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Sample records for viable state termed

  1. Survival or revival: long-term preservation induces a reversible viable but non-culturable state in methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    Full Text Available Knowledge on long-term preservation of micro-organisms is limited and research in the field is scarce despite its importance for microbial biodiversity and biotechnological innovation. Preservation of fastidious organisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB has proven difficult. Most MOB do not survive lyophilization and only some can be cryopreserved successfully for short periods. A large-scale study was designed for a diverse set of MOB applying fifteen cryopreservation or lyophilization conditions. After three, six and twelve months of preservation, the viability (via live-dead flow cytometry and culturability (via most-probable number analysis and plating of the cells were assessed. All strains could be cryopreserved without a significant loss in culturability using 1% trehalose in 10-fold diluted TSB (TT as preservation medium and 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant. Several other cryopreservation and lyophilization conditions, all of which involved the use of TT medium, also allowed successful preservation but showed a considerable loss in culturability. We demonstrate here that most of these non-culturables survived preservation according to viability assessment indicating that preservation induces a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in a significant fraction of cells. Since this state is reversible, these findings have major implications shifting the emphasis from survival to revival of cells in a preservation protocol. We showed that MOB cells could be significantly resuscitated from the VBNC state using the TT preservation medium.

  2. Term tubal ectopic pregnancy delivered by laparotomy with a viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe an extremely rare medical phenomenon in a 28 year old who presented with undiagnosed tubal ectopic pregnancy at 41 weeks gestation and was delivered by laparotomy with linear salpingostomy at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Key words: Term ectopic pregnancy, Ultrasound ...

  3. Designing Viable Republican Constitutions for Modern African States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I argue for the adoption of an unmitigated republican constitutional system by modern African nation states as a necessary condition for the realisation of their democratic aspirations. I identify the continued retention of the traditional kingship institution, even in a much whittled down form, as a major impediment ...

  4. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  5. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

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    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation. Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  6. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The persistence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria are dependent on the ability of the species to survive in adverse conditions. During the infectious process, the organism may need to pass through certain hostile anatomical sites, such as the stomach. Under various environmental stresses, many bacteria enter into the viable but non-culturable (VBNC state, where they are ‘alive’ or metabolically active, but will not grow on conventional media. Escherichia coli bacteria encounter several diverse stress factors during their growth, survival and infection and thus may enter into the VBNC state.Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state.Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state.Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation.Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  7. Survival Strategy of Erwinia amylovora against Copper: Induction of the Viable-but-Nonculturable State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M.; Biosca, Elena G.

    2006-01-01

    Copper compounds, widely used to control plant-pathogenic bacteria, have traditionally been employed against fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. However, recent studies have shown that some phytopathogenic bacteria enter into the viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) state in the presence of copper. To determine whether copper kills E. amylovora or induces the VBNC state, a mineral medium without copper or supplemented with 0.005, 0.01, or 0.05 mM Cu2+ was inoculated with 107 CFU/ml of this bacterium and monitored over 9 months. Total and viable cell counts were determined by epifluorescence microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD kit and by flow cytometry with 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride and SYTO 13. Culturable cells were counted on King's B nonselective solid medium. Changes in the bacterial morphology in the presence of copper were observed by scanning electron microscopy. E. amylovora entered into the VBNC state at all three copper concentrations assayed, much faster when the copper concentration increased. The addition of different agents which complex copper allowed the resuscitation (restoration of culturability) of copper-induced VBNC cells. Finally, copper-induced VBNC cells were virulent only for the first 5 days, while resuscitated cells always regained their pathogenicity on immature fruits over 9 months. These results have shown, for the first time, the induction of the VBNC state in E. amylovora as a survival strategy against copper. PMID:16672494

  8. Survival of Erwinia amylovora in mature apple fruit calyces through the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, M; Biosca, E G; Wimalajeewa, S C; López, M M; Marco-Noales, E

    2009-07-01

    Survival of Erwinia amylovora, causal agent of fire blight in pome fruits and other rosaceous plants, was monitored inside mature apples calyces under some storage conditions utilized in fruit. Apple fruit calyces inoculated with two E. amylovora strains and their respective GFP-marked strains were maintained at 26 degrees and 5 degrees C, and the effect of copper treatment was assayed at 0.01 and 0.1 mmol l(-1) CuSO4. In nontreated apples at 26 degrees C, part of the population of E. amylovora survived in the 'viable but nonculturable' (VBNC) state, whereas at 5 degrees C the majority of the population retained culturability. In copper-treated apples, the whole population adopted the VBNC state irrespective of temperature. Regardless of temperature, copper and inoculum dose, VBNC cells recovered culturability and pathogenicity in King's B broth or by host plant passage. Erwinia amylovora survived for at least 35 days in mature apple calyces. Besides, the ability of the pathogen in the VBNC state to regain culturability and pathogenicity suggests that the apple fruit could be a potential carrier of E. amylovora contributing to the spreading of fire blight disease. The risk of E. amylovora dissemination through mature fruit transport, although low, has been demonstrated, and should be considered in pest risk assessments.

  9. Viable but nonculturable state of foodborne pathogens in grapefruit juice: a study of laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Gioffrè, Angela; Carnazza, Santina; Platania, Giuseppe; Silvestro, Isabella Di; Guglielmino, Salvatore Pietro Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Several foodborne human pathogens, when exposed to harsh conditions, enter viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; however, still open is the question whether VBNC pathogens could be a risk for public health, because, potentially, they can resuscitate. Moreover, cultural methods for food safety control were not able to detect VBNC forms of foodborne bacteria. Particularly, it has not been established whether food chemophysical characteristics can induce VBNC state in contaminating pathogen bacterial populations, especially in food, such as salads and fresh fruit juices, not subjected to any decontamination treatment. In this preliminary study, we intentionally contaminated grapefruit juice to determine whether pathogen bacteria could enter VNBC state. In fact, grapefruit juice contains natural antimicrobial compounds, has an average pH of about 3 and low content in carbohydrates. Such characteristics make grapefruit juice a harsh environment for microbial survival. For this purpose, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, at two different inoculum sizes, have been used. Viability by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit and culturability by plate counts assay were monitored, whereas "resuscitation" of nonculturable populations was attempted by inoculation in nutrient-rich media. The data showed that L. monocytogenes lost both culturability and viability and did not resuscitate within 24 h independently on inoculum size, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was able to resuscitate after 24 h but did not after 48 h. Salmonella Typhimurium and S. flexneri, depending on inoculum size, lost culturability but maintained viability and were able to resuscitate; moreover, S. flexneri was still able to form colonies after 48 h at high inoculum size. In conclusion, entry into VBNC state differs on the species, depending, in turn, on inoculum size and time of incubation.

  10. China's rapidly aging population creates policy challenges in shaping a viable long-term care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Liu, Chang; Guan, Xinping; Mor, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    In China, formal long-term care services for the large aging population have increased to meet escalating demands as demographic shifts and socioeconomic changes have eroded traditional elder care. We analyze China's evolving long-term care landscape and trace major government policies and private-sector initiatives shaping it. Although home and community-based services remain spotty, institutional care is booming with little regulatory oversight. Chinese policy makers face mounting challenges overseeing the rapidly growing residential care sector, given the tension arising from policy inducements to further institutional growth, a weak regulatory framework, and the lack of enforcement capacity. We recommend addressing the following pressing policy issues: building a balanced system of services and avoiding an "institutional bias" that promotes rapid growth of elder care institutions over home or community-based care; strengthening regulatory oversight and quality assurance with information systems; and prioritizing education and training initiatives to grow a professionalized long-term care workforce.

  11. Full term viable secondary broad ligament pregnancy – A rare case

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    CH. Sheethal, Dr.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad ligament pregnancy is also known as inter ligamentous pregnancy which is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. Very few successful live births have been reported in this condition, where such pregnancies reached term and with live birth of a baby. A case of 28 year old primigravida of 35 weeks gestation with oligoamnios was referred to our hospital. A right broad ligament pregnancy was confirmed after an ultrasound and an MRI. She was taken up for surgery and an incision was given on the anterior leaf of the broad ligament and a male live fetus was extracted. Placenta was found on the posterior leaf of the broad ligament and it was removed without any undue haemorrhage. Uterus was lying medial to the sac and was around ten weeks in size. Both mother and baby were discharged on seventh postoperative day in good health condition.

  12. Entry of Yersinia Pestis into the Viable but Nonculturable State in a Low-Temperature Tap Water Microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    pestis has been the cause of some the most devastating disease epidemics in human history, including at least three world- wide pandemics [1]. The...non-culturable state. Past studies suggest that the later possibility is the most likely, for example, Oliver et al. showed that E. coli and Salmonella ...Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium into the viable but nonculturable state following chlorination of wastewater. J Water Health 3: 249–257

  13. Correlations between cyanobacterial density and bacterial transformation to the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in four freshwater water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huirong; Shen, Ju; Pan, Gaoshan; Liu, Jing; Li, Jiancheng; Hu, Zhangli

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton density and community composition, and the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in three connected reservoirs and a small isolated lake in South China to study the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and the VBNC state in bacteria. Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs increased in the direction of water flow, whereas Wenshan Lake was more eutrophic. Cyanobacterial blooms occurred in all four water bodies, with differing seasonal trends and dominant species. In Xili and Tiegang Reservoirs, the VBNC ratio (percent of VBNC state bacteria over total viable bacteria) was high for most of the year and negatively correlated with cyanobacterial density. Laboratory co-culture experiments were performed with four heterotrophic bacterial species isolated from Wenshan Lake (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peneumoniae, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus) and the dominant cyanobacterial species (Microcystis aeruginosa). For the first three bacterial species, the presence of M. aeruginosa induced the VBNC state and the VBNC ratio was positively correlated with M. aeruginosa density. However, B. cereus inhibited M. aeruginosa growth. These results demonstrate that cyanobacteria could potentially regulate the transformation to the VBNC state of waterborne bacteria, and suggest a role for bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom initiation and termination.

  14. Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I.C.; Chung, W.C.; Lu, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 × 558, 756 × 727, and 1,586 × 1,615 µm, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 µm and 70 µm, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks. PMID:11138316

  15. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A

    2018-03-01

    A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth. The present study was aimed to define the biochemical composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from fetus delivered by caesarean section at term of pregnancy. To reduce the possible confounding effect of maternal labor or troubles at parturition, fetal fluids were collected only from puppies born by elective caesaeran section, at term of normal pregnancies. Fetal fluids from 76 puppies, 70 normal and six pathologic newborns, born by elective caesarean section were collected and analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine-kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, magnesium, potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolarity. No significant differences were found between biochemical composition of amniotic or allantoic fluid in normal and pathologic newborns, maybe due to the small number of the pathologic puppies. Although some correlations between the two fluids were found (albumin, phosphorus, glucose and

  16. First study on the formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable state and beer spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri during the induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. L. lindneri strain was identified by sequencing the PCR product (amplifying 16S rRNA gene) using ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer. During the VBNC state induction by low temperature storage and beer adaption, total, culturable, and viable cells were assessed by acridine orange direct counting, plate counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids and diacetyl concentration were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and head dpace gas chromatography, respectively. VBNC state of L. lindneri was successfully induced by both beer adaption and low temperature storage, and glycerol frozen stock was the optimal way to maintain the VBNC state. Addition of catalase was found to be an effective method for the resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri cells. Furthermore, spoilage capability remained similar during the induction and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri. This is the first report of induction by low temperature storage and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri strain, as well as the first identification of spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated L. lindneri cells. This study indicated that the potential colonization of L. lindneri strain in brewery environment, formation and resuscitation of VBNC state, as well as maintenance in beer spoilage capability, may be an important risk factor for brewery environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Formation of manganese phosphate and manganese carbonate during long-term sorption of Mn2+ by viable Shewanella putrefaciens: effects of contact time and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chubar, N.; Avramut, C.; Visser, T.

    The influence of temperature (5, 10, 22 and 30 C) on the long-term (30 days) sorption of Mn2+ by viable Shewanella putrefaciens was studied by FTIR and EXAFS. The additional Mn-removal capacity of these bacteria was found to result from the surface precipitation of Mn-containing inorganic phases.

  18. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  19. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype is converted to the viable non-culturable state when cultured with the El Tor biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhra; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2013-01-01

    A unique event in bacterial epidemiology was the emergence of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 and the subsequent rapid displacement of the existing classical biotype as the predominant cause of epidemic cholera. We demonstrate that when the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard laboratory medium a precipitous decline in colony forming units (CFU) of the classical biotype occurred in a contact dependent manner. Several lines of evidence including DNA release, microscopy and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the drastic reduction in CFU of the classical biotype in cocultures was not accompanied by lysis, although when the classical biotype was grown individually in monocultures, lysis of the cells occurred concomitant with decrease in CFU starting from late stationary phase. Furthermore, uptake of a membrane potential sensitive dye and protection of genomic DNA from extracellular DNase strongly suggested that the classical biotype cells in cocultures retained viability in spite of loss of culturability. These results suggest that coculturing the classical biotype with the El Tor biotype protects the former from lysis allowing the cells to remain viable in spite of the loss of culturability. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS may have a role in the loss of culturability of the classical biotype in cocultures. Although competitive exclusion of closely related strains has been reported for several bacterial species, conversion of the target bacterial population to the viable non-culturable state has not been demonstrated previously and may have important implications in the evolution of bacterial strains.

  20. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Persistence and potential Viable but Non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Maynaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7-20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days. In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown.The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during

  2. Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, David

    2001-01-01

    Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers...

  3. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded.

  4. Oxidation states, geometries, and electronic structures of plutonium tetroxide PuO4 isomers: is octavalent Pu viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Wen-Hua; Su, Jing; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2013-12-16

    In neutral chemical compounds, the highest known oxidation state of all elements in the Periodic Table is +VIII. While PuO4 is viewed as an exotic Pu(+VIII) complex, we have shown here that no stable electronic homologue of octavalent RuO4 and OsO4 exists for PuO4, even though Pu has the same number of eight valence electrons as Ru and Os. Using quantum chemical approaches at the levels of quasi-relativistic DFT, MP2, CCSD(T), and CASPT2, we find the ground state of PuO4 as a quintet (5)C2v-(PuO2)(+)(O2)(-) complex with the leading valence configuration of an (f(3))plutonyl(V) unit, loosely coupled to a superoxido (π*(3))O2(-) ligand. This stable isomer is likely detectable as a transient species, while the previously suggested planar (1)D4h-Pu(VIII)O4 isomer is only metastable. Through electronic structure analyses, the bonding and the oxidation states are explained and rationalized. We have predicted the characteristics of the electronic and vibrational spectra to assist future experimental identification of (PuO2)(+)(O2)(-) by IR, UV-vis, and ionization spectroscopy.

  5. The viable but nonculturable state induction and genomic analyses of Lactobacillus casei BM-LC14617, a beer-spoilage bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and genomic features of a beer-spoilage strain, Lactobacillus caseiBM-LC14617. Induction on the VBNC state of L. casei strain BM-LC14617 was conducted by both low-temperature storage and continuous passage in beer, and formation of VBNC state was detected after 196 ± 3.3 days and 32 ± 1.6 subcultures, respectively. Resuscitation of VBNC cells was successfully induced by addition of catalase, and culturable, VBNC, and resuscitated cells shared similar beer-spoilage capability. Whole genome sequencing was performed, and out of a total of 3,964 predicted genes, several potential VBNC and beer-spoilage-associated genes were identified. L. casei is capable of entering into and resuscitating from the VBNC state and possesses beer-spoilage capability. The genomic characterization yield insightful elucidation of VBNC state for L. casei. This study represents the first evidence on VBNC state induction of L. casei and beer-spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated cells. Also, this is the first genomic characterization of L. casei as a beer-spoilage bacterium. The current study may aid in further study on L. casei and other beer-spoilage bacteria, and guide the prevention and control of beer spoilage. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Developing a global health diplomacy supply chain--a viable option for the United States to curb extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Honkanen, Erik J; Karl, Chad C

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the idea of developing a global health diplomacy supply chain as an important foreign policy approach with the aim of improving the lives of vulnerable populations and serving the best interests of the United States. The study was based on the review of academic literature, news events, and military communiques, and historical writings were studied to determine the feasibility of the idea and the extent of costs and benefits of such an endeavor. An integrated strategic business model, supported by a medical care delivery process, was developed to create a framework for a feasible global health diplomacy supply chain. The findings indicate that extremism can be contained by creating and efficiently executing an effective supply chain to get medical care units to those that need them. The limitations are the potential exit strategies required, the tactical abilities, and diplomatic techniques needed in order to create positive diplomatic change in aid distribution. Managers must consider how supply chains will affect other organizations giving aid and the potential public response. Moreover, determining the level of care necessary to achieve the greatest positive health diplomacy continues to require vigilant scrutiny over the potential cost/benefit analysis. The analysis is valuable to policymakers considering the impacts of health diplomacy by utilizing supply chain management.

  7. Membrane vesicle protein PagC as a novel biomarker for detecting pathogenic Salmonella in the viable but not culturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Suita, Kazuasa; Okuno, Katsuya; Takaya, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Isogai, Emiko

    2017-12-04

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state is a remarkable survival mechanism in which cells exist in a physiologically inactive state. Bacteria in the VBNC state do not form colonies, and thus, are difficult to detect using colony-based methods. As a result, VBNC bacteria are potentially virulent and can cause widespread contamination during food production. In the present study, we reported a novel biomarker, the membrane vesicle protein PagC, for the detection of VBNC Salmonella. Salmonella cells were chemically induced into the VBNC state by H2O2 treatment. The bacterial cells retained their shapes but were observed to release numerous membrane vesicles, which were accompanied by a transient PagC overexpression. Immunoblotting was performed to detect PagC in pathogenic strains, including Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, which are harmful and known to cause food-borne gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. Therefore, our findings demonstrated the potential use of PagC as a biomarker for the detection of VBNC Salmonella in food production.

