protein-protein interaction between the Myosin tail interacting protein and myosin light chain. This pathway has been hypothesized to be involved in invasion of host erythrocytes by the parasite and is broadly conserved among the apicomplexans. Guided by similar computational drug design approaches, we investigated this series of small molecules as potential inhibitors of T. gondii. Compound C3-21, identified as the most active inhibitor in this series, exhibited an IC50 value 500 nM against T. gondii. Among the 16 structural analogs of C3-21 tested thus far, nine additional compounds were identified with IC50 values <10.0 μM. In vitro assays have revealed that C3-21 markedly limits intracellular growth of T. gondii tachyzoites, but has no effect on host cell human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) at concentrations more than a log greater than the concentration that inhibits the parasites.

  4. The Evolution of Host Mitochondrial Association and its Impact on Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Elizabeth D.

    The association of intracellular pathogens with host mitochondria has been observed across taxa, from bacterial pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia trachomati, to the eukaryotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. However the functional impact of host mitochondrial association (HMA) remains difficult to assess in most of these species because in many cases the genes responsible for this phenomenon have not yet been identified. The recent discovery of the T. gondii gene responsible for HMA, Mitochondrial Association Factor 1 ( MAF1) has provided us with the tools to begin to understand the evolution and impact of HMA. Here we use multispecies sequence analysis to determine that the MAF1 locus is tandemly duplicated and diversified in both T. gondii and its nearest extant relative Hammondia hammondi, but not another close relative Neospora caninum. Using cross-species complementation we find that T. gondii and H. hammondi harbor copies of MAF1 able to mediate HMA, while N. caninum does not. We have begun mutational analysis using naturally occurring HMA+ and HMA- paralogs of MAF1 in order to determine the portions of MAF1 protein necessary for HMA. Additionally, we have identified the first in vivo phenotypes associated with HMA using multiple mouse models, for both acute and chronic infection. Taken together these data indicate that HMA likely evolved via neofunctionalization of a duplicated ancestral MAF1 gene, and that the neofunctionalized, HMA competent copy of MAF1 provides a selective advantage.

  5. Targeted Delivery of Toxoplasma gondii Antigens to Dendritic Cells Promote Immunogenicity and Protective Efficiency against Toxoplasmosis

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    Zineb Lakhrif

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem and the development of a human vaccine is of high priority. Efficient vaccination against Toxoplasma gondii requires both a mucosal and systemic Th1 immune response. Moreover, dendritic cells play a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune functions and driving specific adaptive immunity to T. gondii. In this study, we explore an original vaccination strategy that combines administration via mucosal and systemic routes of fusion proteins able to target the major T. gondii surface antigen SAG1 to DCs using an antibody fragment single-chain fragment variable (scFv directed against DEC205 endocytic receptor. Our results show that SAG1 targeting to DCs by scFv via intranasal and subcutaneous administration improved protection against chronic T. gondii infection. A marked reduction in brain parasite burden is observed when compared with the intranasal or the subcutaneous route alone. DC targeting improved both local and systemic humoral and cellular immune responses and potentiated more specifically the Th1 response profile by more efficient production of IFN-γ, interleukin-2, IgG2a, and nasal IgA. This study provides evidence of the potential of DC targeting for the development of new vaccines against a range of Apicomplexa parasites.

  6. A coiled-coil protein is required for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjol, Flavie; Gissot, Mathieu

    2018-02-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular eukaryotic pathogen that belongs to the Apicomplexa phylum, which encompasses some of the deadliest pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. The centrosome is key to the organization and coordination of the cell cycle and division of apicomplexan parasites. The T. gondii centrosome possesses a particular bipartite structure (outer and inner core). One of the main roles of the centrosome is to ensure proper coordination of karyokinesis. However, how these two events are coordinated is still unknown in T. gondii, for which the centrosome components are poorly described. To gain more insights into the biology and the composition of the T. gondii centrosome, we characterized a protein that resides at the interface of the outer and inner core centrosome. TgCep530 is a large coil-coiled protein with an essential role in the survival of the parasite. Depletion of this protein leads to the accumulation of parasites lacking nuclei and disruption of the normal cell cycle. Lack of TgCep530 results in a discoordination between the nuclear cycle and the budding cycle that yields fully formed parasites without nuclei. TgCep530 has a crucial role in the coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

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    Ignacio M Fenoy

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+FoxP3(+ cells.

