WorldWideScience

Sample records for viable steam-oil ratios

  1. Viable tensor-to-scalar ratio in a symmetric matter bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Raveendran, Rathul; Chowdhury, Debika; Sriramkumar, L.

    2018-01-01

    Matter bounces refer to scenarios wherein the universe contracts at early times as in a matter dominated epoch until the scale factor reaches a minimum, after which it starts expanding. While such scenarios are known to lead to scale invariant spectra of primordial perturbations after the bounce, the challenge has been to construct completely symmetric bounces that lead to a tensor-to-scalar ratio which is small enough to be consistent with the recent cosmological data. In this work, we construct a model involving two scalar fields (a canonical field and a non-canonical ghost field) to drive the symmetric matter bounce and study the evolution of the scalar perturbations in the model. We find that the model can be completely described in terms of a single parameter, viz. the ratio of the scale associated with the bounce to the value of the scale factor at the bounce. We evolve the scalar perturbations numerically across the bounce and evaluate the scalar power spectra after the bounce. We show that, while the scalar and tensor perturbation spectra are scale invariant over scales of cosmological interest, the tensor-to-scalar ratio proves to be much smaller than the current upper bound from the observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies by the Planck mission. We also support our numerical analysis with analytical arguments.

  2. Defined Combinations of Cryomedia and Thawing Extenders Influence the Viable X-Y Boar Sperm Ratio in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchunjit, W; Kaeoket, K; Kitiyanant, Y; Taylor, J; Wongtawan, T

    It is believed that plasma membrane X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm are different; therefore the freezing and thawing process may affect X- and Y-sperm differently. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cryomedia and thawing extenders on the survival of X and Y-sperm. Three different cryomedia and thawing extenders were compared. Viable motile sperm were separated using a swim-up technique. Real-time PCR was used to identify the sperm type. Using CryoA for freezing and Beltsville-Thawing-Solution (BTS) as the thawing extender yielded significantly higher numbers of viable motile Y sperm (64 percent) than control (48 percent) (P semen freezing with CryoC and thawing with Androstar Plus gave a significantly lower number of viable motile Y sperm (32 percent) than control (51 percent). Our results revealed that defined combinations of cryomedia and thawing extenders significantly altered the survival ratio of frozen-thawed X-Y sperm in vitro, which has potential implications for artificial insemination.

  3. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguocha Chinyere M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10 criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44 children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001. First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children

  4. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-09-15

    There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition(ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians

  5. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  6. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  7. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  8. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  9. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  10. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  11. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  12. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  13. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: aubin.jp@gmail.com [VIMADES (Viabilité, Marchés, Automatique, Décisions) (France)

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  14. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  15. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money.

  16. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  17. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615ratio r of order 10{sup −3}. Furthermore, we show that for a class of models, a natural coupling between inflation and a scalar boson is generated through the minimal coupling between gravity and matter fields and a reheating temperature less that 10{sup 9} GeV is obtained.

  18. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  20. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  1. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  2. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  3. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  4. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  5. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  6. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  7. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable......-viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...

  8. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  9. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  10. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  11. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  12. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  13. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  14. Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  15. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for Poverty Alleviation in the Rural Areas of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, ...

  16. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  17. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  18. Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving smallholder and cooperative agribusiness management: A case study of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Empirical evidence from this study shows that six months after attending the workshops, ...

  19. A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Two titles in one cover. On page 56-112 there's the English version of the book: 'A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain. Does real estate still have the value that it had, or is the valuation of real estate going to change due to surprising products and services, innovative

  20. Preliminary applied study of assessment ischemic/viable myocardium by 99Tcm-HL91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Wu Hua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the representation of 99 Tc m -HL91 in the ischemic myocardium, evaluate the diagnosis value of 99 Tc m -HL91 on hypoxic but viable myocardium. Methods: Six patients with cardiac infarction all underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT and 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT. Average radioactivity of ischemic area and normal area were respectively obtained by ROI (2 x 2 pixels) on heart minor axis of images, And the radioactivity ratios of target (ischemic area)-to-non target(normal area)were calculated. Results: In image of 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT, two patients who's radioactivity coloboma of 99 Tc m -MIBI image could be filled with 99 Tc m -HL91, four patients were not caught sight of obvious filling up. Conclusion 99 Tc m -HL91 can be selectively uptaken by ischemic and hypoxic but viable myocardium. it combination of 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT may be good for accurate diagnosis and differentiation of viable myocardium. (authors)

  1. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  2. The reconstruction of f(ϕ)R and mimetic gravity from viable slow-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we extend the bottom-up reconstruction framework of F (R) gravity to other modified gravities, and in particular for f (ϕ) R and mimetic F (R) gravities. We investigate which are the important conditions in order for the method to work, and we study several viable cosmological evolutions, focusing on the inflationary era. Particularly, for the f (ϕ) R theory case, we specify the functional form of the Hubble rate and of the scalar-to-tensor ratio as a function of the e-foldings number and accordingly, the rest of the physical quantities and also the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices can be calculated. The same method is applied in the mimetic F (R) gravity case, and in both cases we thoroughly analyze the resulting free parameter space, in order to show that the viability of the models presented is guaranteed and secondly that there is a wide range of values of the free parameters for which the viability of the models occurs. In addition, the reconstruction method is also studied in the context of mimetic F (R) = R gravity. As we demonstrate, the resulting theory is viable, and also in this case, only the scalar-to-tensor ratio needs to be specified, since the rest follow from this condition. Finally, we discuss in brief how the reconstruction method could function for other modified gravities.

  3. The reconstruction of f(ϕR and mimetic gravity from viable slow-roll inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Odintsov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we extend the bottom-up reconstruction framework of F(R gravity to other modified gravities, and in particular for f(ϕR and mimetic F(R gravities. We investigate which are the important conditions in order for the method to work, and we study several viable cosmological evolutions, focusing on the inflationary era. Particularly, for the f(ϕR theory case, we specify the functional form of the Hubble rate and of the scalar-to-tensor ratio as a function of the e-foldings number and accordingly, the rest of the physical quantities and also the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices can be calculated. The same method is applied in the mimetic F(R gravity case, and in both cases we thoroughly analyze the resulting free parameter space, in order to show that the viability of the models presented is guaranteed and secondly that there is a wide range of values of the free parameters for which the viability of the models occurs. In addition, the reconstruction method is also studied in the context of mimetic F(R=R gravity. As we demonstrate, the resulting theory is viable, and also in this case, only the scalar-to-tensor ratio needs to be specified, since the rest follow from this condition. Finally, we discuss in brief how the reconstruction method could function for other modified gravities.

  4. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  5. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  6. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  7. Formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori: viables o degenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cava

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available De los trabajos presentados acerca de las formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori se deduce una controversia mucho mayor que la resultante del mero estudio clínico de este microorganismo. Parece claro que existe una conversión tanto in vivo como in vitro de las formas espirales a las formas cocoides inducida por varios motivos, como cultivos prolongados, estrés físico y químico, y agentes antimicrobianos. En esta revisión repasamos los puntos de vista que han dividido a investigadores de esta área en dos grupos bien definidos: Los que consideran a estas formas cocoides como un producto no viable de degeneración celular y los que piensan que estas formas son estructuras viables,durmientes o de resistencia frente a condiciones ambientales adversas. Esta discrepancia conlleva a que interrogantes sobre la relación entre la transmisión de la enfermedad y estas formas cocoides permanezcan sin respuesta todavía.

  8. Separation of viable lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to humans. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB are probiotic organisms used in the production of fermented foods, such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles. Given their widespread consumption, it is important to understand the physiological state of LAB in foods such as yogurt. However, this analysis is complicated, as it is difficult to separate the LAB from milk components such as solid curds, which prevent cell separation by dilution or centrifugation. In this study, we successfully separated viable LAB from yogurt by density gradient centrifugation. The recovery rate was >90 %, and separation was performed until the stationary phase. Recovered cells were observable by microscopy, meaning that morphological changes and cell viability could be directly detected at the single-cell level. The results indicate that viable LAB can be easily purified from fermented milk. We expect that this method will be a useful tool for the analysis of various aspects of probiotic cells, including their enzyme activity and protein expression. Keywords: Food analysis, Microbiology

  9. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  10. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  11. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  12. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  13. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  14. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond. (invited comment)

  15. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli) · g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity.

  16. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except... required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as prescribed in this section...

  17. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  18. An economically viable alternative to coastal discharge of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Unger, C.V.; Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The discharge of produced waters to coastal estuaries has been common practice on the Texas coast for many years as these discharges are currently exempt from NPDES permitting. A study of the active produced water discharges in Nueces Bay, Texas revealed that all eight effluents were highly toxic as determined by the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays. An alternative to discharging produced water into coastal estuaries is the use of disposal wells. Inactive wells can be converted to produced water disposal wells. Production records for the Nueces Bay, Texas area reveal that 52% of the gas wells produce less than 100 mcf/d and 50% of the oil wells produce less than 10 b/d. Using conservative estimates, the cost of converting an inactive well to a disposal well was calculated to be $31,500 which could be paid out by a gas well producing as little as 100 mcf/d in 26 months using only 50% of the well's profit. Combining multiple leases to a single disposal well would reduce proportionately the cost to each operation. This study has demonstrated that economically viable disposal options could be achieved in the Nueces Bay area through the imaginative and cooperative formation of produced water disposal ventures. This same model could be applied to produced water discharges in other coastal areas

  19. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  20. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  1. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  2. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  3. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: a viable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Kathleen M

    2003-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically

  5. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  6. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  7. Blood flow, flow reserve, and glucose utilization in viable and nonviable myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Schindler, Thomas H; Prior, John O; Sayre, James; Dahlbom, Magnus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Schelbert, Heinrich R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether glucose uptake in viable myocardium of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients depends on rest myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the residual myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Thirty-six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction 25 ± 10 %) were studied with (13)N-ammonia and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty age-matched normals served as controls. Regional MBF was determined at rest and during dipyridamole hyperemia and regional FDG extraction was estimated from regional FDG to (13)N-ammonia activity ratios. Rest MBF was reduced in viable (0.42 ± 0.18 ml/min per g) and nonviable regions (0.32 ± 0.09 ml/min per g) relative to remote regions (0.68 ± 0.23 ml/min per g, p MFRs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Compared to MFR in remote myocardium, MFRs in viable regions were similar (1.39 ± 0.56 vs 1.70 ± 0.45, p > 0.05) but were significantly lower in nonviable regions (1.23 ± 0.43, p MFRs (r =-0.424, p MFRs in viable myocardium are associated with increasing glucose extraction that likely reflects a metabolic adaptation of remodeling hibernating myocytes.

  8. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

  9. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  10. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  12. Correlations between cyanobacterial density and bacterial transformation to the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in four freshwater water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huirong; Shen, Ju; Pan, Gaoshan; Liu, Jing; Li, Jiancheng; Hu, Zhangli

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton density and community composition, and the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in three connected reservoirs and a small isolated lake in South China to study the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and the VBNC state in bacteria. Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs increased in the direction of water flow, whereas Wenshan Lake was more eutrophic. Cyanobacterial blooms occurred in all four water bodies, with differing seasonal trends and dominant species. In Xili and Tiegang Reservoirs, the VBNC ratio (percent of VBNC state bacteria over total viable bacteria) was high for most of the year and negatively correlated with cyanobacterial density. Laboratory co-culture experiments were performed with four heterotrophic bacterial species isolated from Wenshan Lake (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peneumoniae, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus) and the dominant cyanobacterial species (Microcystis aeruginosa). For the first three bacterial species, the presence of M. aeruginosa induced the VBNC state and the VBNC ratio was positively correlated with M. aeruginosa density. However, B. cereus inhibited M. aeruginosa growth. These results demonstrate that cyanobacteria could potentially regulate the transformation to the VBNC state of waterborne bacteria, and suggest a role for bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom initiation and termination.

  13. Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, F.; Jamil, A.; Bhatti, H.N.; Rashid, U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for bio diesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65 deg. C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  14. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS ARE VIABLE FACTORIES OF PRE-SOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon–oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10 −3 yr −1 ) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180–540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains

  15. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  16. Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture, a viable alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, V.; Perea, F.; Saavedra, M.; Fuentes, C.; Alcántara, C.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of vegetable protein for animal feed and the need to diversify the crop rotation in rainfed Mediterranean climates has led to study the viability as new forage crop of the Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture. Therefore, a 3-year field trial was conducted at two different and representative locations of the area to evaluate the capacity of both species to form a balanced mixture and to define its potential for high yield and forage quality. Different seeding ratios (65:35, 50:50 and 35:65) were compared with their pure stands and the standard mixture Avena sativa-Vicia sativa (65:35). Forage mixtures establishment and growth varied according to the environmental conditions with a negative influence of a dry year 1 for legumes (<300 mm) and a wet year 2 for oats (>630 mm). However, competition ratio indicated that there were not significant differences between mixed treatments, displaying intermediate ground coverage values, dry matter yield and crude protein regarding pure stands. Higher dry matter yield than control mixture in addition to similar crude protein, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and digestible dry matter values, were produced at 35:65 in dry years and 65:35 and 50:50 in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. The appropriate development of both species in the mixture at different soil and rainfall conditions, as well as a good yield often higher than control mixture and a great forage quality, confirm to the narbon bean-black oat mixture as a viable and profitable crop alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions.

  17. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework

  18. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  19. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  20. Photoacoustic discrimination of viable and thermally coagulated blood using a two-wavelength method for burn injury monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, Robert J; Holan, Scott H; Viator, John A

    2007-01-01

    Discriminating viable from thermally coagulated blood in a burn wound can be used to profile burn depth, thus aiding the removal of necrotic tissue. In this study, we used a two-wavelength photoacoustic imaging method to discriminate coagulated and non-coagulated blood in a dermal burn phantom. Differences in the optical absorption spectra of coagulated and non-coagulated blood produce different values of the ratio of peak photoacoustic amplitude at 543 and 633 nm. The absorption values obtained from spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ratio of photoacoustic pressure for 543 and 633 nm for non-coagulated blood was 15.7:1 and 1.6:1 for coagulated blood. Using planar blood layers, we found the photoacoustic ratios to be 13.5:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Using the differences in the ratios of coagulated and non-coagulated blood, we propose a scheme using statistical classification analysis to identify the different blood samples. Based upon these distinctly different ratios, we identified the planar blood samples with an error rate of 0%. Using a burn phantom with cylindrical vessels containing coagulated and non-coagulated blood, we achieved an error rate of 11.4%. These results have shown that photoacoustic imaging could prove to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of burns

  1. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  2. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  3. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  4. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  5. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  6. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca; Naegel, Arne; Heisig, Michael; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living

  7. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisabr, Yousef, E-mail: y-bisabr@srttu.ed [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-18

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from LAMBDACDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  8. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker

  9. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from ΛCDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  10. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    , direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. V. harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d...

  11. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  12. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  13. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  15. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  16. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples.

  17. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Brown, J; Verma, S K; Cerqueira-Cézar, C K; Banfield, J; Kwok, O C H; Ying, Y; Murata, F H A; Pradhan, A K; Su, C

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69.7%) had MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 28, 1:100 in 34, and 1:200 or higher in 140. Thus most (44.1%) elk had relatively high titers. Seroprevalence was slightly higher in males (76.9%) than females (67.5%, not statistically significant, Chi-square tests, P<0.0001) and was higher in adults (76.5%) than yearlings (46.4%, Odds ratio 3.82; 95% CL 1.72-8.47; P=0.001) or calves (21.7%, Odds ratio 12.58; 95% CL 4.51-35.10; P<0.0001). Annual seroprevalence was relatively stable throughout the period tested and ranged from 66.6% to 72.2%. Of the 101 elk harvested in 2016, hearts were bioassayed from 20 elk and tongues were bioassayed from 56; all tongue samples were negative. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of two female elk, one of these was a seronegative adult and the other was a calf with no serum available for testing. Both T. gondii isolates were cultivated in cell culture and DNA derived from tachyzoites was characterized using the PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'- 3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. One isolate belongs to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 and the other is genotype #5. Both genotypes are frequently identified in animals in North America. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    expression differs between viable and non-viable embryos in both human and non-humans, suggesting transcriptome analysis of trophectoderm (TE) as a novel method of improving embryo selection. Potential candidate marker genes have been identified with array studies on animal blastocysts. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  19. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  20. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  1. Investigation of Removal Capacities of Biofilters for Airborne Viable Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Rémi; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Malhautier, Luc; Geiger, Philippe; Bayle, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp. The REvp of biofilters reached near 80% and highlighted both the stability of that removal and the statistical equivalence between two identical biofilters. Pollutant deprivation periods of 12 h, 48 h and 30 days were shown to have no influence on the biofilters’ removal capacity, demonstrating the robustness and adaptation capacities of the flora. In contrast, a 90-day famine period turned the biofilters into emitters of viable particles. Finally, the humidification of the effluent was shown to negatively influence the removal capacity for viable particles, as drying off the air was shown to increase the REvp from 60 to 85%. PMID:29562709

  2. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  3. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of viable Mycobacterium leprae with Type 1 reaction in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Mrudula Prakash; Dighe, Anju Rajaram; Natrajan, Mohan; Shetty, Vanaja Prabhakaran

    2016-03-01

    The working hypothesis is that, viable Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) play a crucial role in the precipitation of Type 1 reaction (T1R) in leprosy. A total of 165 new multibacillary patients were studied. To demonstrate presence of viable M. leprae in reactional lesion (T1R+), three tests were used concurrently viz. growth in the mouse foot pad (MFP), immunohistochemical detection of M. leprae secretory protein Ag85, and 16s rRNA--using in situ RT-PCR. Mirror biopsies and non reactional lesions served as controls (T1R-). A significantly higher proportion of lesion biopsy homogenates obtained at onset, from T1R(+) cases have shown unequivocal growth in MFP, proving the presence of viable bacteria, as compared to T1R(-) (P leprae is a component/prerequisite and the secretory protein Ag 85, might be the trigger for precipitation of T1R.

  5. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  6. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  7. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  8. Prediction of miscarriage in women with viable intrauterine pregnancy-A systematic review and diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rekha N; Konje, Justin C; Richardson, Matthew; Tincello, Douglas G; Potdar, Neelam

    2018-01-01

    Both ultrasound and biochemical markers either alone or in combination have been described in the literature for the prediction of miscarriage. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the best combination of biochemical, ultrasound and demographic markers to predict miscarriage in women with viable intrauterine pregnancy. The electronic database search included Medline (1946-June 2017), Embase (1980-June 2017), CINAHL (1981-June 2017) and Cochrane library. Key MESH and Boolean terms were used for the search. Data extraction and collection was performed based on the eligibility criteria by two authors independently. Quality assessment of the individual studies was done using QUADAS 2 (Quality Assessment for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2: A Revised Tool) and statistical analysis performed using the Cochrane systematic review manager 5.3 and STATA vs.13.0. Due to the diversity of the combinations used for prediction in the included papers it was not possible to perform a meta-analysis on combination markers. Therefore, we proceeded to perform a meta-analysis on ultrasound markers alone to determine the best marker that can help to improve the diagnostic accuracy of predicting miscarriage in women with viable intrauterine pregnancy. The systematic review identified 18 eligible studies for the quantitative meta-analysis with a total of 5584 women. Among the ultrasound scan markers, fetal bradycardia (n=10 studies, n=1762 women) on hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic showed sensitivity of 68.41%, specificity of 97.84%, positive likelihood ratio of 31.73 (indicating a large effect on increasing the probability of predicting miscarriage) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.32. In studies for women with threatened miscarriage (n=5 studies, n=771 women) fetal bradycardia showed further increase in sensitivity (84.18%) for miscarriage prediction. Although there is gestational age dependent variation in the fetal heart rate, a plot

  9. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  10. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  11. In search of viable business models for development: sustainable energy in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Although the crucial role of business, and of business-based approaches, in development is increasingly emphasised by academics and practitioners, insight is lacking into the "whether and how" of viable business models, in environmental, social and economical terms. This article analyses

  12. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  13. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation... production is a Bacillus thuringiensis strain which does not produce β-exotoxin under standard manufacturing...

  15. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  16. The ghost of extinction: Preservation values and minimum viable population in wildlife models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of a minimum viable population in bioeconomic modeling creates at least two complications that are not resolved by using a modified logistic growth function. The first complication can be dealt with by choosing a different depensational growth function. The second complication relates

  17. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  18. Mapping In Vivo Tumor Oxygenation within Viable Tumor by 19F-MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying oxygenation in viable tumor remains a major obstacle toward a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and improving treatment strategies. Current techniques are often complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Herein, a novel in vivo approach that combines 19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F-MRIR1 mapping with diffusionbased multispectral (MS analysis is introduced. This approach restricts the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 measurements to viable tumor, the tissue of therapeutic interest. The technique exhibited sufficient sensitivity to detect a breathing gas challenge in a xenograft tumor model, and the hypoxic region measured by MS 19F-MRI was strongly correlated with histologic estimates of hypoxia. This approach was then applied to address the effects of antivascular agents on tumor oxygenation, which is a research question that is still under debate. The technique was used to monitor longitudinal pO2 changes in response to an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (B20.4.1.1 and a selective dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (GDC-0980. GDC-0980 reduced viable tumor pO2 during a 3-day treatment period, and a significant reduction was also produced by B20.4.1.1. Overall, this method provides an unprecedented view of viable tumor pO2 and contributes to a greater understanding of the effects of antivascular therapies on the tumor's microenvironment.

  19. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  20. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  1. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  2. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  3. Are Bundled Payments a Viable Reimbursement Model for Revision Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, P Maxwell; Ashley, Blair S; Hume, Eric L; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-12-01

    -of-care CMS costs between the two groups (mean USD 38,107 [SD, USD 18,328] versus mean USD 37,851 [SD, USD 17,208]; p = 0.984). There was no difference, with the numbers available, in the total episode-of-care CMS costs between revision hip arthroplasties and revision knee arthroplasties (mean USD 38,627 [SD, USD 18,607] versus mean USD 37,414 [SD, USD 16,884]; p = 0.904). Disposition to rehabilitation (odds ratio [OR], 5.49; 95% CI, 1.97-15.15; p = 0.001), length of stay 4 days or greater (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.60-8.38; p = 0.002), and readmission within 90 days (OR, 6.99; 95% CI, 2.58-18.91; p payments have the potential to be a viable reimbursement model for revision TJA. Owing to the unpredictable nature of the surgical procedures, inherent high risks of complications, and varying degrees of surgical complexity, future studies are needed to determine whether bundling patients having revision TJA will result in improved care and decreased costs. Level IV, economic and decision analysis.

  4. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  5. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  6. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated

  7. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: statistical analysis of histology features in viable and ischemic bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlicott, Shaun A C; Guggisberg, Kelly A; DesCôteaux, Jean-Gaston; Beck, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare cause of segmental ischemic enterocolitis. This artery-sparing transmural vasculitis is classically a circumferential phlebitis with perivenular lymphocyte cuffing and thrombi in the absence of systemic manifestations. Myointimal hyperplasia may represent a chronic phase of enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis. Subclinical or early stage enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is not well delineated. We analyzed 600 submucosal and subserosal veins from both ischemic and intact bowel segments to discern if vascular morphology varied between sites. Crescentic and circumferential lymphocytic phlebitis is more common in viable bowel than in the ischemic segment. A nonsignificant trend was found for increased crescentic morphology between intact bowel remote from the ischemic focus compared with that adjacent to the ischemic focus. Hallmarks of ischemic bowel are necrotizing phlebitis and thrombi formation. Thrombophlebitis morphology is distinctly different in viable and ischemic bowel, changing from the classic lymphocytic to necrotizing lesions respectively.

  8. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  9. Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-culturable State in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xihong; Zhong, Junliang; Wei, Caijiao; Lin, Chii-Wann; Ding, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a unique state in which a number of bacteria respond to adverse circumstances, was first discovered in 1982. Unfortunately, it has been reported that many foodborne pathogens can be induced to enter the VBNC state by the limiting environmental conditions during food processing and preservation, such as extreme temperatures, drying, irradiation, pulsed electric field, and high pressure stress, as well as the addition of preservatives and disinfectant...