  8. Viable But Not Culturable (VBNC) state of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine: New insights on molecular basis of VBNC behaviour using a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Di Toro, Maria Rosaria; Grieco, Francesco; Michelotti, Vania; Salma, Mohammad; Lamontanara, Antonella; Russo, Pasquale; Orrù, Luigi; Alexandre, Hervé; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    The spoilage potential of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine is strongly connected with the aptitude of this yeast to enter in a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state when exposed to the harsh wine conditions. In this work, we characterized the VBNC behaviour of seven strains of B. bruxellensis representing a regional intraspecific biodiversity, reporting conclusive evidence for the assessment of VBNC as a strain-dependent character. The VBNC behaviour was monitored by fluorescein diacetate staining/flow cytometry for eleven days after addition of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mg/L of molecular SO2 (entrance in the VBNC state) and after SO2 removal (exit from the VBNC state). Furthermore, one representative strain was selected and RNA-seq analysis performed after exposure to 1.2 mg/L SO2 and during the recovery phase. 30 and 1634 genes were identified as differentially expressed following VBNC entrance and 'resuscitation', respectively. The results reported strongly suggested that the entrance in the SO2-induced VBNC state in B. bruxellensis is associated with both, sulfite toxicity and oxidative stress response, confirming the crucial role of genes/proteins involved in redox cell homeostasis. Among the genes induced during recovery, the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and encoding heat shock proteins, as well as enriched categories including amino acid transport and transporter activity was observed. The evidences of a general repression of genes involved in DNA replication suggest the occurrence of a true resuscitation of cell rather than a simple regrowth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maintenance of pathogenicity during entry into and resuscitation from viable but nonculturable state in Aeromonas hydrophila exposed to natural seawater at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, S; Gdoura, R; Dukan, S; Hammami, A; Bouain, A

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the fate of Aeromonas hydrophila pathogenicity when cells switch, in nutrient-poor filtered sterilized seawater, between the culturable and nonculturable state. Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, rendered non culturable within 50-55 days of exposure to marine stress conditions, was tested for its ability to maintain haemolysin and to adhere to McCoy cells. Results showed that pathogenicity was lost concomitantly with culturability, whereas cell viability remained undamaged, as determined by the Kogure cell elongation test. However, this loss is only temporary because, following temperature shift from 5 to 23 degrees C, multiple biological activities of recovered Aer. hydrophila cells, which include their ability to lyse human erythrocytes and to attach and destroy McCoy cells were regained. During the temperature-induced resuscitation, constant total cell counts were observed. Moreover, no significant improvement in recovery yield was obtained on brain-heart infusion (BHI) agar plates amended with catalase. We suggest that in addition to the growth of the few undetected culturable cells, there is repair and growth of some mildly injured viable but nonculturable cells. The possibility that nonculturable cells of normally culturable Aer. hydrophila in natural marine environment may constitute a source of infectious diseases posing a public health problem was demonstrated. These experiments may mimic what happens when Aer. hydrophila cells are released in natural seawater with careful attention to the conditions in which surrounding waters gradually become warmer in late summer/early autumn. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  10. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  11. State Cyberterrorism: A Contradiction in Terms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Macdonald

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This article explores findings from a global survey of the terrorism research community to explore whether states may be deemed capable of conducting cyberterrorism. The article begins with a brief review of recent literature on state terrorism, identifying empirical and analytical justifications for greater use of this concept. Following a discussion of our research methodology we make two arguments. First, that there exists considerable ‘expert’ support for the validity of the proposition that states can indeed engage in cyberterrorism. Second, that whether states are deemed capable of cyberterrorism has implications for subsidiary debates, including around the threat that cyberterrorism poses.'

  12. State Cyberterrorism: A Contradiction in Terms?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuart Macdonald; Lee Jarvis; Lella Nouri

    2015-01-01

    ...: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">'This article explores findings from a global survey of the terrorism research community to explore whether states may be deemed capable of conducting cyberterrorism...

  13. The welfare state within the framework of the capialist system. Does it have a future or is it non-viable in the current globalized system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Cabrera Jiménez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The important role played by the State in the economic, political, and social field during the 20th Century has engendered some reactions in favor or against from the point of view of several ideological thinkers within capitalism. Regardless of the point of view from where it is observed, it can be said that it has had an influence on individual freedom, in the relationships generated around the development conception and, in general, in current social-economic growth. The aim of this article is to review the study of the welfare State role in the capitalist society in the 20th Century, analyzing different contributions from the point of view of those who defend this theory, as well as those who are opposed to it. It recognizes that every State must confront the complex process that generates the interaction of different social structures interaction and their outcome that affects the people.

  14. The possible causal relationship between fragmentation of genomic DNA and formation of viable, but non-culturable probiotic bacteria upon storage in dry state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise R W; Ramsussen, Morten Arendt; Skov, Thomas; Clausen, Anders; Risbo, Jens

    2017-10-24

    In this study, the aim was to establish if loss of DNA integrity is a cause of loss of culturability for probiotic bacteria during storage in dry state. The number of colony forming units (CFU), number of metabolically active cells, and DNA integrity during dry storage of probiotic strains, B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. acidophilus LA-5, were investigated. The probiotic strains were freeze-dried and stored at 20°C, with and without oxygen present, and at water activity levels 0.22 or 0.32. Dry storage resulted in a decrease in CFU during the entire storage period. The number of metabolically active cells was unchanged during storage of B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, but did decrease during the first week of storage of L. acidophilus LA-5. Loss of DNA integrity was evident for both strains during storage and correlated well with the loss of CFU. Both loss of CFU and loss of DNA integrity were significantly greater for both strains when oxygen was present and when aw was increased. Statistical analysis indicates a possible causal relationship between DNA degradation and loss of culturability and this idea is consistent with the function of DNA at cell division. The study contributes with new knowledge of the cause for loss of CFU during dry storage of probiotic bacteria, which possibly can aid in the improvement of preservation techniques. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Obstetrical Interventions for Term First Births in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Cande V.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Labour induction and caesarean are increasingly done without clinical indication. However, little is known about the prevalence of such interventions, or the characteristics of women who receive them. We used the 2003 revision of the US birth certificates to summarise recorded interventions and to characterise maternal profiles associated with such interventions. Methods We carried out a retrospective study of 2.35 million primiparous women delivering singleton live births at 37–44 weeks in the United States, 2005–08. We used the 2003 revision of the birth certificate to define delivery categories: “indicated” were those with induced labour or pre-labour caesarean for hypertension, diabetes, chorioamnionitis, failed cephalic version at ≥40 weeks, growth restriction (postterm (≥42 weeks); those with prelabour caesarean with breech at ≥39 weeks; or those with caesarean with labour lasting ≥12 hours, failed trial of labour, vacuum/forceps extraction, or fetal intolerance to labour. Remaining deliveries with induction/caesarean were classified as “non-indicated” and all other deliveries “spontaneous.” Results Half of all term first births (50%) were delivered after intervention, and half of interventions were non-indicated (26% of all deliveries.) Women with interventions were more likely to deliver on a weekday. Non-indicated interventions were more common among socially advantaged women. Conclusions Nearly a quarter of US term first deliveries had an indicated intervention, and another quarter received intervention without a recorded clinical indication. Both numbers are probably underestimates. PMID:23930780

  16. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  17. A viable dark fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Esraa

    2018-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model based on a generalization of the equation of state proposed by Nojiri and Odintsov (2004) and Štefančić (2005, 2006). We argue that this model works as a dark fluid model which can interpolate between dust equation of state and the dark energy equation of state. We show how the asymptotic behavior of the equation of state constrained the parameters of the model. The causality condition for the model is also studied to constrain the parameters and the fixed points are tested to determine different solution classes. Observations of Hubble diagram of SNe Ia supernovae are used to further constrain the model. We present an exact solution of the model and calculate the luminosity distance and the energy density evolution. We also calculate the deceleration parameter to test the state of the universe expansion.

  18. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ..., State Medicaid fraud control units, etc. The proposal also establishes the statewide leadership role of... informed debate to the benefit of the legislature and other policy makers. The Act places the Ombudsman in...

  19. Long-term projections of national, regional, and state population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.F.; South, D.W.

    1986-07-01

    The projections prepared by the US Bureau of the Census are the best available projections of total US population. The DRI projections of population at the regional and state level to the year 2008 are the best available and are consistent with the US Bureau of the Census projections of total US population. The DRI regional and state projections can be extended from 2008 to 2030 with a simple model based on economic opportunity, although an even simpler model - constant shares - is used for the 1985 test runs. The US Bureau of the Census prepares the best available projections of the US age-sex distribution.

  20. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  1. Lake States Roundwood Pulpwood Markets: A Short-Term Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1974-01-01

    Recent changes in the behavios of factors influencing the Lake States roundwood pulpwood market indicate there is potential for change within the pulpwood market. Softwood roundwood pulpwood production could increase at an annual rate of near 2 percent, while all roundwood pulpwood production could moderate to an average annual rate of near 1 percent over the short-...

  2. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  3. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  4. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  5. The return of the family? Welfare state retrenchment and client autonomy in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootegoed, E.; van Dijk, D.

    2012-01-01

    European welfare states are cutting back their responsibilities for long-term care, emphasising ‘self-reliance’ and replacing care as an entitlement of citizenship with targeted services. But we do not know how former long-term care recipients cope with retrenchment and if they are able to negotiate

  6. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  7. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  8. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. THE MARKOV MODEL OF QUANTIUM STATE SYSTEM EVOLUTION IN TERMS OF MACROPARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Filonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to computation of the airport throughput that is based on the quantum model is considered. The description of the quantum system is proposed in terms of macroparameters. The evolution process of quantum system is shown in terms of the markov chain. The transition probabilities between the different states of the system are shown in the analytical form. The dependency between the number of intersection of the SID/STAR - trajectories and airport throughput is considered.

  10. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  11. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  12. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  13. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The

  15. URINE PRODUCTION-RATE IS RELATED TO BEHAVIORAL STATES IN THE NEAR-TERM HUMAN FETUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEGE, JG; LANDER, M; PRECHTL, HFR; AARNOUDSE, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    1993-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between hourly fetal urine production rate (HFUPR) and behavioural states 1F and 2F (corresponding to quiet and active sleep, respectively) in normal near term fetuses. Design An observational study. Setting A clinic for antenatal care at a university hospital.

  16. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  17. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  18. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  20. Short-Term State Forecasting-Based Optimal Voltage Regulation in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-05-17

    A novel short-term state forecasting-based optimal power flow (OPF) approach for distribution system voltage regulation is proposed in this paper. An extreme learning machine (ELM) based state forecaster is developed to accurately predict system states (voltage magnitudes and angles) in the near future. Based on the forecast system states, a dynamically weighted three-phase AC OPF problem is formulated to minimize the voltage violations with higher penalization on buses which are forecast to have higher voltage violations in the near future. By solving the proposed OPF problem, the controllable resources in the system are optimally coordinated to alleviate the potential severe voltage violations and improve the overall voltage profile. The proposed approach has been tested in a 12-bus distribution system and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  1. Expansion and retrenchment of the Swedish welfare state: a long-term approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Luis

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will undertake a long-term analysis of the evolution of the Swedish welfare state, seeking to explain that evolution through the use of a systemic approach. That is, our approach will consider the interrelations between economic growth (EG), the sociopolitical institutional framework (IF), and the welfare state (WS)-understood as a set of institutions embracing the labor market and its regulation, the tax system, and the so-called social wage-in order to find the main variables that elucidate its evolution. We will show that the expansive phase of the Swedish welfare state can be explained by the symbiotic relationships developed in the WS-EG-IF interaction, whereas the period of welfare state retrenchment is one result of changes operating within the sociopolitical IF and EG bases. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Long-Term Predictions from Early Adolescent Attachment State of Mind to Romantic Relationship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph S.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Loeb, Emily L.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment state of mind was investigated as a long-term predictor of romantic relationship competence. A secure early adolescent attachment state of mind was hypothesized to predict more constructive dyadic behaviors during conflict discussions and support seeking interactions in late adolescence and early adulthood. Utilizing multi-method data from a community sample of 184 individuals, followed from ages 14 to 21, adolescents with a secure attachment state of mind at age 14 were found to be in relationships that displayed more constructive dyadic conflict discussion behaviors and dyadic supportive behaviors at both ages 18 and 21. Results suggest substantial links between early adolescent attachment state of mind and the adult romantic relationship atmosphere an individual creates and experiences. PMID:28154474

  3. Designing Viable Republican Constitutions for Modern African States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... canism was an auspicious component of the rhetoric of anti-colonial liberation struggles in Africa, the reality in ..... As Alao puts it, on one hand, 'the opinion of the chiefs were heavily relied upon by the .... this role, traditional rulers can mobilise resources for public purposes, such as education, health, sport, ...

  4. Respiratory variability in preterm and term infants: Effect of sleep state, position and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Dawn E; Campbell, Angela J; Larsen, Peter D; Galletly, Duncan

    2011-02-15

    The influence of sleep state and position on respiratory variability (RV) was studied in 13 preterm infants (PTIs) and 19 term infants (TIs). Temporally matched epochs of nasal pressure and oxygen saturation (Spo₂) data were extracted from nap polysomnography. Inspiratory onset times (I) were determined, and variability measures of the I-I interval compared in quiet sleep and active sleep, prone and supine and with age. Sleep state influenced respiratory variability (RV) in PTI and TI but Spo₂ only varied with sleep state in PTI (p=0.03). Position had no effect on RV in TI but influenced the standard deviation of ventilatory frequency (SDf) in PTI (p=0.04). Age did not influence RV in PTI but SDf and the coefficient of variation of ventilatory frequency (CVf) decreased in TI from birth to 3 months. These data confirm sleep state as the predominant influence on RV in healthy term and convalescent preterm infants, with horizontal prone positioning having little effect when sleep state is controlled for. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential multiple steady-states in the long-term carbon cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Tennenbaum, Stephen; Berezovskaya, Faina; Schwartzman, David

    2013-01-01

    In our modeling of the long-term carbon cycle we find potential multiple steady-states in Phanerozoic climates. We include the effects of biotic enhancement of weathering on land, organic carbon burial, oxidation of reduced organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and the variation of biotic productivity with temperature, finding a second stable steady-state appearing between 20 and 50 oC. The very warm early Triassic climate as well as an oceanic anoxic event in the late Cretaceous may be the...

  6. Confronting the challenges of long-term health care crisis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Aftab; Rivers, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the factors that comprise long-term health care and the impact that the aging population will have in dramatically increasing the costs of long-term health care in the United States if current health policies are not amended. It further analyzes the reasons that will cause the health care expenditures to expand. It also discusses the economic challenges and the impact that absent reform can have on state and federal budgets, ultimately affecting the national economy. Aside from that, this article presents numerous options that communities across the nation can embark on to reduce health care costs and it briefly glances at the proposed legislation called America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009 that was submitted by the House Committee on Ways and Means and in summary discusses the key features of the bill.

  7. Current state and near-term prospects for development of the transport logistics market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Karpenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article has studied the current state of the transport services market in Ukraine, characterized features of the favorable geopolitical position of the country, identified segments of the market of transport and logistics services in Ukraine, made an analysis of the dynamics of freight transportation by land transport, determined its capacity in money terms and calculated the component share of this type of activity in the country’s GDP.

  8. Universal subleading terms in ground-state fidelity from boundary conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Saleur, Hubert; Zanardi, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    The study of the (logarithm of the) fidelity, i.e., of the overlap amplitude, between ground states of Hamiltonians corresponding to different coupling constants provides a valuable insight on critical phenomena. When the parameters are infinitesimally close, it is known that the leading term behaves as O(Lα) ( L system size), where α is equal to the spatial dimension d for gapped systems, and otherwise depends on the critical exponents. Here we show that when parameters are changed along a critical manifold, a subleading O(1) term can appear. This term, somewhat similar to the topological entanglement entropy, depends only on the system’s universality class and encodes nontrivial information about the topology of the system. We relate it to universal g factors and partition functions of (boundary) conformal field theory in d=1 and d=2 dimensions. Numerical checks are presented on the simple example of the XXZ chain.

  9. Unusual long-term low-activity states of EGRET blazars in the Fermi era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Mohana A, Krishna; Gulati, Sanna; Bhattacharyya, Subir; Bhatt, Nilay; Sreekumar, P.; Stalin, C. S.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the long-term (˜10 years) γ-ray variability of blazars observed by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) and Fermi and find that 10 EGRET-detected flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) were not present in any part of the Fermi catalogue (during the first four years of Fermi observations). Six of these 10 EGRET sources show possible Fermi counterparts, based on overlap with error circles given in the third Fermi catalogue. A seventh EGRET source is positionally consistent with a newly discovered Fermi source from our analysis. Unlike the high luminosity state exhibited during 1991-1995, our analysis using seven years of Fermi data showed that five of these sources are in a low luminosity state in the GeV band. This result indicates that FSRQs exhibit a long-term quiescent state (lasting more than seven years). In addition, 37 new γ-ray sources are also detected during the course of this analysis. On the basis of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) being the most dominant source class in γ-rays, many of these new sources could be associated with AGNs and may exhibit long-term variabilities in γ-rays.

  10. Anomalous Low States and Long Term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T.

    2012-01-01

    Rossi X-my Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration (approx 3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of approx hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 x 10(exp 35) erg/s, Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the approx 188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the "anomalous low states" in the neutron star binary Her X-I. The average period and amplitude of the Variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-I, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-I is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  11. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  12. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  13. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  14. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  15. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  16. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  17. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  18. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al. 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths (containing radioactive 99Tc and stable 127I spikes and for original Westsik et al. 2013 fabricated monoliths, 238U), it was suggested that physical changes to the waste forms and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. These novel investigations, in both length of leaching time and application of solid state techniques, provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long- term leached Cast Stone monolith samples.

  19. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants' physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; η(2) = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of

  20. Multiple neural states of representation in short-term memory? It's a matter of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Larocque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory (STM refers to the capacity-limited retention of information over a brief period of time, and working memory (WM refers to the manipulation and use of that information to guide behavior. In recent years it has become apparent that STM and WM interact and overlap with other cognitive processes, including attention (the selection of a subset of information for further processing and long-term memory (LTM – the encoding and retention of an effectively unlimited amount of information for a much longer period of time. Broadly speaking, there have been two classes of memory models: systems models, which posit distinct stores for STM and LTM (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; and state-based models, which posit a common store with different activation states corresponding to STM and LTM (Cowan, 1995; McElree, 1996; Oberauer, 2002. In this paper, we will focus on state-based accounts of STM. First, we will consider several theoretical models that postulate, based on considerable behavioral evidence, that information in STM can exist in multiple representational states. We will then consider how neural data from recent studies of STM can inform and constrain these theoretical models. In the process we will highlight the inferential advantage of multivariate, information-based analyses of neuroimaging data (fMRI and EEG over conventional activation-based analysis approaches (Postle, in press. We will conclude by addressing lingering questions regarding the fractionation of STM, highlighting differences between the attention to information vs. the retention of information during brief memory delays.