  8. Occurrence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and/or Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, Nicolle Fridlund; Ferreira, Fabiano Montiani; Richartz, Rosária Regina Tesoni de Barros; de Siqueira, Adriana; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate occurrences of antibodies against Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs. Blood samples from 147 dogs were collected: 127 from owned dogs (attended at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (HV-UFPR) and at private veterinary clinics in the city of Curitiba), and 20 from stray dogs found in Curitiba's metropolitan region. The dogs presented one or more of the following neurological signs: seizures, paresis or paralysis, ataxia, behavioral abnormalities, sensory and somatic disorders and chorioretinitis. The samples were analyzed by means of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), at a cutoff dilution of 1:50. Out of the 147 samples obtained, 17 (11.56%) were seropositive for N. caninum, 31 (21.08%) for T. gondii and four (2.72%) for both protozoa. Serum titration on the positive animals showed that 54.83% (17/31) and 41.18% (7/17) had titers ≥ 1:200 against T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. A significant difference in seropositivity for T. gondii (P = 0.021; OR = 2.87; CI = 1.1 > 2.8 > 7.4) was observed between owned dogs (18.11%) and stray dogs (40%). Inclusion of serological tests for neosporosis and toxoplasmosis is recommended in diagnosing neurological diseases in dogs.

  9. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from ruminants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mehdi; Amouei, Afsaneh; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Mizani, Azadeh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Daryani, Ahmad

    2017-10-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals. This parasite has been classified into three major lineages. Our aim was to assess and compare the identified Types and genotypes in ruminants. From November 2014 to April 2015, four English language databases and four Persian databases that reported data on the T. gondii genotyping in ruminants were searched. Overall, typing results of the 250/307 T. gondii isolates in all animals showed that Type II was a predominant Type (81.4%). In addition, genotyping data from the 82/215 T. gondii isolates or strains indicated that atypical genotypes were predominant (38.13%). This systematic review has demonstrated a large degree of genetic diversity in some countries. However, in the new nomenclature of genotyping, there are atypical or exotic genotypes, such as Chinese 1, Types Br (I, II, III and IV), and Type 12. Further genotyping studies are required to corroborate the current results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Secreted effectors in Toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?

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    English, E D; Adomako-Ankomah, Y; Boyle, J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host–pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. However, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of T. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (Hammondia hammondi and Neospora caninum) is unknown. These unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host range. In this review we comprehensively survey what is known about disease outcome, the host response and host range for T. gondii, H. hammondi, and N. caninum. We then review what is presently known about recently identified secreted virulence effectors in these three genetically related, but phenotypically distinct, species. Finally we exploit the existence of genome sequences for these three organisms and discuss what is known about the presence, and functionality, of key T. gondii effectors in these three species. PMID:25655311

  11. Infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 Toxoplasma gondii strain in bovine milk and homemade cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R M; Mayrbaurl-Borges, M; Galisteo, A J; Meireles, L R; Macre, M S; Andrade, H F

    2001-04-01

    Analyze the infectivity and storage resistance of cysts of the ME-49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii in artificially infected bovine milk and homemade fresh cheese. Pasteurized bovine milk was infected with 10 cysts/ml of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii and inoculated in different groups of mice, immediately or after storage at 4 degrees C for 5, 10 and 20 days. Homemade fresh cheese was prepared with artificially infected milk, and also tested in groups of mice, using the same storage process. Infection was identified by the presence of cysts in the brain or serological testing in challenged mice after 5 weeks, confirmed by Western Blot and histology. The infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii was maintained in the milk even after storage for 20 days at refrigerator temperatures. Cysts were also able to survive the production process of homemade fresh cheese and storage for a period of 10 days in the same conditions. These data demonstrated that milk and dairy products could be an important source of T.gondii in human contamination, reinforcing the importance of milk pasteurization before any processing or ingestion.