  10. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  11. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  13. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Jamieson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures

  14. Corporate strategy and viable future land use: Planning for closure from the outset of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhurst, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the environmental impact of mining on viable future land use and underlines the imperative of improved environmental management and closure planning. It argues that pollution prevention, through planning for closure, can lead to cost-effective strategies for sustainable minerals development and viable future land use. This seems to be most true for greenfield sites since, generally, the earlier closure planning and pollution prevention is built into a project, the more cost-effective and environmentally benign closure will be. Further, for greenfield sites, pollution prevention techniques can be employed from the outset, at the stages of exploration and mine development, and then monitored and improved through the operation stage to closure, and can be kept in place to manage future land use. The paper discusses how global changes in the industry, following the liberalisation of investment regimes, and mergers and strategic alliances between key firms, has, by virtue of the diffusion of new technology, led to further opportunities to prevent pollution and optimise future land use through planning for closure from the outset. The objectives and components of closure plans are also reviewed as the paper draws on case studies to highlight some of the possible constraints and challenges to pollution prevention that may be faced at the level of both public policy and corporate strategy. The article concludes by suggesting a forward-looking approach to integrated environmental management and viable future land-use planning based on a dynamic model for environmental management. (author)

  15. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  16. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  17. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  19. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  1. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  2. Finding viable models in SUSY parameter spaces with signal specific discovery potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Thomas; Lindroos, Jan Øye; Lipniacka, Anna; Sandaker, Heidi

    2013-08-01

    Recent results from ATLAS giving a Higgs mass of 125.5 GeV, further constrain already highly constrained supersymmetric models such as pMSSM or CMSSM/mSUGRA. As a consequence, finding potentially discoverable and non-excluded regions of model parameter space is becoming increasingly difficult. Several groups have invested large effort in studying the consequences of Higgs mass bounds, upper limits on rare B-meson decays, and limits on relic dark matter density on constrained models, aiming at predicting superpartner masses, and establishing likelihood of SUSY models compared to that of the Standard Model vis-á-vis experimental data. In this paper a framework for efficient search for discoverable, non-excluded regions of different SUSY spaces giving specific experimental signature of interest is presented. The method employs an improved Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme exploiting an iteratively updated likelihood function to guide search for viable models. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds as well as the LHC discovery potential are taken into account. This includes recent bounds on relic dark matter density, the Higgs sector and rare B-mesons decays. A clustering algorithm is applied to classify selected models according to expected phenomenology enabling automated choice of experimental benchmarks and regions to be used for optimizing searches. The aim is to provide experimentalist with a viable tool helping to target experimental signatures to search for, once a class of models of interest is established. As an example a search for viable CMSSM models with τ-lepton signatures observable with the 2012 LHC data set is presented. In the search 105209 unique models were probed. From these, ten reference benchmark points covering different ranges of phenomenological observables at the LHC were selected.

  3. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  4. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin; Akbari, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order for researchers and students to identify these journals.

  5. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  6. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  7. Bio-electrosprayed multicellular zebrafish embryos are viable and develop normally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Jonathan D W; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2008-01-01

    Bio-electrosprays are rapidly emerging as a viable protocol for directly engineering living cells. This communication reports the bio-electrospraying of multicellular organisms, namely zebrafish embryos. The results demonstrate that the bio-electrospray protocol fails to induce any embryological perturbations. In addition to analysing overall embryo morphology, we use transgenic embryos that express green fluorescent protein in specific brain neurons to determine that neuronal numbers and organization are completely normal. These results demonstrate that the bio-electrospraying protocol does not interfere with the complex gene regulation and cell movements required for the development of a multicellular organism. (communication)

  8. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  9. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  10. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  11. SALMONELLA SPECIE AND TOTAL VIABLE BACTERIAL LOAD IN ROASTED CHICKENS SOLD IN JOS-NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Okoli; Okonji M.C; Ugoh S.C; Okolo S.N; Okoli A.C; Alu A.J

    2007-01-01

    The study was to investigate for the presence of Salmonella specie and total viable aerobic bacterial load in roasted chickens sold in Jos. The study was carried out on twenty five chicken samples. No salmonella specie was isolated from the samples. However, other bacterial organisms were isolates, viz: 9(36%) of the samples yielded E.coli; 5(20%) yielded Citobacter species; 3(12%) yielded Proteus species and 6(24%) yielded Klebsiella species while 2(8%) showed no growth. An average total via...

  12. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  13. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Lee Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population’s overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999-2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality.

  14. Viable Cancer Cells in the Remnant Stomach are a Potential Source of Peritoneal Metastasis after Curative Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Kodama, Hirokazu; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Miyake, Toru; Tani, Tohru; Kushima, Ryoji; Tani, Masaji

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying peritoneal metastasis (PM) after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) are not well elucidated. This study assessed whether viable cancer cells, including cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), were present in the remnant stomach immediately before gastrointestinal (GI) tract reconstruction because these could be a source of PM after gastrectomy. Saline fluid used for remnant stomach lumen irrigation before GI reconstruction was prospectively collected from 142 consecutive patients undergoing distal gastrectomy for GC and cytologically examined. Proliferative activity (Ki67 staining) and stemness (expression of the CSC surface markers CD44s or CD44v6) were evaluated in detected cancer cells. Viable cancer cells were detected in 33 (23.2 %) of the 142 remnant stomachs. These cells formed clusters and stained positively for Ki67, indicating proliferation. Cancer cells in remnant stomachs and surface cancer cells in primary GCs from 10 (30.3 %) of these 33 cases also stained positively for CD44s or CD44v6. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, advanced cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.65; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.32-16.4; P = 0.017), tumor size of 40 mm or larger (OR, 3.78; 95 % CI, 1.12-12.8; P = 0.033), and histologic differentiation (OR, 3.10; 95 % CI, 1.30-7.40; P = 0.011) were associated independently with the presence of cancer cells in the remnant stomach. Viable, proliferative, and clustered cancer cells, including CSCs, were found in remnant gastric lumens immediately before GI reconstruction, indicating a possible cellular source of PM after curative gastrectomy for GC. Dissemination of gastric contents into the peritoneal cavity should be avoided during GI reconstruction.

  15. Changes in the relative population size of selected ruminal bacteria following an induced episode of acidosis in beef heifers receiving viable and non-viable active dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Vyas, D; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28-day periods. Treatments were: (i) control (CTRL; no yeast); (ii) ADY (4 g day -1 providing 10 10  CFU per g; AB Vista, UK); and (iii) KDY (4 g day -1 autoclaved ADY). The acidosis challenge was induced on day 22 and rumen samples were collected on day 15 (baseline; BASE), day 22 (challenge day; CHAL), and on day 29 (168th hour post acid challenge or recovery, REC) of each period. Over the study, duration of pH Yeast supplementation, irrespective of its viability, showed beneficial effects on ruminal pH variables in animals more susceptible to acidosis. Rumen microbial population was altered with the induction of severe acidosis. Most of the changes reverted back to baseline values during the recovery phase. Yeast supplementation reduced subacute rumen acidosis in the most susceptible cattle, but failed to attenuate severe acidosis induced by a grain challenge. The study provided valuable insight into the mechanism by which acidosis affects cattle performance. Individual animal variation in ruminal fermentation partly explained the variability in response to yeast supplementation in the study. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Optimizing the integrated safeguards system: Pragmatism and fresh views are the keys to a viable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.-G.

    2001-01-01

    keep the objective of global cost neutrality in the long term. However, another principle that cannot be compromised is the fundamental objective of strengthening safeguards. In that perspective, the following points will be essential elements to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of Integrated Safeguards. The implementation of Integrated Safeguards should not be mechanistic, not only in order to comply with the Additional Protocol, but also because the systematic and uniform application of undifferentiated measures would not allow to achieve the significant improvements expected from the new system, nor to keep costs under control. On the contrary, implementation details should be adapted to the specificity of individual situations and to the Agency's evaluation of each State's situation. The Agency should in particular adjust its verification effort and choose, among the set of available measures, to apply those which are the most relevant to specific situations and provide maximum effectiveness. It should thus concentrate its efforts on situations where it cannot meet satisfactorily its objective of reaching conclusions and providing credible assurance. In addition to adjusting its verification activities to specific situations, the Agency should also update its criteria to account for the additional information available and the general evolution of the system. In particular, it should perform a broad review of material categorisation and timeliness factors to avoid maintaining previous specific technical goals if Integrated Safeguards make them obsolete. The will and capability of a State to achieve transparency on its nuclear activities contribute to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards and to the enhancement of the cost/effectiveness ratio of the Agency's activities. They make it easier for the Agency to reach its conclusions and improve their credibility. As such, transparency should be an important element for the Agency to take into account in its

  17. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga A. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Anderson, Robin L. [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Russell, Prudence A. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, St. Vincent Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC (Australia); Ashley Cox, R. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ivashkevich, Alesia [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Laboratory of DNA Repair and Genomics, Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Disease, Monash Institute for Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P. [Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Jacobs, Daphne H.M. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Smith, Jai [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ball, David L. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using γ-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated γ-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed γ-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  18. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Olga A.; Anderson, Robin L.; Russell, Prudence A.; Ashley Cox, R.; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P.; Jacobs, Daphne H.M.; Smith, Jai; Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E.; Ball, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using γ-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated γ-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed γ-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies

  19. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. On the trace-free Einstein equations as a viable alternative to general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, George F R; Van Elst, Henk; Murugan, Jeff; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The quantum field theoretical prediction for the vacuum energy density leads to a value for the effective cosmological constant that is incorrect by between 60 and 120 orders of magnitude. We review an old proposal of replacing Einstein's field equations by their trace-free part (the trace-free Einstein equations), together with an independent assumption of energy-momentum conservation by matter fields. While this does not solve the fundamental issue of why the cosmological constant has the value that is observed cosmologically, it is indeed a viable theory that resolves the problem of the discrepancy between the vacuum energy density and the observed value of the cosmological constant. However, one has to check that, as well as preserving the standard cosmological equations, this does not destroy other predictions, such as the junction conditions that underlie the use of standard stellar models. We confirm that no problems arise here: hence, the trace-free Einstein equations are indeed viable for cosmological and astrophysical applications. (papers)

  1. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  2. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  3. Sustainability and the Viable Systems Approach: Opportunities and Issues for the Governance of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for representing the territory as a dynamic system of intersubjective relationships that is able to guarantee not only the efficiency of the processes within organizations, but also effective results in the general context and a sustainable impact on the broader environment. This contribution is developed on the basis of the viable systems approach (vSa, which is intended as a theoretical framework for the analysis of social phenomena as well as for orienting government processes. Using this theoretical framework, the proposed approach leads to the representation of the territory as a viable system that is capable of surviving in its own context by creating value for the other entities of the context (public groups of governments, communities, investors, natural environment, future generations, non-human species, thus defining the essential conditions for a sustainable equilibrium. The consideration that social phenomena have to be analyzed by taking into account the different relations and interactions that orient the behavior of individuals and, as a consequence, their main collective manifestations, i.e., organizations, underlines the importance of shifting from a traditional reductionist approach to a systemic approach. In what follows, taking a cue from the definition of sustainability that implies a wider sharing, we provide some initial critical positions, and finally shape the useful elements that can be preparatory to the introduction of a working hypothesis that is capable of delineating a possible itinerary for the development of the territory.

  4. Advanced light water reactors: an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to safety and reliability, a common mission for the international nuclear industry in the 21. century will be ensure affordable electricity. At the Westinghouse Electric Corporation believe our advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design gives us the opportunity to provide the safest, most reliable, lowest cost, most competitive generation method possible for use by nations and utilities worldwide. While the safety and reliability aspects of the ALWR can be proven tangibly and are well-documented, questions have been raised about the technology's ability to work within the world's selling price range for electricity generation. For our industry's financial stability, and especially for the stability of the world's future power needs, Westinghouse has done extensive work on this issue and we are convinced we can meet the competitive challenge. We believe the ALWR can be an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix. This paper will define the competitive challenge that is being addressed by the industry and then analyze three specific areas: capital costs, operating costs, and financing costs. The hidden advantage of nuclear power in responding to these challenges will be explored, and a strong case will be made asserting that the advanced light water reactor will be able to compete in international markets with viable production costs. (authors)

  5. Quantitative estimation of viable myocardium in the infarcted zone by infarct-redistribution map from images of exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiai, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate, quantitatively, the viable myocardium in the infarcted zone, we invented the infarct-redistribution map which is produced from images of exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography performed on 10 healthy subjects and 20 patients with myocardial infarction. The map displayed a left ventricle in which the infarcted area both with and without redistribution, the redistribution area without infarction, and normal perfusion area were shown separated in same screen. In these circumstances, the nonredistribution infarct lesion was found as being surrounded by the redistribution area. Indices of infarct and redistribution extent (defect score, % defect, redistribution ratio (RR) and redistribution index (RI)), were induced from the map and were used for quantitative analysis of the redistribution area and as the basis for comparative discussion regarding regional wall motion of the left ventricle. The quantitative indices of defect score, % defect, RR and RI were consistent with the visual assessment of planar images in detecting the extent of redistribution. Furthermore, defect score and % defect had an inverted linear relationship with % shortening (r = -0.573; p < 0.05, r = -0.536; p < 0.05, respectively), and RI had a good linear relationship with % shortening (r = 0.669; p < 0.01). We conclude that the infarct-redistribution map accurately reflects the myocardial viability and therefore may be useful for quantitative estimation of viable myocardium in the infarcted zone. (author)

  6. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  7. Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 57, 1303-1304.

  8. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  9. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  10. Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future.

  11. Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-culturable State in Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Zhong, Junliang; Wei, Caijiao; Lin, Chii-Wann; Ding, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a unique state in which a number of bacteria respond to adverse circumstances, was first discovered in 1982. Unfortunately, it has been reported that many foodborne pathogens can be induced to enter the VBNC state by the limiting environmental conditions during food processing and preservation, such as extreme temperatures, drying, irradiation, pulsed electric field, and high pressure stress, as well as the addition of preservatives and disinfectants. After entering the VBNC state, foodborne pathogens will introduce a serious crisis to food safety and public health because they cannot be detected using conventional plate counting techniques. This review provides an overview of the various features of the VBNC state, including the biological characteristics, induction and resuscitation factors, formation and resuscitation mechanisms, detection methods, and relationship to food safety.

  12. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

    2013-10-07

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics.

  13. Retinal Electrophysiology Is a Viable Preclinical Biomarker for Drug Penetrance into the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Charng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether retinal electrophysiology is a useful surrogate marker of drug penetrance into the central nervous system (CNS. Materials and Methods. Brain and retinal electrophysiology were assessed with full-field visually evoked potentials and electroretinograms in conscious and anaesthetised rats following systemic or local administrations of centrally penetrant (muscimol or nonpenetrant (isoguvacine compounds. Results. Local injections into the eye/brain bypassed the blood neural barriers and produced changes in retinal/brain responses for both drugs. In conscious animals, systemic administration of muscimol resulted in retinal and brain biopotential changes, whereas systemic delivery of isoguvacine did not. General anaesthesia confounded these outcomes. Conclusions. Retinal electrophysiology, when recorded in conscious animals, shows promise as a viable biomarker of drug penetration into the CNS. In contrast, when conducted under anaesthetised conditions confounds can be induced in both cortical and retinal electrophysiological recordings.

  14. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca

    2017-12-07

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living) epidermis. For this region, previous works suggested a diffusion model and an approximation of the cells by hexagonal prisms. The work at hand extends this in three ways. First, the extracellular space is treated with full spatial resolution. This induces a decrease of permeability by about 10%. Second, cells of tetrakaidecahedral shape are considered, in addition to the original hexagonal prisms. For both cell types, the resulting membrane permeabilities are compared. Third, for the first time, the influence of cell stacking in the vertical direction is considered. This is particularly important for the stratum granulosum, where tight junctions are present.

  15. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  16. Viable suspensions of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen with exogenous DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broglia, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    A viable suspension of maize pollen in aqueous medium containing exogenous DNA would be a suitable tool in attempting maize genetic transformation via pollen grains by different techniques. In this work the effects of addition of DNA to hypertonic aqueous media able to preserve maize pollen viability were investigated. An almost total loss of viability was found when pollen was incubated with native DNA in water or sucrose medium due to the immediate sticking of DNA on the pollen wall. Calcium in the incubation medium avoided DNA sticking preserving pollen fertilization ability. Pre-washing of pollen in hypertonic sucrose solution was proved to remove DNA binding components from the pollen wall. PEG 20%, that is known to inhibit pollen, and silk nucleases, was also used instead of sucrose, without any reduction in the seed-set yields.

  17. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  18. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  19. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation. Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  20. Heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity, and multiculturalism What is a viable framework for Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thung Ju Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a plural society that consists of several hundred ethnic and sub-ethnic groups. One of its generic characteristics is heterogeneity. In the last ten years after the implementation of regional autonomy, we have witnessed the emergence of strong ethnic and religiously flavoured local identity politics in various places in Indonesia that created open and vicious conflicts. This periodical violence exploded especially during the election of district and provincial heads. The intimate relation multiculturalism, with the actual political praxis of everyday life as an alternative to the existing paradigm of the “homogenization” of nationhood, has not been discussed. I believe it is time to discuss the strategic junctures between heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity (and religion and multiculturalism as well as their possible realization at the local and national levels in order to find a viable framework for a future Indonesia.

  1. CONCEIVING AND GENERATING A VIABLE COMPLEXITY MODEL FOR PERSONAL AND/OR ENTREPRENEURIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  2. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  3. Strategies for improving production performance of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici viable cell by overcoming lactic acid inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Wasoh, Helmi; Kapri, Mohd Rizal; Halim, Murni

    2017-11-27

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Fermentation conditions such as concentration of initial glucose in the culture, concentration of lactic acid accumulated in the culture, types of pH control strategy, types of aeration mode and different agitation speed had influenced the cultivation performance of batch fermentation of Pediococcus acidilactici. The maximum viable cell concentration obtained in constant fed-batch fermentation at a feeding rate of 0.015 L/h was 6.1 times higher with 1.6 times reduction in lactic acid accumulation compared to batch fermentation. Anion exchange resin, IRA 67 was found to have the highest selectivity towards lactic acid compared to other components studied. Fed-batch fermentation of P. acidilactici coupled with lactic acid removal system using IRA 67 resin showed 55.5 and 9.1 times of improvement in maximum viable cell concentration compared to fermentation without resin for batch and fed-batch mode respectively. The improvement of the P. acidilactici growth in the constant fed-batch fermentation indicated the use of minimal and simple process control equipment is an effective approach for reducing by-product inhibition. Further improvement in the cultivation performance of P. acidilactici in fed-bath fermentation with in situ addition of anion-exchange resin significantly helped to enhance the growth of P. acidilactici by reducing the inhibitory effect of lactic acid and thus increasing probiotic production.

  4. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with 11C-palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of 11 C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min -1 (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of 11 C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of 11 C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p 11 C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min -1 ) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min -1 , p 11 C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid

  5. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  6. Membrane Lipids as Indicators for Viable Bacterial Communities Inhabiting Petroleum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Andrea; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Horsfield, Brian; van der Kraan, Geert M; Köhler, Thomas; Janka, Christoph; Morris, Brandon E L; Wilkes, Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Microbial activity in petroleum reservoirs has been implicated in a suite of detrimental effects including deterioration of petroleum quality, increases in oil sulfur content, biofouling of steel pipelines and other infrastructures, and well plugging. Here, we present a biogeochemical approach, using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), for detecting viable bacteria in petroleum systems. Variations within the bacterial community along water flow paths (producing well, topside facilities, and injection well) can be elucidated in the field using the same technique, as shown here within oil production plants in the Molasse Basin of Upper Austria. The abundance of PLFAs is compared to total cellular numbers, as detected by qPCR of the 16S rDNA gene, to give an overall comparison between the resolutions of both methods in a true field setting. Additionally, the influence of biocide applications on lipid- and DNA-based quantification was investigated. The first oil field, Trattnach, showed significant PLFA abundances and cell numbers within the reservoir and topside facilities. In contrast, the second field (Engenfeld) showed very low PLFA levels overall, likely due to continuous treatment of the topside facilities with a glutaraldehyde-based antimicrobial. In comparison, Trattnach is dosed once per week in a batch fashion. Changes within PLFA compositions across the flow path, throughout the petroleum production plants, point to cellular adaptation within the system and may be linked to shifts in the dominance of certain bacterial types in oil reservoirs versus topside facilities. Overall, PLFA-based monitoring provides a useful tool to assess the abundance and high-level taxonomic diversity of viable microbial populations in oil production wells, topside infrastructure, pipelines, and other related facilities.

  7. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  8. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  9. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  10. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  11. Evaluation of PCR and DNA hybridization protocols for detection of viable enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in irradiated beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, L.A.; Juneja, V.K.; Thayer, D.W.; Sackitey, S.

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was evaluated in irradiated cooked and raw beef samples. A membrane-based colony hybridization assay and a PCR protocol, both with specificity for the enterotoxin A gene of Clostridium perfringens, were compared with viable plate counts. The results of the colony hybridization procedure were in agreement with viable plate counts for detection and enumeration of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. The PCR procedure combined a 4 h enrichment followed by a nucleic acid extraction step and assessed the amplification of 183 and 750 base pair enterotoxin gene targets. Detection of C. perfringens by PCR did not show a reliable correlation with viable plate counts or the colony hybridization assay. C. perfringens killed by irradiation were not detected by the plate count or colony hybridization methods; however, killed cells were detected with the PCR technique. By relying on the growth of viable cells for detection and/or enumeration, the colony hybridization and plate count methods provided a direct correlation with the presence of viable bacteria

  12. On-Farm, Almond Orchard Flooding as a Viable Aquifer Recharge Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, C.; Nico, P. S.; Wu, Y.; Newman, G. A.; Conrad, M. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, California legislators passed the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), which requires groundwater sustainability agencies (areas) to identify/prioritize water basins, develop current and projected water use/needs, develop a groundwater management plan, develop fees, etc. One of the challenges for implementing SGMA is the lack of data that can support alternative groundwater recharge methods such as on-farm flooding. Prior to anthropogenic river control, river floodplains captured excess water during overbank flow in the rainy season in the CA central valley. Today levees and canals strategically route rainy season high flows to the delta/ocean when irrigation water is not needed. Utilizing farmland once again as infiltration basins for groundwater banking and aquifer recharge could be a viable answer to California's depleted central valley aquifers. Prior to 2017, U.C. Davis had partnered with the Almond Board of California (ABC) and local growers to study the efficacy of agricultural flooding and the effects on annual almond crops (. LBNL joined this team to help understand the conveyance of recharge water, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), into the subsurface (i.e. localized fast paths, depth of infiltration, etc.) during flooding events. The fate of the recharge water is what is significant to understanding the viability of on-farm flooding as an aquifer recharge option. In this study two orchards (in Delhi and Modesto, CA), each approximately 2 acres, were flooded during the almond tree dormant period (January), to recharge 2 acre/ft of water into the local aquifers. ERT was used to characterize (soil structure) and monitor water infiltration over a single flooding event to investigate the fate of applied water. Data were collected every hour prior to flooding (baseline), during, and after all flood water had infiltrated (about 5 days total). Our time-lapse ERT results show a heterogeneous soil structure that leads to non

  13. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  14. Examination of an indicative tool for rapidly estimating viable organism abundance in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Adams, Jennifer K.; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory discharge standards stipulating a maximum allowable number of viable organisms in ballast water have led to a need for rapid, easy and accurate compliance assessment tools and protocols. Some potential tools presume that organisms present in ballast water samples display the same characteristics of life as the native community (e.g. rates of fluorescence). This presumption may not prove true, particularly when ships' ballast tanks present a harsh environment and long transit times, negatively impacting organism health. Here, we test the accuracy of a handheld pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, the Hach BW680, for detecting photosynthetic protists at concentrations above or below the discharge standard (< 10 cells·ml- 1) in comparison to microscopic counts using fluorescein diacetate as a viability probe. Testing was conducted on serial dilutions of freshwater harbour samples in the lab and in situ untreated ballast water samples originating from marine, freshwater and brackish sources utilizing three preprocessing techniques to target organisms in the size range of ≥ 10 and < 50 μm. The BW680 numeric estimates were in agreement with microscopic counts when analyzing freshly collected harbour water at all but the lowest concentrations (< 38 cells·ml- 1). Chi-square tests determined that error is not independent of preprocessing methods: using the filtrate method or unfiltered water, in addition to refining the conversion factor of raw fluorescence to cell size, can decrease the grey area where exceedance of the discharge standard cannot be measured with certainty (at least for the studied populations). When examining in situ ballast water, the BW680 detected significantly fewer viable organisms than microscopy, possibly due to factors such as organism size or ballast water age. Assuming both the BW680 and microscopy with FDA stain were measuring fluorescence and enzymatic activity/membrane integrity correctly, the observed discrepancy

  15. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  16. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  17. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    ATP content, oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were tested for the ability to express the amount of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge. The relationship between biomass and these activity parameters was established in growth cultures made...... with biomass, while FDA hydrolysis in the sludge failed to show any such correlation. Conversion factors of 3 mg ATP/g dw, 300 mg O2/h g dw and 0.4 A/h (mg dw/ml) for ATP, OUR and FDA methods, respectively, were calculated. When the methods were applied for in situ determinations in four different wastewater...... plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable biomass...