  1. Multiple neural states of representation in short-term memory? It's a matter of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Joshua J; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-01-01

    Short-term memory (STM) refers to the capacity-limited retention of information over a brief period of time, and working memory (WM) refers to the manipulation and use of that information to guide behavior. In recent years it has become apparent that STM and WM interact and overlap with other cognitive processes, including attention (the selection of a subset of information for further processing) and long-term memory (LTM-the encoding and retention of an effectively unlimited amount of information for a much longer period of time). Broadly speaking, there have been two classes of memory models: systems models, which posit distinct stores for STM and LTM (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley and Hitch, 1974); and state-based models, which posit a common store with different activation states corresponding to STM and LTM (Cowan, 1995; McElree, 1996; Oberauer, 2002). In this paper, we will focus on state-based accounts of STM. First, we will consider several theoretical models that postulate, based on considerable behavioral evidence, that information in STM can exist in multiple representational states. We will then consider how neural data from recent studies of STM can inform and constrain these theoretical models. In the process we will highlight the inferential advantage of multivariate, information-based analyses of neuroimaging data (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG)) over conventional activation-based analysis approaches (Postle, in press). We will conclude by addressing lingering questions regarding the fractionation of STM, highlighting differences between the attention to information vs. the retention of information during brief memory delays.

  2. Third-order least squares modelling of milling state term for improved computation of stability boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Ozoegwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The general least squares model for milling process state term is presented. A discrete map for milling stability analysis that is based on the third-order case of the presented general least squares milling state term model is first studied and compared with its third-order counterpart that is based on the interpolation theory. Both numerical rate of convergence and chatter stability results of the two maps are compared using the single degree of freedom (1DOF milling model. The numerical rate of convergence of the presented third-order model is also studied using the two degree of freedom (2DOF milling process model. Comparison gave that stability results from the two maps agree closely but the presented map demonstrated reduction in number of needed calculations leading to about 30% savings in computational time (CT. It is seen in earlier works that accuracy of milling stability analysis using the full-discretization method rises from first-order theory to second-order theory and continues to rise to the third-order theory. The present work confirms this trend. In conclusion, the method presented in this work will enable fast and accurate computation of stability diagrams for use by machinists.

  3. First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, H; Danzmann, K; Dooley, K L; Schnabel, R; Slutsky, J; Vahlbruch, H

    2013-05-03

    We report on the first long-term application of squeezed vacuum states of light to improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a gravitational-wave observatory. In particular, squeezed vacuum was applied to the German-British detector GEO 600 during a period of three months from June to August 2011, when GEO 600 was performing an observational run together with the French-Italian Virgo detector. In a second period, the squeezing application continued for about 11 months from November 2011 to October 2012. During this time, squeezed vacuum was applied for 90.2% (205.2 days total) of the time that science-quality data were acquired with GEO 600. A sensitivity increase from squeezed vacuum application was observed broadband above 400 Hz. The time average of gain in sensitivity was 26% (2.0 dB), determined in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.0 kHz. This corresponds to a factor of 2 increase in the observed volume of the Universe for sources in the kHz region (e.g., supernovae, magnetars). We introduce three new techniques to enable the long-term application of squeezed light, and show that the glitch rate of the detector did not increase from squeezing application. Squeezed vacuum states of light have arrived as a permanent application, capable of increasing the astrophysical reach of gravitational-wave detectors.

  4. Is synchronous computermediated communication a viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing enrolments at tertiary institutions in South Africa have seen a proliferation in the number of courses offered via blended learning systems. This paper reports on one such system at the University of the Free State in which a thirdyear module, Computer-assisted Language Learning, was offered via WebCT in 2007.

  5. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  6. Assessing the near-term risk of climate uncertainty : interdependencies among the U.S. states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-04-01

    Policy makers will most likely need to make decisions about climate policy before climate scientists have resolved all relevant uncertainties about the impacts of climate change. This study demonstrates a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. We estimate the impacts of climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity from 2010 to 2050. To understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions to mitigate the course of climate change, we focus on precipitation, one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change. We use results of the climate-model ensemble from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) as a proxy for representing climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, map the simulated weather from the climate models hydrologically to the county level to determine the physical consequences on economic activity at the state level, and perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. We determine the industry-level contribution to the gross domestic product and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effects on personal income, and consequences for the U.S. trade balance. We show that the mean or average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs.

  7. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  8. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  9. Preliminary results of steady state characterization of near term electric vehicle breadboard propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The steady state test results on a breadboard version of the General Electric Near Term Electric Vehicle (ETV-1) are discussed. The breadboard was built using exact duplicate vehicle propulsion system components with few exceptions. Full instrumentation was provided to measure individual component efficiencies. Tests were conducted on a 50 hp dynamometer in a road load simulator facility. Characterization of the propulsion system over the lower half of the speed-torque operating range has shown the system efficiency to be composed of a predominant motor loss plus a speed dependent transaxle loss. At the lower speeds with normal road loads the armature chopper loss is also a significant factor. At the conditions corresponding to a cycle for which the vehicle system was specifically designed, the efficiencies are near optimum.

  10. The Trends and Long-Term Scenarios in EU and the Member States Concerning Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dumitrescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years the European Union has been working continually to promote green energy. Renewable energy has a number of social, economic and environmental benefits. A major advantage of using renewable energy is that it has a low environmental impact, therefore, can support growth on a sustainable basis. The study analyzes the EU progress and long-term trends and scenarios in the field of renewable resources. It also presents the experience of other Member States and their green energy orientations. This can be for Romania an example to promote an energy policy that ensures a permanent balance between security of supply, competitiveness and economic viability and the last, but not the least environment protection.

  11. Developing communicative competence: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in four-year-olds, but full understanding had not been reached even at five years old. Furthermore, although ToM predicted both IR and MST when linguistic ability was not taken into account, this relationship was no longer significant once the language measures were added. Linguistic ability thus seems to play an important role in the development of both IR and MST. Additional analyses revealed that whereas syntactic ability was the primary predictor of IR, spatial language was the best predictor of MST, suggesting that IR relies primarily on general linguistic skills, but that more specific aspects of language may bootstrap MST.

  12. State size as measured in terms of public spending and world health, 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alvaro; Gil, Diana; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    To determine the relationship between state size (measured in terms of public spending) and public health indicators in a sample of countries representing all regions of the world and from 1990-2000. An ecological study was performed using data on Central Government Spending (CGS) and per capita Gross National Product (GNP) obtained from the International Monetary Fund, and on life expectancy, maternal, and infant mortality, provided by the World Health Organization. A multiple linear regression model was fitted to estimate the effect of CGS on health, which also took into consideration per capita GNP and geographical region. CGS varied little over the study period, with convergence around an average of 28%, but within a relatively wide range (7.80-53.0%); the countries with the strongest economies (according to per capita GNP) had the highest levels of CGS. The influence of this factor was particularly relevant for the infant mortality rate (r = 0.40; beta = -1.327; EE = 0.237; t = -5.590; p < 0.001). Per capita GNP and geographic location were also associated with variations in health; health indicators tended to be worse for poorer countries in Africa and Asia. In the adjusted model, CGS was statistically significant with regard to infant and maternal mortality rates. The study suggests that state size (in terms of public spending) has an important influence upon health and particularly upon mortality. Although it is important to bear in mind the limitations of this study and the reduced time window used, these results should be taken into consideration in the current political and epidemiological debate.

  13. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  14. Is telomerase a viable target in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseman, C.M.; Wright, W.E.; Shay, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The ideal cancer treatment would specifically target cancer cells yet have minimal or no adverse effects on normal somatic cells. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that maintains the ends of human chromosome, is an attractive cancer therapeutic target for exactly this reason [1]. Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells, making it a nearly universal cancer marker, while the majority of normal somatic cells are telomerase negative. Telomerase activity confers limitless replicative potential to cancer cells, a hallmark of cancer which must be attained for the continued growth that characterizes almost all advanced neoplasms [2]. In this review we will summarize the role of telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells, and how properties of telomerase are being exploited to create targeted cancer therapies including telomerase inhibitors, telomerase-targeted immunotherapies and telomerase-driven virotherapies. A frank and balanced assessment of the current state of telomerase inhibitors with caveats and potential limitations will be included. PMID:21802433

  15. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  16. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  17. Hunger and memory; CRTC coordinates long-term memory with the physiological state, hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-09-01

    Animals form and store memory, which advantageously adjusts their behavior later on. Although the growing body of evidences suggests the basic mechanisms of memory, it is not clear whether and in which physiological state memory functions can be altered. Here we discuss our recent study that mild fasting facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila.(1) Canonical LTM in flies is induced by multiple training with rest intervals, and is mediated by a transcription factor, CREB and its binding protein, CBP. However, fasting allows LTM formation (fLTM) only by single-cycle training, in a manner dependent on another CREB binding protein, CRTC. Although it has been controversial, we are convinced that gene expression in a specific neural structure, called mushroom body (MB), is required for LTMs. We also showed data suggesting that reduced insulin signaling during fasting activates CRTC, thereby inducing fLTM formation. These data provides the conceptual advance that flies adapt their mechanisms for LTM formation according to their internal condition, hunger state. Due to limited food resources in the wild, fLTM could be one of the major form of LTM in natural environment. Furthermore, our data also indicate a novel conception that improvement of memory deficit might be achieved by activation of CRTC.

  18. Long-Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Air Temperature for Kentucky, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsubhra Chattopadhyay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation in quantities such as precipitation and temperature is often assessed by detecting and characterizing trends in available meteorological data. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term trends in annual precipitation and mean annual air temperature for the state of Kentucky. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied to homogenized and (as needed pre-whitened annual series of precipitation and mean air temperature during 1950–2010. Significant trends in annual precipitation were detected (both positive, averaging 4.1 mm/year for only two of the 60 precipitation-homogenous weather stations (Calloway and Carlisle counties in rural western Kentucky. Only three of the 42 temperature-homogenous stations demonstrated trends (all positive, averaging 0.01 °C/year in mean annual temperature: Calloway County, Allen County in southern-central Kentucky, and urbanized Jefferson County in northern-central Kentucky. In view of the locations of the stations demonstrating positive trends, similar work in adjacent states will be required to better understand the processes responsible for those trends and to properly place them in their larger context, if any.

  19. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  20. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Stella M.; Munson, Seth M.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.; Bradford, John B.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments, such as revegetation with seeding or invasive species removal, have been applied on U.S. public lands for decades. Temporal trends in these management actions have not been extensively summarized previously, particularly in the southwestern United States where invasive plant species, drought, and fire have altered dryland ecosystems. We assessed long-term (1940–2010) trends in restoration using approximately 4,000 vegetation treatments conducted on Bureau of Land Management lands across the southwestern United States. We found that since 1940, the proportions of seeding and vegetation/soil manipulation (e.g. vegetation removal or plowing) treatments have declined, while the proportions of prescribed burn and invasive species treatments have increased. Treatments in pinyon-juniper and big sagebrush communities declined in comparison to treatments in desert scrub, creosote bush, and riparian woodland communities. Restoration-focused treatment objectives increased relative to resource extraction objectives. Species richness and proportion of native species used in seeding treatments also increased. Inflation-adjusted costs per area rose 750% for vegetation/soil manipulation, 600% for seeding, and 400% for prescribed burn treatments in the decades from 1981 to 2010. Seeding treatments were implemented in warmer and drier years when compared to the climate conditions of the entire study period and warmer and wetter years relative to several years before and after the treatment. These results suggest that treatments over a 70-year period on public lands in the southwestern United States are shifting toward restoration practices that are increasingly large, expensive, and related to fire and invasive species control.

  1. Modeling the Near-Term Risk of Climate Uncertainty: Interdependencies among the U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Backus, G.; Warren, D.

    2010-12-01

    Decisions made to address climate change must start with an understanding of the risk of an uncertain future to human systems, which in turn means understanding both the consequence as well as the probability of a climate induced impact occurring. In other words, addressing climate change is an exercise in risk-informed policy making, which implies that there is no single correct answer or even a way to be certain about a single answer; the uncertainty in future climate conditions will always be present and must be taken as a working-condition for decision making. In order to better understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions, this study estimates the impacts from responses to climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity by employing a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. Using the results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) as a proxy for climate uncertainty, changes in hydrology over the next 40 years were mapped and then modeled to determine the physical consequences on economic activity and to perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of the economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. The analysis determines industry-level effects, employment impacts at the state level, interstate population migration, consequences to personal income, and ramifications for the U.S. trade balance. The conclusions show that the average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs. Further analysis shows that an increase in uncertainty raises this risk. This paper will present the methodology behind the approach, a summary of the underlying models, as well as the path forward for improving the approach.

  2. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  3. Photosynthetic acclimation: state transitions and adjustment of photosystem stoichiometry--functional relationships between short-term and long-term light quality acclimation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Lars; Bräutigam, Katharina; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    In dense plant populations, individuals shade each other resulting in a low-light habitat that is enriched in far-red light. This light quality gradient decreases the efficiency of the photosynthetic light reaction as a result of imbalanced excitation of the two photosystems. Plants counteract such conditions by performing acclimation reactions. Two major mechanisms are known to assure efficient photosynthesis: state transitions, which act on a short-term timescale; and a long-term response, which enables the plant to re-adjust photosystem stoichiometry in favour of the rate-limiting photosystem. Both processes start with the perception of the imbalanced photosystem excitation via reduction/oxidation (redox) signals from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Recent data in Arabidopsis indicate that initialization of the molecular processes in both cases involve the activity of the thylakoid membrane-associated kinase, STN7. Thus, redox-controlled phosphorylation events may not only adjust photosystem antenna structure but may also affect plastid, as well as nuclear, gene expression. Both state transitions and the long-term response have been described mainly in molecular terms, while the physiological relevance concerning plant survival and reproduction has been poorly investigated. Recent studies have shed more light on this topic. Here, we give an overview on the long-term response, its physiological effects, possible mechanisms and its relationship to state transitions as well as to nonphotochemical quenching, another important short-term mechanism that mediates high-light acclimation. Special emphasis is given to the functional roles and potential interactions between the different light acclimation strategies. A working model displays the various responses as an integrated molecular system that helps plants to acclimate to the changing light environment.

  4. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  5. Monitoring and long-term assessment of the Mediterranean Sea physical state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Fratianni, Claudia; Clementi, Emanuela; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Jenny; Grandi, Alessandro; Del Rosso, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    The near real time monitoring and long-term assessment of the physical state of the ocean are crucial for the wide CMEMS user community providing a continuous and up to date overview of key indicators computed from operational analysis and reanalysis datasets. This constitutes an operational warning system on particular events, stimulating the research towards a deeper understanding of them and consequently increasing CMEMS products uptake. Ocean Monitoring Indicators (OMIs) of some Essential Ocean Variables have been identified and developed by the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (MED-MFC) under the umbrella of the CMEMS MYP WG (Multi Year Products Working Group). These OMIs have been operationally implemented starting from the physical reanalysis products and then they have been applied to the operational analyses product. Sea surface temperature, salinity, height as well as heat, water and momentum fluxes at the air-sea interface have been operationally implemented since the reanalysis system development as a real time monitoring of the data production. Their consistency analysis against available observational products or budget values recognized in literature guarantees the high quality of the numerical dataset. The results of the reanalysis validation procedures are yearly published in the QUality Information Document since 2014 available through the CMEMS catalogue (http://marine.copernicus.eu), together with the yearly dataset extension. New OMIs of the winter mixed layer depth, the eddy kinetic energy and the heat content will be presented, in particular we will analyze their time evolution and trends starting from 1987, then we will focus on the recent time period 2013-2016 when reanalysis and analyses datasets overlap to show their consistency beside their different system implementation (i.e. atmospheric forcing, wave coupling, nesting). At the end the focus will be on 2016 sea state and circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its

  6. Decreased term and postterm birthweight in the United States: impact of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Joseph, K S; Kramer, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    We sought to assess recent trends in falling mean birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA) among US non-Hispanic white singleton live births >or=37 weeks of gestation and the contribution of increased rates of induction to these trends. This was an ecological study based on US vital statistics from 1992 through 2003. From 1992 through 2003, mean BW fell by 37 g, mean GA by 3 days, and macrosomia rates by 25%. Rates of induction nearly doubled from 14% to 27%. Our ecological state-level analysis showed that the increased rate of induction was significantly associated with reduced mean BW (r = -0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.71 to -0.29), mean GA (r = -0.44; 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.17), and rate of macrosomia (r = -0.55; 95% CI, -0.74 to -0.32). Increasing use of induction is a likely cause of the observed recent declines in BW and GA. The impact of these trends on infant and long-term health warrants attention and investigation. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-term variability of aragonite saturation state in the central Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, Wei-Jun; Gao, Yonghui; Wanninkhof, Rik; Salisbury, Joseph; Chen, Baoshan; Reimer, Janet J.; Gonski, Stephen; Hussain, Najid

    2017-05-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has resulted in a decrease in seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), which affects the health of carbonate-bearing organisms and the marine ecosystem. A substantial short-term variability of surface water Ωarag, with an increase of up to 0.32, was observed in the central Mid-Atlantic Bight off the Delaware and the Chesapeake Bays over a short period of 10 days in summer 2015. High-frequency underway measurements for temperature, salinity, percentage saturation of dissolved oxygen, oxygen to argon ratio, pH, fCO2, and measurements based on discrete samples for pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity are used to investigate how physical and biogeochemical processes contribute to the changes of Ωarag. Quantitative analyses show that physical advection and mixing processes are the dominant forces for higher Ωarag in slope waters while biological carbon removal and CO2 degassing contribute to increased Ωarag in shelf waters.