  12. Infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 Toxoplasma gondii strain in bovine milk and homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramoto RM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze the infectivity and storage resistance of cysts of the ME-49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii in artificially infected bovine milk and homemade fresh cheese. METHODS: Pasteurized bovine milk was infected with 10 cysts/ml of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii and inoculated in different groups of mice, immediately or after storage at 4ºC for 5, 10 and 20 days. Homemade fresh cheese was prepared with artificially infected milk, and also tested in groups of mice, using the same storage process. Infection was identified by the presence of cysts in the brain or serological testing in challenged mice after 5 weeks, confirmed by Western Blot and histology. RESULTS: The infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii was maintained in the milk even after storage for 20 days at refrigerator temperatures. Cysts were also able to survive the production process of homemade fresh cheese and storage for a period of 10 days in the same conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that milk and dairy products could be an important source of T.gondii in human contamination, reinforcing the importance of milk pasteurization before any processing or ingestion.

  13. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii in the retina in eye banks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Deise F; Nascimento, Heloisa; Sutili, Aline; Nobrega, Fernando A J; Fowler, Flavio; Nobrega, Mario Junqueira; Garrido, Cristina; de Oliveira Dias, Janaina; Adán, Consuelo B D; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Silveira, Claudio; Belfort, Rubens; Commodaro, Alessandra G

    2017-07-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16). The retinas were macroscopically analyzed and collected for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed using the T. gondii B1 marker. By qPCR, a higher frequency of T. gondii DNA in the retinas from the eye bank of Joinville (25%) was found when compared to Manaus (5%). The retinas from Sao Paulo and Chapeco were qPCR negative. Clinical examination determined the retina lesions to be compatible with toxoplasmosis in the following frequencies: Joinville (62.5%), Manaus (10%), Sao Paulo (6.7%), and Chapeco (15.4%).

  15. Interaction and cystogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii within skeletal muscle cells in vitro

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    Erick Vaz Guimarães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals. To prevent human infection, all meat should be well cooked before consumption, since the parasite is present in skeletal muscle. In this context, the use of skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs as a cellular model opens up new approaches to investigate T. gondii-host cell interactions. Immunofluorescent detection of proteins that are stage-specific for bradyzoites indicated that complete cystogenesis of T. gondii in in vitro cultures of SkMCs occurs after 96 h of infection. Ultrastructural analysis showed that, after 48 h of interaction, there were alterations on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, including greater thickness and increased electron density at the inner face of the membrane. The present study demonstrates the potential use of primary cultures of SkMCs to evaluate different molecular aspects of T. gondii invasion and cystogenesis and presents a promising in vitro model for the screening of drug activities toward tissue cysts and bradyzoites.

  16. Protective immunity induced by a recombinant BCG vaccine encoding the cyclophilin gene of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qinlei; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Qian; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Guocai; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Xichen

    2013-12-09

    The investigation of Toxoplasma gondii virulence factors can elucidate the immunopathology of T. gondii infection and identify potential candidates for effective human vaccines. The adjuvant is an important component of an effective vaccine. In this study, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis was used as a live vaccine vector with both antigen and adjuvant characteristics. Following amplification of the T. gondii cyclophilin gene, the shuttle expression plasmid pMV261-TgCyP and integrative expression plasmid pMV361-TgCyP were constructed, and their expression was stimulated after transfection into BCG. Both recombinant plasmids were highly immunogenic. Greater proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was observed in the rBCG-vaccinated groups compared to the control groups. The levels of Th1-type IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12 were significantly increased following immunisation with the rBCG vaccines via the i.v. or oral route, which indicated that catalytic activity against T. gondii infection was generated in the mice. rBCGpMV361-TgCyP i.v. inoculation resulted in a higher protection efficiency, as demonstrated by the increased survival time and survival rate (17%) of BALB/c mice. The present study demonstrates that a BCG vector expressing a target antigen, TgCyP, represent an alternative system for the production of effective vaccines to prevent toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