  18. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  19. Digitizing specimens in a small herbarium: A viable workflow for collections working with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari M; Marsico, Travis D

    2017-04-01

    Small herbaria represent a significant portion of herbaria in the United States, but many are not digitizing their collections. At the Arkansas State University Herbarium (STAR), we have created a viable workflow to help small herbaria begin the digitization process, including suggestions for publishing data on the Internet. We calculated hourly rates of each phase of the digitization process. We also mapped accessions at the county level to determine geographic strengths in the collection. All 17,678 accessioned flowering plant specimens at STAR are imaged, databased in Specify, and available electronically on the herbarium's website. Students imaged the specimens at a mean rate of 145/h. We found differences in databasing rates between the graduate student leading the project (47/h) and undergraduate assistants (25/h). The majority of specimens at STAR were collected within the counties neighboring the institution. With this workflow, we estimate that one person can digitize a 20,000-specimen collection in less than 2.5 yr by working only 10 h/wk. Because STAR is a small herbarium with limited resources, the application of the workflow described should assist curators of similar-sized collections as they contemplate and undertake the digitization process.

  20. Digitizing specimens in a small herbarium: A viable workflow for collections working with limited resources1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari M.; Marsico, Travis D.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Small herbaria represent a significant portion of herbaria in the United States, but many are not digitizing their collections. Methods: At the Arkansas State University Herbarium (STAR), we have created a viable workflow to help small herbaria begin the digitization process, including suggestions for publishing data on the Internet. We calculated hourly rates of each phase of the digitization process. We also mapped accessions at the county level to determine geographic strengths in the collection. Results: All 17,678 accessioned flowering plant specimens at STAR are imaged, databased in Specify, and available electronically on the herbarium’s website. Students imaged the specimens at a mean rate of 145/h. We found differences in databasing rates between the graduate student leading the project (47/h) and undergraduate assistants (25/h). The majority of specimens at STAR were collected within the counties neighboring the institution. Discussion: With this workflow, we estimate that one person can digitize a 20,000-specimen collection in less than 2.5 yr by working only 10 h/wk. Because STAR is a small herbarium with limited resources, the application of the workflow described should assist curators of similar-sized collections as they contemplate and undertake the digitization process. PMID:28439474

  1. Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-02-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Passive superconductor a viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  4. Viable Species of Flamella (Amoebozoa: Variosea) Isolated from Ancient Arctic Permafrost Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Lyubov; Bondarenko, Natalya; Smirnov, Alexey

    2016-02-01

    Six viable strains of amoebae belonging to the genus Flamella (Amoebozoa, Variosea) were isolated from permafrost sediments sampled in the Russian Arctic region. Two of them are from late Pleistocene permafrost in North-East Siberia, and four--from Holocene and late Pleistocene in North-West Siberia. Light- and electron-microscopic study and molecular phylogeny show that these isolates represent two new species belonging to the genus Flamella. Both species are cyst-forming. This is a remarkable case of high resistance of protozoan cysts, allowing them to survive and recover an amoebae population after a very long, geologically significant period of rest; a "snapshot" of evolution in time. This study directly shows for the first time that amoeba cysts can be conserved not only for years and decades but for many thousand years and then recover, contributing to the formation of an active microbial community. We propose to name the new species as Flamella pleistocenica n.sp. and Flamella beringiania n.sp. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the genus Flamella is a robust and potentially species-rich group of Variosea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E; van Deursen, A; Bouwknegt, M; Bruin, J P; de Roda Husman, A M; Schalk, J A C

    2016-09-01

    Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. Copyright © 2016 van Heijnsbergen et al.

  6. Wormholes in viable f(R) modified theories of gravity and weak energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Petar [Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Sossich, Marko [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-03-01

    In this work wormholes in viable f(R) gravity models are analyzed. We are interested in exact solutions for stress-energy tensor components depending on different shape and redshift functions. Several solutions of gravitational equations for different f(R) models are examined. The solutions found imply no need for exotic material, while this need is implied in the standard general theory of relativity. A simple expression for weak energy condition (WEC) violation near the throat is derived and analyzed. High curvature regime is also discussed, as well as the question of the highest possible values of the Ricci scalar for which the WEC is not violated near the throat, and corresponding functions are calculated for several models. The approach here differs from the one that has been common since no additional assumptions to simplify the equations have been made, and the functions in f(R) models are not considered to be arbitrary functions, but rather a feature of the theory that has to be evaluated on the basis of consistency with observations for the Solar System and cosmological evolution. Therefore in this work we show that the existence of wormholes without exotic matter is not only possible in simple arbitrary f(R) models, but also in models that are in accordance with empirical data. (orig.)

  7. The Independent Evolution Method Is Not a Viable Phylogenetic Comparative Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi H Griffin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs use data on species traits and phylogenetic relationships to shed light on evolutionary questions. Recently, Smaers and Vinicius suggested a new PCM, Independent Evolution (IE, which purportedly employs a novel model of evolution based on Felsenstein's Adaptive Peak Model. The authors found that IE improves upon previous PCMs by producing more accurate estimates of ancestral states, as well as separate estimates of evolutionary rates for each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Here, we document substantial theoretical and computational issues with IE. When data are simulated under a simple Brownian motion model of evolution, IE produces severely biased estimates of ancestral states and changes along individual branches. We show that these branch-specific changes are essentially ancestor-descendant or "directional" contrasts, and draw parallels between IE and previous PCMs such as "minimum evolution". Additionally, while comparisons of branch-specific changes between variables have been interpreted as reflecting the relative strength of selection on those traits, we demonstrate through simulations that regressing IE estimated branch-specific changes against one another gives a biased estimate of the scaling relationship between these variables, and provides no advantages or insights beyond established PCMs such as phylogenetically independent contrasts. In light of our findings, we discuss the results of previous papers that employed IE. We conclude that Independent Evolution is not a viable PCM, and should not be used in comparative analyses.

  8. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  9. Viable cold-tolerant iron-reducing microorganisms in geographically diverse subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Telling, Jon P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-03-01

    Subglacial environments are known to harbour metabolically diverse microbial communities. These microbial communities drive chemical weathering of underlying bedrock and influence the geochemistry of glacial meltwater. Despite its importance in weathering reactions, the microbial cycling of iron in subglacial environments, in particular the role of microbial iron reduction, is poorly understood. In this study we address the prevalence of viable iron-reducing microorganisms in subglacial sediments from five geographically isolated glaciers. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures were established with sediment from beneath Engabreen (Norway), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), Leverett and Russell glaciers (Greenland), and Lower Wright Glacier (Antarctica). Rates of iron reduction were higher at 4 °C compared with 15 °C in all but one duplicated second-generation enrichment culture, indicative of cold-tolerant and perhaps cold-adapted iron reducers. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicates Desulfosporosinus were the dominant iron-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature Engabreen, Finsterwalderbreen and Lower Wright Glacier enrichments, and Geobacter dominated in Russell and Leverett enrichments. Results from this study suggest microbial iron reduction is widespread in subglacial environments and may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.

  10. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; van Deursen, A.; Bouwknegt, M.; Bruin, J. P.; Schalk, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila. Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. IMPORTANCE Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. PMID:27316958

  11. Novel Approach for Enterocutaneous Fistula Treatment with the Use of Viable Cryopreserved Placental Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Nichols

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF are a difficult and costly surgical complication to manage. The standard treatment of nil per os (NPO and total paraenteral nutrition (TPN is not well tolerated by patients. TPN is also known for complications associated with long term central venous catheterization and for high cost of prolonged hospital stay. We present two low output ECF cases successfully treated with viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM placed into the fistula tracts. One patient is a 59-year-old male with a low output ECF from a jejunostomy tube site four weeks after the surgery. The second patient is an 87-year-old male with a low output ECF following a small bowel resection secondary to a strangulated inguinal hernia. He was evaluated on day 41 after surgery. NPO and TPN for several weeks did not resolute the ECF. The fistulae were closed postoperatively in both patients with zero output on the same day after one vCPM application. On day 3 postoperatively both patients were started on clear liquid diets and subsequently advanced to regular diets. The ECF have remained resolved for over 2 months. The use of vCPM is a novel promising approach for treatment of ECF.

  12. Preparation of a viable population of indium-111-labelled human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Pieters, H.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Duyvene de Wit, L.J.; Reenen, O.R. van; Retief, F.P.; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing labelling of human platelets with 111 Indium-8-hydroxyquinoline ([ 111 In]-oxine) in a physiological saline medium were investigated. The efficiency of labelling is influenced by time of incubation, concentration of oxine, and pH of the incubating medium. It was found that a viable platelet population could be labelled under the following conditions: (1) centrifugation of platelet rich plasma in polystyrene conical tubes at 800 g for 15 min; (2) resuspension of the platelet pellet in saline, pH 5.5; (3) incubating for 30 min at 22 0 C with [ 111 In]-oxine at a concentration of 6.25 mg oxine/litre platelet suspension; (4) washing once with platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP); and (5) finally suspending the platelets in PPP. The labelled platelets aggregated normally with collagen and ADP. Electron microscopy, done immediately after labelling, showed internal organelle reorganization characteristic of activated platelets. These ultrastructural features were reversible on incubationin PPP at 37 0 C for 30 min. The 111 In is not released from aggregated platelets and the label does not elute from incubated platelets for at least five hr. We conclude that human platelets thus labelled are suitable for in vivo kinetic studies. (orig.) [de

  13. Microdose follicular flare: a viable alternative for normal responding patients undergoing in vitro fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Eric D.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Kort, Jonathan D.; Materia-Hoover, Donna; Larsen, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare cycle outcomes among normal responding patients ≤30 years receiving microdose follicular flare (MDF) and long-luteal agonist (LL). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Military-based ART center. Patients First, autologous ART cycles among 499 women ≤30 years old from 01/1999 to 12/2005. Interventions Following OCP administration prior to cycle start, patients were non-randomly assigned to either LL or MDF for LH surge suppression. LL received 1 mg/d leuprolide acetate (LA) on cycle day 21, which was reduced to 0.25 mg/day 10–14 days later. MDF received LA (40 μg BID) beginning 3 days after discontinuing OCPs. Both groups received a combination of hMG and rFSH. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates; in cycle variables included peak E2, oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, and fertilization rate. Results Multivariable models controlling for confounding by treatment indication found no significant differences between groups in implantation (MDF:36%; LL:38%), clinical pregnancy (MDF:53%; LL:56%), and live birth rates (MDF:47%; LL:50%). No differences were observed in peak E2, oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, or embryos transferred. Conclusions MDF use among normal responding ART patients produced no differences in cycle outcome when compared to LL. Resultantly, MDF may be a viable alternative for normal responding patients. PMID:18249365

  14. Short communication: Recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I A; Pietralonga, P A G; Schwarz, D G G; Faria, A C S; Moreira, M A S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Some researchers have indicated a possible role of MAP in Crohn's disease. Despite extensive research and large and important advances in the past few decades, the etiology of Crohn's disease remains indefinite. The most probable transmission route of MAP from animals to humans is milk and dairy products. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis has already been detected in milk samples worldwide, and some studies have reported that MAP is resistant to pasteurization. In Brazil, MAP has been reported in raw milk samples; however, Brazilian retail pasteurized milk has not yet been tested for viable MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate MAP in pasteurized milk in the region of Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Thirty-seven samples were collected and processed for culture of MAP. One colony similar to MAP was observed and confirmed by IS900-nested PCR and sequencing. Analysis revealed 97 to 99% identity with the MAP K-10 strain. This study is the first report of the presence of MAP in retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinically viable magnetic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles for MRI-based cell tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Dorit; Nkansah, Michael K.; Bennewitz, Margaret F.; Tang, Kevin S.; Markakis, Eleni A.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design, fabricate, characterize and in vivo assay clinically viable magnetic particles for MRI-based cell tracking. Methods PLGA encapsulated magnetic nano- and microparticles were fabricated. Multiple biologically relevant experiments were performed to assess cell viability, cellular performance and stem cell differentiation. In vivo MRI experiments were performed to separately test cell transplantation and cell migration paradigms, as well as in vivo biodegradation. Results Highly magnetic nano- (~100 nm) and microparticles (~1–2 μm) were fabricated. Magnetic cell labeling in culture occurred rapidly achieving 3–50 pg Fe/cell at 3 hrs for different particles types, and >100 pg Fe/cell after 10 hours, without the requirement of a transfection agent, and with no effect on cell viability. The capability of magnetically labeled mesenchymal or neural stem cells to differentiate down multiple lineages, or for magnetically labeled immune cells to release cytokines following stimulation, was uncompromised. An in vivo biodegradation study revealed that NPs degraded ~80% over the course of 12 weeks. MRI detected as few as 10 magnetically labeled cells, transplanted into the brains of rats. Also, these particles enabled the in vivo monitoring of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration in rat brains over 2 weeks. Conclusion The robust MRI properties and benign safety profile of these particles make them promising candidates for clinical translation for MRI-based cell tracking. PMID:23568825

  16. Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, T.; Rana, S.A.; Rana, N.; Inayat, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

  17. Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, J; Fane, S; Mitchell, C

    2007-01-01

    Decentralised systems have the potential to provide a viable option for long term sustainable management of household wastewater. Yet, at present, such systems hold an uncertain status and are frequently omitted from consideration. Their potential can only be realised with improved approaches to their management, and improved methods to decision-making in planning of wastewater systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of a novel framework to guide the planning of decentralised systems so that asset management and risk management are explicitly considered. The framework was developed through a detailed synthesis of literature and practice in the area of asset management of centralised water and wastewater systems, and risk management in the context of decentralised systems. Key aspects of the framework are attention to socio-economic risks as well as engineering, public health and ecological risks, the central place of communication with multiple stakeholders and establishing a shared asset information system. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can guide a different approach and lead to different, more sustainable outcomes, by explicitly considering the needs and perspectives of homeowners, water authorities, relevant government agencies and society as a whole.

  18. Exploring viable vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuria, Jyotiranjan [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Chattopadhyay, Utpal [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Datta, AseshKrishna [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dey, Abhishek [Maulana Azad College, Government of West Bengal, 8 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata 700013 (India)

    2017-04-05

    We explore the vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and their stability by going beyond the simplistic paradigm that works with a tree-level neutral scalar potential and adheres to some specific flat directions in the field space. We work in the so-called phenomenological NMSSM (pNMSSM) scenario. Also, for our purpose, we adhere to a reasonably ‘natural’ setup by requiring |μ{sub eff}| not too large. Key effects are demonstrated by first studying the profiles of this potential under various circumstances of physical interest via a semi-analytical approach. The results thereof are compared to the ones obtained from a dedicated package like Vevacious which further incorporates the thermal effects to the potential. Regions of the pNMSSM parameter space that render the desired symmetry breaking (DSB) vacuum absolutely stable, long- or short-lived (in relation to the age of the Universe) under quantum/thermal tunneling are delineated. Regions that result in the appearance of color and charge breaking (CCB) minima are also presented. It is demonstrated that light singlet scalars along with a light LSP (lightest supersymmetric particle) having an appreciable singlino admixture are compatible with a viable DSB vacuum. Their implications for collider experiments are commented upon.

  19. Study of viable models with non-universal gaugino mediation with CompHEP and ISAJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Balazs, C.; Belyaev, A.; Dermisek, R.; Mafi, A.; Mustafayev, A.

    2003-01-01

    We study the recently proposed scenario for SUSY GUT models in which compactification of the extra dimension(s) leads to a breakdown of the gauge symmetry and/or supersymmetry. SUSY breaking occurs on a hidden brane, and is communicated to the visible brane via gaugino mediation. The non-universal gaugino masses are developed at the compactification scale as a consequence of a restricted gauge symmetry on the hidden brane. For gaugino masses related due to a Pati-Salam symmetry on the hidden brane, we find the limited, but significant, regions of the model parameter space where a viable spectra of SUSY matter is generated. In the more general case of three independent gaugino masses, large parameter space regions open up for large values of the U(1) gaugino mass M 1 . We also find the relic density of neutralinos for these models to be generally below the expectations from cosmological observations, thus leaving room for hidden sector states to make up the bulk of cold dark matter

  20. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  1. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  2. Advanced Analysis to Distinguish between Physical Decrease and Inactivation of Viable Phages in Aerosol by Quantitating Phage-Specific Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Masaya; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Iizuka, Chiori; Okaue, Akira; Okuda, Shunji; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2018-01-01

     Recent studies have investigated the efficacy of air-cleaning products against pathogens in the air. A standard method to evaluate the reduction in airborne viruses caused by an air cleaner has been established using a safe bacteriophage instead of pathogenic viruses; the reduction in airborne viruses is determined by counting the number of viable airborne phages by culture, after operating the air cleaner. The reduction in the number of viable airborne phages could be because of "physical decrease" or "inactivation". Therefore, to understand the mechanism of reduction correctly, an analysis is required to distinguish between physical decrease and inactivation. The purpose of this study was to design an analysis to distinguish between the physical decrease and inactivation of viable phi-X174 phages in aerosols. We established a suitable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system by selecting an appropriate primer-probe set for PCR and validating the sensitivity, linearity, and specificity of the primer-probe set to robustly quantify phi-X174-specific airborne particles. Using this quantitative PCR system and culture assay, we performed a behavior analysis of the phage aerosol in a small chamber (1 m 3 ) at different levels of humidity, as humidity is known to affect the number of viable airborne phages. The results revealed that the reduction in the number of viable airborne phages was caused not only by physical decrease but also by inactivation under particular levels of humidity. Our study could provide an advanced analysis to differentiate between the physical decrease and inactivation of viable airborne phages.

  3. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  4. Delayed uptake and washout of contrast in non-viable infarcted myocardium shown with dynamic computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udholm, Sebastian; Laugesen, Sofie; Agger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of ischemic but potentially viable myocardium plays an important role in the planning of coronary revascularization. Until now SPECT, PET, and MRI have been used to identify viable myocardium. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose coronary atherosclerosis...... descending artery, followed by removal of the balloon and reperfusion. Four pigs died due to refractory ventricular fibrillation. After 6 weeks, dynamic cardiac CT was performed assessing both wall motion and contrast attenuation. Measurements of attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU) in the infarct...

  5. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  6. Impact of endoscopic stent insertion on detection of viable circulating tumor cells from obstructive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinya; Tanemura, Masahiro; Sawada, Genta; Moon, Jeongho; Shimizu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Toshiki; Kuwai, Toshio; Urata, Yasuo; Kuraoka, Kazuya; Hatanaka, Nobutaka; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Taniyama, Kiyomi

    2018-01-01

    The placement of a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in obstructive colorectal cancer (OCRC) is acknowledged to be a safe and effective procedure for the relief of obstruction. However, there is concern that shear forces acting on the tumor during stent expansion may release cancer cells into the circulation, resulting in a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether colonic stent insertion increases viable circulating tumor cells (v-CTCs). A telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus-expressing GFP (TelomeScanF35) detection system was used to detect v-CTCs in 8 OCRC patients with a SEMS before and after stent insertion and after surgical resection. In 7 patients, a SEMS was inserted as a bridge to surgery (BTS), and in one patient, a SEMS was inserted for palliation. Surgical resection (R0) was performed in 7 patients. Four patients had no v-CTCs before SEMS placement, two of four measurable patients had an increased number of v-CTCs after SEMS placement (1-3 v-CTCs), and one of two patients with increased v-CTCs developed distant lymphatic metastasis despite curative resection. Four patients had v-CTCs (1-19 cells) before SEMS placement, and two of these four patients had an increase in the number of v-CTCs (20-21 cells) after SEMS placement, while one of the four patients died early with distant metastasis. The present study demonstrated that endoscopic stent insertion for OCRC may result in tumor cell dissemination into the peripheral circulation and may induce distant metastases.

  7. Bariatric surgery: a viable treatment option for patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Sarah R; Labott, Susan; Stout, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Although bariatric surgery has become a recognized treatment for obesity, its utility among patients with severe psychiatric disorders has not been extensively studied. A few studies have reported similar weight loss outcomes in these patients, but psychiatric status after bariatric surgery has been studied only minimally, and it is unknown if exacerbation of the mental illness affects weight loss. The aim of this study was to shed greater light on the issue of serious mental illness and bariatric surgery. Specifically, do patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II have poorer weight loss outcomes postbariatric surgery than the general bariatric surgery population? Also, do patients with these diagnoses experience an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery, and if so, is the exacerbation of these disorders linked to poorer weight loss results? Midwest university medical center. A medical record review of approximately 1500 bariatric patients in a Midwest university medical center was conducted to identify those patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II. Information was gathered on bariatric surgery outcomes and changes in psychiatric status postsurgery. Eighteen patients were identified as undergoing bariatric surgery and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, or bipolar II. Weight loss in this group was significant and comparable to expected outcomes of absolute weight lost, changes in body mass index, and percentage excess weight loss for patients in the typical bariatric population. Postsurgery psychiatric status was known on 10 patients. All 10 patients experienced some exacerbation of psychiatric problems yet weight loss outcomes were still as expected. Bariatric surgery is a viable obesity treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II disorders. Symptom exacerbations occurred postsurgery, although it is not clear if these were due to the surgery or

  8. A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric; Lanoil, Brian; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Graham, Andrew; Skidmore, Mark; Han, Suk-Kyun; Rust, Terri; Popp, Brian

    2004-09-01

    We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grímsvötn volcanic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water before and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from a nearby subaerial geothermal lake for comparative analyses. Lake water is at the freezing point and fresh (total dissolved solids = 260 mg L-1). Detectable numbers of cells were found in samples of the lake water column and tephra sediments: 2 × 104 ml-1 and 4 × 107 g-1, respectively. Plate counts document abundant cold-adapted cultivable organisms in the lake water, but not in the borehole (before penetration) or glacial ice. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from genomic DNA extracted from Gr??msv??tn samples indicates that the lake community is distinct from the assemblages of organisms in borehole water (before penetration) and the overlying ice and snow. Sequencing of selected DGGE bands revealed that many sequences are highly similar to known psychrophilic organisms or cloned DNA from other cold environments. Significant uptake of 14C-labeled bicarbonate occurred in dark, low-temperature incubations of lake water samples, indicating the presence of autotrophs. Acetylene reduction assays under similar incubation conditions showed no significant nitrogen fixation potential by lake water samples. This may be a consequence of the inhibition of diazotrophy by nitrogen in the lake.

  9. Storm-generated coral fragments - A viable source of transplants for reef rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V.; Ward, G.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs throughout the world have been damaged by storms, diseases, coral predators, temperature anomalies, and human activities. During the past three decades, recovery has been limited and patchy. Although a damaged coral reef cannot be restored to its original condition, interest in reef restoration is increasing. In a pilot project in the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands), storm-produced fragments of Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, and Porites porites were collected from donor reefs and transplanted to nearby degraded reefs. Sixty coral fragments were attached to dead-coral substrate (usually A. palmata skeletons), at similar depths from which they had been collected (1-3.5 m), using nylon cable ties. Seventy-five intact colonies were designated as controls. Study colonies were assessed at 6-month intervals for 2 years (1999-2001) and annually thereafter (through 2004). One-fourth of the 135 colonies and fragments monitored were alive at the conclusion of the 5-year study. Survival of control and transplanted A. cervicornis and P. porites was very low (median survival 2.4 and 1.8 years, respectively), with no significant differences between transplant and control colonies. Site and depth did not contribute significantly to A. palmata colony survival, but colony size and transplant/control status did. Probability of survival increased with colony size. Median survival for A. palmata was 1.3 years for transplant and 4.3 years for natural colonies when not controlled for size. A. palmata was the only viable candidate for reef rehabilitation. Storm swells were the primary cause of mortality.