  8. Financial security of the state in terms of globalization processes escalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Tkalenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides review of the globalization and global integration processes impact on the financial sector formation characterized by an increase in financial flows with the lead role played by transnational corporations and transnational banks. The globalization study has been already reflected by numerous scientific publications and various issues of reputable international academic journals describing the process as irreversible and objective along with demonstrating globalization merits and demerits, etc. In the 21st century, globalization is an issue discussed by everyone: ranging from presidents, prime ministers and members of parliament supposed to solve problems of any scale taking into consideration the global development phenomenon, to ordinary citizens. Today, globalization has obviously become a major trend of the modern world development, which is why issues implying sound development assurance become pressing for each country. The article dwells upon the main component of economic security — the financial one (Ukraine case study. Thus, we are engaged in studying the global development trend in terms of assuring security of the state under conditions of financial flows globalization and existence of global integration processes.

  9. Fire Effects on Soils in Lake States Forests: A Compilation of Published Research to Facilitate Long-Term Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous studies for the development of new long-term datasets, and to identify existing gaps in the regional knowledge of fire effects on forest soils. Most studies reviewed addressed fire effects on chemical properties in pine-dominated forests, and long-term (>10 years studies were limited. The major gaps in knowledge we identified include: (1 information on fire temperature and behavior information that would enhance interpretation of fire effects; (2 underrepresentation of the variety of forest types in the Lake States region; (3 information on nutrient fluxes and ecosystem processes; and (4 fire effects on soil organisms. Resolving these knowledge gaps via future research will provide for a more comprehensive understanding of fire effects in Lake States forest soils. Advancing the understanding of fire effects on soil processes and patterns in Lake States forests is critical for designing regionally appropriate long-term forest planning and management activities.

  10. On the construction of quasidiabatic state representations of bound adiabatic state potential energy surfaces coupled by accidental conical intersections: incorporation of higher order terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Joseph; Yarkony, David R; Schuurman, Michael S

    2011-01-28

    The quadratic vibronic coupling model is an important computational tool for simulating photoelectron spectra involving strongly coupled electronic states in polyatomic molecules. However, recent work has indicated the need for higher order terms, with most of the initial studies focusing on molecules with symmetry-required degeneracies. In this study we report an extension of our approach for constructing fully quadratic representations of bound electronic states coupled by conical intersections, which allows for the inclusion of higher order terms, demonstrated here employing a quartic expansion. Procedures are developed that eliminate unphysical behavior for large displacements, a problem likely to be an endemic to anharmonic expansions. Following work on representing dissociative electronic states, Lagrange multipliers are used to constrain the constructed representation to reproduce exactly the energy, energy gradients, and∕or derivative couplings at specific points, or nodes, in nuclear coordinate space. The approach is illustrated and systematically studied using the four lowest electronic states of triazolyl, (CH)(2)N(3).

  11. Mosquitoes: A Viable 21st-Century Soft Power Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    these is to be remembered in light of the idea that medical professionals hold special obligations to society and as such should strive continually...influenza pandemic commonly known as Swine Flu , which had not appeared in society in equal magnitude since 1918, spread from the state of Veracruz, Mexico...treatment for dengue, and there is no vaccine . The U.S. military has had a long-term relationship with the ailment. During the Spanish-American War, the

  12. Desovereignization of national state, economy and security in terms of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mile M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In current modern age of worldwide processes of globalization and globalism a process of desovereigntization of national state and economy has become a general process. Therefore national state has been faced with numerous challenges and it has been in a permanent state of crisis. Within the process of globalization most often rich enclaves of national states make attempts to integrate themselves into neoliberal capitalist system, while poor and backward enclaves become abandoned and so national states become disintegrated. First of all it is necessary to search for causes of ethno-religious conflicts and a national separatism in the field of economy. Within the globalization environment it happened that old entities, national state, national economy and national security gained totally new meanings. By using a method of comparative analysis of document contents and consitutional and political practice alike it is possible to reach conclusion that a great number of modern national states, including the Republic of Serbia among them, have found themselves in the state of permanent crisis, and the state crisis implies, before anything else, the crisis of state sovereignty. The state gets destroyed both from inside and outside in different ways. By using a quality method it is confirmed that within a state there comes an overstepping of constitutional regulations which encompass, before else, the issues of national economy and national security, and it is achieved in particular by seizure of economic sovereignty.

  13. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  14. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  15. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Brownsword, R.; Kariniotakis, G.

    2003-08-01

    Based on an appropriate questionnaire (WP1.1) and some other works already in progress, this report details the state-of-the-art in short term prediction of wind power, mostly summarising nearly all existing literature on the topic. (au)

  16. 40 CFR 63.94 - Approval of State permit terms and conditions that substitute for a section 112 rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions that substitute for a section 112 rule. 63.94 Section 63.94 Protection of Environment... § 63.94 Approval of State permit terms and conditions that substitute for a section 112 rule. Under... may substitute for the Federal requirements once they are contained in a valid title V permit. If the...

  17. Bone fractures in the long-term care of a patient in a vegetative state: a risk to conflicts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, J.C.M.; Bosch, H. van den; Vegter, J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This case report shows how recurrent bone fractures can increase the tension in the relationship between family and caregivers in the long-term care of a patient in a vegetative state (VS). The aim of this report is to prevent conflict situations elsewhere by informing the family in time

  18. Short-term rehospitalization across the spectrum of age and insurance types in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Jordan B; Kramer, Daniel B; Wang, Yun; Shen, Changyu; Wasfy, Jason H; Landon, Bruce E; Wilker, Elissa H; Yeh, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined rates and causes of short-term readmissions among adults across age and insurance types. We compared rates, characteristics, and costs of 30-day readmission after all-cause hospitalizations across insurance types in the US. We retrospectively evaluated alive patients ≥18 years old, discharged for any cause, 1/1/13-11/31/13, 2006 non-federal hospitals in 21 states in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. The primary stratification variable of interest was primary insurance. Comorbid conditions were assessed based on Elixhauser comorbidities, as defined by administrative billing codes. Additional measures included diagnoses for index hospitalizations leading to rehospitalization. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models, with hospital site as a random effect, were used to calculate the adjusted odds of 30-day readmissions by age group and insurance categories. Cost and discharge estimates were weighted per NRD procedures to reflect a nationally representative sample. Diagnoses for index hospitalizations leading to rehospitalization were determined. Among 12,533,551 discharges, 1,818,093 (14.5%) resulted in readmission within 30 days. Medicaid insurance was associated with the highest adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for readmission both in those ≥65 years old (AOR 1.12, 95%CI 1.10-1.14; p insurance: AOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.96-2.01; p <0.001). Discharges for psychiatric or substance abuse disorders, septicemia, and heart failure accounted for the largest numbers of readmissions, with readmission rates of 24.0%, 17.9%, 22.9% respectively. Total costs for readmissions were 50.7 billion USD, highest for Medicare (29.6 billion USD), with non-Medicare costs exceeding 21 billion USD. While Medicare readmissions account for more than half of the total burden of readmissions, costs of non-Medicare readmissions are nonetheless substantial. Medicaid patients have the highest odds of readmission in individuals older than age 44, commonly due to

  19. Short-term rehospitalization across the spectrum of age and insurance types in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan B Strom

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined rates and causes of short-term readmissions among adults across age and insurance types. We compared rates, characteristics, and costs of 30-day readmission after all-cause hospitalizations across insurance types in the US. We retrospectively evaluated alive patients ≥18 years old, discharged for any cause, 1/1/13-11/31/13, 2006 non-federal hospitals in 21 states in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. The primary stratification variable of interest was primary insurance. Comorbid conditions were assessed based on Elixhauser comorbidities, as defined by administrative billing codes. Additional measures included diagnoses for index hospitalizations leading to rehospitalization. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models, with hospital site as a random effect, were used to calculate the adjusted odds of 30-day readmissions by age group and insurance categories. Cost and discharge estimates were weighted per NRD procedures to reflect a nationally representative sample. Diagnoses for index hospitalizations leading to rehospitalization were determined. Among 12,533,551 discharges, 1,818,093 (14.5% resulted in readmission within 30 days. Medicaid insurance was associated with the highest adjusted odds ratio (AOR for readmission both in those ≥65 years old (AOR 1.12, 95%CI 1.10-1.14; p <0.001, and 45-64 (AOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.66-1.69; p < 0.001, and Medicare in the 18-44 group (Medicare vs. private insurance: AOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.96-2.01; p <0.001. Discharges for psychiatric or substance abuse disorders, septicemia, and heart failure accounted for the largest numbers of readmissions, with readmission rates of 24.0%, 17.9%, 22.9% respectively. Total costs for readmissions were 50.7 billion USD, highest for Medicare (29.6 billion USD, with non-Medicare costs exceeding 21 billion USD. While Medicare readmissions account for more than half of the total burden of readmissions, costs of non-Medicare readmissions are

  20. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  1. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  2. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  3. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  4. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  5. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  6. Preparatory Body State before Reacting to an Opponent: Short-Term Joint Torque Fluctuation in Real-Time Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Kimura, Tetsuya; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    In a competitive sport, the outcome of a game is determined by an athlete's relationship with an unpredictable and uncontrolled opponent. We have previously analyzed the preparatory state of ground reaction forces (GRFs) dividing non-weighted and weighted states (i.e., vertical GRFs below and above 120% of body weight, respectively) in a competitive ballgame task and demonstrated that the non-weighted state prevented delay of the defensive step and promoted successful guarding. However, the associated kinetics of lower extremity joints during a competitive sports task remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate the kinetic characteristics of a real-time competitive sport before movement initiation. As a first kinetic study on a competitive sport, we initially compared the successful defensive kinetics with a relatively stable preparatory state and the choice-reaction sidestep as a control movement. Then, we investigated the kinetic cause of the outcome in a 1-on-1 dribble in terms of the preparatory states according to our previous study. The results demonstrated that in successful defensive motions in the non-weighted state guarding trial, the times required for the generation of hip abduction and three extension torques for the hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly shortened compared with the choice-reaction sidestep, and hip abduction and hip extension torques were produced almost simultaneously. The sport-specific movement kinetics emerges only in a more-realistic interactive experimental setting. A comparison of the outcomes in the 1-on-1 dribble and preparatory GRF states showed that, in the non-weighted state, the defenders guarded successfully in 68.0% of the trials, and the defender's initiation time was earlier than that in the weighted state (39.1%). In terms of kinetics, the root mean squares of the derivative of hip abduction and three extension torques in the non-weighted state were smaller than those in the weighted state

  7. Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriezen, Jan Ac; de Bruijn, Frans J; Nüsslein, Klaus R

    2012-01-20

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021.The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula.

  8. Inactivation of the gene katA or sodA affects the transient entry into the viable but non-culturable response of Staphylococcus aureus in natural seawater at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Salma; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the fate of Staphylococcus aureus by starving the cells and maintaining them in natural seawater at 22 and 4 °C. At 22 °C, cells developed a long-term survival state where about 0.037% of the initial population remained culturable over more than 7 months, whereas at 4 °C, bacteria lost culturability and transiently entered into the viable but non-culturable state (VBNC). However, after 22 days of entry into the VBNC state, the number of viable cells detected via the direct viable count method decreased significantly. We show here that mutational inactivation of catalase (KatA) or superoxide dismutase (SodA) rendered strains hypersensitive to seawater stress at 4 °C and consequently, part of the seawater lethality on S. aureus at low temperature is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during microcosm-survival process. Shifting the temperature from 4 to 22 °C of totally non-culturable wild-type cells induced a partial recovery of the population. However, deficiencies in catalase or superoxide dismutase prevent resuscitation ability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation between annual trends in food pantry use and long-term unemployment in New York State, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Gene; Yu, Chengxuan; Edmunds, Lynn S; Clarke, Lewis; Sekhobo, Jackson P

    2015-03-01

    We examined the correlation between trends in meals provided through food pantries and long-term unemployment from 2002 through 2012. The New York State Hunger Prevention and Nutrition Assistance Program provided about 192 million meals through food pantries in 2012-double the number before the Great Recession. Annual food pantry use was strongly correlated with long-term unemployment and remained on an upward trend from 2006 through 2012, even after the Great Recession had ended. These findings suggest that efforts to reduce hunger and food insecurity should continue to be priorities.

  10. Assisted Living Facilities - CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN: Residential Care Facilities, Nursing Homes, and Hospices in Indiana in 2007 (Indiana State Department of Health, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 86 residential care facilities, 525 long-term care facilities (nursing homes), and 81...

  11. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  12. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry F. Bartlett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures.

  13. Terms, Trends, and Insights: PV Project Finance in the United States, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2017. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). This work represents the second DOE sponsored effort to benchmark financing costs across the residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV markets, as part of its larger effort to benchmark the components of PV system costs.

  14. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  15. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  16. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  17. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  18. Where should they go? Undocumented immigrants and long-term care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Victoria S

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, I consider the question of where illegal immigrants should go once their lives have been saved in hospitals and they are ready to be transferred to long-term care situations. I highlight three recent cases in which such a decision was made. In one case, the patient was kept at the hospital, in another the patient was repatriated to his home country, and in the third, the patient was discharged to his family. I consider the relevant moral values and argue that for reasons of fairness we must develop a policy that treats similar cases in similar ways. In order to best uphold patient well-being and minimize costs, the plan proposed here calls for illegal immigrants to be covered by insurance for long-term care.

  19. Near-term probabilistic forecast of significant wildfire events for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Karin L. Riley; Crystal S. Stonesifer; Dave E. Calkin; Matt Jolly

    2016-01-01

    Fire danger and potential for large fires in the United States (US) is currently indicated via several forecasted qualitative indices. However, landscape-level quantitative forecasts of the probability of a large fire are currently lacking. In this study, we present a framework for forecasting large fire occurrence - an extreme value event - and evaluating...

  20. The Disorderly, Undisciplined State of the Good Order and Discipline Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    and the reality of how they actually use the term. They note that in a series of proposed reforms, the military has cited good order and discipline...war fighters since virtually the beginning of organized conflict, because it plays a central role in establishing the discipline indispensable for...Morale, climate, response to discipline trends, rehab success, accomplishing the mission successfully.”  “Airmen having/displaying confidence in their

  1. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  2. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre......-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes......-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III....

  3. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  4. Short-term costs of preeclampsia to the United States health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Warren; Shih, Tiffany; Incerti, Devin; Ton, Thanh G N; Lee, Henry C; Peneva, Desi; Macones, George A; Sibai, Baha M; Jena, Anupam B

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes. Little is known about the extent of the health and cost burden of preeclampsia in the United States. This study sought to quantify the annual epidemiological and health care cost burden of preeclampsia to both mothers and infants in the United States in 2012. We used epidemiological and econometric methods to assess the annual cost of preeclampsia in the United States using a combination of population-based and administrative data sets: the National Center for Health Statistics Vital Statistics on Births, the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative Databases, the US Health Care Cost and Utilization Project database, and a commercial claims data set. Preeclampsia increased the probability of an adverse event from 4.6% to 10.1% for mothers and from 7.8% to 15.4% for infants while lowering gestational age by 1.7 weeks (P preeclampsia during the first 12 months after birth was $1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants. The cost burden per infant is dependent on gestational age, ranging from $150,000 at 26 weeks gestational age to $1311 at 36 weeks gestational age. In 2012, the cost of preeclampsia within the first 12 months of delivery was $2.18 billion in the United States ($1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants), and was disproportionately borne by births of low gestational age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Long-Term United States’ Energy Policy Without Venezuelan Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Cantarell was tried on Mexico’s other oil fields with some success. The Ku-Maloob- Zaap oil complex increased oil production by 120,000 bbl/d and Mexico...discoveries in the Campos and Santos Basins are projected to lead to additional production increases in the long term. The deepwater Santos basin...projects online in 2007 from the shallower Campos Basin, contributing to an increase production of 460,000 bbl/d. 86 Non-OPEC countries conventional

  6. Charge and orbital ordered states studied by using x-ray anomalous scattering terms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakao, H

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the studies utilizing anomalous scattering term of atomic scattering factor near absorption edge, so called x-ray anomalous scattering and resonant x-ray scattering, have been rapidly developed. This technique has especially contributed to the determination of the charge-orbital ordered structure in strongly correlated electron system. In this paper, we present the typical examples - the charge ordering of V sup 4 sup + and V sup 5 sup + in NaV sub 2 O sub 5 and the antiferro-quadrupole ordering (orbital ordering) of Ge sup 3 sup + ions in CeB sub 6 (author)

  7. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  8. Nineteenth Century Long-Term Instrumental Records, Examples From the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    Early instrumental records in the United States, defined as those operating before 1892 which is regarded the period prior to the modern climate record, provide a longer perspective of climatic variability at decadal and interannual timescales. Such reconstructions also provide a means of verification for other proxy data. This paper provides a American perspective of historical climatic research, emphasizing the urgent need to properly evaluate data quality and provide necessary corrections to make them compatible with the modern record. Different fixed observation times, different practices of weather instrument exposures, and statistical methods for calibration are the main issues in applying corrections and conducting proper climatic interpretations. I illustrate several examples on methodologies of this historical climatic research, focusing on the following in the Southeastern United States: daily reconstructed temperature time-series centered on Charleston SC and Natchez MS back to the late eighteenth century, and precipitation frequency reconstructions during the antebellum period for the Gulf Coast and coastal Southeast Atlantic states. Results indicate several prominent extremes unprecedented as compared to the modern record, such as the widespread warm winter of 1827-28, and the severe cold winters of 1856 and 1857. The reconstructions also yield important information concerning responses to past ENSO events, the PNA, NAO, and the PDO, particularly when compared with instrumental data from other regions. A high potential also exists for applying the climate reconstructions to assess historical climatic impacts on society in the Southeast, such as to understand climatic linkages to famous case studies of Yellow Fever epidemics and severe drought.

  9. Positive ground state solutions to Schrodinger-Poisson systems with a negative non-local term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the Schrodinger-Poisson system $$\\displaylines{ -\\Delta u+u-\\lambda K(x\\phi(xu=a(x|u|^{p-1}u, \\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, \\cr -\\Delta\\phi=K(xu^{2},\\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, }$$ with $p\\in(1,5$. Assume that $a:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ and $K:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ are nonnegative functions and satisfy suitable assumptions, but not requiring any symmetry property on them, we prove the existence of a positive ground state solution resolved by the variational methods.