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    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  18. IL-10 reduces levels of apoptosis in Toxoplasma gondii-infected trophoblasts.

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    Zhao, Mingdong; Zhang, Ruijin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Haixia; Zhai, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the effects of IL-10 on the HLA-G expression and the apoptosis of trophoblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii-infected or uninfected human trophoblasts and immortalized human placental BeWo cells were cultured with or without human IL-10. Uninfected and infected cells without IL-10 cells served as controls. HLA-G expression was measured by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis associated moleculars were measured by real-time PCR and Western bolt. HLA-G expression was increased in the infected trophoblasts and BeWo cells compared to uninfected cells. Treatment of infected cells with IL-10 decreased HLA-G expression compared to infected cells while no change in treatment of uninfected cells compared with uninfected cells. Levels of apoptosis and apoptosis associated caspase-3 and caspase-8 decreased and c-FLIP levels increased in treated infected cells with IL-10 compared to infected cells and no difference in IL-10 treated uninfected cells compared to uninfected cells. IL-10 regulates HLA-G expression in T. gondii-infected trophoblasts. IL-10 treatment of infected trophoblasts reduced levels of apoptosis. This may contribute to the improvement in pregnancy outcomes when women infected with T. gondii treated with IL-10.

  19. Patterns and role of diversifying selection in the evolution of Toxoplasma gondii SAG5 locus.

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    Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhao, Xiangrong

    2008-06-01

    The higher intergenotypic polymorphism of the surface antigen genes 5 (SAG5)A, SAG5C, and SAG5E in Toxoplasma gondii was proposed to be the outcome of positive selection pressure favoring variation within these loci. However, the exact nature and magnitude of this selection is not completely known. To address this issue, the amino acids on which natural selection may operate were identified by comparing the ratios of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions (pN/pS) of homologous DNA sequences in strains belonging to the three major genotypes of T. gondii. Both positive and negative selections were detected and are likely to have contributed to shaping the patterns of nucleotide substitution and polymorphism in SAG5 genes. Several sites identified in SAG5 loci as likely to be under positive selection suggesting that diversifying selection may have promoted divergence in these genes. Also, it was noted that the SAG5 genetic loci contain many areas that exhibit signs of purifying selection; some of these areas might be the attractive candidates for drug targets. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods grouped the SAG5 sequences of T. gondii strains into three distinct statistically well-supported evolutionary lineages. These findings carry important implications for human and veterinary toxoplasmosis epidemiology and may provide important insights into the pathways through which virulence has evolved in T. gondii.

  20. SUBKLONING DAN ISOLASI GEN PENYANDI MIKRONEMA 3 (MIC-3 Toxoplasma gondii ISOLAT LOKAL

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    Diana Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC-3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion proccess during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. The aim of this research is to clone mic3 (gene encoding for MIC-3 of T. gondii from local isolate using recombinant DNA technology by cloning mic3 in an expression vector. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA from T. gondii tachyzoites was amplified by PuRe Taq RTG-PCR Beads using mic3 specific primers. Amplified DNA was double digested using EcoRV and HindIII restriction endonucleases and then purified using EZ-10 spin coloumn purification kit. The mic3 DNA was ligated into pET-32a(+ expression vector and transformated into Escherichia coli BL21. The results showed that recombinant mic3 gene 4.2 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC-3 protein of T. gondii local isolate into pET-32a(+ and transformed to E. coli BL21.