  10. Acanthamoeba polyphaga resuscitates viable non-culturable Legionella pneumophila after disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Teresa; Jones, Snake; Pelaz, Carmen; Millar, Richard D; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2007-05-01

    Amoebae are the natural hosts for Legionella pneumophila and play essential roles in bacterial ecology and infectivity to humans. When L. pneumophila colonizes an aquatic installation, it can persist for years despite repeated treatments with disinfectants. We hypothesized that freshwater amoebae play an important role in bacterial resistance to disinfectants, and in subsequent resuscitation of viable non-culturable (VNC) L. pneumophila that results in re-emergence of the disease-causing strain in the disinfected water source. Our work showed that in the absence of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, seven L. pneumophila strains became non-culturable after treatment by 256 p.p.m. of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In contrast, intracellular L. pneumophila within A. polyphaga was resistant to 1024 p.p.m. of NaOCl. In addition, L. pneumophila-infected A. polyphaga exhibited increased resistance to NaOCl. When chlorine-sterilized water samples were co-cultured with A. polyphaga, the non-culturable L. pneumophila were resuscitated and proliferated robustly within A. polyphaga. Upon treatment by NaOCl, uninfected amoebae differentiated into cysts within 48 h. In contrast, L. pneumophila-infected A. polyphaga failed to differentiate into cysts, and L. pneumophila was never detected in cysts of A. polyphaga. We conclude that amoebic trophozoites protect intracellular L. pneumophila from eradication by NaOCl, and play an essential role in resuscitation of VNC L. pneumophila in NaOCl-disinfected water sources. Intracellular L. pneumophila within trophozoites of A. polyphaga block encystation of the amoebae, and the resistance of both organisms to NaOCl is enhanced. To ensure long-term eradication and complete loss of the VNC state of L. pneumophila, we recommend that Legionella-protozoa co-culture should be an important tool to ensure complete loss of the VNC state of L. pneumophila.

  11. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  12. Symbiotic Role of the Viable but Nonculturable State of Vibrio fischeri in Hawaiian Coastal Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Ruby, E G

    1995-01-01

    To achieve functional bioluminescence, the developing light organ of newly hatched juveniles of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes must become colonized by luminous, symbiosis-competent Vibrio fischeri present in the ambient seawater. This benign infection occurs rapidly in animals placed in seawater from the host's natural habitat. Therefore, it was surprising that colony hybridization studies with a V. fischeri-specific luxA gene probe indicated the presence of only about 2 CFU of V. fischeri per ml of this infective seawater. To examine this paradox, we estimated the total concentration of V. fischeri cells present in seawater from the host's habitat in two additional ways. In the first approach, the total bacterial assemblage in samples of seawater was collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and used as a source of both a crude cell lysate and purified DNA. These preparations were then assayed by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization with the luxA gene probe. The results suggested the presence of between 200 and 400 cells of V. fischeri per ml of natural seawater, a concentration more than 100 times that revealed by colony hybridization. In the second approach, we amplified V. fischeri-specific luxA sequences from microliter volumes of natural seawater by PCR. Most-probable-number analyses of the frequency of positive PCR results from cell lysates in these small volumes gave an estimate of the concentration of V. fischeri luxA gene targets of between 130 and 1,680 copies per ml. From these measurements, we conclude that in their natural seawater environment, the majority of V. fischeri cells become nonculturable while remaining viable and symbiotically infective. Experimental studies indicated that V. fischeri cells suspended in natural Hawaiian seawater enter such a state within a few days.

  13. Koranic Education Centres: A viable educational alternative for the disadvantaged learner in Sahel Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah-Lalya, Ibrahima

    2015-08-01

    Within the international momentum for achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many African countries have made considerable progress during the last decade in terms of access to basic education. However, a significant number of children enrolled in the early grades of primary schools either repeat classes or drop out and never graduate. Moreover, there are currently about 30 million school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa who have never attended any form of schooling. In view of this situation, sub-Saharan African countries have been looking for alternative options to educate those who have not been accounted for in the formal school system. This note considers informal Koranic Education Centres (KECs) which are trying to fill the gap of schooling in the Sahel-Saharan strip. The author looks at the challenges this form of schooling faces and at how to meet them efficiently. He sounds out the possibility of using KECs to cater for those who have been left aside by formal schooling. Based on existing studies, data compiled by educational systems and a study conducted by the Working Group on Non-Formal Education (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) in 2013, the author of this research note came to the conclusion that a holistic approach, where the two systems (the Koranic and the formal) collaborate and support one another, could effectively contribute to alleviating the dropout predicament and to reducing the number of unschooled children. It could offer a second-chance opportunity to dropout and unschooled children in the Sahel and Saharan zone. However, before this can become a viable alternative, a number of major challenges need to be addressed. Through its WGNFE, ADEA intends to further investigate the holistic approach of combining formal "modern" and informal "Koranic" schooling to come up with tangible

  14. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  15. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  16. Rapid assessment of viable but non-culturable Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in commercial formulations using Flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Majeed, Shaheen; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Punnapuzha, Ardra; Philip, Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at physiological conditions. We show that VBNC state is induced in B. coagulans MTCC 5856by high temperature and acidic pH. The cells get resuscitated under physiological conditions and FCM was sensitive to detect the VBNC spores. Flow cytometry showed excellent ability to assess the viable spore count in commercial probiotic formulations of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. The results establish Flow cytometry as a reliable method to count viable bacteria in commercial probiotic preparations. Sporulation as well as existence as VBNC could contribute to the extreme stability of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. PMID:29474436

  17. Collateral circulation as a marker of the presence of viable myocardium in patients with recent myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Ohno, A.; Wada, O.; Miwa, K.; Nozawa, T.; Yamanishi, K.; Sasayama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between the presence of viable myocardium and the extent of coronary collateral circulation to the infarct area was evaluated in 20 patients with a recent anterior myocardial infarction who had complete obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The viability of myocardial tissue was assessed by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and the collateral circulation was angiographically evaluated by means of a collateral index ranging from 0 to 3. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group 1, n = 10) or absence (group 2, n = 10) of viable myocardium in the perfusion territory of the infarct-related artery. The collateral index in group 1 was 2.5 ± 0.5 (SD), which was significantly higher than the 0.7 ± 0.8 in group 2. These findings indicate that the presence of ischemic but viable myocardium is intimately related to the development of collateral circulation in patients with myocardial infarction, and the existence of well-developed collateral channels predicts the presence of viable myocardium in the infarct area

  18. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

  19. Natural environmental water sources in endemic regions of northeastern Brazil are potential reservoirs of viable Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo; Holanda, Maísa Viana de; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Sabadia, José Antônio Beltrão; Duarte, Cynthia Romariz; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Frota, Cristiane Cunha

    2017-12-01

    The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.

  20. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid assessment of viable but non-culturable Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in commercial formulations using Flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Majeed

    Full Text Available Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore® is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at physiological conditions. We show that VBNC state is induced in B. coagulans MTCC 5856by high temperature and acidic pH. The cells get resuscitated under physiological conditions and FCM was sensitive to detect the VBNC spores. Flow cytometry showed excellent ability to assess the viable spore count in commercial probiotic formulations of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. The results establish Flow cytometry as a reliable method to count viable bacteria in commercial probiotic preparations. Sporulation as well as existence as VBNC could contribute to the extreme stability of B. coagulans MTCC 5856.

  2. Rapid assessment of viable but non-culturable Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in commercial formulations using Flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Majeed, Shaheen; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Punnapuzha, Ardra; Philip, Sheena; Mundkur, Lakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at physiological conditions. We show that VBNC state is induced in B. coagulans MTCC 5856by high temperature and acidic pH. The cells get resuscitated under physiological conditions and FCM was sensitive to detect the VBNC spores. Flow cytometry showed excellent ability to assess the viable spore count in commercial probiotic formulations of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. The results establish Flow cytometry as a reliable method to count viable bacteria in commercial probiotic preparations. Sporulation as well as existence as VBNC could contribute to the extreme stability of B. coagulans MTCC 5856.

  3. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-Jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-14

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 10 3 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds.

  4. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed

  5. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  6. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  7. Global zero-carbon energy pathways using viable mixes of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A proper mix of nuclear power and renewables achieves sustainable energy future. • A high nuclear share provides cost and land effectiveness compared to nuclear-free. • Only-renewable mix will increase negative economic and environmental impacts. • A deployment of advanced reactor technologies is essential to overcome limitations. - Abstract: What are the most viable global pathways for a major expansion of zero-carbon emissions electricity sources given the diversity of regional technical, socio-political and economic constraints? We modelled a range of zero-emissions energy scenarios across nations that were designed to meet projected final energy demand in 2060, and optimised to derive the best globally aggregated results in terms of minimising costs and land use (a surrogate for environmental impacts). We found that a delayed energy transition to a zero-emissions pathway will decrease investment costs (−$3,431 billion), but increase cumulative CO 2 emissions (additional 696 Gt). A renewable-only scenario would convert >7.4% of the global land area to energy production, whereas a maximum nuclear scenario would affect <0.4% of land area, including mining, spent-fuel storage, and buffer zones. Moreover, a nuclear-free pathway would involve up to a 50% greater cumulative capital investment compared to a high nuclear penetration scenario ($73.7 trillion). However, for some nations with a high current share of renewables and a low projected future energy demand (e.g., Norway), pursuit of a higher nuclear share is suboptimal. In terms of the time frame for replacement of fossil fuels, achieving a global nuclear share of about 50% by 2060 would be a technically and economically plausible target if progressing at a pace of the average historical growth of nuclear power penetration in France from 1970 to 1986 (0.28 MWh person −1 year -1 ). For effective climate-change mitigation, a high penetration of nuclear in association with a nationally

  8. Clinical diagnostic value of viable Schistosoma japonicum eggs detected in host tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kongzhen; Li, Yuesheng; Driguez, Patrick; Zeng, Qingren; Yu, Xinlin; Sun, Hui; Cai, Liting; He, Yongkang; Wang, Wenyang; McManus, Donald P

    2017-04-04

    complex and egg viability is difficult to judge morphologically, particularly eggs with a fuzzy structure or partially modified eggs. We found that the majority of the viable schistosome eggs determined by four new markers (CalS, AOS, SDHG and SjR2 mRNA) were morphologically difficult to identify. Among the markers, the most sensitive and specific method was the detection of SjR2 mRNA and the most simple, rapid and practical method was the detection of SDHG. Therefore, the detection of SDHG is the most practical for clinical application and its use could improve the accuracy in diagnosing active schistosome infection.

  9. Inferior gluteal artery perforator flap: a viable alternative for ischial pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yoo, Won Min; Lee, Won Jai; Tark, Kwan Chul

    2009-10-01

    after surgery due to tissue deficit and these were treated with bursectomy and muscle transposition flap to fill the dead space. We propose that the IGAP flap should be considered a viable alternative to other methods of ischial pressure sore surgery owing to its many advantages, which include the ability to preserve peripheral muscle tissue, the variability of flap designs, relatively good durability, and the low donor site morbidity rate.

  10. Development of a bedside viable ultrasound protocol to quantify appendicular lean tissue mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Michael T; Lafleur, Benoit; Dubin, Joel A; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive and readily available tool that can be prospectively applied at the bedside to assess muscle mass in clinical settings. The four-site protocol, which images two anatomical sites on each quadriceps, may be a viable bedside method, but its ability to predict musculature has not been compared against whole-body reference methods. Our primary objectives were to (i) compare the four-site protocol's ability to predict appendicular lean tissue mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; (ii) optimize the predictability of the four-site protocol with additional anatomical muscle thicknesses and easily obtained covariates; and (iii) assess the ability of the optimized protocol to identify individuals with low lean tissue mass. This observational cross-sectional study recruited 96 university and community dwelling adults. Participants underwent ultrasound scans for assessment of muscle thickness and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for assessment of appendicular lean tissue. Ultrasound protocols included (i) the nine-site protocol, which images nine anterior and posterior muscle groups in supine and prone positions, and (ii) the four-site protocol, which images two anterior sites on each quadriceps muscle group in a supine position. The four-site protocol was strongly associated (R 2  = 0.72) with appendicular lean tissue mass, but Bland-Altman analysis displayed wide limits of agreement (-5.67, 5.67 kg). Incorporating the anterior upper arm muscle thickness, and covariates age and sex, alongside the four-site protocol, improved the association (R 2  = 0.91) with appendicular lean tissue and displayed narrower limits of agreement (-3.18, 3.18 kg). The optimized protocol demonstrated a strong ability to identify low lean tissue mass (area under the curve = 0.89). The four-site protocol can be improved with the addition of the anterior upper arm muscle thickness, sex, and age when predicting appendicular lean tissue mass

  11. Cellular bone matrices: viable stem cell-containing bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K; Iatridis, James C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. Areview of literature. A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs' survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery

  12. Dendritic cells take up and present antigens from viable and apoptotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfaro

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8, for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4°C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1 and CD4 (OT-2 TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2(d mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2(d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2(b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2(d are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2(b. In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC.

  13. {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP: a viable agent for palliative radiotherapy of painful bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, S. [Radiopharmaceuticals Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sarma, H.D. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2008-07-01

    The suitable nuclear decay characteristics [T{sub 1/2} = 6.73 d, E{sub {beta}}{sub (max)} = 497 keV, E{sub {gamma}} = 113 keV (6.4%), 208 keV (11%)] as well as the feasibility of large-scale production with adequate specific activity and radionuclidic purity using a moderate flux reactor are important attributes towards {sup 177}Lu to be considered as a promising radionuclide for palliative care in painful bone metastasis. The present study describes the preparation of {sup 177}Lu complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and its preliminary biological evaluation in animal models with an aim to proposing it as a viable radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation. The choice DOTMP as the polyaminophosphonic acid carrier ligand is based on the enhanced thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the metal-ligand complexes with macrocyclic chelators. {sup 177}Lu was produced with a specific activity of {proportional_to} 12 GBq/mg ({proportional_to} 324 mCi/mg) and radionuclidic purity of 99.98% by irradiation of natural Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} target at a thermal neutron flux of {proportional_to} 6 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} s for 21 d. {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP complex was prepared in high yield and excellent radiochemical purity (> 99%) using DOTMP synthesized and characterized in-house. The complex exhibited excellent in-vitro stability at room temperature. Biodistribution studies in Wistar rats showed rapid skeletal accumulation of the injected activity [(1.60{+-}0.19)% per gram in femur at 3 h post-injection] with fast clearance from blood and minimal uptake in any of the major organs. Scintigraphic studies carried out in normal Wistar rats and New Zealand white rabbits also demonstrated significant accumulation of the agent in skeleton and almost no retention in any other vital organs. (orig.)

  14. Blogging as a viable research methodology for young people with arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-03-05

    The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data

  15. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    challenges and propose an economically, politically, and legally viable ADR option. Much like waste management on Earth, cleaning up space junk will likely lie somewhere between a public good and a private sector service. An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.

  16. A viable CDM model for solar water heaters; CDM-Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    It is a well known fact that solar water Heaters (SWH) replace fossil fuels and they do not represent business as usual scenario. Therefore use of this appliance can qualify to be considered as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. However a single solar water heater is a very small unit to be able to generate sufficient Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to pursue it as a CDM project. Even if the project is considered at the level of local venders or at the level of a company engaged in manufacturing SWH, the CERs still remain very small. The study examines the size of the project from the perspective of its viability as a CDM project and also explores other related issues such as additionality requirement, selection of methodology, baseline calculations, approach for stakeholders' comments, potential bundlers, monitoring and verification, and required policy interventions. Bank of Maharashtra (BOM), a commercial bank in India engaged in financing Solar Water Heaters (SWH), was considered as the base for the study. The CERs were calculated considering Electricity and LPG as the baseline. For the purpose of sensitivity analysis, various price bands for CERs (between US$ 15-25/CER) were considered. The analysis was carried out with bundling of SWH at BOM level, and at the Association of Banks (AOB) / Ministry level (in which case SWH financed by several banks are bundled). Recently approved Programme of Activities (PoA) approach was also considered in the analysis. The analysis clearly indicated that: 1) The CDM project with bundling at an individual bank level with about 8600 installations, though cash surplus, would generate the cash just to meet its own sustainability. But it is a very small project. 2) Bundling of installations by various banks, through an entity such as Association of Banks, would be a viable and sustainable CDM project due to benefits arising out of scale of economy. 3) The profitability of the CDM project would improve further if

  17. Evaluation of respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallapura G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gopala Kallapura,1 Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco,2 Neil R Pumford,1 Lisa R Bielke,1 Billy M Hargis,1 Guillermo Tellez1 1Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, The National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico Abstract: With increasing reports of Salmonella infection, we are forced to question whether the fecal–oral route is the major route of infection and consider the possibility that airborne Salmonella infections might have a major unappreciated role. Today's large-scale poultry production, with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings, is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Considering that the upper and lower respiratory lymphoid tissue requires up to 6 weeks to be fully developed, these immune structures seem to have a very minor role in preventing pathogen infection. In addition, the avian respiratory system in commercial poultry has anatomic and physiologic properties that present no challenge to the highly adapted Salmonella. The present review evaluates the hypothesis that transmission by the fecal–respiratory route may theoretically be a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. First, we update the current knowledge on generation of Salmonella bioaerosols, and the transport and fate of Salmonella at various stages of commercial poultry production. Further, emphasis is placed on survivability of Salmonella in these bioaerosols, as a means to assess the transport and subsequent risk of exposure and infection of poultry. Additionally, the main anatomic structures, physiologic functions, and immunologic defense in the avian respiratory system are discussed to understand the potential entry points inherent in each component that could potentially lead to infection and subsequent systemic infection of poultry by Salmonella. In this context, we also evaluate the role of the mucosal immune

  18. Presence of viable Mycobacterium leprae in environmental specimens around houses of leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turankar, R P; Lavania, M; Singh, M; Sengupta, U; Siva Sai, Ksr; Jadhav, R S

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, one of the first organisms to be established as the cause for disease in humans. Because of high prevalence pockets of leprosy in the endemic regions, it is necessary to identify the possible sources of M. leprae in the environment and its mode of transmission. Slit skin smears (SSSs) from lesions were collected in 70% ethanol from 50 leprosy cases staying in the leprosy resettlement village and hospital from a high endemic area. One hundred and sixty soil samples were collected from different areas around the leprosy hospital and from the resettlement village of cured leprosy patients where active cases also resided at the time of sample collection. M. leprae specific gene region (RLEP 129 bp) and 16S rRNA targets were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection for the presence and viability of M. leprae. An rpoT region was also amplified to determine presence of numbers of 6 bp tandem repeats. All the SSS samples collected from patients showed three copies of rpoT region (6 bp tandem repeat, an ancient Indian type). Fifty-two soil samples showed presence of M. leprae DNA whereas M. leprae specific 16S rRNA gene was amplified in sixteen of these samples. PCR amplification and fragment length analysis showed 91 bp, i.e., three copies of the rpoT 6 bp tandem repeats from soil samples and similar three copies observed in patient samples. Presence of viable M. leprae in the soil having same rpoT genotype of M. leprae noted in patients suggests that it could be the same strain of M. leprae. M. leprae found in the soil could be the one that is excreted out by the patient. Significance of its viability in the environment and its pathogenicity with respect to transmission needs to be further explored. Findings of this study might provide possible insights for further exploration into understanding transmission patterns in leprosy and also will throw light on identifying

  19. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  20. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  1. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  3. Interstitial Pregnancy Resulting in a Viable Infant Coexistent with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this report is to describe a rare case of interstitial pregnancy ultimately resulting in a viable infant coexistent with massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD. Study Design - This study is a case report and literature review. Results - A 35-year-old female patient underwent cesarean section at 32 weeks of gestation due to fetal growth restriction (FGR and breech presentation. During the operation, a diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy was established. There was no evidence of placental separation. We decided to complete surgery without removal of the placenta and waited until the placenta delivered spontaneously. The conservative management was successful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 13. The pathologic examination showed MPFD. Conclusion - If interstitial pregnancies are not diagnosed at an early gestational age, it can result in a viable fetus, but such pregnancies may be associated with FGR or placenta accreta.

  4. Viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in the ejaculate as a marker of semen quality and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte Louise; Rehfeld, Anders; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible, in an unbiased and clinical relevant way, to determine the number of viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in ejaculates and to use this as a measure of fertility chances? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image cytometry enables easy and unbiased quantification of viable acrosome......-intact spermatozoa and it correlates with semen quality and fertility status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The presence of the acrosome and its ability to respond to physiological inducers (e.g. progesterone) in the female reproductive tract at the appropriate time and place is required for fertilization. However......, the available assays are labor intensive and therefore not used clinically. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Washed semen samples and capacitated swim-up fractions from volunteers were used to develop the assay. Subsequently washed ejaculates from patients in fertility treatment (n = 156), proven fertile men (n...

  5. Does enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 enter the viable but nonculturable state in salted salmon roe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, S I; Kii, T; Asakura, H; Shirahata, T; Ikeda, T; Takeshi, K; Itoh, K

    2000-12-01

    An outbreak caused by salted salmon roe contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in Japan in 1998. Since about 0.75 to 1.5 viable cells were estimated to cause infection, we presumed that O157 might enter the viable but nonculturable (VNC) state in salted salmon roe and consequently that viable cell numbers might be underestimated. Although patient-originating O157 cells could not grow on agar plates after 72 h of incubation in 13% NaCl, they were resuscitated in yeast extract broth, and more than 90% of the cells were shown to be viable by fluorescent staining, suggesting that almost all of them could enter the VNC state in NaCl water. Roe-originating O157 was resistant to NaCl because it could grow on agar after 72 h of incubation in NaCl water, but about 20% of cells appeared to enter the VNC state. Therefore, germfree mice were infected with O157 to examine the resuscitation of cells in the VNC state and the retention of pathogenicity. O157 that originated in roe, but not patients, killed mice and was isolated from the intestine. However, these isolates had become sensitive to NaCl. O157 cells of roe origin incubated in normal media also killed mice and were isolated from the intestine, but they also became transiently NaCl sensitive. We therefore propose that bacterial cells might enter the VNC state under conditions of stress, such as those encountered in vivo or in high salt concentrations, and then revive when those conditions have eased. If so, the VNC state in food is potentially dangerous from a public health viewpoint and may have to be considered at the time of food inspection. Finally, the establishment of a simple recovery system for VNC cells should be established.

  6. Systems thinking benefits in supply change management:an illustration of the viable systems model in a supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chronéer, Diana; Mirijamdotter, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Existing product development models are solely an organisational matter. They do not take into consideration the whole supply chain and its different actors. We investigate in this paper how Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Viable System Model (VSM) can support and create an effective use of information in product development and hence identify critical linkages in the supply chain. The aim is to introduce VSM as a framework that enable an analysis of company's supply chains and visualize vi...

  7. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  8. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  9. Cellular and soluble components decrease the viable pathogen counts in milk from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiishi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Masako; Miyake, Hajime; Hisaeda, Keiichi; Isobe, Naoki

    2017-08-10

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the factors that reduce the viable pathogen count in milk collected from the udders of subclinical mastitic cows during preservation. Milk was centrifuged to divide somatic cells (cellular components, precipitates) and antimicrobial peptides (soluble components, supernatants without fat layer); each fraction was cultured with bacteria, and the number of viable bacteria was assessed prior to and after culture. In 28.8% of milk samples, we noted no viable bacteria immediately after collection; this value increased significantly after a 5-hr incubation of milk with cellular components but not with soluble components (48.1 and 28.8%, respectively). After culture with cellular components, the numbers of bacteria (excluding Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis) and yeast decreased dramatically, although the differences were not statistically significant. After cultivation with soluble components, only yeasts showed a tendency toward decreased mean viability, whereas the mean bacterial counts of S. uberis and T. pyogenes tended to increase after 5-hr preservation with soluble components. These results suggest that most pathogens in high somatic cell count (SCC) milk decreased during preservation at 15 to 25°C, due to both the cellular components and antimicrobial components in the milk. Particularly, the cellular components more potently reduced bacterial counts during preservation.