  10. Brief Report: Conveying Subjective Experience in Conversation: Production of Mental State Terms and Personal Narratives in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…

  11. Novel Slope Source Term Treatment for Preservation of Quiescent Steady States in Shallow Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust method for modeling shallow-water flows and near shore tsunami propagation, applicable for both simple and complex geometries with uneven beds. The novel aspect of the model includes the introduction of a new method for slope source terms treatment to preserve quiescent equilibrium over uneven topographies, applicable to both structured and unstructured mesh systems with equal accuracy. Our model is based on the Godunov-type finite volume numerical approximation. Second-order spatial and temporal accuracy is achieved through high resolution gradient reconstruction and the predictor-corrector method, respectively. The approximate Riemann solver of Harten, Lax, and van Leer with contact wave restoration (HLLC is used to compute fluxes. Comparisons of the model’s results with analytical, experimental, and published numerical solutions show that the proposed method is capable of accurately predicting experimental and real-time tsunami propagation/inundation, and dam-break flows over varying topographies.

  12. Long-term marriage patterns in the United States from colonial times to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M R

    1996-01-01

    The author presents an overview of long-term trends in U.S. nuptiality. "Marriage in colonial North America was notable for being early (for women) and marked by low percentages never marrying.... Between 1800 and the present there have been long cycles in nuptiality. Since about 1800, female age at first marriage rose from relatively low levels to a peak around 1900. Thereupon a gradual decline commenced with a trough being reached about 1960 at the height of the baby boom. There then began another, and rapid, upswing in female marriage age. Proportions never married at ages 45-54 replicated these cycles with a lag of about 20-30 years. Since 1880 (when comprehensive census data became available), male nuptiality patterns have generally paralleled those of women. Male marriage ages were higher than those of females with proportions never marrying also usually higher." excerpt

  13. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

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    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  14. Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A

    2014-03-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  16. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  17. Quantitative estimation of the state of vault feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Makarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the vaults given about the state is conducted feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training. 93 sportswomen of different qualification took part in research. The system of Big foot was used. It is set that on the early stages of the long-term training for gymnasts observed flattening heights of unevenness of navicular bone above the floor. With growth of qualification of sportswomen to avoid development of pathological changes of vaults feet actually not possibly. It is conditioned the rules of competitions to complication of competition compositions and technique of execution of elements of calisthenics. It is marked that appearance of flattening feet requires: corrections in the system of training; introduction of the specially developed methods on the removal of existent deformations; prophylaxis of flat-footedness; strengthening of musculoskeletal system feet.

  18. Acute and medium term effects of a ten-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eWalter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants´ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined.The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks.To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on three days a week at five times of measurement within twelve weeks. Participants´ physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p=.07; η2=.27. However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training.Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the

  19. Effective long term adaptation and metabolic state regulation of ski-racers

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    A.S. Bakhareva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate effective mechanisms of organism’s bio-chemical adaptation of ski-racers in competition period with the help of lipid peroxidation indicators, oxidative modification of proteins and activity of hypothalamus pituitary adrenocortical system. Material: in the research 14 sportsmen of 18-25 years’ age (combined team of university with different level of sportsmanship participated. Assessment of free radical oxidation, anti-oxidant system, cortisol level was fulfilled with the help of indicators’ quantitative analysis by bio-chemical methods applied to blood serum samples. Results: it was found that in the basis of bio-chemical changes under intensive physical loads is increase of catabolic processes’ speed. Change of organism’s metabolic orientation of ski racers at optimal level results in working muscles’ energy supply improvement, increase of energy systems’ power and sports efficiency. Conclusions: Application of interval trainings at stages of preparation to special significant competitions results in expected adaptation and increase of sports efficiency. We also showed their effective role in ensuring long term reactions, conditioning high sports efficiency.

  20. Cardioventilatory coupling in preterm and term infants: effect of position and sleep state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Dawn E; Larsen, Peter D; Galletly, Duncan C; Campbell, Angela J

    2010-11-30

    This study documented the effect of position on cardioventilatory coupling (CVC), the triggering of inspiratory onset by a preceding heartbeat, in infants. Cardiorespiratory signals and corresponding oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were downloaded from Quiet Sleep (QS) and Active Sleep (AS) in prone and supine from preterm (PT) and term (T) infants. Inspiratory onsets (I) and timing of the corresponding ECG R wave were determined and R-R and R-I intervals calculated. The RI(-1) interval (time between inspiration and the preceding R wave) dispersion was measured using proportional Shannon Entropy of the RI(-1) interval (SH(α)), to provide a quantitative measure of CVC. CVC was more frequently seen in QS in PT (p=0.002) and T (p=0.02) infants but not influenced by position (p=0.71, p=0.46). CVC correlated with SpO(2) in PT (r=-0.230, p=0.03) but not T infants (r=0.085, p=0.34). These data imply an augmentation of cardiac influence on ventilatory rhythm in infants in QS. In preterm infants CVC may have a role in supporting oxygenation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long commuting time, extensive overtime, and sympathodominant state assessed in terms of short-term heart rate variability among male white-collar workers in the Tokyo megalopolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T; Nishikido, N; Kobayashi, T; Kurokawa, Y; Kaneko, T; Kabuto, M

    1998-07-01

    To investigate the possible effects of long commuting time and extensive overtime on daytime cardiac autonomic activity, the short-term heart rate variability (HRV) both at supine rest and at standing rest of 223 male white-collar workers in the Tokyo Megalopolis was examined. Workers with a one-way commute of 90 min or more exhibited decreased vagal activity at supine rest and increased sympathetic activity regardless of posture, and those doing overtime of 60 h/month or more exhibited decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic activity at standing rest. These findings suggest that chronic stress or fatigue resulting from long commuting time or extensive overtime caused these individuals to be in a sympathodominant state. Although these shifts in autonomic activities are not direct indicators of disease, it can be hypothesized that they can induce cardiovascular abnormalities or dysfunctions related to the onset of heart disease. Assessment of the daily and weekly variations in HRV as a function of daily life activities (such as working, commuting, sleeping, and exercising) among workers in Asia-Pacific urban areas might be one way of studying the possible effects of long commuting time, and extensive overtime, on health.

  2. Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadogan, J. [U.S. Department of Energy (US); Milligan, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Wan, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Kirby, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    2001-09-21

    With the advent of competition in the electric power marketplace, this paper reviews changes that affect wind and other renewable energy technologies, and discusses the role of federal and state policies in the recent wind installations in the United States. In particular, it reviews the implications of ancillary service requirements on a wind farm and presents initial operating results of monitoring one Midwest wind farm. Under federal energy policy, each generator must purchase, or otherwise provide for, ancillary services, such as dispatch, regulation, operation reserve, voltage regulation, and scheduling required to move power to load. As a renewable technology that depends on the forces of nature, short-term output variations are inherently greater for a wind farm than for a gas-fired combined cycle or a supercritical coal-fired unit.

  3. Time-dependent variational approach in terms of squeezed coherent states: Implication to semi-classical approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko

    1994-01-01

    A general framework for time-dependent variational approach in terms of squeezed coherent states is constructed with the aim of describing quantal systems by means of classical mechanics including higher order quantal effects with the aid of canonicity conditions developed in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. The Maslov phase occurring in a semi-classical quantization rule is investigated in this framework. In the limit of a semi-classical approximation in this approach, it is definitely shown that the Maslov phase has a geometric nature analogous to the Berry phase. It is also indicated that this squeezed coherent state approach is a possible way to go beyond the usual WKB approximation.

  4. Long-term trend and variability of precipitation in Chhattisgarh State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Singh, Vijay P.; Meshram, Chandrashekhar

    2017-08-01

    Spatial and temporal precipitation variability in Chhattisgarh State in India was examined by using monthly precipitation data for 102 years (1901-2002) from 16 stations. The homogeneity of precipitation data was evaluated by the double-mass curve approach and the presence of serial correlation by lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient. Linear regression analysis, the conventional Mann-Kendall (MK) test, and Spearman's rho were employed to identify trends and Sen's slope to estimate the slope of trend line. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to analyze precipitation variability. Spatial interpolation was done by a Kriging process using ArcGIS 9.3. Results of both parametric and non-parametric tests and trend tests showed that at 5 % significance level, annual precipitation exhibited a decreasing trend at all stations except Bilaspur and Dantewada. For both annual and monsoon precipitation, Sen's test showed a decreasing trend for all stations, except Bilaspur and Dantewada. The highest percentage of variability was observed in winter precipitation (88.75 %) and minimum percentage variability in annual series (14.01 %) over the 102-year periods.

  5. Insurance and education predict long-term survival after orthotopic heart transplantation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeremiah G; Weiss, Eric S; Arnaoutakis, George J; Russell, Stuart D; Baumgartner, William A; Shah, Ashish S; Conte, John V

    2012-01-01

    Insurance status and education are known to affect health outcomes. However, their importance in orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is unknown. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database provides a large cohort of OHT recipients in which to evaluate the effect of insurance and education on survival. UNOS data were retrospectively reviewed to identify adult primary OHT recipients (1997 to 2008). Patients were stratified by insurance at the time of transplantation (private/self-pay, Medicare, Medicaid, and other) and college education. All-cause mortality was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression incorporating 15 variables. Survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method. Insurance for 20,676 patients was distributed as follows: private insurance/self-pay, 12,298 (59.5%); Medicare, 5,227 (25.3%); Medicaid, 2,320 (11.2%); and "other" insurance, 831 (4.0%). Educational levels were recorded for 15,735 patients (76.1% of cohort): 7,738 (49.2%) had a college degree. During 53 ± 41 months of follow-up, 6,125 patients (29.6%) died (6.7 deaths/100 patient-years). Survival differed by insurance and education. Medicare and Medicaid patients had 8.6% and 10.0% lower 10-year survival, respectively, than private/self-pay patients. College-educated patients had 7.0% higher 10-year survival. On multivariable analysis, college education decreased mortality risk by 11%. Medicare and Medicaid increased mortality risk by 18% and 33%, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Our study examining insurance and education in a large cohort of OHT patients found that long-term mortality after OHT is higher in Medicare/Medicaid patients and in those without a college education. This study points to potential differences in the care of OHT patients based on education and insurance status. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parliamentary control of security information agency in terms of security culture: State and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though security services have the same function as before, today they have different tasks and significantly more work than before. Modern security problems of the late 20th and early 21st century require states to reorganize their security services, adapting them to the new changes. The reorganization involves, among other things, giving wider powers of the security services, in order to effectively counter the growing and sophisticated security threats, which may also lead to violations of human rights and freedoms. It is therefore necessary to define the right competence, organization, authority and control of these services. In democratic countries, there are several institutions with different levels of control of security services. Parliament is certainly one of the most important institutions in that control, both in the world and in our country. Powers, finance, the use of special measures and the nature and scope of work of the Security Information Agency are certainly object of the control of the National Assembly. What seems to be the problem is achieving a balance between the need for control of security services and security services to have effective methods for combating modern security problems. This paper presents the legal framework related to the National Assembly control of the Security Intelligence Agency, as well as the practical problems associated with this type of control. We analyzed the role of security culture as one of the factors of that control. In this regard, it provides guidance for the practical work of the members of parliament who control the Security Intelligence Agency, noting in particular the importance of and the need for continuous improvement of security culture representatives.

  7. Long-term atmospheric visibility trends in megacities of China, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Yao, Ling; Cheng, Zhen; Wang, Yungang

    2017-11-01

    Millions of premature deaths worldwide every year mostly in China and India are contributed by the poor air quality. The atmospheric visibility is a proven indicator of the ambient air quality. In this study, nine megacities were selected, including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou from China, Chicago, Los Angeles (LA) and New York City (NYC) from the United States, and Mumbai, Chennai and Jaipur from India. The data of visibility, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and meteorological factors from 1973 to 2015 were collected. The temporal variations of annual and monthly percentages of bad days (visibility 15km) were evaluated. Visibility of Chicago, LA and NYC gradually improved during the past 43 years and has reached a very good level (good day percentages: 75-88%; bad day percentages: 0 - 4%). Conversely, visibility in Mumbai, Chennai and Jaipur continued deteriorating and suffered an extremely poor visibility situation in recent years (good day percentages: 0; bad day percentages: 6-100%). Likewise, visibility in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou has experienced the worsening period during the industrial development from 1970s and turned better after the 1990s. A strong seasonal pattern of bad day percentages of each year were observed in most cities, especially in the winter, which is caused by the fossil fuel combustion for heating, relatively high relative humidity, and other unfavorable meteorological conditions. The low visibility events occurred more frequently in days with low wind speeds and specific wind directions, further explaining the seasonal patterns of visibility. With population growth from the period of 2000-2010 to the period of 2011-2015, AOD and bad day percentages both increased in Mumbai, Chennai, Jaipur and Beijing while others were relatively stable. This study demonstrated that the macro-control of pollution emissions could effectively reduce air deterioration. The relationships among visibility variation, meteorological, pollutant and

  8. Investigation of defect states in organic semiconductors. Towards long term stable materials for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafferhans, Julia

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the trap states in the conjugated polymer P3HT, often used as electron donor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, three commonly used fullerene based electron acceptors and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends were investigated. Concerning the lifetime of organic solar cells the influence of oxygen on P3HT and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends was studied. Fractional TSC measurements on P3HT diodes revealed a quasi-continuous trap distribution. The deeper traps exhibited a strong dependence on oxygen. Exposure of the P3HT diodes to oxygen, ambient air and synthetic (dry) air all revealed an increase of the deeper traps density with exposure time in the same manner. While the lower limit of the trap density in non aged P3HT samples was in the range of (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, it was more than doubled after an exposure of 50 h to air. An increase of the trap density with oxygen exposure time was also seen in the Q-DLTS measurements accompanied with an increase of the temperature dependence of the emission rates. Due to the raise in density of the deeper traps, the charge carrier mobility in P3HT significantly decreased, as revealed by photo-CELIV measurements, resulting in a loss in mobility of about two orders of magnitude after 100 h exposure to synthetic air. This effect was partially reversible by applying vacuum to the sample for several hours or, more significantly, by a thermal treatment of the devices in nitrogen atmosphere. The trap states in the methanofullerenes PC{sub 61}BM, bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM were investigated by TSC measurements. PC{sub 61}BM yielded a broad quasi-continuous trap distribution with the maximum of the distribution at about 75 meV. The comparison of the TSC spectra of the three methanofullerenes exhibited significant differences in the trap states with higher activation energies of the most prominent traps in bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM compared to PC{sub 61}BM. The lower limit of the trap density of all of the three

  9. Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest and its transition states in long-term primary succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mueller-Dombois

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of transition states in the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem with emphasis on their initial developments. Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millennia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp. and the 'ōhi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp., which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e., islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life forms is similar to the assemblage during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris linearis, becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant 'ōhi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After the disturbance, the forest becomes reestablished in about 30–40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1–25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader 'ōhi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands loses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum

  10. On the effects of hull-girder vibration upon fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship disaggregated by short-term sea state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukasawa Toichi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hull-girder vibration on the fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship are discussed in the present paper. Firstly, the short-term sea states are categorized according to the occurrence probability of each sea state. Time histories of hull-girder stress in short-term sea states are calculated by means of a nonlinear simulation code of ship response assuming that the hull-girder is rigid and flexible. Then, the calculated stress peaks are processed by the rainflow counting method, where two different counting procedures are used based on the considerations of crack propagation behaviors. Finally, the fatigue damage in life time of the ship in each categorized short-term sea state is estimated by means of Miner’s rule. Based on the calculated results, the effects of hull-girder vibrations on the fatigue damage are clarified by disaggregated damage from short-term sea state.

  11. On the effects of hull-girder vibration upon fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship disaggregated by short-term sea state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichi Fukasawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hull-girder vibration on the fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship are discussed in the present paper. Firstly, the short-term sea states are categorized according to the occurrence probability of each sea state. Time histories of hull-girder stress in short-term sea states are calculated by means of a nonlinear simulation code of ship response assuming that the hull-girder is rigid and flexible. Then, the calculated stress peaks are processed by the rainflow counting method, where two different counting procedures are used based on the considerations of crack propagation behaviors. Finally, the fatigue damage in life time of the ship in each categorized short-term sea state is estimated by means of Miner's rule. Based on the calculated results, the effects of hull-girder vibrations on the fatigue damage are clarified by disaggregated damage from short-term sea state.

  12. Viable Short-Term Directed Energy Weapon Naval Solutions: A Systems Analysis of Current Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    him with constructing the first primitive “death ray” in 212 BC during the siege of Syracuse (MIT 2.009ers 2005). More recently, Nikola Tesla spent...directed energy in 1934 ( Tesla Invents Peace Ray 2011). Years later, during the height of the Cold War, the Soviet Union conducted experiments on the...Testing Developmental Laser Against Small Surface Vessels.” Inside the Navy, June 7, 2010. Tesla Invents Peace Ray. 2011. http://www.tfcbooks.com

  13. Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ciullo, Dan; deLongpre, Jeff; Mcarthur, Sim; Nowakowski, Jake; Shene, Rich; Taylor, Earvin; White, Roosevelt; Cheng, Po-Yu; Heng, Yinghui; Wong, Chia Sern; Wong, Wai Keat; Phua, Yee Ling; Zlatsin, Philip; Choon, Junwei; Neo, Yong Shern

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change the means by which warfare is conducted to improve operational efficiencies and overall effectiveness. The Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering and Analysis (SEA-19B) Capstone project team examined how existing directed energy technologies can ...

  14. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score was the only MCMI personality scale showing significant change when the SCL-90-R Depression change score was included as a covariate. Splitting patients into those with and without personality disorders did not change the results. Observed changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III.

  15. New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed.

  16. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  17. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  18. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  19. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the ma...