  10. Viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes on parsley leaves and absence of recovery to a culturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreux, N; Albagnac, C; Federighi, M; Carlin, F; Morris, C E; Nguyen-the, C

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the presence of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes during survival on parsley leaves under low relative humidity (RH) and to evaluate the ability of L. monocytogenes to recover from VBNC to culturable state under satured humidity. Under low RH (47-69%) on parsley leaves, the initial number of L. monocytogenes populations counted on non selective media (10(9) L. monocytogenes per leaf on TSA) was reduced by 6 log10 scales in 15 days, whereas number of viable L. monocytogenes counted under the microscope was reduced by 3-4 log10 scales, indicating the presence of VBNC cells. This was demonstrated on three L. monocytogenes strains (EGDe, Bug 1995 and LmP60). Changing from low to 100% RH permitted an increase of the culturable counts of L. monocytogenes and this growth was observed only when residual culturable cells were present. Moreover, VBNC L. monocytogenes inoculated on parsley leaves did not become culturable after incubation under 100% RH. Dry conditions induced VBNC L. monocytogenes on parsley leaves but these VBNC were likely unable to recover culturability after transfer to satured humidity. Enumeration on culture media presumably under-estimates the number of viable L. monocytogenes on fresh produce after exposure to low RH.

  11. Viable-but-Nonculturable Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Thompson Induced by Chlorine Stress Remain Infectious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum J. Highmore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively. The pathogens were subjected to chlorine washing following incubation on spinach leaves. Culture data revealed that total viable L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson populations became VBNC by 50 and 100 ppm chlorine, respectively, while enumeration by direct viable counting found that chlorine caused a <1-log reduction in viability. The pathogenicity of chlorine-induced VBNC L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson was assessed by using Caenorhabditis elegans. Ingestion of VBNC pathogens by C. elegans resulted in a significant life span reduction (P = 0.0064 and P < 0.0001, and no significant difference between the life span reductions caused by the VBNC and culturable L. monocytogenes treatments was observed. L. monocytogenes was visualized beyond the nematode intestinal lumen, indicating resuscitation and cell invasion. These data emphasize the risk that VBNC food-borne pathogens could pose to public health should they continue to go undetected.

  12. Articular Cartilage Repair Using Marrow Stimulation Augmented with a Viable Chondral Allograft: 9-Month Postoperative Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marrow stimulation is frequently employed to treat focal chondral defects of the knee. However, marrow stimulation typically results in fibrocartilage repair tissue rather than healthy hyaline cartilage, which, over time, predisposes the repair to failure. Recently, a cryopreserved viable chondral allograft was developed to augment marrow stimulation. The chondral allograft is comprised of native viable chondrocytes, chondrogenic growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins within the superficial, transitional, and radial zones of hyaline cartilage. Therefore, host mesenchymal stem cells that infiltrate the graft from the underlying bone marrow following marrow stimulation are provided with the optimal microenvironment to undergo chondrogenesis. The present report describes treatment of a trochlear defect with marrow stimulation augmented with this novel chondral allograft, along with nine month postoperative histological results. At nine months, the patient demonstrated complete resolution of pain and improvement in function, and the repair tissue consisted of 85% hyaline cartilage. For comparison, a biopsy obtained from a patient 8.2 months after treatment with marrow stimulation alone contained only 5% hyaline cartilage. These outcomes suggest that augmenting marrow stimulation with the viable chondral allograft can eliminate pain and improve outcomes, compared with marrow stimulation alone.

  13. Networked remote area dental services: a viable, sustainable approach to oral health care in challenging environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Kate; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the cost effectiveness of a model of remote area oral health service. Retrospective financial analysis. Rural and remote primary health services. Clinical activity data and associated cost data relating to the provision of a networked visiting oral health service by the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health formed the basis of the study data frameset. The cost-effectiveness of the Centre's model of service provision at five rural and remote sites in Western Australia during the calendar years 2006, 2008 and 2010 was examined in the study. Calculations of the service provision costs and value of care provided were made using data records and the Fee Schedule of Dental Services for Dentists. The ratio of service provision costs to the value of care provided was determined for each site and was benchmarked against the equivalent ratios applicable to large scale government sector models of service provision. The use of networked models have been effective in other disciplines but this study is the first to show a networked hub and spoke approach of five spokes to one hub is cost efficient in remote oral health care. By excluding special cost-saving initiatives introduced by the Centre, the study examines easily translatable direct service provision costs against direct clinical care outcomes in some of Australia's most challenging locations. This study finds that networked hub and spoke models of care can be financially efficient arrangements in remote oral health care. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  14. Proton-density fat fraction measurement: A viable quantitative biomarker for differentiating adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Yaqi; Hu, Xuemei; Tang, Hao; Hu, Daoyu [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Zhen, E-mail: zhenli@hust.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Kamel, Ihab R. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • PDFF differentiated adenomas from nonadenomas with high sensitivity and specificity. • PDFF measurements are simple and can be readily applicable in clinical practice. • Oil-saline phantom study demonstarted good correlation between PDFF and SII. - Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to compare the accuracy of proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements with chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (CSI) for quantifying the fat content of adrenal nodules and for differentiating adenomas from nonadenomas. Materials and methods: Oil-saline phantom measurements was performed to compare the correlation between PDFF and CSI in detecting and quantifying fat content. 43 consecutive patients who had known adrenal nodules were imaged on a 3.0-T MR scanner. PDFF was measured, and the signal intensity (SI) index (SII), SI adrenal-to-liver ratio (ALR) and SI adrenal-to-spleen ratio (ASR) of the adrenal nodules were calculated. Results: In the phantom study, PDFF ranged from 12.6% to 99.1% and the SII was between 0.72 and 1.23. There was good correlation between these two methods (R square = 0.972, p < 0.0001). The PDFF of adrenal adenoma was significantly increased compared with that of nonadenoma (p < 0.001). PDFF was an effective tool for distinguishing adenoma from nonadenoma, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. In comparing SII, ALR and ASR the AUC was 0.94, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. No significant difference was noted between these two methods (p > 0.05). Conclusion: PDFF measurements provide an accurate estimation of fat content in discriminating adenomas from nonadenomas compared with CSI, avoiding complicated data calculations and offering a simpler technique using 3T.

  15. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  16. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowling Wallace A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C, warm (25°C/15°C, cool (18°C/13°C and cold (10°C/5°C treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29% at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%. In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5% was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%. Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid

  17. Detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarui; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-01-17

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with food has caused many serious public health problems in recent years. However, only viable cells of this pathogen can cause infections, and false-positive detection caused by dead cells can lead to unnecessary product recalls. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method that combines propidium monoazide (PMA) staining with real-time PCR to detect only viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMA is a DNA intercalating dye that can penetrate compromised membranes of dead cells and bind to cellular DNA, preventing its amplification via a subsequent PCR. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (505B, G5310 and C7927) at concentrations of 10(0) to 10(8)CFU/mL were used as live cells. Dead cells were obtained by heating cell suspensions at 85°C for 15 min. Suspensions were treated with PMA and the optimized assay was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef with two different fat contents (10% and 27%). DNA was extracted and amplified by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the uidA gene for detection of E. coli O157:H7. Plasmid pUC19 was added as an internal amplification control (IAC). A treatment of 25 μM PMA with a 10-min light exposure on ice was sufficient to eliminate DNA from 10(8) dead E. coli O157:H7 cells/mL. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(2) CFU/mL viable E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and 10(5) CFU/g in ground beef, in the presence of 10(6)/mL or g of dead cells. With an 8-h enrichment, 1 CFU/g viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef was detectable without interference from 10(6) dead cells/g. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR could effectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 without being compromised by dead cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Golden Ratio in Time-based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Verba

    2013-06-01

    The proliferation of moving images we face on a daily basis is cause for great concern, as we have increasingly less free time in our days. Informative and pleasing images are buried in an avalanche of visual rubbish, constantly streaming into our physical and virtual worlds. Time-based media has the ability to expand and contract movement, thus directing the way viewers experience and spend their time. This investigation presupposes that editing moving images via increments of time determined by the golden ratio may streamline messages, isolating what is most symbolic and effectively communicative within a mathematical framework. A physiological and psychological benefit is created for viewers; there is no wasted time or space. Image-makers and visual communicators have a responsibility to create only that which is useful and/or aesthetically pleasing. An investigation into the temporal structure of time-based media, using mathematical algorithms derived from the golden ratio, has led to the aim of creating through it a viable solution for the implementation of visual communication messages in today's society.

  19. The Golden Ratio in Time-based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Verba

    2013-06-01

    mathematical algorithms derived from the golden ratio, has led to the aim of creating through it a viable solution for the implementation of visual communication messages in today's society.

  20. Comparison of culture-based, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2017-06-01

    Accurate quantitative measurement of viable hookworm ova from environmental samples is the key to controlling hookworm re-infections in the endemic regions. In this study, the accuracy of three quantitative detection methods [culture-based, vital stain and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR)] was evaluated by enumerating 1,000 ± 50 Ancylostoma caninum ova in the laboratory. The culture-based method was able to quantify an average of 397 ± 59 viable hookworm ova. Similarly, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods quantified 644 ± 87 and 587 ± 91 viable ova, respectively. The numbers of viable ova estimated by the culture-based method were significantly (P methods. Therefore, both PMA-qPCR and vital stain methods appear to be suitable for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova. However, PMA-qPCR would be preferable over the vital stain method in scenarios where ova speciation is needed.

  1. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Jay S; Koch, Eileen; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2012-10-01

    Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r(2) = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥ 0.5/feet(3) (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥ 32 000 particles (≥ 0.5 µ)/feet(3), with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet(3) triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement.

  2. Freedom space for rivers: An economically viable river management concept in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Biron, Pascale M.; Larocque, Marie; Demers, Sylvio; Olsen, Taylor; Choné, Guénolé; Ouellet, Marie-Audray; Cloutier, Claude-André; Desjarlais, Claude; Eyquem, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The freedom space concept applies hydrogeomorphic principles to delineate zones that are either frequently flooded or actively eroding, or that include riparian wetlands. Freedom space limits mapped for three rivers in southern Quebec (Canada) were assessed to determine whether they would still be valid under a future climate using a sensitivity analysis approach with numerical models predicting mobility of meanders (RVRMeander) and flood stage (HEC-RAS). The freedom space limits were also used in a cost-benefit analysis over a 50-year period where costs consist of loss or limitations to the right of farming and construction in this zone, whereas benefits are avoided costs for existing or future bank stabilization structures and avoided costs of flooding in agricultural areas. The economic value of ecosystem services provided by riparian wetlands and increased buffer zones within the freedom space were also included in the analysis. Results show that freedom space limits would be robust in future climate, and show net present values ranging from CDN0.7 to 3.7 million for the three rivers, with ratios of benefits over costs ranging between 1.5:1 and 4.8:1. River management based on freedom space is thus beneficial for society over a 50-year period.

  3. Holistic approach to production systems from the perspective of lean manufacturing and viable systems model; Aproximacion holistica a los sistemas de produccion desde la perspectiva Lean Manufacturing y Modelos de Sistemas Viables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puche Regaliza, J. C.; Costas Gual, J.

    2012-07-01

    The reductionism approach usually adopted by many organizations provokes too often a problem of sustain ability in the market over time in these organizations. To increase this sustain ability, we propose a structural and a behavioral change, in a way that the reductionism is replaced by an holistic approach appropriate to address the dynamic complexity inherent in any organization. With regard to structural change, we propose the use of Organizational Cybernetics and particularly the Viable System Model. With respect to behavior change, we propose the use of Lean Manufacturing paradigm. (Author)

  4. Differential Effect of Viable Versus Necrotic Neutrophils on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Cytokine Induction in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Lowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis-lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96 h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells (p < 0.001. Augmentation of blood with viable granulocytes significantly improved control of mycobacteria by 96 h (p = 0.001, but augmentation with necrotic granulocytes had the opposite effect (p = 0.01. Both augmentations decreased supernatant concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL-12 p40/p70, but necrotic granulocyte augmentation also increased concentrations of IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2. Necrotic neutrophil augmentation reduced phagocytosis of FITC-labeled M. bovis BCG by all phagocytes, whereas viable neutrophil augmentation specifically reduced early uptake by CD14+ cells. The immunosuppressive effect of dead neutrophils required necrotic debris rather than supernatant. We conclude that viable neutrophils enhance control of M. tuberculosis in blood, but necrotic neutrophils have the opposite effect—the latter associated with induction of IL-10, growth factors, and chemoattractants. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which necrotic neutrophils may exert detrimental effects on the host response in active tuberculosis.

  5. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  6. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  7. Enhanced detection of ischemic but viable myocardium by the reinjection of thallium after stress-redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Rocco, T.P.; Freedman, N.M.; Leon, M.B.; Bonow, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of ischemic but viable myocardium by thallium exercise scintigraphy is often imprecise, since many of the perfusion defects that develop in ischemic myocardium during exercise do not fill in on subsequent redistribution images. We hypothesized that a second injection of thallium given after the redistribution images were taken might improve the detection of ischemic but viable myocardium. We studied 100 patients with coronary artery disease, using thallium exercise tomographic imaging and radionuclide angiography. Patients received 2 mCi of thallium intravenously during exercise, redistribution imaging was performed three to four hours later, and a second dose of 1 mCi of thallium was injected at rest immediately thereafter. The three sets of images (stress, redistribution, and reinjection) were then analyzed. Ninety-two of the 100 patients had exercise-induced perfusion defects. Of the 260 abnormal myocardial regions identified by stress imaging, 85 (33 percent) appeared to be irreversible on redistribution imaging three to four hours later. However, 42 of these apparently irreversible defects (49 percent) demonstrated improved or normal thallium uptake after the second injection of thallium, with an increase in mean regional uptake from 56 +/- 12 percent on redistribution studies to 64 +/- 10 percent on reinjection imaging (P less than 0.001). Twenty patients were restudied three to six months after coronary angioplasty. Of the 15 myocardial regions with defects on redistribution studies that were identified as viable by reinjection studies before angioplasty, 13 (87 percent) had normal thallium uptake and improved regional wall motion after angioplasty. In contrast, all eight regions with persistent defects on reinjection imaging before angioplasty had abnormal thallium uptake and abnormal regional wall motion after angioplasty

  8. A reliable protocol for the isolation of viable, chondrogenically differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells from high-density pellet cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mujib; Hamouda, Houda; Stich, Stefan; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Administration of chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is discussed as a promising approach for the regenerative treatment of injured or diseased cartilage. The high-density pellet culture is the standard culture for chondrogenic differentiation, but cells in pellets secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) that they become entrapped in. Protocols for cell isolation from pellets often result in cell damage and dedifferentiation towards less differentiated MSC. Therefore, our aim was to develop a reliable protocol for the isolation of viable, chondrogenically differentiated MSC from high-density pellet cultures. Human bone marrow MSC were chondrogenically stimulated with transforming growth factor-β3, and the cartilaginous structure of the pellets was verified by alcian blue staining of cartilage proteoglycans, antibody staining of cartilage collagen type II, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of the marker genes COL2A1 and SOX9. Trypsin and collagenases II and P were tested alone or in combination, and for different concentrations and times, to find a protocol for optimized pellet digestion. Whereas trypsin was not able to release viable cells, 90-min digestion with 300 U of collagenase II, 20 U of collagenase P, and 2 mM CaCl2 worked quite well and resulted in about 2.5×10(5) cells/pellet. The protocol was further optimized for the separation of released cells and ECM from each other. Cells were alcian blue and collagen type II positive and expressed COL2A1 and SOX9, verifying a chondrogenic character. However, they had different morphological shapes. The ECM was also uniformly alcian blue and collagen type II positive but showed different organizational and structural forms. To conclude, our protocol allows the reliable isolation of a defined number of viable, chondrogenically differentiated MSC from high-density pellet cultures. Such cells, as well as the ECM components, are of interest as

  9. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of vinasses: determination of biomass; Digestion anaerobia de vinazas de vino: determinacion de la biomasa viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, R.; Romero, L.; Salles, D.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of vinasses. The viable bacterial population was quantified by soil medium plating techniques, employing an anaerobic chamber for spreading into plates and subsequent incubation of inoculated plates. This technique has been applied to the measurement of the microbial population contained in both single and tow-stage, laboratory-scale reactors. In the single-stage process the main reaction steps-acidogenesis and methano genesis-take place in the same reactor, while in the two-stage process they take place in separate reactors. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans

    OpenAIRE

    Junyan Liu; Yang Deng; Brian M. Peters; Lin Li; Bing Li; Lequn Chen; Zhenbo Xu; Mark E. Shirtliff

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA1...

  12. Quantification des cellules viables de P. phosphoreum dans les pavés de saumon cru par PCR temps reel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabine; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka

    ’altération. Par conséquent, nous avons développé une méthode de PCR temps réel spécifique combinée avec une étape de traitement au PMA pour quantifier les cellules viable de P.phosphoreum dans le saumon cru conditionné sous atmosphère modifiée. Les amorces spécifiques ont été dessinées pour amplifier un fragment...

  13. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  14. Relationship between presence of cows with milk positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Chuchaisangrat, Ruj; Nielen, Mirjam; Koets, Ad P

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive dairy farms studied the relationship between the number of cows with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody-positive milk and the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in settled-dust samples, including their temporal relationship. Milk and dust samples were collected in parallel monthly for 2 years. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in milk were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. Settled-dust samples were collected by using electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) at six locations in housing for dairy cattle and young stock. The presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified by liquid culture and PCR. The results showed a positive relationship (odds ratio [OR], 1.2) between the number of cows with ELISA-positive milk and the odds of having positive EDCs in the same airspace as the adult dairy cattle. Moreover, the total number of lactating cows also showed an OR slightly above 1. This relationship remained the same for settled-dust samples collected up to 2 months before or after the time of milk sampling. The results suggest that removal of adult cows with milk positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by ELISA might result in a decrease in the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust and therefore in the environment. However, this decrease is likely delayed by several weeks at least. In addition, the data support the notion that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposure of young stock is reduced by separate housing.

  15. Detection of viable but non-culturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 by PCR in combination with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junliang; Zhao, Xihong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the conventional PCR detection method combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for the detection of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef meatballs. Under low temperature, E. coli O157:H7 cells were induced into the VBNC state in ground beef meatballs at - 20 °C after 152 days. The optimal PMA concentration of 5 µg/mL was obtained in beef meatball samples, which could completely inhibit the DNA amplification on dead cells (10 6  cells/mL) but with no inhibition on viable cells. The established PMA-PCR assay revealed that the VBNC counts exceeded 10 7  CFU/mL in artificial contamination beef samples, which could be used for semi-quantitative detection of VBNC cells in beef meatball samples. This study indicated that the PMA-PCR assay might be a potential method for detection of VBNC state E . coli O157:H7 cells in food products.

  16. Angiographically demonstrated coronary collaterals predict residual viable myocardium in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. A regional metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Masumi; Ii, Masaaki; Nakakoji, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Angiographical demonstration of coronary collateral circulation may suggest the presence of residual viable myocardium. The development of coronary collaterals was judged according to Rentrop's classification in 37 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 13 control patients with chest pain syndrome. The subjects with myocardial infarction were divided into 2 groups: 17 patients with the main branch of the left coronary artery clearly identified by collateral blood flow from the contralateral coronary artery [Coll (+) group, male/female 10/7, mean age 56.6 years] and 20 patients with obscure coronary trunk [Coll (-) group, male/female 16/4, mean age 54.9 years]. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and examination of local myocardial metabolism were carried out by measuring the flux of lactic acid under dipyridamole infusion load. Coronary stenosis of 99% or total occlusion was found in only 5 of 20 patients (25%) in the Coll (-) group but in 16 of 17 patients (94%) in the Coll (+) group (p<0.001). Redistribution of myocardial scintigraphy was found in 11 of 15 patients (73%) in the Coll (+) group, but only 3 of 18 patients (17%) in the Coll (-) group (p<0.01). The myocardial lactic acid extraction rate was -13.2±17.0% in the Coll (+) group, but 9.1±13.2% in the Coll (-) group (p<0.001). These results suggest that coronary collateral may contribute to minimizing the infarct area and to prediction of the presence of viable myocardium. (author)

  17. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  18. Detection of viable Helicobacter pylori inside free-living amoebae in wastewater and drinking water samples from Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Moreno, Yolanda; Alonso, José Luis; Ferrús, M Antonia

    2017-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most concerning emerging waterborne pathogens. It has been suggested that it could survive in water inside free-living amoebae (FLA), but nobody has studied this relationship in the environment yet. Thus, we aimed to detect viable H. pylori cells from inside FLA in water samples. Sixty-nine wastewater and 31 drinking water samples were collected. FLA were purified and identified by PCR and sequencing. For exclusively detecting H. pylori inside FLA, samples were exposed to sodium hypochlorite and assayed by specific PMA-qPCR, DVC-FISH and culture. FLA were detected in 38.7% of drinking water and 79.7% of wastewater samples, even after disinfection. In wastewater, Acanthamoeba spp. and members of the family Vahlkampfiidae were identified. In drinking water, Acanthamoeba spp. and Echinamoeba and/or Vermamoeba were present. In 39 (58.2%) FLA-positive samples, H. pylori was detected by PMA-qPCR. After DVC-FISH, 21 (31.3%) samples harboured viable H. pylori internalized cells. H. pylori was cultured from 10 wastewater samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates that H. pylori can survive inside FLA in drinking water and wastewater, strongly supporting the hypothesis that FLA could play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Viable adhered Staphylococcus aureus highly reduced on novel antimicrobial sutures using chlorhexidine and octenidine to avoid surgical site infection (SSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jochen; Harrasser, Norbert; Tübel, Jutta; Mühlhofer, Heinrich; Pförringer, Dominik; von Deimling, Constantin; Foehr, Peter; Kiefel, Barbara; Krämer, Christina; Stemberger, Axel; Schieker, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Background Surgical sutures can promote migration of bacteria and thus start infections. Antiseptic coating of sutures may inhibit proliferation of adhered bacteria and avoid such complications. Objectives This study investigated the inhibition of viable adhering bacteria on novel antimicrobially coated surgical sutures using chlorhexidine or octenidine, a critical factor for proliferation at the onset of local infections. The medical need, a rapid eradication of bacteria in wounds, can be fulfilled by a high antimicrobial efficacy during the first days after wound closure. Methods As a pretesting on antibacterial efficacy against relevant bacterial pathogens a zone of inhibition assay was conducted with middle ranged concentrated suture coatings (22 μg/cm). For further investigation of adhering bacteria in detail the most clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC®49230™) was used. Absorbable braided sutures were coated with chlorhexidine-laurate, chlorhexidine-palmitate, octenidine-laurate, and octenidine-palmitate. Each coating type resulted in 11, 22, or 33 μg/cm drug content on sutures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed once to inspect the coating quality and twice to investigate if bacteria have colonized on sutures. Adhesion experiments were assessed by exposing coated sutures to S. aureus suspensions for 3 h at 37°C. Subsequently, sutures were sonicated and the number of viable bacteria released from the suture surface was determined. Furthermore, the number of viable planktonic bacteria was measured in suspensions containing antimicrobial sutures. Commercially available sutures without drugs (Vicryl®, PGA Resorba®, and Gunze PGA), as well as triclosan-containing Vicryl® Plus were used as control groups. Results Zone of inhibition assay documented a multispecies efficacy of novel coated sutures against tested bacterial strains, comparable to most relevant S. aureus over 48 hours. SEM pictures demonstrated uniform layers on

  20. Is physiotherapy self-referral with telephone triage viable, cost-effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Ross; Bakker, Edward; Burton, Maria

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish if physiotherapy self-referral (SR) is viable, cost effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting. In an urban National Health Service (NHS) primary care physiotherapy service, waiting times, attendance rates and treatment ratios (thus, episode-of-care costs) were deemed unsustainable. The introduction of 'Any Qualified Provider' is imminent and will drive NHS physiotherapy services to compete directly with private counterparts. Current literature, healthcare policy and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy strongly advocate SR to promote value for money and improve the patient experience. A repeated measure prospective cohort study introduced an SR pathway parallel to existing general practice (GP) referrals and compared costs, attendance and data relating to the patient experience across groups. SR referral groups were found to have a higher proportion of female patients presenting with acute conditions. Cost minimization analysis indicated an average 32.3% reduction in episode-of-care cost with an SR-initiated intervention. An estimated cost minimization of between £84,387.80 and £124,472.06 was calculated if SR were to be expanded service-wide. SR referral reduced waiting times and improved patient satisfaction relating to waiting times and communication compared with traditional pathways. The results of the present study showed that the introduction of the described SR pathway was feasible, cost-effective and offered comparable care. Certain aspects of the SR patient experience compared more favourably than those studied in traditional GP referral routes. They also added to an existing body of evidence supporting SR with a variety of administrative processes in various socioeconomic settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nanostructured nickel (II) phthalocyanine-MWCNTs as viable nanocomposite platform for electrocatalytic detection of asulam pesticide at neutral pH conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siswana, MP

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work reports for the first time that nanostructured nickel (II) phthalocyanine/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite supported on a basal plane pyrolytic electrode (NiPcNP/MWCNT-BPPGE) could potentially serve as a viable platform...

  2. A Novel Reverse-Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Method for Quantification of Viable Vibrio Parahemolyticus in Raw Shrimp Based on a Rapid Construction of Standard Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mengtong Jin; Haiquan Liu; Wenshuo Sun; Qin Li; Zhaohuan Zhang; Jibing Li; Yingjie Pan; Yong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is an important pathogen that leads to food illness associated seafood. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods to detect and quantify the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in seafood are needed. In this assay, a RNA-based real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) without an enrichment step has been developed for detection and quantification of the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. RNA standards with the target segments were synthesized in vitro with T7 RNA p...

  3. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  4. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  5. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  6. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  7. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  8. Cultivation of murine bone marrow macrophages in sponges: a method that permits recovery of viable cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akporiaye, E T; Stewart, S; Stewart, C C

    1984-01-01

    Various investigators have cultured murine bone marrow or peritoneal cells in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces with the ultimate aim of retrieving adherent macrophages for morphologic and functional evaluation. The removal of these adherent macrophages by conventional techniques has been consistently accompanied by low yield and significant cell damage. The authors report here a simple technique for culturing murine bone marrow cells in gelatin sponges (Spongostan and Gelfoam) in growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 10% L-cell conditioned medium. Viable cells were retrieved from the sponges in 10 min by digestion with collagenase. The in situ growth kinetics were similar to those found for cells cultured on plastic dishes. The recovered cells were adherent, phagocytic, positive for Fc ..gamma.. receptors, and had esterase activity. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of Culture Medium Enhances Viable Biomass Production and Biocontrol Efficacy of the Antagonistic Yeast, Candida diversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viable biomass production is a key determinant of suitability of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents. This study investigated the effects of three metal ions (magnesium, ferrous, and zinc on biomass production and viability of the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa. Using response surface methodology to optimize medium components, a maximum biomass was obtained, when the collective Mg2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ concentrations were adjusted in a minimal mineral (MM medium. Compared with the unmodified MM, and three ion-deficient MM media, yeast cells cultured in the three ion-modified MM medium exhibited a lower level of cellular oxidative damage, and a higher level of antioxidant enzyme activity. A biocontrol assay indicated that C. diversa grown in the ion-modified MM exhibited the greatest level of control of gray mold on apple fruit. These results provide new information on culture medium optimization to grow yeast antagonists in order to improve biomass production and biocontrol efficacy.

  11. Existence of both culturable and viable but non culturable (VNC) E. coli populations with distinct settling velocities in karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Massei, N.; Lafite, R.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The karst aquifers are particularly vulnerable to contamination by faecal pathogens mainly during rainfall event. In groundwater, the fate of E. coli is dependent on their ability to overcome environmental stresses and on their association with particles. Moreover, some strains can survive leading to the emergence of a sub-population of E. coli which failed to grow on laboratory media, while they were still alive thus designated as viable but non culturable (VNC). The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the structure of culturable E. coli population based on the survival ability, the distribution in four main phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D) and the phenotypic characteristics; and, (ii) the fate of culturable and VNC E. coli, according to their settling velocities. This work was carried out on a karstic workshop-site for which the microbial quality of water was impaired related to livestock density and septic tanks overflows. Particles characterisation was performed by estimation of their settling velocities combined with electronic microscopy observation, and solid phase cytometry (ChemScan®RDI) was carried out to quantify the viable E. coli, and thus VNC E. coli. In the karst, different populations of E. coli were coexisting related to their survival, their culturability, and their association to particles. At the sinkhole, during a rainfall event with pasture, E. coli rapidly losing their culturability after 2 days have been more frequently isolated. These isolates are mainly multiresistant to antibiotics and harbor several virulence factors. In the same time, a population of VNC E. coli (79%), associated to the "non settleable particles" (settling velocities ranging between 10-5 to 10-2 mm.s-1), mainly corresponding to colloids and organic or organo-mineral microflocs was injected in the karst system, probably corresponding to the runoff of attached-bacteria originating from cowpats. Once in the karst, the relative contribution of culturable and VNC E. coli

  12. Bio sorption of Reactive Dye from Textile Wastewater by Non-viable Biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a bio sorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi-component textile wastewater. Pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomass with autoclaving increased the removal of dye more than that pre-treated with gamma-irradiation. The heat dried autoclaved biomass for the 2 organisms exhibited maximum dye removal at ph 3, temperature 30 degree C and 8 g/l (w/v) biomass conc. after 18 h contact time. The results showed that the non-viable biomass possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches

  13. Development of a propidium monoazide-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of viable Lactobacillus brevis in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanlin; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Liu, Junyan; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Hua; Yu, Junhong; Chang, Zongming; Wang, Dongfeng

    The spoilage of beer by bacteria is of great concern to the brewer as this can lead to turbidity and abnormal flavors. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of beer-spoilage bacteria is highly specific and provides results much faster than traditional microbiology techniques. However, one of the drawbacks is the inability to differentiate between live and dead cells. In this paper, the combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment and conventional PCR had been described. The established PMA-PCR identified beer spoilage Lactobacillus brevis based not on their identity, but on the presence of horA gene which we show to be highly correlated with the ability of beer spoilage LAB to grow in beer. The results suggested that the use of 30μg/mL or less of PMA did not inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from viable L. brevis cells. The minimum amount of PMA to completely inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from dead L. brevis cells was 2.0μg/mL. The detection limit of PMA-PCR assay described here was found to be 10 colony forming units (CFU)/reaction for the horA gene. Moreover, the horA-specific PMA-PCR assays were subjected to 18 reference isolates, representing 100% specificity with no false positive amplification observed. Overall the use of horA-specific PMA-PCR allows for a substantial reduction in the time required for detection of potential beer spoilage L. brevis and efficiently differentiates between viable and nonviable cells. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of viable plate count, turbidity measurement and real-time PCR for quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clais, S; Boulet, G; Van Kerckhoven, M; Lanckacker, E; Delputte, P; Maes, L; Cos, P

    2015-01-01

    The viable plate count (VPC) is considered as the reference method for bacterial enumeration in periodontal microbiology but shows some important limitations for anaerobic bacteria. As anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis are difficult to culture, VPC becomes time-consuming and less sensitive. Hence, efficient normalization of experimental data to bacterial cell count requires alternative rapid and reliable quantification methods. This study compared the performance of VPC with that of turbidity measurement and real-time PCR (qPCR) in an experimental context using highly concentrated bacterial suspensions. Our TaqMan-based qPCR assay for P. gingivalis 16S rRNA proved to be sensitive and specific. Turbidity measurements offer a fast method to assess P. gingivalis growth, but suffer from high variability and a limited dynamic range. VPC was very time-consuming and less repeatable than qPCR. Our study concludes that qPCR provides the most rapid and precise approach for P. gingivalis quantification. Although our data were gathered in a specific research context, we believe that our conclusions on the inferior performance of VPC and turbidity measurements in comparison to qPCR can be extended to other research and clinical settings and even to other difficult-to-culture micro-organisms. Various clinical and research settings require fast and reliable quantification of bacterial suspensions. The viable plate count method (VPC) is generally seen as 'the gold standard' for bacterial enumeration. However, VPC-based quantification of anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is time-consuming due to their stringent growth requirements and shows poor repeatability. Comparison of VPC, turbidity measurement and TaqMan-based qPCR demonstrated that qPCR possesses important advantages regarding speed, accuracy and repeatability. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Monitoring and Targeting Anti-VEGF Induced Hypoxia within the Viable Tumor by 19F–MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anti-angiogenic agents on tumor oxygenation has been in question for a number of years, where both increases and decreases in tumor pO2 have been observed. This dichotomy in results may be explained by the role of vessel normalization in the response of tumors to anti-angiogenic therapy, where anti-angiogenic therapies may initially improve both the structure and the function of tumor vessels, but more sustained or potent anti-angiogenic treatments will produce an anti-vascular response, producing a more hypoxic environment. The first goal of this study was to employ multispectral (MS 19F–MRI to noninvasively quantify viable tumor pO2 and evaluate the ability of a high dose of an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF to produce a strong and prolonged anti-vascular response that results in significant tumor hypoxia. The second goal of this study was to target the anti-VEGF induced hypoxic tumor micro-environment with an agent, tirapazamine (TPZ, which has been designed to target hypoxic regions of tumors. These goals have been successfully met, where an antibody that blocks both murine and human VEGF-A (B20.4.1.1 was found by MS 19F–MRI to produce a strong anti-vascular response and reduce viable tumor pO2 in an HM-7 xenograft model. TPZ was then employed to target the anti-VEGF-induced hypoxic region. The combination of anti-VEGF and TPZ strongly suppressed HM-7 tumor growth and was superior to control and both monotherapies. This study provides evidence that clinical trials combining anti-vascular agents with hypoxia-activated prodrugs should be considered to improved efficacy in cancer patients.

  16. First study on the formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable state and beer spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri during the induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. L. lindneri strain was identified by sequencing the PCR product (amplifying 16S rRNA gene) using ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer. During the VBNC state induction by low temperature storage and beer adaption, total, culturable, and viable cells were assessed by acridine orange direct counting, plate counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids and diacetyl concentration were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and head dpace gas chromatography, respectively. VBNC state of L. lindneri was successfully induced by both beer adaption and low temperature storage, and glycerol frozen stock was the optimal way to maintain the VBNC state. Addition of catalase was found to be an effective method for the resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri cells. Furthermore, spoilage capability remained similar during the induction and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri. This is the first report of induction by low temperature storage and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri strain, as well as the first identification of spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated L. lindneri cells. This study indicated that the potential colonization of L. lindneri strain in brewery environment, formation and resuscitation of VBNC state, as well as maintenance in beer spoilage capability, may be an important risk factor for brewery environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  18. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  19. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  20. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  1. Phytoestrogens: a viable option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lori; Hicks, G Swink; Low, Annette K; Shepherd, Jinna M; Brown, C Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the United States by traditional medical professionals. Over the past decade, the market for complementary/ alternative therapies for hormone replacement has dramatically increased. Women are seeking more "natural" alternatives to treat menopausal symptoms. Well-designed randomized clinical trials are often lacking, as is the information on efficacy and safety. This article will review several popular herbal therapies for menopausal symptoms including phytoestrogens, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), chast tree (Vitex agnus-castus), and wild Mexican yam. Their use, mechanism of action, and adverse effects are outlined.

  2. A viable axion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.; Wu Taitsun; Yanagida, T.

    1986-02-01

    We discuss whether an axion like excitation can be the source for the monoenergetic positrons observed at GSI. Although a direct extension of the original Peccei Quinn model is experimentally ruled out, it is possible to construct an alternative model which avoids all previous axion bounds, involving quarkonia decays, K decays, nuclear decays and beam dump experiments. The model predicts, at some level, the possibility of flavor changing interactions involving charmed quarks and suggests an appealing regularity for the quark and lepton masses. The expectations of the model for resonant e + e - scattering are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  3. Sorghums: viable biomass candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, T A; Arthur, M F; Kresovich, S; Scantland, D A

    1980-01-01

    Agronomic studies conducted at Battelle's Columbus Division to evaluate biomass and sugar yields of sweet sorghum are described and the major findings are summarized. Development opportunities for using sorghum cultivars as a large-scale energy crop are discussed. With presently available cultivars, sweet sorghum should produce 3500 to 4000 liters ethanol per hectare from the fermentable sugars alone. Conversion of the stalk fibers into alcohol could increase production by another 1600 to 1900 liters per hectare with existing cultivars. These yields are approximately 30 to 40% greater per hectare than would be obtained from above average yields of grain and stalk fiber with corn. There is reason to believe, that with hybrid sweet sorghum, these yields could be further increased by as much as 30%. Diminishing land availability for agricultural crops necessitates that maximum yields be obtained. Over the next decade, imaginative technological innovations in sorghum harvesting, processing, and crop preservation, coupled with plant breeding research should help this crop realize its full potential as a renewable resource for energy production.

  4. Phosphate ore beneficiation via determination of phosphorus-to-silica ratios by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimellis, George; Giannoudakos, Aggelos; Kompitsas, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report development and application of an in-situ applicable method to determine phosphate ore rock quality based on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). This is an economically viable method for real-time evaluation of ore phosphate rocks in order to separate high-silica pebbles prior to deep beneficiation. This is achieved by monitoring relative emission line intensities from key probe elements via single laser ablation shots: the ratio of the phosphorous to silica line intensities (P/Si ratio) provides a simple and reliable indicator of ore rock quality. This is a unique LIBS application where no other current analytical spectroscopic method (ICP or XRF) can be applied. Method development is discussed, and results with actual ore samples are presented

  5. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  6. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  7. Combined evaluation of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the identification of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, L.; Cuocolo, A.; Salvatore, M.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Prastaro, M.; Vezzuto, P.; Crisci, T.; Dellegrottaglie, S.; Piscione, F.; Chiariello, M.; Mainenti, P.P.; Varrone, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether combined evaluation by discriminant analysis of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the accuracy in identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Rest-redistribution 201 Tl has high sensitivity but low specificity in identifying viable myocardium, while the opposite is true for low-dose dobutamine echocardiography. Forty-six patients underwent low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography on the same day. Rest echocardiography was repeated at least 30 days (mean 40±20) after myocardial revascularization. Discriminant analysis was applied to the results of 201 Tl tomography and dobutamine echocardiography to classify a/dyskinetic segments as viable or non-viable. In 92 a/dyskinetic segments that were revascularized, rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography yielded an accuracy of 75%, while the accuracy of dobutamine echocardiography was 70% (P 201 Tl imaging are useful and complementary techniques for identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Combined evaluation by discriminant analysis significantly improves accuracy, although the cost-effectiveness of such an approach remains to be determined. (orig.)

  8. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Environmental loading ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the

  9. Assessments of Total and Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Field and Laboratory Grown Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyne, Anne-Laure; Harris, Linda J.; Marco, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Leafy green produce has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. While the amounts of culturable E. coli O157:H7 rapidly decline after introduction onto lettuce in the field, it remains to be determined whether the reduction in cell numbers is due to losses in cell viability, cell injury and a subsequent inability to be detected by standard laboratory culturing methods, or a lack of adherence and hence rapid removal of the organism from the plants during application. To assess which of these options is most relevant for E. coli O157:H7 on leafy green produce, we developed and applied a propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time PCR assay to quantify viable (with PMA) and total (without PMA) E. coli O157:H7 cells on growth chamber and field-grown lettuce. E. coli O157:H7, suspended in 0.1% peptone, was inoculated onto 4-week-old lettuce plants at a level of approximately 106 CFU/plant. In the growth chamber at low relative humidity (30%), culturable amounts of the nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728 and the virulent strain EC4045 declined 100 to 1000-fold in 24 h. Fewer E. coli O157:H7 cells survived when applied onto plants in droplets with a pipette compared with a fine spray inoculation. Total cells for both strains were equivalent to inoculum levels for 7 days after application, and viable cell quantities determined by PMA real-time PCR were approximately 104 greater than found by colony enumeration. Within 2 h after application onto plants in the field, the number of culturable E. coli ATCC 700728 was reduced by up to 1000-fold, whereas PCR-based assessments showed that total cell amounts were equivalent to inoculum levels. These findings show that shortly after inoculation onto plants, the majority of E. coli O157:H7 cells either die or are no longer culturable. PMID:23936235

  10. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  11. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (characteristic of natural hydrothermal reservoirs. From a hydraulic perspective, Columbia River Basalts are typically divided into dense, impermeable flow interiors and interflow zones comprising the top of one flow, the bottom of the overlying flow, and any sedimentary interbed. Interflow zones are highly variable in texture but, at depths 10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau

  12. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  14. The immunomodulatory properties of viable Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Belén; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Perán, Laura; Camuesco, Desirée; Comalada, Mònica; Bailón, Elvira; Olivares, Mónica; Xaus, Jordi; Kruidenier, Laurens; Sanderson, Ian R; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to better characterise the biological effects of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713, a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties. Live or dead probiotic was assayed in the TNBS model of rat colitis to determine whether viability was a requisite to exert the beneficial effects. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 cells to evaluate its effects on epithelial cell recovery and IL-8 production. Finally, the probiotic was assayed in the LPS model of septic shock in mice to establish its effects when there is an altered systemic immune response. The viability of the probiotic was required for its anti-inflammatory activity. The probiotic inhibited IL-8 production in stimulated Caco-2 cells and facilitated the recovery of damaged intestinal epithelium. In LPS-treated mice, the probiotic inhibited the production of TNFα in plasma and lungs and increased the hepatic glutathione content. These effects were associated with an improvement in the altered production of the T-cell cytokines in splenocytes, by reducing IL-2 and IL-5 and by increasing IL-10. Finally, it reduced the increased plasma IgG production in LPS-treated mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of viable L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Synthesis of red fluorescent graphene quantum dot-europium complex composites as a viable bio imaging platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanting; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Shixin; Fan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared graphene quantum dot-europium(III) complex composites by noncovalently connecting chelating ligands dibenzoylmethane (DBM) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) first, followed by coordination to Eu(III). The resulting composites are well water-soluble and display red fluorescence of high color purity. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Aqueous solutions of the composites under 365 nm excitation display fluorescence with a peak at 613 nm and a quantum yield as high as 15.5 %. The good water solubility and stable photoluminescence make the composites very different from other Eu(III)-based coordination complexes. The composites are cell viable and can be used to label both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells. They are also shown to act as bioprobes for in-vivo localization of tumorous tissue. In our perception, such composites are expected to possess wide scope because of the many functionalizations that are possible with GQDs. (author)

  16. Application of quality risk management to set viable environmental monitoring frequencies in biotechnology processing and support areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandle, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs are essential for pharmaceutical facilities in order to assess the level of environmental control. For biotechnology facilities there is little advice as to the frequency at which viable environmental monitoring should be conducted. This paper outlines an approach, based on the principles of quality risk management, for the development of a framework from which monitoring frequencies can be determined. This involved the identification of common hazards and the evaluation those hazards in terms of the severity of contamination and the probability of contamination occurring. These elements of risk were evaluated for different cleanrooms and the relative risks ranked. Once the risk scores were calculated, the methods for detecting risks within the cleanrooms were assessed. Risk filtering was then used to group different cleanrooms based on their relative risks and detection methods against predetermined monitoring frequencies. Through use of case study examples, the paper presents the model and describes how appropriate frequencies for the environmental monitoring of cleanrooms can be set. Cleanrooms in which biotechnology pharmaceutical processing takes place are subject to environmental monitoring. The frequency at which such monitoring should be performed can be difficult to determine. This paper uses quality risk assessment methods to construct a framework for determining monitoring frequencies and illustrates the suitability of the framework through a case study.

  17. Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

    2014-11-26

    Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C∞, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (≥ 3 g dietary fibre/100g bread). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation of Viable but Non-culturable Bacteria from Printing and Dyeing Wastewater Bioreactor Based on Resuscitation Promoting Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gan, Guojuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Na; Hu, Jiadan; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin; Hong, Huachang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Liang, Yan; Ding, Linxian; Pan, Yonglong

    2017-07-01

    Printing and dyeing wastewater with high content of organic matters, high colority, and poor biochemical performance is hard to be degraded. In this study, we isolated viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria from printing and dyeing wastewater with the culture media contained resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) protein secreted by Micrococcus luteus, counted the culturable cells number with the most probable number, sequenced 16S rRNA genes, and performed polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It is obviously that the addition of Rpf in the enrichment culture could promote growth and resuscitation of bacteria in VBNC state to obtain more fastidious bacteria significantly. The identified bacteria were assigned to nine genera in the treatment group, while the two strains of Ochrobactrum anthropi and Microbacterium sp. could not be isolated from the control group. The function of isolated strains was explored and these strains could degrade the dye of Congo red. This study provides a new sight into the further study including the present state, composition, formation mechanism, and recovery mechanism about VBNC bacteria in printing and dyeing wastewater, which would promote to understand bacterial community in printing and dyeing wastewater, and to obtain VBNC bacteria from ecological environment.

  19. Polycrystalline diamond on self-assembled detonation nanodiamond: a viable route for fabrication of all-diamond preformed microcomponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M L; Orlanducci, S; Tamburri, E; Guglielmotti, V; Toschi, F; Hampai, D; Rossi, M

    2008-01-01

    Surface assisted self-assembly of detonation nanodiamond particles (with typical sizes in the range 4-10 nm) has been obtained using different fractions of colloidal aqueous dispersions as starting material. The relationship between dispersion properties and structure/geometry of the aggregates deposited on Si or glass plates has been investigated. A series of differently shaped free-standing nanodiamond structures has been prepared, analysed and used as templates for the growth of polycrystalline diamond layers by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The possibility of obtaining textured coating with a relatively strong preferred orientation (within a solid angle of about 0.6 srad) is also reported. Overall, the coupling of nanodiamond self-assembling to the CVD diamond growth enables one to produce specimens with complex 3D architectures. The proposed microfabrication methodology could represent a viable route for the production of free-standing all-diamond microcomponents, with tailored shapes and predefined crystalline features, to be used for advanced electronic applications

  20. Two ways to the top: evidence that dominance and prestige are distinct yet viable avenues to social rank and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The pursuit of social rank is a recurrent and pervasive challenge faced by individuals in all human societies. Yet, the precise means through which individuals compete for social standing remains unclear. In 2 studies, we investigated the impact of 2 fundamental strategies-Dominance (the use of force and intimidation to induce fear) and Prestige (the sharing of expertise or know-how to gain respect)-on the attainment of social rank, which we conceptualized as the acquisition of (a) perceived influence over others (Study 1), (b) actual influence over others' behaviors (Study 1), and (c) others' visual attention (Study 2). Study 1 examined the process of hierarchy formation among a group of previously unacquainted individuals, who provided round-robin judgments of each other after completing a group task. Results indicated that the adoption of either a Dominance or Prestige strategy promoted perceptions of greater influence, by both group members and outside observers, and higher levels of actual influence, based on a behavioral measure. These effects were not driven by popularity; in fact, those who adopted a Prestige strategy were viewed as likable, whereas those who adopted a Dominance strategy were not well liked. In Study 2, participants viewed brief video clips of group interactions from Study 1 while their gaze was monitored with an eye tracker. Dominant and Prestigious targets each received greater visual attention than targets low on either dimension. Together, these findings demonstrate that Dominance and Prestige are distinct yet viable strategies for ascending the social hierarchy, consistent with evolutionary theory.