  20. Executive summary for assessing the near-term risk of climate uncertainty : interdependencies among the U.S. states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-04-01

    Policy makers will most likely need to make decisions about climate policy before climate scientists have resolved all relevant uncertainties about the impacts of climate change. This study demonstrates a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. We estimate the impacts of climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity from 2010 to 2050. To understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions to mitigate the course of climate change, we focus on precipitation, one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change. We use results of the climate-model ensemble from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) as a proxy for representing climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, map the simulated weather from the climate models hydrologically to the county level to determine the physical consequences on economic activity at the state level, and perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. We determine the industry-level contribution to the gross domestic product and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effects on personal income, and consequences for the U.S. trade balance. We show that the mean or average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs.

  1. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  2. Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics: Effects of a current major depressive disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; Camchong, Jazmin; Cardenas, Valerie A; Stenger, Andy

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. In the inhibitory executive control network (nucleus accumbens vs. left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with a current MDD showed increased synchrony compared to NSAC. In the emotion regulation executive control network (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex vs. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with current MDD did not show increased RSS. In the appetitive drive networks (nucleus accumbens vs, aspects of the caudate nucleus and thalamus), LTAA with a current MDD did not show a reduction of RSS compared to NSAC, but LTAA without a current MDD did. These results suggest different pathways to their alcohol dependence in LTAA with vs. without a current MDD, and different patterns of brain activity in long-term abstinence, suggesting different treatment needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of long-term treatment with tuftsin analogue TP-7 on the anxiety-phobic states and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Cygan, Beata; Wolański, Lukasz; Kozlovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    TP-7 is a synthetic analogue of tuftsin. It has a structure of tuftsin, to which three natural L-amino-acids Pro-Gly-Pro are attached. This heptapeptide improves learning and memorization and causes antidepressant and anxiolytic effect. It is possible to use TP-7 in the future to optimize cognitive functions and as a potential new anxioselective, fast-acting and easy-dosed drug. Therefore, it was purposeful to study such properties of the heptapeptide as its influence on anxiety-fear and body weight under a long-term treatment regimen. The experiment was performed on 24 preselected Wistar rats with the use of Rodina's method. There were three experimental groups of animals with high initial emotional reactivity: passive control group (P), active control group (A, receiving distilled water) and group treated with TP-7 at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (T). The rats of A and T groups received intraperitoneal injections every day. The experiments were conducted 15 min after the administration of the drug, one and two days after initial testing day, then 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after that. The heptapeptide reduced the anxiety-phobic states significantly starting from the second day of drug application. The observed effects persisted throughout four weeks of the experiment, which confirmed effective long-term anxiolytic properties of the heptapeptide. TP-7 did not cause any changes in the body mass by itself.

  4. Cognitive and affective trait and state factors influencing the long-term symptom course in remitted depressed patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Timm

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is characterized by a high risk for relapses and chronic developments. Clinical characteristics such as residual symptoms have been shown to negatively affect the long-term course of MDD. However, it is unclear so far how trait repetitive negative thinking (RNT as well as cognitive and affective momentary states, the latter experienced during daily-life, affect the long-term course of MDD.We followed up 57 remitted depressed (rMDD individuals six (T2 and 36 (T3 months after baseline. Clinical outcomes were time to relapse, time spent with significant symptoms as a marker of chronicity, and levels of depressive symptoms at T2 and T3. Predictors assessed at baseline included residual symptoms and trait RNT. Furthermore, momentary daily life affect and momentary rumination, and their variation over the day were assessed at baseline using ambulatory assessment (AA.In multiple models, residual symptoms and instability of daily-life affect at baseline independently predicted a faster time to relapse, while chronicity was significantly predicted by trait RNT. Multilevel models revealed that depressive symptom levels during follow-up were predicted by baseline residual symptom levels and by instability of daily-life rumination. Both instability features were linked to a higher number of anamnestic MDD episodes.Our findings indicate that trait RNT, but also affective and cognitive processes during daily life impact the longer-term course of MDD. Future longitudinal research on the role of respective AA-phenotypes as potential transdiagnostic course-modifiers is warranted.

  5. Natural environmental water sources in endemic regions of northeastern Brazil are potential reservoirs of viable Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo Arraes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. FINDINGS M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7% of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.

  6. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  7. Narrative writing competence and internal state terms of young adults clinically diagnosed with childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the written expression competence of young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of young adults without ADHD on three types of measures: indicators of the story's microstructure with regard to productivity and morphosyntax; indicators of the macrostructure (story grammar); and expressions of the mental states of the story's characters (internal state language). The second objective consisted of determining the relationships among the different narrative writing measures and the ADHD behavior ratings of inattention and hyperactivity obtained using the family observer report. The sample was composed of 54 participants, aged from 18 to 24, divided equally into a group with a childhood clinical diagnosis of combined subtype ADHD and a control group without ADHD. Written composition was assessed using a narrative task based on a sequence of images. As expected, the young adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the control group on the majority of the parameters of the story's microstructure and macrostructure. Likewise, they included a significantly lower number of terms about the characters' mental states. A correlation was also observed between measures of narrative competence and core symptoms of ADHD, as well as between the use of words with an emotional content and estimations related to core symptoms of ADHD. The findings of this study point out that expressive writing should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of screening and comprehensive evaluation. More research is needed to design and implement effective interventions in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term changes in the health state of children with group B meningococcal disease: A prospective, national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain T R Kennedy

    Full Text Available The short-term impact of childhood invasive meningococcal disease (IMD on quality-of-life (QoL remains largely unquantified. This study aimed to quantify QoL loss at the point when illness was at its worst, and assess health state recovery in the months following illness.Parents of children aged <16 years with laboratory-confirmed meningococcal group B (MenB disease in England, with onset dates from November 2012 to May 2013 were asked to complete a short questionnaire, which included EQ-5DY, a version of EQ-5D for 8-15 year-olds. The parents, or child if able, were asked to complete the questionnaires while considering the child's health on the worst day of illness and on the date the questionnaires were completed.The overall response rate was 43% (109/254 children, with no significant differences between respondents and non-respondents. The median time from disease onset to questionnaire completion was 134 days (interquartile range (IQR, 92 to 156 days. After imputation, the median health index was -0.056 (IQR, -0.073 to 0.102 on the worst day of illness, and 1 (IQR 0.866 to 1.000 on the date of questionnaire completion. The respective Visual Analogue Scores (VAS were 6.5/100.0 (IQR, 0.0 to 20.0 and 95.0/100.0 (IQR, 90.0 to 100.0. The health state of cases with long-term sequelae (n = 41 was significantly worse at follow-up than those who recovered uneventfully (n = 64; 90.0 vs. 98.0; p<0.001, although there was no significant difference on the worst day of illness (5.0 vs. 10.0; p = 0.671.This work has provided, for the first time, a quantitative estimate of QoL loss at the peak of illness and in the months after MenB disease in children. The magnitude of QoL loss is staggering, with the reported health state being at, or close to, the worst possible outcome imaginable. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the impact of illness in young children, who often have the highest burden of potentially preventable infectious diseases.

  9. Short term effects of particle exposure on hospital admissions in the Mid-Atlantic states: a population estimate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Kloog

    Full Text Available Many studies report significant associations between PM(2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 micrometers and hospital admissions. These studies mostly rely on a limited number of monitors which introduces exposure error, and excludes rural and suburban populations from locations where monitors are not available, reducing generalizability and potentially creating selection bias.Using prediction models developed by our group, daily PM(2.5 exposure was estimated across the Mid-Atlantic (Washington D.C., and the states of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York and West Virginia. We then investigated the short-term effects of PM(2.5exposures on emergency hospital admissions of the elderly in the Mid-Atlantic region.We performed case-crossover analysis for each admission type, matching on day of the week, month and year and defined the hazard period as lag01 (a moving average of day of admission exposure and previous day exposure.We observed associations between short-term exposure to PM(2.5 and hospitalization for all outcomes examined. For example, for every 10-µg/m(3 increase in short-term PM(2.5 there was a 2.2% increase in respiratory diseases admissions (95% CI = 1.9 to 2.6, and a 0.78% increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD admission rate (95% CI = 0.5 to 1.0. We found differences in risk for CVD admissions between people living in rural and urban areas. For every10-µg/m(3 increase in PM(2.5 exposure in the 'rural' group there was a 1.0% increase (95% CI = 0.6 to 1.5, while for the 'urban' group the increase was 0.7% (95% CI = 0.4 to 1.0.Our findings showed that PM(2.5 exposure was associated with hospital admissions for all respiratory, cardio vascular disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions. In addition, we demonstrate that our AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth based exposure models can be successfully applied to epidemiological studies investigating the health

  10. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  11. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  12. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  14. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  15. An online listserv for nurse practitioners: a viable venue for continuous nursing professional development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2008-05-01

    This study reports the results of a qualitative study involving a large and longstanding online nurse listserv in the United States. A sample of 27 critical care and advanced-practice nurse practitioners was interviewed using semi-structured individual interviews. This study found evidence that participation in an online listserv offers a viable avenue for the continuous professional development of nurses by providing nurses the opportunity to make more informed decisions about their professional practice and keeping abreast with up-to-date changes in their specialty areas when they shared knowledge with one another. Follow-up interviews with 10 nurses who frequently shared their knowledge revealed six motivators that helped promote knowledge sharing: (a) reciprocity, (b) collectivism, (c) personal gain, (d) respectful environment, (e) altruism, and (f) technology. Implications for sustaining knowledge sharing in an online listserv are discussed. The finding will inform educators and administrators who support continuing education and professional development of healthcare professionals.

  16. Progress in biocatalysis with immobilized viable whole cells: systems development, reaction engineering and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakovič, Milan; Švitel, Juraj; Bučko, Marek; Filip, Jaroslav; Neděla, Vilém; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Gemeiner, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Viable microbial cells are important biocatalysts in the production of fine chemicals and biofuels, in environmental applications and also in emerging applications such as biosensors or medicine. Their increasing significance is driven mainly by the intensive development of high performance recombinant strains supplying multienzyme cascade reaction pathways, and by advances in preservation of the native state and stability of whole-cell biocatalysts throughout their application. In many cases, the stability and performance of whole-cell biocatalysts can be highly improved by controlled immobilization techniques. This review summarizes the current progress in the development of immobilized whole-cell biocatalysts, the immobilization methods as well as in the bioreaction engineering aspects and economical aspects of their biocatalytic applications.

  17. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  18. Significance of Viable but Nonculturable Escherichia coli: Induction, Detection, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tian; Suo, Yuanjie; Xiang, Qisen; Zhao, Xihong; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong

    2017-03-28

    Diseases caused by foodborne or waterborne pathogens are emerging. Many pathogens can enter into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, which is a survival strategy when exposed to harsh environmental stresses. Pathogens in the VBNC state have the ability to evade conventional microbiological detection methods, posing a significant and potential health risk. Therefore, controlling VBNC bacteria in food processing and the environment is of great importance. As the typical one of the gram-negatives, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a widespread foodborne and waterborne pathogenic bacterium and is able to enter into a VBNC state in extreme conditions (similar to the other gram-negative bacteria), including inducing factors and resuscitation stimulus. VBNC E. coli has the ability to recover both culturability and pathogenicity, which may bring potential health risk. This review describes the concrete factors (nonthermal treatment, chemical agents, and environmental factors) that induce E. coli into the VBNC state, the condition or stimulus required for resuscitation of VBNC E. coli, and the methods for detecting VBNC E. coli. Furthermore, the mechanism of genes and proteins involved in the VBNC E. coli is also discussed in this review.

  19. A test-retest dataset for assessing long-term reliability of brain morphology and resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lijie; Huang, Taicheng; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-03-15

    We present a test-retest dataset for evaluation of long-term reliability of measures from structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and rfMRI) scans. The repeated scan dataset was collected from 61 healthy adults in two sessions using highly similar imaging parameters at an interval of 103-189 days. However, as the imaging parameters were not completely identical, the reliability estimated from this dataset shall reflect the lower bounds of the true reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures. Furthermore, in conjunction with other test-retest datasets, our dataset may help explore the impact of different imaging parameters on reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures, which is especially critical for assessing datasets collected from multiple centers. In addition, intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured for each participant using Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. The data can thus be used for purposes other than assessing reliability of sMRI/rfMRI alone. For example, data from each single session could be used to associate structural and functional measures of the brain with the IQ metrics to explore brain-IQ association.

  20. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    than spin-based techniques like PB on a Linux platform. Third, the proposed HYBRID scheduling provides the best performance-energy behavior and can be implemented on any cluster with little effort. All these results suggest that blocking-based coscheduling techniques are viable candidates to be used instead of batching scheme for significant performance-energy benefits.

  1. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Arjen de Groot

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  2. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, G Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  3. Remote sensing is a viable tool for mapping soil salinity in agricultural lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Scudiero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity negatively impacts the productivity and profitability of western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV farmland. Many factors, including drought, climate change, reduced water allocations, and land-use changes could worsen salinity conditions there, and in other agricultural lands in the state. Mapping soil salinity at regional and state levels is essential for identifying drivers and trends in agricultural soil salinity, and for developing mitigation strategies, but traditional soil sampling for salinity does not allow for accurate large-scale mapping. We tested remote-sensing modeling to map root zone soil salinity for farmland in the WSJV. According to our map, 0.78 million acres are salt affected (i.e., ECe > 4 dS/m, which represents 45% of the mapped farmland; 30% of that acreage is strongly or extremely saline. Independent validations of the remote-sensing estimations indicated acceptable to excellent correspondences, except in areas of low salinity and high soil heterogeneity. Remote sensing is a viable tool for helping landowners make decisions about land use and also for helping water districts and state agencies develop salinity mitigation strategies.

  4. Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of rural tourism and community development has been made in general terms with less focus on poverty alleviation and more emphasis on economic modernisation. Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation has been emphasised in the contemporary tourism and poverty alleviation literature.

  5. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of vascular conduits including the. Internal Mammary Artery (IMA), Radial Artery. (RA) and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV), are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary. Artery Bypass Graft procedures. These have demonstrated various successes over the years in both long-term patency.

  6. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  7. Determining size and dispersion of minimum viable populations for land management planning and species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, John F.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of minimum populations of wildlife and plants has only recently been discussed in the literature. Population genetics has emerged as a basic underlying criterion for determining minimum population size. This paper presents a genetic framework and procedure for determining minimum viable population size and dispersion strategies in the context of multiple-use land management planning. A procedure is presented for determining minimum population size based on maintenance of genetic heterozygosity and reduction of inbreeding. A minimum effective population size ( N e ) of 50 breeding animals is taken from the literature as the minimum shortterm size to keep inbreeding below 1% per generation. Steps in the procedure adjust N e to account for variance in progeny number, unequal sex ratios, overlapping generations, population fluctuations, and period of habitat/population constraint. The result is an approximate census number that falls within a range of effective population size of 50 500 individuals. This population range defines the time range of short- to long-term population fitness and evolutionary potential. The length of the term is a relative function of the species generation time. Two population dispersion strategies are proposed: core population and dispersed population.

  8. Social Media in Diabetes Education: A Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie; Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    As Extension educators are encouraged to implement more cost-effective and efficient means of programming, the use of Web-based social media has become a popular option. Penn State Extension implemented a social media awareness survey among participants in its community-based diabetes education program to determine familiarity with this medium,…

  9. The effect of formulation on the penetration of coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles into the viable epidermis of human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Le Lamer, Marina; Sanchez, Washington Y; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington H; Morrow, Isabel; Martin, Darren; Silva, Heron D T; Prow, Tarl W; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S

    2013-06-01

    The use of nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) in sunscreens and other cosmetic products has raised public health concerns. The two key issues are the extent of exposure to ZnO-NP and the likely hazard after the application of ZnO-NP in sunscreen and cosmetic products to humans in vivo. Our aims were to assess exposure by the extent of ZnO-NP penetration into the viable epidermis and hazard by changes in the viable epidermal redox state for a number of topical products. Of particular interest is the role of the particle coating, formulation used, and the presence of any enhancers. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (MPT-FLIM) was used to simultaneously observe ZnO-NP penetration and potential metabolic changes within the viable epidermis of human volunteers after topical application of various ZnO-NP products. Coated and uncoated ZnO-NP remained in the superficial layers of the SC and in the skin furrows. We observed limited penetration of coated ZnO-NP dispersed in a water-in-oil emulsion formulation, which was predominantly localized adjacent to the skin furrow. However, the presence of ZnO-NP in the viable epidermis did not alter the metabolic state or morphology of the cells. In summary, our data suggest that some limited penetration of coated and uncoated ZnO-NP may occur into viable stratum granulosum epidermis adjacent to furrows, but that the extent is not sufficient to affect the redox state of those viable cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Independent Evolution Method Is Not a Viable Phylogenetic Comparative Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi H Griffin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs use data on species traits and phylogenetic relationships to shed light on evolutionary questions. Recently, Smaers and Vinicius suggested a new PCM, Independent Evolution (IE, which purportedly employs a novel model of evolution based on Felsenstein's Adaptive Peak Model. The authors found that IE improves upon previous PCMs by producing more accurate estimates of ancestral states, as well as separate estimates of evolutionary rates for each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Here, we document substantial theoretical and computational issues with IE. When data are simulated under a simple Brownian motion model of evolution, IE produces severely biased estimates of ancestral states and changes along individual branches. We show that these branch-specific changes are essentially ancestor-descendant or "directional" contrasts, and draw parallels between IE and previous PCMs such as "minimum evolution". Additionally, while comparisons of branch-specific changes between variables have been interpreted as reflecting the relative strength of selection on those traits, we demonstrate through simulations that regressing IE estimated branch-specific changes against one another gives a biased estimate of the scaling relationship between these variables, and provides no advantages or insights beyond established PCMs such as phylogenetically independent contrasts. In light of our findings, we discuss the results of previous papers that employed IE. We conclude that Independent Evolution is not a viable PCM, and should not be used in comparative analyses.