  1. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  2. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD, without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%, whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%. Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. Conclusion: PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  3. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  4. Air sampling to assess potential generation of aerosolized viable bacteria during flow cytometric analysis of unfixed bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Inglis, Timothy JJ

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated aerosolized viable bacteria in a university research laboratory during operation of an acoustic-assisted flow cytometer for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by sampling room air before, during and after flow cytometer use. The aim was to assess the risk associated with use of an acoustic-assisted flow cytometer analyzing unfixed bacterial suspensions. Air sampling in a nearby clinical laboratory was conducted during the same period to provide context for the existing background of microorganisms that would be detected in the air. The three species of bacteria undergoing analysis by flow cytometer in the research laboratory were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Burkholderia thailandensis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. None of these was detected from multiple 1000 L air samples acquired in the research laboratory environment. The main cultured bacteria in both locations were skin commensal and environmental bacteria, presumed to have been disturbed or dispersed in laboratory air by personnel movements during routine laboratory activities. The concentrations of bacteria detected in research laboratory air samples were reduced after interventional cleaning measures were introduced and were lower than those in the diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratory. We conclude that our flow cytometric analyses of unfixed suspensions of K. pneumoniae, B. thailandensis and S. pneumoniae do not pose a risk to cytometer operators or other personnel in the laboratory but caution against extrapolation of our results to other bacteria and/or different flow cytometric experimental procedures. PMID:29608197

  5. Rural and Renewable Energy Project: Renewable and Alternative Energy Devices and Viable Alternatives to Fuelwood and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The need for conservation of the nation's trees and other forestry resources so as to make the Government's reafforestation, soil erosion and desertification control programs successful, is a matter that requires serious attention. This is because the bulk of the people of this country, who are in the rural areas, depend massively on fuelwood as their source of energy for cooking. For a large percentage of the urban dwellers, the situation is not much different since the recent increases in the prices of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas has forced many to opt for fuelwood for cooking. Viable renewable and alternative energy systems like solar cookers, biogas plants, improved wood burning stoves, briquetted biomass and smokeless coal briquettes and stoves are essential for the provision of alternative cooking fuels and methodologies. Furthermore, the inefficient open-to-sun drying method is prevalent, while the rural areas are particularly starved of petroleum products and grid electricity. Modern solar dryers, solar-PV, wind and hydropower can be used to meet some of the energy needs of the rural population. This paper discusses these renewable and alternative devices and how they can be integrated into the Nigerian rural energy system. (author)

  6. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Martínez, Gabriela; Rojas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD) to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS) of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD), without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%), whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%). Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  7. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori in the viable but nonculturable state by quantitative PCR in water disinfected with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasola-Rodríguez, B; Orta de Velásquez, M T; Luqueño-Martínez, V G; Monje-Ramírez, I

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with gastric diseases. It may present a morphological adaptation when it is out of its natural environment, such as in water. The morphological adaptation is a coccoid form, which is a viable but non-culturable state (VNC) in which the DNA remains active and therefore infective. Due to the impossibility of culture by traditional methods in the VNC state, we developed a methodology that includes a molecular technique, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which is capable of measuring the bacteria in both forms (helical and coccoidal) and therefore is able to measure a disinfection process and to estimate the resistance of the bacteria to ozone. The methodology developed measures the efficiency of the ozone disinfection when bacteria are in a VNC state only. Bacterial culture at 9 × 10(8)CFU/mL diluted in 40 mL reaction volumes were exposed to a wide range of CT values (0.11-15 mg min/L). The results show a 3.92-log reduction when treated with 15 mg min/L. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR for the quantification and detection of H. pylori, in coccoid form, in water systems treated with an ozone disinfection process.

  8. A real-time RT-PCR method to detect viable Giardia lamblia cysts in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Robert H; Gilliam, Amy O; Robles, Liza D; Jakubowski, Walter; Slifko, Theresa R

    2011-05-01

    Currently, USEPA Method 1623 is the standard assay used for simultaneous detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in various water matrices. However, the method is unable to distinguish between species, genotype, or to assess viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to address the shortcomings of USEPA Method 1623 by developing a novel molecular-based method that can assess viability of Giardia cysts in environmental waters and identify genotypes that pose a human health threat (assemblage groups A and B). Primers and TaqMan(®) probes were designed to target the beta-giardin gene in order to discriminate among species and assemblages. Viability was determined by detection of de-novo mRNA synthesis after heat induction. The beta-giardin primer/probe sets were able to detect and differentiate between Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B, and did not detect Giardia muris (mouse species) or G. lamblia assemblages C, D, E and F (non-human), with the exception of Probe A which did detect G. lamblia assemblage F DNA. Additionally, DNA or cDNA of other waterborne organisms were not detected, suggesting that the method is specific to Giardia assemblages. Assay applicability was demonstrated by detection of viable G. lamblia cysts in spiked (assemblage B) and unspiked (assemblage A and B) reclaimed water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Deng, Yang; Peters, Brian M; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-11-07

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA14528 under normal, mid-term and VPNC states were performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and further bioinformatics analyses. GO function, COG category, and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted to investigate functional and related metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that heightened stress response and reduction in genes associated with transport, metabolic process, and enzyme activity might play important roles in the formation of the VPNC state. This is the first transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the VPNC state of beer spoilage L. acetotolerans.

  10. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Treatment of produced water: is a flotation viable process?; Tratamento da agua produzida: a flotacao e um processo viavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Claudia Ramos; Freitas, Andrea Goncalves Bueno de; Silva, Gabriel Francisco da; Paixao, Ana Eleonora Almeida [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Rosivania da Paixao Silva [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa e Extensao de Sergipe (FAPESE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In petroleum oil wells there comes a situation when most of the oil drilled accompanies a large amount of water. This may be due to the proper conditions of the reservoir or as a consequence of the water injection in the secondary recovery processes from the well. The amount of produced water together with oil can vary to a great extent and it frequently attains to about 50% of the drilled oil. One technique employed for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly the oily ones which is of great interest is that of flotation. This phenomenon is being extensively used for oil removal from emulsified oils in various areas, such as that of dissolved air flotation (DAF) and the induced air flotation (IAF). The conventional flotation processes consist of the following stages: bubble gas generation (normally air) from the interior of the effluent; collision between the gas bubbles and the suspended oil drops in the water; adhesion of the gas bubbles in the oil drops and ascension of aggregate oil drops/bubbles until the surface, where the oil is removed. This work seeks to contribute for the understanding of the factors which contribute for the selection of the flotation process as one of the methods most viable for the treatment of the produced water. (author)

  12. A Novel Application for Low Frequency Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as an Online Process Monitoring Tool for Viable Cell Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available New approaches in process monitoring during industrial fermentations are not only limited to classical pH, dO2 and offgas analysis, but use different in situ and online sensors based on different physical principles to determine biomass, product quality, lysis and far more. One of the very important approaches is the in situ accessibility of viable cell concentration (VCC. This knowledge provides increased efficiency in monitoring and controlling strategies during cultivations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy—EIS—is used to monitor biomass in a fermentation of E. coli BL21(DE3, producing a recombinant protein using a fed batch-based approach. Increases in the double layer capacitance (Cdl, determined at frequencies below 1 kHz, are proportional to the increase of biomass in the batch and fed batch phase, monitored in offline and online modes for different cultivations. A good correlation of Cdl with cell density is found and in order to get an appropriate verification of this method, different state-of-the-art biomass measurements are performed and compared. Since measurements in this frequency range are largely determined by the double layer region between the electrode and media, rather minor interferences with process parameters (aeration, stirring are to be expected. It is shown that impedance spectroscopy at low frequencies is a powerful tool for cultivation monitoring.

  13. Polycrystalline diamond on self-assembled detonation nanodiamond: a viable route for fabrication of all-diamond preformed microcomponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M L; Orlanducci, S; Tamburri, E; Guglielmotti, V; Toschi, F [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, MINASlab, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Hampai, D [INFN-LNF Via E Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Rossi, M [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Via Antonio Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Surface assisted self-assembly of detonation nanodiamond particles (with typical sizes in the range 4-10 nm) has been obtained using different fractions of colloidal aqueous dispersions as starting material. The relationship between dispersion properties and structure/geometry of the aggregates deposited on Si or glass plates has been investigated. A series of differently shaped free-standing nanodiamond structures has been prepared, analysed and used as templates for the growth of polycrystalline diamond layers by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The possibility of obtaining textured coating with a relatively strong <110> preferred orientation (within a solid angle of about 0.6 srad) is also reported. Overall, the coupling of nanodiamond self-assembling to the CVD diamond growth enables one to produce specimens with complex 3D architectures. The proposed microfabrication methodology could represent a viable route for the production of free-standing all-diamond microcomponents, with tailored shapes and predefined crystalline features, to be used for advanced electronic applications.

  14. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  15. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  16. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  17. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  18. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  19. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  20. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  1. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  2. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  3. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intell...

  4. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  5. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  6. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  7. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  8. Economic and environmental impact of the utilization of the industrial potential of viable cogeneration for period 1998 - 2007; Impacto economico y ambiental de aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion viable para el periodo 1998 - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, Gabriel; Mendoza Gonzslez, Lourdes [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The utilization of the industrial potential of cogeneration offers a significant contribution to the construction of the electrical infrastructure that the growth of the country will require for the period 1998 - 2007. The conditions of growth of the co-generation potential and their levels of utilization are related to a on isolated growth of the other inter actors of the processes of power supply; As levels of economic viability, economic savings to industry, requirements of additional electrical capacity, growth of the industrial activity, costs, use of fuels, environmental impact. Rates of average growth for period 1998 - 2007 are considered and what levels of economic and environmental benefit offers this development to the industry, to the electrical company and to the country. And to what proportion can contribute the utilization of the industrial potential of electrical cogeneration to the requirements of additional electrical capacity that will require the development of the country during this period. With the rates of viable growth of the co-generation the equivalent reduction of fuel consumption is estimated for the industrial sector, given by the improvement in the generation efficiency and with the change in the proportion of fuels used in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) for this period. Evaluating the emissions of the main fuels avoided with this growth and its repercussion at national level via the CFE, and showing the possible international implications of this reduction. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion ofrece una significativa aportacion a la construccion de la infraestructura electrica que el crecimiento del pais requerira para el periodo 1998 -2007. Las condiciones de crecimiento del potencial de cogeneracion y sus niveles de aprovechamiento estan relacionados con un crecimiento o aislado de los demas inter actores de los procesos de abasto energetico; Como niveles de viabilidad economica, ahorros

  9. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  10. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable macro mutations in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaiah, S.; Manjunath, A.; Puttaramanaik

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, uniform dry and healthy seeds of two cultivars of chilli namely Ceylon and Byadagi were exposed to 60 Co gamma rays at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 krad doses at BARC, Mumbai. Thus there were total 18 treatments, eight different doses of gamma rays and one control in each cultivar. The M2 populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll and viable mutations. The treated populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll mutations (M2 and M3) and viable mutations (M2)' The results of the study are presented

  11. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  12. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  13. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  14. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  15. One-Stage Gender-Confirmation Surgery as a Viable Surgical Procedure for Female-to-Male Transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Borko; Bizic, Marta; Bencic, Marko; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Jeftovic, Milos; Stanojevic, Dusan; Djordjevic, Miroslav L

    2017-05-01

    , hysterectomy, oophorectomy, vaginectomy, and metoidioplasty with urethral reconstruction as a one-stage procedure without increased surgical risks and complication rates. To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort on this topic so far, with good surgical outcomes. Limitations include lack of selection or exclusion criteria and lack of other studies with a simple approach. For this reason, the technique should be studied further and compared with other techniques for female-to-male surgery before it can be recommended as an alternative procedure. Through a multidisciplinary approach of experienced teams, one-stage GCS presents a safe, viable, and time- and cost-saving procedure. Complication rates do not differ from reported rates in multistage surgeries. Stojanovic B, Bizic M, Bencic M, et al. One-Stage Gender-Confirmation Surgery as a Viable Surgical Procedure for Female-to-Male Transsexuals. J Sex Med 2017;14:741-746. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. cAMP-CRP acts as a key regulator for the viable but non-culturable state in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosho, Kazuki; Fukushima, Hiroko; Asai, Takehiro; Nishio, Masahiro; Takamaru, Reiko; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, Koseki Joseph; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2018-03-01

    A variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are known to enter the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under various stress conditions. During this state, cells lose colony-forming activities on conventional agar plates while retaining signs of viability. Diverse environmental stresses including starvation induce the VBNC state. However, little is known about the genetic mechanism inducing this state. Here, we aimed to reveal the genetic determinants of the VBNC state of E. coli. We hypothesized that the VBNC state is a process wherein specific gene products important for colony formation are depleted during the extended period of stress conditions. If so, higher expression of these genes would maintain colony-forming activities, thereby restraining cells from entering the VBNC state. From an E. coli plasmid-encoded ORF library, we identified genes that were responsible for maintaining high colony-forming activities after exposure to starvation condition. Among these, cpdA encoding cAMP phosphodiesterase exhibited higher performance in the maintenance of colony-forming activities. As cpdA overexpression decreases intracellular cAMP, cAMP or its complex with cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) may negatively regulate colony-forming activities under stress conditions. We confirmed this using deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase or CRP. These mutants fully maintained colony-forming activities even after a long period of starvation, while wild-type cells lost most of this activity. Thus, we concluded that the lack of cAMP-CRP effectively retains high colony-forming activities, indicating that cAMP-CRP acts as a positive regulator necessary for the induction of the VBNC state in E. coli.

  17. Can the social market economy be a viable solution for a future sustainable development of the Romanian economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strat Vasile Alecsandru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Social market economy (SME is a socio-economic model which attempts to unite the freedom of a competitive market economy with social equilibrium and progress. It is seen as a “third path” besides a purely liberal market economy and an economy which is heavily regulated by the state – in the SME there is an intermediate degree of regulation. Historically, the model corresponds to the real economic policy of the German Federal Republic after the 1950s, thus it is sometimes called Rhine capitalism. According to the Treaty of Lisbon from 2007, the European Union pursues a competitive social market economy with full employment and social progress. On one hand, this model wishes to exploit the advantages of a free market economy, especially its high efficiency in the production of goods, while on the other hand it uses state intervention to correct for potential negative outcomes from market processes. Further characteristics of this model are: ensuring competition, free price formation, private property, motivating performance through profit aspirations as well as guarding personal freedoms. Last but not least, this model encompasses a strong structural policy by encouraging weaker geographical regions or industries. Therefore, it is highly probable that such a socio-economic model might be the appropriate alternative to fuel a sustainable growth of the Romanian economy. Using county level data, from the National Institute of Statistics and from the National Office of the Trade Register, for the year 2015 we show that the Romanian economy is highly polarized with a few growth poles (islands and a large number of underdeveloped units. Thus, it becomes obvious that these important disparities will hinder a future sustainable development and by consequence a clear “road-map” represented by this economic model might prove to be a viable solution for the Romanian economy.

  18. Clinical validation of an ultra high-throughput spiral microfluidics for the detection and enrichment of viable circulating tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Luan Khoo

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are cancer cells that can be isolated via liquid biopsy from blood and can be phenotypically and genetically characterized to provide critical information for guiding cancer treatment. Current analysis of CTCs is hindered by the throughput, selectivity and specificity of devices or assays used in CTC detection and isolation.Here, we enriched and characterized putative CTCs from blood samples of patients with both advanced stage metastatic breast and lung cancers using a novel multiplexed spiral microfluidic chip. This system detected putative CTCs under high sensitivity (100%, n = 56 (Breast cancer samples: 12-1275 CTCs/ml; Lung cancer samples: 10-1535 CTCs/ml rapidly from clinically relevant blood volumes (7.5 ml under 5 min. Blood samples were completely separated into plasma, CTCs and PBMCs components and each fraction were characterized with immunophenotyping (Pan-cytokeratin/CD45, CD44/CD24, EpCAM, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH (EML4-ALK or targeted somatic mutation analysis. We used an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometry based system to highlight the presence of an EGFR-activating mutation in both isolated CTCs and plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA, and demonstrate concordance with the original tumor-biopsy samples.We have clinically validated our multiplexed microfluidic chip for the ultra high-throughput, low-cost and label-free enrichment of CTCs. Retrieved cells were unlabeled and viable, enabling potential propagation and real-time downstream analysis using next generation sequencing (NGS or proteomic analysis.

  19. Thallium reinjection after stress-redistribution imaging. Does 24-hour delayed imaging after reinjection enhance detection of viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Smeltzer, W.R.; Freedman, N.M.; Dextras, R.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Thallium reinjection immediately after conventional stress-redistribution imaging improves the detection of viable myocardium, as many myocardial regions with apparently 'irreversible' thallium defects on standard 3-4-hour redistribution images manifest enhanced thallium uptake after reinjection. Because the 10-minute period between reinjection and imaging may be too short, the present study was designed to determine whether 24-hour imaging after thallium reinjection provides additional information regarding myocardial viability beyond that obtained by imaging shortly after reinjection. We studied 50 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease undergoing exercise thallium tomography, radionuclide angiography, and coronary arteriography. Immediately after the 3-4-hour redistribution images were obtained, 1 mCi thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24 hours after reinjection. The stress, redistribution, reinjection, and 24-hour images were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the 127 abnormal myocardial regions on the stress images, 55 had persistent defects on redistribution images by qualitative analysis, of which 25 (45%) demonstrated improved thallium uptake after reinjection. At the 24-hour study, 23 of the 25 regions (92%) with previously improved thallium uptake by reinjection showed no further improvement. Similarly, of the 30 regions determined to have irreversible defects after reinjection, 29 (97%) remained irreversible on 24-hour images. These findings were confirmed by the quantitative analysis. The mean normalized thallium activity in regions with enhanced thallium activity after reinjection increased from 57 +/- 13% on redistribution studies to 70 +/- 14% after reinjection but did not change at 24 hours (71 +/- 14%)

  20. Extensive Viable Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus Contamination in Air and Surrounding Environment in MERS Isolation Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Chang, So Young; Sung, Minki; Park, Ji Hoon; Bin Kim, Hong; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Jae-Phil; Choi, Won Suk; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-08-01

    The largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015 and resulted in 186 laboratory-confirmed infections, including 36 (19%) deaths. Some hospitals were considered epicenters of infection and voluntarily shut down most of their operations after nearly half of all transmissions occurred in hospital settings. However, the ways that MERS-CoV is transmitted in healthcare settings are not well defined. We explored the possible contribution of contaminated hospital air and surfaces to MERS transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surfaces in 2 hospitals treating MERS-CoV patients. The samples were tested by viral culture with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using MERS-CoV Spike antibody, and electron microscopy (EM). The presence of MERS-CoV was confirmed by RT-PCR of viral cultures of 4 of 7 air samples from 2 patients' rooms, 1 patient's restroom, and 1 common corridor. In addition, MERS-CoV was detected in 15 of 68 surface swabs by viral cultures. IFA on the cultures of the air and swab samples revealed the presence of MERS-CoV. EM images also revealed intact particles of MERS-CoV in viral cultures of the air and swab samples. These data provide experimental evidence for extensive viable MERS-CoV contamination of the air and surrounding materials in MERS outbreak units. Thus, our findings call for epidemiologic investigation of the possible scenarios for contact and airborne transmission, and raise concern regarding the adequacy of current infection control procedures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A viable dipole magnet concept with REBCO CORC® wires and further development needs for high-field magnet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ghiorso, William B.; Gourlay, Stephen A.; Higley, Hugh C.; Lin, Andy; Prestemon, Soren O.; van der Laan, Danko; Weiss, Jeremy D.

    2018-04-01

    REBCO coated conductors maintain a high engineering current density above 16 T at 4.2 K. That fact will significantly impact markets of various magnet applications including high-field magnets for high-energy physics and fusion reactors. One of the main challenges for the high-field accelerator magnet is the use of multi-tape REBCO cables with high engineering current density in magnet development. Several approaches developing high-field accelerator magnets using REBCO cables are demonstrated. In this paper, we introduce an alternative concept based on the canted cos θ (CCT) magnet design using conductor on round core (CORC®) wires that are wound from multiple REBCO tapes with a Cu core. We report the development and test of double-layer three-turn CCT dipole magnets using CORC® wires at 77 and 4.2 K. The scalability of the CCT design allowed us to effectively develop and demonstrate important magnet technology features such as coil design, winding, joints and testing with minimum conductor lengths. The test results showed that the CCT dipole magnet using CORC® wires was a viable option in developing a REBCO accelerator magnet. One of the critical development needs is to increase the engineering current density of the 3.7 mm diameter CORC® wire to 540 A mm-2 at 21 T, 4.2 K and to reduce the bending radius to 15 mm. This would enable a compact REBCO dipole insert magnet to generate a 5 T field in a background field of 16 T at 4.2 K.

  2. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  3. Persistence and potential Viable but Non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Maynaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7-20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days. In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown.The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during

  4. Homeopathy in the Age of Antimicrobial Resistance: Is It a Viable Treatment for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, Alison

    2018-05-01

     Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their complications are the most frequent cause of antibiotic prescribing in primary care. With multi-resistant organisms proliferating, appropriate alternative treatments to these conditions are urgently required. Homeopathy presents one solution; however, there are many methods of homeopathic prescribing. This review of the literature considers firstly whether homeopathy offers a viable alternative therapeutic solution for acute URTIs and their complications, and secondly how such homeopathic intervention might take place.  Critical review of post 1994 clinical studies featuring homeopathic treatment of acute URTIs and their complications. Study design, treatment intervention, cohort group, measurement and outcome were considered. Discussion focused on the extent to which homeopathy is used to treat URTIs, rate of improvement and tolerability of the treatment, complications of URTIs, prophylactic and long-term effects, and the use of combination versus single homeopathic remedies.  Multiple peer-reviewed studies were found in which homeopathy had been used to treat URTIs and associated symptoms (cough, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, etc.). Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 8 observational/cohort studies were analysed, 7 of which were paediatric studies. Seven RCTs used combination remedies with multiple constituents. Results for homeopathy treatment were positive overall, with faster resolution, reduced use of antibiotics and possible prophylactic and longer-term benefits.  Variations in size, location, cohort and outcome measures make comparisons and generalisations concerning homeopathic clinical trials for URTIs problematic. Nevertheless, study findings suggest at least equivalence between homeopathy and conventional treatment for uncomplicated URTI cases, with fewer adverse events and potentially broader therapeutic outcomes. The use of non

  5. Presence of biofilm containing viable multiresistant organisms despite terminal cleaning on clinical surfaces in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, K; Deva, A; Jacombs, A; Allan, J; Valente, P; Gosbell, I B

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent attention to surface cleaning and hand hygiene programmes, multiresistant organisms (MROs) continue to be isolated from the hospital environment. Biofilms, consisting of bacteria embedded in exopolymeric substances (EPS) are difficult to remove due to their increased resistance to detergents and disinfectants, and periodically release free-swimming planktonic bacteria back into the environment which may may act as an infection source. To establish whether reservoirs of MROs exist in the environment as biofilms. Following terminal cleaning, equipment and furnishings were removed aseptically from an intensive care unit (ICU) and subjected to culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were placed in 5 mL of tryptone soya broth, sonicated for 5 min before plate culture on horse blood agar, Brillance MRSA and Brilliance VRE agar plates. Samples for SEM were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS) prior to sputter-coating with gold and examination in an electron microscope. Biofilm was demonstrated visually on the sterile supply bucket, the opaque plastic door, the venetian blind cord, and the sink rubber, whereas EPS alone was seen on the curtain. Viable bacteria were grown from three samples, including MRSA from the venetian blind cord and the curtain. Biofilm containing MROs persist on clinical surfaces from an ICU despite terminal cleaning, suggesting that current cleaning practices are inadequate to control biofilm development. The presence of MROs being protected within these biofilms may be the mechanism by which MROs persist within the hospital environment. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lunar cycles at mating do not influence sex ratio at birth in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Santa Juliana, L

    2015-02-01

    It is scientifically demonstrated that lunar cycles have important effects on several biological events. Controversy exists about the lunar influence on human and animal parturition. In addition, in the horse industry, especially in Polo Horse breeders of Argentina and around the world there is a higher demand for female offspring than for males. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between the lunar phase at the time of mating and the sex ratio at birth in horses. The Argentinean Stud Book provided information related to all matings registered for Thoroughbred and Arab horses between 2003 and 2011. Statistical associations were tested between dates of matings at different lunar phases or days and sex ratio at birth. A total of 65.535 gestations were studied. Overall, sex ratio at birth resulted in 33.396 fillies (50.96%) and 32.139 colts (49.04%). The percentages of males and females at birth were not statistically different amongst the different lunar phases or days. We can strongly conclude that managing the breeding dates in relation to lunar cycles in order to manipulate the sex ratio of the offspring is not a viable option in horses.

  7. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  8. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  9. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  10. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  11. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  12. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  13. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  14. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  15. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  16. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  17. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  18. Flexible Nanosomes (SECosomes) Enable Efficient siRNA Delivery in Cultured Primary Skin Cells and in the Viable Epidermis of Ex Vivo Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, Barbara; Van Gele, Mireille; Braat, Sien; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington; Roberts, Michael S.; Sanders, Niek N.; Lambert, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which nanoscale-engineered systems cross intact human skin and can exert pharmacological effects in viable epidermis is controversial. This research seeks to develop a new lipid-based nanosome that enables the effective delivery of siRNA into human skin. The major finding is that an

  19. Viable tumor in salvage neck dissections in head and neck cancer : Relation with initial treatment, change of lymph node size and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bovenkamp, Karlijn; Dorgelo, Bart; Noordhuis, Maartje G; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; van der Vegt, Bert; Bijl, Hendrik P; Roodenburg, Jan L; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Schuuring, Ed M D; Langendijk, Johannes A; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Plaat, Boudewijn E C

    Objectives: To identify predictive factors for the presence of viable tumor and outcome in head and neck cancer patients who undergo therapeutic salvage neck dissections. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 76 salvage neck dissections after radiotherapy alone (n = 22), radiotherapy in

  20. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  1. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  2. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  3. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  4. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  5. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Barbour, Elie K.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Detection and Quantification of Viable and Nonviable Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites by a Propidium Monoazide Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Alcover, M. Magdalena; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Riera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Molecular techniques based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) allow the detection and quantification of DNA but are unable to distinguish between signals from dead or live cells. Because of the lack of simple techniques to differentiate between viable and nonviable cells, the aim of this study was to optimize and evaluate a straightforward test based on propidium monoazide (PMA) dye action combined with a qPCR assay (PMA-qPCR) for the selective quantification of viable/nonviable epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMA has the ability to penetrate the plasma membrane of dead cells and covalently cross-link to the DNA during exposure to bright visible light, thereby inhibiting PCR amplification. Different concentrations of PMA (50–200 μM) and epimastigotes of the Maracay strain of T. cruzi (1 × 105–10 parasites/mL) were assayed; viable and nonviable parasites were tested and quantified by qPCR with a TaqMan probe specific for T. cruzi. In the PMA-qPCR assay optimized at 100 μM PMA, a significant qPCR signal reduction was observed in the nonviable versus viable epimastigotes treated with PMA, with a mean signal reduction of 2.5 logarithm units and a percentage of signal reduction > 98%, in all concentrations of parasites assayed. This signal reduction was also observed when PMA-qPCR was applied to a mixture of live/dead parasites, which allowed the detection of live cells, except when the concentration of live parasites was low (10 parasites/mL). The PMA-qPCR developed allows differentiation between viable and nonviable epimastigotes of T. cruzi and could thus be a potential method of parasite viability assessment and quantification. PMID:27139452

  7. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: correlation of 3H-DNA release from labeled bacteria and changes in numbers of viable organisms by mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods of assessing antibacterial activities of macrophages by viable counting are limited by the precision of the statistics and are difficult to interpret quantitatively because of unrestrained extracellular growth of bacteria. An alternative technique based on the release of radioactive DNA from labeled bacteria has been offered as overcoming these drawbacks. To assess it for use with macrophages I have made a correlation with the conventional viable counting method using a mathematical model. Opsonized Listeria monocytogenes labeled with 3 H-thymidine were exposed to rat macrophages for periods up to 4 hr. Numbers of viable bacteria determined after sonication increased exponentially in the absence of live cells and this growth rate was progressively inhibited by increasing numbers of macrophages. After a lag period of 30-60 min soluble 3 H appeared in the supernatant, the amount increasing with time and numbers of macrophages. To correlate these data I developed a mathematical model that considered that changes in numbers of viable organisms were due to the difference between rates of 1) growth of extracellular bacteria and 2) killing within the macrophage. On the basis of this model curves of best fit to the viable counts data were used to predict the release of radioactivity, assuming that death of a bacterium led to the total release of its label. These predictions and the experimental data agreed well, the lag period of 30-60 min between death of the bacterium and release of radioactivity being consistent with intracellular digestion. Release of soluble radioactivity appears to be an accurate reflection of the number of bacteria killed within the macrophage

  8. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  10. [Study on modeling method of total viable count of fresh pork meat based on hyperspectral imaging system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Yan-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li

    2010-02-01

    Once the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in fresh pork meat exceeds a certain number, it will become pathogenic bacteria. The present paper is to explore the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging technology combined with relevant modeling method for the prediction of TVC in fresh pork meat. For the certain kind of problem that has remarkable nonlinear characteristic and contains few samples, as well as the problem that has large amount of data used to express the information of spectrum and space dimension, it is crucial to choose a logical modeling method in order to achieve good prediction result. Based on the comparative result of partial least-squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM), the authors found that the PLSR method was helpless for nonlinear regression problem, and the ANNs method couldn't get approving prediction result for few samples problem, however the prediction models based on LS-SVM can give attention to the little training error and the favorable generalization ability as soon as possible, and can make them well synchronously. Therefore LS-SVM was adopted as the modeling method to predict the TVC of pork meat. Then the TVC prediction model was constructed using all the 512 wavelength data acquired by the hyperspectral imaging system. The determination coefficient between the TVC obtained with the standard plate count for bacterial colonies method and the LS-SVM prediction result was 0.987 2 and 0.942 6 for the samples of calibration set and prediction set respectively, also the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.207 1 and 0.217 6 individually, and the result was considerably better than that of MLR, PLSR and ANNs method. This research demonstrates that using the hyperspectral imaging system coupled with the LS-SVM modeling method is a valid means for quick and nondestructive determination of TVC of pork

  11. FEASIBILITY OF THE AEROSOL-TO-LIQUID PARTICLE EXTRACTION SYSTEM (ALPES) FOR COLLECTION OF VIABLE FRANCISELLA SP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitkamp, M

    2006-08-07

    the final trial runs with F. tularensis LVS to further reduce the levels of microbial background. Results from trials with F. tularensis LVS showed about a 1-log loss decrease in CFUs after 24 h, but maintained final cell concentrations in the range of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} CFU/L. These results indicate that the ALPES maintains acceptable viability of Francisella sp. in PBS buffer for up to 24 h and is a promising technology for the collection of viable airborne Francisella or Francisella-related cultures which may be observed at Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area and elsewhere.

  12. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A

    2018-03-01

    A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth. The present study was aimed to define the biochemical composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from fetus delivered by caesarean section at term of pregnancy. To reduce the possible confounding effect of maternal labor or troubles at parturition, fetal fluids were collected only from puppies born by elective caesaeran section, at term of normal pregnancies. Fetal fluids from 76 puppies, 70 normal and six pathologic newborns, born by elective caesarean section were collected and analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine-kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, magnesium, potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolarity. No significant differences were found between biochemical composition of amniotic or allantoic fluid in normal and pathologic newborns, maybe due to the small number of the pathologic puppies. Although some correlations between the two fluids were found (albumin, phosphorus, glucose and

  13. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  14. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  15. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  16. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  17. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  18. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  19. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  20. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  1. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  2. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  3. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  4. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  5. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  6. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  7. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  8. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  9. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  10. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  12. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  13. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  14. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  15. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...

  16. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  17. Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence

  18. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  19. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  20. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  1. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  2. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  3. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  4. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  5. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  6. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter contaminated poultry focus on post-slaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach for enumeration...... method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter, but recognises the infectious potential of the VBNC state, and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies, and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment....

  7. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  8. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  9. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10 3  CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 10 0  CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  11. Study of distribution of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In in tumor tissue by macroautoradiography. Comparison between viable tumor tissue and necrotic tumor tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Doishita, K; Ando, I

    1977-01-01

    The localization of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In in tumor tissues was determined macroautoradiographically. /sup 169/Yb-citrate, /sup 67/Ga-citrate and /sup 111/In-citrate were injected intravenously into rats which had received subcutaneously transplantations of Yoshida sarcoma, and were injected intraperitoneally to the mice which had received subcutaneous transplantations of Ehrlich tumor. These animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The tumor tissues were frozen in n-hexane (-70/sup 0/C) cooled with dry ice-acetone. After this, the frozen tumor tissues were cut into thin serial sections (10 ..mu..m) in a cryostat (-20/sup 0/C). One of these sections was then placed on x-ray film, and this film was developed after exposure of several days. The next slice of each of these sections were stained using the hematoxylin and eosin. From the observations of these autoradiogram and H-E stained slice, the following results were obtained. Concentration of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In was predominant in viable tumor tissue rather than in necrotic tumor tissue, regardless of time after administration. /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In were distributed uniformly in viable tumor tissue, but there was greater deposition of /sup 169/Yb in viable tumor tissue neighboring the necrotic tumor.

  12. 99Tcm-MIBI imaging with liposomal prostaglandin E1 infusion to detect viable myocardium in post-myocardial infarction patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yong; Cai Hongbin; Miao Weibing; Lin Jun; Pan Runyang; Lin Haoxue

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The pharmacological efficiencies of liposomal prostaglandin E 1 (Lipo-PGE 1 ) infusion and nitrate infusion on 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging detection of viable myocardium in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients were compared in the current study. Methods: Thirty-two patients with MI underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging at rest, nitrate infusion and Lipo-PGE 1 infusion respectively. The semi-quantitative analysis of 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging was carried out in 16 segments over each left ventricle. Results: Abnormal 99 Tc m -MIBI distribution in 216 segments (42.2%) at rest, 178 segments (34.8%) at nitrate infusion, and 184 segments (35.9%) at Lipo-PGE 1 infusion were identified. Among the 216 abnormal segments at rest, 89 (41.2%) and 81 (37.5%) were found improved after nitrate infusion and Lipo-PGE 1 infusion respectively. Detecting viable myocardium with Lipo-PGE 1 infusion imaging was accordant with that of nitrate infusion imaging in 89.8% of the cases. The mean uptake scores of abnormal segments at rest, nitrate infusion, and Lipo-PGE 1 infusion were 15.3 ± 3.3, 10.5 ± 1.4 (P 1 infusion imaging can be used for detection of viable myocardium in patients with MI. (authors)

  13. Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Noriea, Nicholas F; Johnson, Crystal N; Grimes, D Jay

    2011-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. It can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. Currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect V. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which leads to an underestimation of the population density. In this study, we used a novel fluorescence visualization technique, called recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (RING-FISH), which targets chromosomal DNA for enumeration. A polynucleotide probe labeled with Cyanine 3 (Cy3) was created corresponding to the ubiquitous V. parahaemolyticus gene that codes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh). When coupled with the Kogure method to distinguish viable from dead cells, RING-FISH probes reliably enumerated total, viable V. parahaemolyticus. The probe was tested for sensitivity and specificity against a pure culture of tlh(+), tdh(-), trh(-)V. parahaemolyticus, pure cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri, and a mixed environmental sample. This research will provide additional tools for a better understanding of the risk these environmental organisms pose to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  15. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: nrdatta@yahoo.com [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultant, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  16. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Niloy R.; Samiei, Massoud; Bodis, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  17. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  18. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  19. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  20. Modelling the liquidity ratio as macroprudential instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Willem van den End; Mark Kruidhof

    2012-01-01

    The Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is a microprudential instrument to strengthen the liquidity position of banks. However, if in extreme scenarios the LCR becomes a binding constraint, the interaction of bank behaviour with the regulatory rule can have negative externalities. We simulate the systemic implications of the LCR by a liquidity stress-testing model, which takes into account the impact of bank reactions on second round feedback effects. We show that a flexible approach of ...

  1. Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...

  2. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  3. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  4. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  5. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Bankruptcy Prediction Based on the Autonomy Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brîndescu Olariu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of the financial ratio analysis suggest the existence of a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. Previous studies conducted on a sample of companies from Timis County (largest county in Romania confirm this hypothesis and recommend the autonomy ratio as a useful tool for measuring the bankruptcy risk two years in advance. The objective of the current research was to develop a methodology for measuring the bankruptcy risk that would be applicable for the companies from the Timis County (specific methodologies are considered necessary for each region. The target population consisted of all the companies from Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei (aprox. 2,200 Euros. The research was performed over all the target population. The study has thus included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010. The results of the study allow for the setting of benchmarks, as well as the configuration of a methodology of analysis. The proposed methodology cannot predict with perfect accuracy the state of the company, but it allows for a valuation of the risk level to which the company is subjected.

  7. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  8. Statistical moments of the Strehl ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia; Esselborn, Michael; Gladysz, Szymon

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the Strehl ratio is essential for the performance assessment of the existing and future adaptive optics systems. For full assessment not only the mean value of the Strehl ratio but also higher statistical moments are important. Variance is related to the stability of an image and skewness reflects the chance to have in a set of short exposure images more or less images with the quality exceeding the mean. Skewness is a central parameter in the domain of lucky imaging. We present a rigorous theory for the calculation of the mean value, the variance and the skewness of the Strehl ratio. In our approach we represent the residual wavefront as being formed by independent cells. The level of the adaptive optics correction defines the number of the cells and the variance of the cells, which are the two main parameters of our theory. The deliverables are the values of the three moments as the functions of the correction level. We make no further assumptions except for the statistical independence of the cells.

  9. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B p /B t of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B p /B t ∼ 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B p /B t ∼ 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained

  10. KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)

  11. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  12. Invited review: sex ratio and rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, M D

    2001-11-01

    Human illnesses affect men and women differently. In some cases (diseases of sex organs, diseases resulting from X or Y chromosome mutations), reasons for sex discrepancy are obvious, but in other cases no reason is apparent. Explanations for sex discrepancy of illness occur at different biological levels: molecular (e.g., imprinting, X-inactivation), cellular (sex-specific receptor activity), organ (endocrine influences), whole organism (size, age), and environmental-behavioral, including intrauterine influences. Autoimmunity represents a prototypical class of illness that has high female-to-male (F/M) ratios. Although the F/M ratios in autoimmune diseases are usually attributed to the influence of estrogenic hormones, evidence demonstrates that the attributed ratios are imprecise and that definitions and classifications of autoimmune diseases vary, rendering at least part of the counting imprecise. In addition, many studies on sex discrepancy of human disease fail to distinguish between disease incidence and disease severity. In April 2001, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences published Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (Wizemann T and Pardue M-L, editors). This minireview summarizes the section of that report that concerns autoimmune and infectious disease. Some thyroid, rheumatic, and hepatic autoimmune diseases have high F/M ratios, whereas others have low. Those that have high ratios occur primarily in young adulthood. Gonadal hormones, if they play a role, likely do so through a threshold or permissive mechanism. Examples of sex differences that could be caused by environmental exposure, X inactivation, imprinting, X or Y chromosome genetic modulators, and intrauterine influences are presented as alternate, theoretical, and largely unexplored explanations for sex differences of incidence. The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases (young, female) suggests that an explanation for sex discrepancy of

  13. Assessing the total theoretical, and financially viable, resource of biomethane for injection to a natural gas network in a region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, Richard; Wall, David M.; Kilgallon, Ian; Browne, James D.; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The total theoretical biomethane resource of grass silage in a region was estimated. • A theoretical biomethane resource of ca. 138 PJ was identified. • An optimisation model determined profitable biomethane facility locations. • Profitable plants produced 12 PJ of biomethane, 8.6% of the theoretical resource. • Approximately 22% of industrial gas demand could be supplied by profitable plants. - Abstract: The total theoretical biomethane resource of cattle slurry and grass silage in Ireland was estimated using the most up to date spatially explicit data available. The cattle slurry resource (9.6 PJ) was predominantly found in southern and north-eastern regions while the grass silage resource (128.4 PJ) was more concentrated in western regions. The total biomethane resource of cattle slurry and grass silage was equivalent to 6% and 76% of total natural gas consumption in Ireland in 2014/15, respectively. A sequential optimisation model was run to determine where to source cattle slurry and grass silage from, for 42 potential biomethane plant locations in Ireland. The concept was to maximise plant net present value (NPV) and develop locations in order of plant profitability. The impact of plant size, grass silage price, volatile solids ratio (VSR) of grass silage to cattle slurry, and incentive per unit energy of biomethane was assessed in 81 separate scenarios. The results indicated that total biomethane production from plants with a positive NPV ranged from 3.51 PJ/a to 12.19 PJ/a, considerably less than the total resource. The levelised cost of energy (LCOE) of plants was also calculated and ranged from ca. 50.2 €/MW h to ca. 109 €/MW h depending on the various plant parameters. LCOE decreased with increased plant size and ratio of grass silage to cattle slurry. The relationship between grass silage price and LCOE was assessed. In the median scenario (33 €/t_w_w_t grass silage, VSR of 4, 75,000 t_w_w_t/a plant size, 60 €/MW h

  14. Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W

    2016-02-01

    We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. FINANCIAL RATIOS – REVEAL HOW A BUSINESS IS DOING?

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?

  16. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  17. Metallic glasses: viable tool materials for the production of surface microstructures in amorphous polymers by micro-hot-embossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henann, David L; Srivastava, Vikas; Taylor, Hayden K; Hale, Melinda R; Hardt, David E; Anand, Lallit

    2009-01-01

    Metallic glasses possess unique mechanical properties which make them attractive materials for fabricating components for a variety of applications. For example, the commercial Zr-based metallic glasses possess high tensile strengths (≈2.0 GPa), good fracture toughnesses (≈10–50 MPa√m) and good wear and corrosion resistances. A particularly important characteristic of metallic glasses is their intrinsic homogeneity to the nanoscale because of the absence of grain boundaries. This characteristic, coupled with their unique mechanical properties, makes them ideal materials for fabricating micron-scale components, or high-aspect-ratio micro-patterned surfaces, which may in turn be used as dies for the hot-embossing of polymeric microfluidic devices. In this paper we consider a commercially available Zr-based metallic glass which has a glass transition temperature of T g ≈ 350 °C and describe the thermoplastic forming of a tool made from this material, which has the (negative) microchannel pattern for a simple microfluidic device. This tool was successfully used to produce the microchannel pattern by micro-hot-embossing of the amorphous polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) (T g ≈ 115 °C) and Zeonex-690R (T g ≈ 136 °C) above their glass transition temperatures. The metallic glass tool was found to be very robust, and it was used to produce hundreds of high-fidelity micron-scale embossed patterns without degradation or failure

  18. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  19. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  20. On the universality of knot probability ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)

  1. The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.

  2. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  3. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  4. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  6. Decay ratio estimation in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Runkel, J.

    1990-11-01

    The well known decay ratio (DR) from stability analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR) is estimated from the impulse response function which was evaluated using a simplified univariate autoregression method. This simplified DR called modified DR (mDR) was applied on neutron noise measurements carried out during five fuel cycles of a 1300 MWe PWR. Results show that this fast evaluation method can be used for monitoring of the growing oscillation of the neutron flux during the fuel cycles which is a major concern of utilities in PWRs, thus it can be used for estimating safety margins. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs

  7. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  8. Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort

  9. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  10. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  11. effect of effect of blend ratio on blend ratio on characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    properties, cassava-soybean composite, wheat, bread, blend ratio ... dily growing population, an in eating and ... thermodynamic variables can produce an effect on .... these conditions. ..... Ragaee, S. et al., Pasting properties of starch and.

  12. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  13. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  14. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  15. Validation of the Rotation Ratios Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, O.A.; Klaksvik, J.; Benum, P.; Anda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The rotation ratios method describes rotations between pairs of sequential pelvic radiographs. The method seems promising but has not been validated. Purpose: To validate the accuracy of the rotation ratios method. Material and Methods: Known pelvic rotations between 165 radiographs obtained from five skeletal pelvises in an experimental material were compared with the corresponding calculated rotations to describe the accuracy of the method. The results from a clinical material of 262 pelvic radiographs from 46 patients defined the ranges of rotational differences compared. Repeated analyses, both on the experimental and the clinical material, were performed using the selected reference points to describe the robustness and the repeatability of the method. Results: The reference points were easy to identify and barely influenced by pelvic rotations. The mean differences between calculated and real pelvic rotations were 0.0 deg (SD 0.6) for vertical rotations and 0.1 deg (SD 0.7) for transversal rotations in the experimental material. The intra- and interobserver repeatability of the method was good. Conclusion: The accuracy of the method was reasonably high, and the method may prove to be clinically useful

  16. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-01

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores treated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcome the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better thermal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor

  17. Two-step estimation in ratio-of-mediator-probability weighted causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Edward; Deutsch, Jonah; Hong, Guanglei; Porter, Kristin E; Qin, Xu; Yang, Cheng

    2018-04-15

    This study investigates appropriate estimation of estimator variability in the context of causal mediation analysis that employs propensity score-based weighting. Such an analysis decomposes the total effect of a treatment on the outcome into an indirect effect transmitted through a focal mediator and a direct effect bypassing the mediator. Ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting estimates these causal effects by adjusting for the confounding impact of a large number of pretreatment covariates through propensity score-based weighting. In step 1, a propensity score model is estimated. In step 2, the causal effects of interest are estimated using weights derived from the prior step's regression coefficient estimates. Statistical inferences obtained from this 2-step estimation procedure are potentially problematic if the estimated standard errors of the causal effect estimates do not reflect the sampling uncertainty in the estimation of the weights. This study extends to ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting analysis a solution to the 2-step estimation problem by stacking the score functions from both steps. We derive the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix for the indirect effect and direct effect 2-step estimators, provide simulation results, and illustrate with an application study. Our simulation results indicate that the sampling uncertainty in the estimated weights should not be ignored. The standard error estimation using the stacking procedure offers a viable alternative to bootstrap standard error estimation. We discuss broad implications of this approach for causal analysis involving propensity score-based weighting. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Tumor-selective replication herpes simplex virus-based technology significantly improves clinical detection and prognostication of viable circulating tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Li; Yang, Shaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells remains a significant challenge due to their vast physical and biological heterogeneity. We developed a cell-surface-marker-independent technology based on telomerase-specific, replication-selective oncolytic herpes-simplex-virus-1 that targets telomerase......-reverse-transcriptase-positive cancer cells and expresses green-fluorescent-protein that identifies viable CTCs from a broad spectrum of malignancies. Our method recovered 75.5-87.2% of tumor cells spiked into healthy donor blood, as validated by different methods, including single cell sequencing. CTCs were detected in 59-100% of 326...

  19. Low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET for identification of viable myocardium: comparison with stress-rest perfusion SPET and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Kohya, Tetsuro; Kitabatake, Akira; Kawai, Yuko

    2002-01-01

    The detection of viable myocardium is important for the prediction of functional recovery after revascularisation. However, a fixed perfusion defect often includes viable myocardium, and perfusion imaging then underestimates myocardial viability. We previously reported that low-dose dobutamine stress gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET) provides similar findings to dobutamine stress echocardiography in the assessment of myocardial viability. The present study investigated whether low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET is of additional value as compared with stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin SPET for the detection of myocardial viability. Standard stress-rest perfusion SPET, low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) were studied in 23 patients (mean age 67±7.6 years) with previous myocardial infarction. Twenty-one of them were successfully studied with each technique. FDG PET viability (FDG uptake ≥50%) was employed as the gold standard. One-day stress-rest 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPET was performed. After the resting study, gated SPET was acquired following infusion of 7.5 μg kg -1 min -1 of dobutamine. Left ventricular wall motion in 16 segments was assessed by cine mode display using a four-point scale. Myocardial viability was considered present when there was improvement by one point. Of a total of 336 segments analysed, 53 had persistent defects on stress-rest perfusion SPET. FDG viability was seen in 16 of 17 dobutamine-responsive segments, but in only 11 of 36 dobutamine non-responsive segments (P<0.01). Thus, in the segments with persistent defects, viability findings on low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET were concordant with those on FDG PET in 77% of segments (kappa value =0.55). For the detection of FDG-viable myocardium, the combination of stress-rest perfusion SPET and low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET achieved a better sensitivity than stress

  20. Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads by Novel Two-Step Process for Improved Performance of Viable Whole-Cell Baeyer-Villiger Monoxygenase by Immobilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajčovič, T.; Bučko, M.; Vikartovská, A.; Lacík, I.; Uhelská, L.; Chorvát, D.; Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Gericke, M.; Heinze, T.; Gemeiner, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), s. 353-364 ISSN 2073-4344 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : polyelectrolyte complex beads * environmental scanning electron microscopy * confocal laser scanning microscopy * Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation * cyclohexanone monoxygenase * immobilization * viable whole-cell biocatalyst Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Bioprocessing technologies (industrial processes relying on biological agents to drive the process) biocatalysis, fermentation Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/7/11/353