  11. Assessment of State and Trait Anxiety Level of Physical Education and Sports' Students before the Term Final Examinations: Example of Halic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgan, Cigdem; Odabas, Hatice Ilhan; Dal, Suzan; Meçu, Elif; Aydin, Mensure

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of state and trait anxiety levels of students in Halic University, School of Physical Education and Sports, during final exams according to their age, department and year in school. For this research, 469 students (mean age 21,17 ± 2,27) studying in 2014-2015 spring term were chosen randomly. As data…

  12. Options for near-term phaseout of CO(2) emissions from coal use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A; Kutscher, Charles F; Hansen, James E; Mazria, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The global climate problem becomes tractable if CO(2) emissions from coal use are phased out rapidly and emissions from unconventional fossil fuels (e.g., oil shale and tar sands) are prohibited. This paper outlines technology options for phasing out coal emissions in the United States by approximately 2030. We focus on coal for physical and practical reasons and on the U.S. because it is most responsible for accumulated fossil fuel CO(2) in the atmosphere today, specifically targeting electricity production, which is the primary use of coal. While we recognize that coal emissions must be phased out globally, we believe U.S. leadership is essential. A major challenge for reducing U.S. emissions is that coal provides the largest proportion of base load power, i.e., power satisfying minimum electricity demand. Because this demand is relatively constant and coal has a high carbon intensity, utility carbon emissions are largely due to coal. The current U.S. electric grid incorporates little renewable power, most of which is not base load power. However, this can readily be changed within the next 2-3 decades. Eliminating coal emissions also requires improved efficiency, a "smart grid", additional energy storage, and advanced nuclear power. Any further coal usage must be accompanied by carbon capture and storage (CCS). We suggest that near-term emphasis should be on efficiency measures and substitution of coal-fired power by renewables and third-generation nuclear plants, since these technologies have been successfully demonstrated at the relevant (commercial) scale. Beyond 2030, these measures can be supplemented by CCS at power plants and, as needed, successfully demonstrated fourth-generation reactors. We conclude that U.S. coal emissions could be phased out by 2030 using existing technologies or ones that could be commercially competitive with coal within about a decade. Elimination of fossil fuel subsidies and a substantial rising price on carbon emissions are the

  13. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  14. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  15. LONG-TERM HOMEOSTASIS OF EXTRACELLULAR GLUTAMATE IN THE RAT CEREBRAL CORTEX ACROSS SLEEP AND WAKING STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Michael B; Douglas, Christopher L.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal firing patterns, neuromodulators, and cerebral metabolism change across sleep waking states, and the synaptic release of glutamate is critically involved in these processes. Extrasynaptic glutamate can also affect neural function and may be neurotoxic, but whether and how extracellular glutamate is regulated across sleep-waking states is unclear. To assess the effect of behavioral state on extracellular glutamate at high temporal resolution, we recorded glutamate concentration in pre...

  16. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    Physical responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts...

  17. Peace Without Arms: Viable Option or Far-Fetched Ideal?

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that a State can reconstruct it’s own politics in such a way that allows for more reliance on conflict resolving international organizations and institutions and can reduce the need for military force and/or power politics. Accordingly, the complexities of the security dilemma can be reduced or eliminated. I utilize a single case study approach that analyzes the 2010 territorial conflict known as the ‘Isla Calero’ dispute between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Using both an induc...

  18. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  19. Comparability of Semester and Exit Exam Grades: Long-Term Effect of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A goal in many countries is to institute state-wide exams to base student assessment more firmly on norms for all classes. This raises the question as to the extent to which greater standardization of grading practice can be reached by implementing state-wide exit exams. Since there is a lack of longitudinal studies, we analyzed the effect of the…

  20. IMPROVING LONG-TERM OUTCOMES IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION: TOWARDS A NEW PARADIGM OF POST-TRANSPLANT CARE IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1950s, care for kidney transplant recipients in the United States has evolved around a model in which clinical management, quality metrics, and financial underpinnings are focused around the surgical procedure itself reflecting the concept that perioperative and short-term interventions are primary determinants of success. In the current era, short-term results are indeed excellent, but long-term success remains elusive for many. Emerging data, particularly a newfound understanding of donor-specific antibody and its consequences, now challenge the concept that late graft failure is the consequence of early events. Several major longitudinal studies, including the long-term Deterioration of Kidney Allograft Function (DeKAF) project and Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-09 (CTOT-09), highlight the primacy of later events in influencing long-term outcomes after kidney transplantation. Proper long-term care and monitoring of kidney recipients, with timely diagnosis and treatment of identifiable injury, offers the best prospect of improving long-term graft survival.

  1. Novel Approach for Enterocutaneous Fistula Treatment with the Use of Viable Cryopreserved Placental Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Nichols

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF are a difficult and costly surgical complication to manage. The standard treatment of nil per os (NPO and total paraenteral nutrition (TPN is not well tolerated by patients. TPN is also known for complications associated with long term central venous catheterization and for high cost of prolonged hospital stay. We present two low output ECF cases successfully treated with viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM placed into the fistula tracts. One patient is a 59-year-old male with a low output ECF from a jejunostomy tube site four weeks after the surgery. The second patient is an 87-year-old male with a low output ECF following a small bowel resection secondary to a strangulated inguinal hernia. He was evaluated on day 41 after surgery. NPO and TPN for several weeks did not resolute the ECF. The fistulae were closed postoperatively in both patients with zero output on the same day after one vCPM application. On day 3 postoperatively both patients were started on clear liquid diets and subsequently advanced to regular diets. The ECF have remained resolved for over 2 months. The use of vCPM is a novel promising approach for treatment of ECF.

  2. Is flapless implant surgery a viable option in posterior maxilla? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, N; Du, Z; Crawford, R; Reher, P; Xiao, Y

    2012-09-01

    This article reviews the literature on the outcome of flapless surgery for dental implants in the posterior maxilla. The literature search was carried out in using the keywords: flapless, dental implants and maxilla. A hand search and Medline search were carried out on studies published between 1971 and 2011. The authors included research involving a minimum of 15 dental implants with a follow-up period of 1 year, an outcome measurement of implant survival, but excluded studies involving multiple simultaneous interventions, and studies with missing data. The Cochrane approach for cohort studies and Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine were applied. Of the 56 published papers selected, 14 papers on the flapless technique showed high overall implant survival rates. The prospective studies yielded 97.01% (95% CI: 90.72-99.0) while retrospective studies or case series illustrated 95.08% (95% CI: 91.0-97.93) survival. The average of intraoperative complications was 6.55% using the flapless procedure. The limited data obtained showed that flapless surgery in posterior maxilla areas could be a viable and predictable treatment method for implant placement. Flapless surgery tends to be more applicable in this area of the mouth. Further long-term clinical controlled studies are needed. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of morning caffeine' ingestion on mood States, simple reaction time, and short-term maximal performance on elite judoists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souissi, Makram; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Atheymen, Rim; Hakim, Ahmed; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test recorded in the morning on elite Judoists...

  4. Short-Term Distribution System State Forecast Based on Optimal Synchrophasor Sensor Placement and Extreme Learning Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-11-14

    This paper proposes an approach for distribution system state forecasting, which aims to provide an accurate and high speed state forecasting with an optimal synchrophasor sensor placement (OSSP) based state estimator and an extreme learning machine (ELM) based forecaster. Specifically, considering the sensor installation cost and measurement error, an OSSP algorithm is proposed to reduce the number of synchrophasor sensor and keep the whole distribution system numerically and topologically observable. Then, the weighted least square (WLS) based system state estimator is used to produce the training data for the proposed forecaster. Traditionally, the artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR) are widely used in forecasting due to their nonlinear modeling capabilities. However, the ANN contains heavy computation load and the best parameters for SVR are difficult to obtain. In this paper, the ELM, which overcomes these drawbacks, is used to forecast the future system states with the historical system states. The proposed approach is effective and accurate based on the testing results.

  5. Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolny, E; Swift, S; Vanholsbeeck, F

    2013-07-21

    Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations.

  6. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently

  7. Effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment and glassy state storage on the quality attributes of frozen mangoes under long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Ding, Yang; Nie, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Zhen; Tang, Xuan-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the quality of frozen mango cuboids were investigated during long-term glassy state storage with and without osmotic dehydration pretreatment. The mango cuboids were dehydrated in mixed solutions (sucrose: glucose: fructose in a ratio of 3.6:1:3) of different concentrations (30, 40, and 50% (wt/wt)) prior to freezing and then stored at -55 °C (in the glassy state) for 6 months. The results revealed that compared with the untreated samples, osmotic pretreatment decreased total color difference (reduced by 15.6-62.3%), drip loss (reduced by 8.2-29.5%) and titration acidity (reduced by 1.3-9.4%), while increasing hardness (increased by 48.8-82.3%), vitamin C content (increased by 72.5-120.6%) and total soluble solids (increased by 21.8-53.7%) of frozen mangoes after 6 months. Dehydration with a sugar concentration of 40% was considered as the optimal pretreatment condition. In addition, a storage temperature of -55 °C provided better retention of quality than rubbery state storage at -18 °C. With prolonged storage time, the quality of frozen mangoes continued to change, even in the glassy state. However, the changes in quality of the osmotic-dehydrated samples were less than those of the untreated samples. The current work indicates that osmotic pretreatment and glassy state storage significantly improved the quality of frozen mangoes during long-term storage.

  8. Development of a Long-Term Hydrologically-Based Dataset of Land Surface Fluxes and States for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The absence of long-term consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset, which frustrates the analyses of land surface variables changes and interactions, has been one of the most frequently encountered problems for assessing the performance of land-atmosphere parameterizations. While some offline model studies can provide balanced water and energy budgets at land surface, few of them has presented an evaluation of the long-term interaction of the water balance components over China. In the paper, we develop a latest, hydrologically-based, consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset of China using a land surface model driven by long-term gridded observation-based meteorological forcings. The newly developed dataset covers China domain and is at 3-hr time step with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The dataset spans the period from 1952 to near-real-time when China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observation is updated. The simulated runoff matches quite well with the observed seasonal hydrographs, inter-annual variation, and long-term trend over large river basins. The simulated soil moisture reasonably reproduces the seasonal variation of the observed soil moisture at 10 sites where the observations are available. Besides that, it also successfully captures recent severe droughts in Southwest China. The dataset, which is to be unrestricted accessible via internet, may be useful for climate diagnostic studies in China where precipitation is generally not well represented in reanalysis products.

  9. Projecting Long-Term Care Expenditure in Four European Union Member States: The Influence of Demographic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Wittenberg, Raphael; Patxot, Concepcio; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Gori, Cristiano; di Maio, Alessandra; Pickard, Linda; Pozzi, Alessandro; Rothgang, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of future long-term care demand and expenditure estimates to official demographic projections in four selected European countries: Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. It uses standardised methodology in the form of a macro-simulation exercise and finds evidence for significant differences in…

  10. Real-time detection of viable microorganisms by intracellular phototautomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuren Frank

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, the detection of live microorganisms present in the environment or involved in infections is carried out by enumeration of colony forming units on agar plates, which is time consuming, laborious and limited to readily cultivable microorganisms. Although cultivation-independent methods are available, they involve multiple incubation steps and do mostly not discriminate between dead or live microorganisms. We present a novel generic method that is able to specifically monitor living microorganisms in a real-time manner. Results The developed method includes exposure of cells to a weak acid probe at low pH. The neutral probe rapidly permeates the membrane and enters the cytosol. In dead cells no signal is obtained, as the cytosolic pH reflects that of the acidic extracellular environment. In live cells with a neutral internal pH, the probe dissociates into a fluorescent phototautomeric anion. After reaching peak fluorescence, the population of live cells decays. This decay can be followed real-time as cell death coincides with intracellular acidification and return of the probe to its uncharged non-fluorescent state. The rise and decay of the fluorescence signal depends on the probe structure and appears discriminative for bacteria, fungi, and spores. We identified 13 unique probes, which can be applied in the real-time viability method described here. Under the experimental conditions used in a microplate reader, the reported method shows a detection limit of 106 bacteria ml-1, while the frequently used LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ Syto9 and propidium iodide stains show detection down to 106 and 107 bacteria ml-1, respectively. Conclusions We present a novel fluorescence-based method for viability assessment, which is applicable to all bacteria and eukaryotic cell types tested so far. The RTV method will have a significant impact in many areas of applied microbiology including research on biocidal activity, improvement of

  11. Development of A Long Term Hydrologically-Based Dataset of Land Surface Fluxes and States for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The absence of long-term consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset, which frustrates the analyses of land surface variables changes and interactions, has been one of the most frequently encountered problems for assessing the performance of land-atmosphere parameterizations. While some offline model studies can provide balanced water and energy budgets at land surface, few of them has presented an evaluation of the long-term interaction of the water balance components over China. In the paper, we develop a latest, hydrologically-based, consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset of China using a land surface model (VIC) driven by long-term gridded observation-based meteorological forcings. The newly developed dataset covers China domain and is at 3-hr time step with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The dataset spans the period from 1952 to near-real-time when China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observation is updated. In the dataset, the simulated runoff matches quite well with the observed seasonal hydrographs, inter-annual variation, and long-term trend over large river basins. The simulated soil moisture reasonably reproduces the seasonal variation of the observed soil moisture at 8 stations where long-term observations are available in China. Compared with China Meteorological Forcing Dataset developed by ITPCAS, the downward radiations generally have the relative compatible patterns in spatial on seasonal means over domain though some biases at magnitude are existed. In contrast with the global products of similar nature, the dataset can provide a more accurate and meaningful estimates of land surface variables over China continent. The dataset, which is to be unrestricted accessible via internet, may be useful for climate diagnostic studies in China, especially where precipitation is hard to obtain and generally not well represented in reanalysis products.

  12. GI+100: Long Term Preservation of Digital Geographic Information — 16 Fundamental Principles Agreed by National Mapping Agencies and State Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Carsten Rönsdorf; Paul Mason; Jonathan Holmes; Urs Gerber; André Streilein; Marguérite Bos; Arif Shaon; Kai Naumann; Michael Kirstein; Göran Samuelsson; Marja Rantala; Sidsel Kvarteig; Lynne Adams; Jenny Svennewall; Wolfgang Stößel

    2017-01-01

    This paper states 16 principles for the long term retention and preservation of digital geographic information. The paper is mainly aimed at public sector geographic information providers in Europe (particularly those involved in mapping and cadastre) with the intention of highlighting the significance of fundamental concepts for digital geographic data archiving. Geographic information providers are mainly mapping agencies, but also archives preserving geographic data among a wider range of ...

  13. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  14. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  15. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es...

  16. 76 FR 64162 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Department of State Standard Terms and Conditions for Domestic Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    .... Butler, Acting, Federal Assistance Director, Office of the Procurement Executive, Department of State... Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals and Other Non-Profit Organizations... Executive, Federal Assistance Division (A/ OPE/FA). You may submit comments by the following methods: E-mail...

  17. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Draxl, C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Brownsword, R. (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Oxford (United Kingdom)); Kariniotakis, G. (ARMINES, Paris (France)); Denhard, M. (ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom))

    2011-01-15

    This Deliverable of ANEMOS.plus (Advanced Tools for the Management of Electricity Grids with Large-Scale Wind Generation) and SafeWind projects presents the state of the art in wind power forecasting. More than 380 references of journal and conference papers have been reviewed. (LN)

  18. Short term use of oral corticosteroids and related harms among adults in the United States: population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waljee, Akbar K; Rogers, Mary A M; Lin, Paul; Singal, Amit G; Stein, Joshua D; Marks, Rory M; Ayanian, John Z; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2017-04-12

    Objective To determine the frequency of prescriptions for short term use of oral corticosteroids, and adverse events (sepsis, venous thromboembolism, fractures) associated with their use.Design Retrospective cohort study and self controlled case series.Setting Nationwide dataset of private insurance claims.Participants Adults aged 18 to 64 years who were continuously enrolled from 2012 to 2014.Main outcome measures Rates of short term use of oral corticosteroids defined as less than 30 days duration. Incidence rates of adverse events in corticosteroid users and non-users. Incidence rate ratios for adverse events within 30 day and 31-90 day risk periods after drug initiation.Results Of 1 548 945 adults, 327 452 (21.1%) received at least one outpatient prescription for short term use of oral corticosteroids over the three year period. Use was more frequent among older patients, women, and white adults, with significant regional variation (all Pcorticosteroids during a three year period, with an associated increased risk of adverse events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Immunization of rodents against Hymenolepis infections using non-viable homologous oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ito, Akira

    2004-12-01

    Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  20. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  1. The molecular clock in terms of quantum information processing of coherent states, entanglement and replication of evolutionarily selected decohered isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Grant

    2011-06-01

    Evolutionary pressures have selected quantum uncertainty limits -ΔxΔp ( x ) ≥ 1/2ħ-to operate on metastable amino DNA protons. This introduces a probability of molecular clock arrangement, keto-amino → enol-imine, where product protons are entangled and participate in coupled quantum oscillation at frequencies of ∼ 10(13) s(-1). The ket "seen by" the transcriptase, reading a coherent enol-imine G'-state, is |φ >= α| + + > +β|+- > +γ|-+ > +δ|-->. The transcriptase implements its measurement and generates an output qubit of observable genetic specificity information in an interval Δt ≪ 10(-13) s. These quantum measurements can specify the relative distribution of coherent G'-C' states at time of measurement. The ensuing quantum entanglement between coherent protons and transcriptase units is utilized as a resource to generate proper decoherence and introduce selected time-dependent substitutions, ts, and deletions, td. Topal-Fresco ts are G'202 → T, G'002 → C, *G020(0) → A and *C202(2) → T, whereas td are exhibited at coherent *A-*T sites. Variation in clock 'tic-rate' is a consequence of clock introduction of initiation codons - UUG, CUG, AUG, GUG - and stop codons, UAA, UAG, UGA. Using approximate quantum methods for times t coherent states populating human genes, including inherited (CAG)( n ) repeat tracts.

  2. Long-term changes in attitudes toward premarital sex in the United States: reexamining the role of cohort replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Vicky L; Fullerton, Andrew S; Simpson, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward premarital sex in the United States have changed considerably since the 1970s. However, it is unclear whether these changes are due to cohort replacement, broader changes within cohorts, or a combination of the two processes. We examined within- and between-cohort changes in attitudes toward premarital sex in the United States from 1975 to 2008 using hierarchical age-period-cohort models based on data from the General Social Survey. We used a religious plausibility structure framework to examine several possible mechanisms for within- and between-cohort variation in premarital sex attitudes over time, including changes in religious participation, marital patterns, and family structure. The results provided mixed support for our hypotheses. Attitudes toward premarital sex became more permissive over time in the United States in part because of the process of cohort replacement, but the level of permissiveness peaked with the baby boomer cohorts. This cohort effect is due in part to differences in rates of religious service attendance and educational attainment. However, the overall increase in permissive attitudes toward premarital sex is also due to period effects that are not captured by the measures included in our analyses.

  3. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GI+100: Long Term Preservation of Digital Geographic Information - 16 Fundamental Principles Agreed by National Mapping Agencies and State Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Carsten Rönsdorf

    2017-05-01

    There are many reasons why people wish to retain access to information, though the main drivers for archiving digital geographic information include meeting legislative requirements; the short and long term exploitation of archived data for analyzing social, environmental (e.g. global climate changes and economic changes over time; as well as efficiency savings in managing superseded datasets. This paper sets out the path and describes what needs to be done now to future-proof the investment government agencies around the world have made in creating digital geographic data.

  5. Penicillin-mediated changes in viable benthic diatom assemblages – insights about the relevance of bacteria across spatial and seasonal scales.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    species composition of the viable, benthic diatom assemblages when treated with penicillin. The probable mechanisms responsible for these penicillin-mediated changes are numerous. Theoretically, penicillin-mediated changes in diatom assemblages... seawater (MBL) (Cavanaugh 1975) enriched with f/2 level of nutrients (Guillard and Ryther 1962) was used as the basal diluent and will henceforth be termed control. Penicillin was incorporated in the control diluent at 0.2 mg ml-1. In the original MPN...

  6. Welfare institutions, resources, and political learning. Interacting with the State as an Incentive for the Political Participation of Long-Term Unemployed Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of interactions with welfare institutions on the political partici-pation of long-term unemployed youth in two cities. We assess the role of resource redistribution and of political learning on engagement in protest activities. We use a unique dataset of long-term unemployed youth to predict the probability that long-term unemployed youth participate in protest activities and be-come politically alienated as a result of their interactions with the state. Our study suggests that the impact of staid aid on political participation comes from providing services through the unemployment office and the social aid office rather than from direct payments. However, we do not find strong evidence revealing a process of political learning, as political alienation does not seem to mediate the effect of interactions with the state on protest. The most important finding of our study is that the connection between welfare insti-tutions and political learning is context-dependent. We find a differential effect of interactions with the unemployment office and with the social aid office across cities.

  7. Long-Term Experience of Chinese Calligraphic Handwriting Is Associated with Better Executive Functions and Stronger Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Related Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; He, Yong; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Cuiping; Chen, Chuansheng; Bi, Suyu; Yang, Pin; Wang, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese calligraphic handwriting (CCH) is a traditional art form that requires high levels of concentration and motor control. Previous research has linked short-term training in CCH to improvements in attention and memory. Little is known about the potential impacts of long-term CCH practice on a broader array of executive functions and their potential neural substrates. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 36 practitioners with at least 5 years of CCH experience and 50 control subjects with no more than one month of CCH practice and investigated their differences in the three components of executive functions (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition). Valid resting-state fMRI data were collected from 31 CCH and 40 control participants. Compared with the controls, CCH individuals showed better updating (as measured by the Corsi Block Test) and inhibition (as measured by the Stroop Word-Color Test), but the two groups did not differ in shifting (as measured by a cue-target task). The CCH group showed stronger resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) than the control group in brain areas involved in updating and inhibition. These results suggested that long-term CCH training may be associated with improvements in specific aspects of executive functions and strengthened neural networks in related brain regions.

  8. Long-term Outcomes of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in the Era of Modern Antiretroviral Therapy; Results from a United States Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, Douglas A.; Ahuja, Alka; Van Natta, Mark L.; Lyon, Alice T.; Yeh, Steven; Danis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the long-term outcomes of patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Design Prospective, observational, cohort study Participants Patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis Testing Immune recovery, defined as a CD4+ T cell count>100 cells/μL for ≥ 3 months. Main outcome measures Mortality, visual impairment (visual acuity worse than 20/40) and blindness (visual acuity 20/200 or worse) on logarithmic visual acuity charts, loss of visual field on quantitative Goldmann perimetry. Results Patients without immune recovery had a mortality of 44.4/100 person years (PY), and a median survival of 13.5 months after the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, whereas those with immune recovery had a mortality of 2.7/100 PY (Pvisual impairment and blindness were 0.9/100 PY and 0.4/100 PY, respectively, and were similar between those with and without immune recovery. Among those with immune recovery, the rate of visual field loss was ~1% of the normal field/year, whereas among those without immune recovery it was ~7% of the normal field/year. Conclusions Among persons with CMV retinitis and AIDS, if there is immune recovery, long-term survival is likely, whereas if there is no immune recovery, the mortality rate is substantial. Although higher than the rates seen in the non-HIV-infected population, the rates of bilateral visual impairment and blindness are low, especially when compared to rates seen in the era before modern antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25892019

  9. Analyzing the Anxiety States of Canditates Applying f or Special Talent Examination in the School of Physical Education and Sports in Terms of Several Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim SONGÜN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anxiety states of candidates who were going to attend special talent examination in the School of Physical Education and Sports were analyzed in terms of various variables such as age, gender, residence and socio - economic level of the family , parents’ educational levels and professions, active sports status, the number of exams taken, and applied training methods. Within the scope of this study, 244 candidates who applied for the special talent examination held by the School of Physical Educa tion and Sports in Gümüşhane University in 2014 - 2015 academic year volunteered to participate. Regarding the data collection tool, a personal information form and State - Trait Anxiety Scale developed by Spielberger et. al were used. For the analysis of gath ered data, for paramedic variables, t test and test of One Way Anova were applied. For non paramedic variables, Kruskal Wallis test was applied. In order to determine the source of difference between the means Post Hoc Tukey test was applied. All the analy ses during the research process were carried out by SPSS 20.00 package program. As a result, it was found out that the only significant diff erence between the anxiety scores and the stated variables was in terms of candidates’ mothers’ occupation variable (F 239 = 2,507, p<.05 whereas no other significant difference was determined concerning other variables.

  10. Molybdenum sulfides-efficient and viable materials for electro - and photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Kegnæs, Søren; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This perspective covers the use of molybdenum disulfide and related compounds, generally termed MoSx, as electro- or photoelectrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). State of the art solutions as well as the most illustrative results from the extensive electro- and photoelectrocat......This perspective covers the use of molybdenum disulfide and related compounds, generally termed MoSx, as electro- or photoelectrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). State of the art solutions as well as the most illustrative results from the extensive electro...... sites of the catalyst, and (3) improving the electrical contact to these sites. These postulations are substantiated by examples from the existing literature and some new results. To demonstrate the electrocatalytic properties of a highly conductive MoS2 hybrid material, we present the HER activity data...

  11. Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Incidence After Negative Colonoscopy in the State of Utah: The Effect of Family History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, N Jewel; Pappas, Lisa; Boucherr, Kenneth M; Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi; Fraser, Alison; Wan, Yuan; Burt, Randall W; Curtin, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Colonoscopy is widely recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but evidence to guide the optimal frequency of repeat screening examination is limited. We examined the duration and magnitude of the risk of developing CRC, following a negative colonoscopy in those at average risk and those with a first-degree family history of CRC. A cohort of Utah residents aged 50-80 years who had a negative colonoscopy between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 was identified using the Utah Population Database. Patients were followed from the time of the index colonoscopy until diagnosis of CRC, death, migration out of state, repeat colonoscopy, or end of the study period. CRC incidence after the index colonoscopy was compared with that of the state population by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). A cohort of 131,349 individuals at average risk with a negative colonoscopy was identified. Compared with the state population, a negative colonoscopy was associated with SIRs of 0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-0.23) at 1 year, 0.26 (95% CI: 0.19-0.32) at 2-5 years, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22-0.43) at 5-6 years, and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44-0.76) at 7-10 years for CRC following the index colonoscopy. In a secondary analysis involving only patients with a first-degree relative with CRC, patients had a significantly lower incidence of CRC only for the first 5 years of follow-up (SIR 0.39, 95% CI: 013-0.64). There was also a difference in the risk of proximal (SIR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.45-0.98) and distal (SIR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30-0.72) colon cancers at 7-10 years following a negative colonoscopy. The risk of developing CRC remains decreased for at least 10 years following the performance of a negative colonoscopy. However, the lower incidence of CRC in those with a family history of CRC differed in magnitude and timing being limited primarily to the first 5 years of follow-up and of lesser magnitude than that in the overall cohort.

  12. Immunization of Rodents Against Hymenolepis Infections using Non-Viable Homologous Oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous nonviable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at −70°C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  13. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  14. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  15. Blogging as a viable research methodology for young people with arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-03-05

    The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data

  16. Long-term implications of sustained wind power growth in the United States: Potential benefits and secondary impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Lantz, Eric; Macknick, Jordan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev

    2016-10-01

    We model scenarios of the U.S. electric sector in which wind generation reaches 10% of end-use electricity demand in 2020, 20% in 2030, and 35% in 2050. As shown in a companion paper, achieving these penetration levels would have significant implications for the wind industry and the broader electric sector. Compared to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, under the primary scenario modeled, achieving these penetrations imposes an incremental cost to electricity consumers of less than 1% through 2030. These cost implications, however, should be balanced against the variety of environmental and social implications of such a scenario. Relative to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, our analysis shows that the high-penetration wind scenario yields potential greenhouse-gas benefits of $85-$1,230 billion in present-value terms, with a central estimate of $400 billion. Air-pollution-related health benefits are estimated at $52-$272 billion, while annual electric-sector water withdrawals and consumption are lower by 15% and 23% in 2050, respectively. We also find that a high-wind-energy future would have implications for the diversity and risk of energy supply, local economic development, and land use and related local impacts on communities and ecosystems; however, these additional impacts may not greatly affect aggregate social welfare owing to their nature, in part, as resource transfers.

  17. Long-Term Evolution Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Modulates the Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Qinghua; Lv, Bin; Wu, Tongning

    2017-05-01

    Long-term evolution (LTE) wireless telecommunication systems are widely used globally, which has raised a concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from LTE devices can change human neural function. To date, few studies have been conducted on the effect of exposure to LTE EMF. Here, we evaluated the changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) due to LTE EMF exposure. An LTE EMF exposure system with a stable power emission, which was equivalent to the maximum emission from an LTE mobile phone, was used to radiate the subjects. Numerical simulations were conducted to ensure that the specific absorption rate in the subject's head was below the safety limits. Exposure to LTE EMF reduced the spectral power and the interhemispheric coherence in the alpha and beta bands of the frontal and temporal brain regions. No significant change was observed in the spectral power and the inter-hemispheric coherence in different timeslots during and after the exposure. These findings also corroborated those of our previous study using functional magnetic resonant imaging.

  18. Long-Term Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Streamwater Salinity in New York State: INCA Simulations Offer Cautious Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Kristina; Jin, Li; Ledesma, José L J; Crossman, Jill; Kelleher, Christa; Lautz, Laura; Lu, Zunli

    2018-01-17

    The long-term application of road salts has led to a rise in surface water chloride (Cl-) concentrations. While models have been used to assess the potential future impacts of continued deicing practices, prior approaches have not incorporated changes in climate that are projected to impact hydrogeology in the 21st century. We use an INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) model to simulate Cl- concentrations in the Tioughnioga River watershed. The model was run over a baseline period (1961-1990) and climate simulations from a range of GCMs run over three 30-year intervals (2010-2039; 2040-2069; 2070-2099). Model projections suggest that Cl- concentrations in the two river branches will continue to rise for several decades, before beginning to decline around 2040-2069, with all GCM scenarios indicating reductions in snowfall and associated salt applications over the 21st century. The delay in stream response is most likely attributed to climate change and continued contribution of Cl- from aquifers. By 2100, surface water Cl- concentrations will decrease to below 1960s values. Catchments dominated by urban lands will experience a decrease in average surface water Cl-, although moderate compared to more rural catchments.

  19. The consequences of migration to the United States for short-term changes in the health of Mexican immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Creighton, Mathew J; Teruel, Graciela M; Rubalcava, Luis N; Chung, Chang

    2014-08-01

    Although many studies have attempted to examine the consequences of Mexico-U.S. migration for Mexican immigrants' health, few have had adequate data to generate the appropriate comparisons. In this article, we use data from two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) to compare the health of current migrants from Mexico with those of earlier migrants and nonmigrants. Because the longitudinal data permit us to examine short-term changes in health status subsequent to the baseline survey for current migrants and for Mexican residents, as well as to control for the potential health selectivity of migrants, the results provide a clearer picture of the consequences of immigration for Mexican migrant health than have previous studies. Our findings demonstrate that current migrants are more likely to experience recent changes in health status-both improvements and declines-than either earlier migrants or nonmigrants. The net effect, however, is a decline in health for current migrants: compared with never migrants, the health of current migrants is much more likely to have declined in the year or two since migration and not significantly more likely to have improved. Thus, it appears that the migration process itself and/or the experiences of the immediate post-migration period detrimentally affect Mexican immigrants' health.

  20. Global Integration of the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite Predicts Short Term Weight Loss in Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle M Paolini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE. The present work is a sub-study (n = 56 of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, superior temporal pole, amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis. After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  1. Spirits Trade After Reform in 1863: To the Issue of Efficiency of State Regulation of Spirits Turnover in Terms of Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ye. Goryushkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of published and non-published archive materials the article estimates efficiency of state regulation of spirits turnover in terms of excise taxation period. It also states types of spirits trade, types of public houses, groups of people that have obtained the right for wholesale, retail and that of small amount tradeoff spirits. License gaining procedures are widely described as well. The author pays significant attention to the areas in cities and countryside, where the public houses should not have been opened as well as the individuals who were admitted to spirits trade; also he states events which influenced the sale of spirits. The requirements to interior of public houses, working hours, quality and volumes of trade are also specified. It is pointed out that the officials of excise tax board were to control the regulations of spirit trade, their authority extended to public houses control in 1885. The author comes to the conclusion that regulatory means of excise tax was efficient and by increasing and decreasing of license cost, complication and simplification of new public houses opening all together allowed to regulate the turnover of spirits in terms of free trade thus influencing the number, types, density, range and quality of spirits. However, there was distinct ambiguity in Ministry of Finance policy during the stated excise taxation period. On the one hand it limited free sale of spirits, eradicating public houses which were considered detrimental. On the other hand, the Ministry was set not to notice abuse in trade which gave the opportunity to gain greater benefits at public cost from spirits sales.

  2. Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  5. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  6. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  7. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Response of the Kuroshio Extension path state to near-term global warming in CMIP5 experiments with MIROC4h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jing, Zhao; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, responses of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) path state to near-term (2006-2035) global warming are investigated using a Kuroshio-resolving atmosphere-ocean coupled model. Under the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) forcing, the KE system is intensified and its path state tends to move northward and becomes more stable. It is suggested that the local anticyclonic wind stress anomalies in the KE region favor the spin-up of the southern recirculation gyre, and the remote effect induced by the anticyclonic wind stress anomalies over the central and eastern midlatitude North Pacific also contributes to the stabilization of the KE system substantially. The dominant role of wind stress forcing on KE variability under near-term global warming is further confirmed by adopting a linear 1.5 layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress curl field from the present climate model. It is also found that the main contributing longitudinal band for KE index (KEI) moves westward in response to the warmed climate. This results from the northwestward expansion of the large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) field.

  9. Light-induced short-term adaptation mechanisms under redox control in the PS II-LHCII supercomplex: LHC II state transitions and PS II repair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Olaf

    2001-05-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants. While cyanobacteria have adapted to relatively constant environments, higher plants had to evolve mechanisms to adapt to continuous environmental changes. These include changes in light intensity, temperature and availability of water. One of the great challenges in plant cell biology is therefore to determine the regulatory mechanisms employed by higher plants and some algae to adapt to these constant environmental changes. The particular emphasis of this review is the description and characterisation of light-induced redox-controlled processes regulating the photosynthetic reactions, which involves maintaining maximal electron transport flow through the PS II-Cytb6f-PS I-FoF1ATPase electron transport chain and minimising light-induced oxidative damage to PS II which drives the highly oxidising water-splitting reaction. Two of the mechanisms involved in such short-term regulation processes are known as light harvesting complex II (LHC II) state transitions and photosystem II (PS II) repair cycle. They are followed by, and indeed may be a precondition in order to establish, the onset of the subsequent long-term mechanisms of regulation. In particular, the redox control of LHC II state transitions by reversible phosphorylation has been in the focus of many investigations, leading to many new results demonstrating the complexity of thylakoid-associated redox control mechanisms.

  10. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of three health-state valuation methods using multiple-outcome vignettes on moderate-risk pregnancy at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, Denise; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2009-01-01

    Preference-based health-state valuation methods such as discrete choice experiment (DCE) are claimed to be superior than attitude-based valuation methods like visual analogue scale (VAS) and time trade-off (TTO). We compared VAS, TTO, and DCE in terms of feasibility, reliability, and validity using vignettes depicting moderate-risk pregnancy at term. People from the community (n = 97) participated in both a panel session and an individual home assignment. Each participant valuated 46 vignettes with VAS, TTO, and DCE. Each vignette consisted of five attributes: maternal health antepartum, time between diagnosis and delivery, process of delivery, maternal outcome, and neonatal outcome. The questionnaire included Feasibility, which we evaluated by questionnaire. Test–retest reliability and interobserver consistency were assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), and variance consistency by generalization theory. Convergent validity was determined with ICC and Cohen's kappa; construct validity was determined with linear regression, multinomial logit modeling, and Kendall's Tau-b correlation (τ). The DCE was reported as most feasible (DCE: 87% vs. VAS: 69% vs. TTO: 42%). Test–retest reliability was high overall and equal (VAS: ICC = 0.77; TTO: ICC = 0.79; DCE: κ = 0.78). The VAS had the highest interobserver reliability (ICC = 0.73). Convergent validity between VAS and DCE was high (κ = 0.79) and there was sufficient construct validity between VAS and DCE (τ = 0.68). The TTO yielded less optimal results. Generally, neonatal and maternal outcomes weighed most, whereas process outcomes weighed least in moderate-risk pregnancy at term. In our context of multidimensional health states with complex trade-offs, DCE was superior to TTO and performed equal to VAS, with DCE displaying slightly higher user feasibility.

  11. “Limits of Control” – Crucial Parameters for a Reliable Quantification of Viable Campylobacter by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the “CFU” parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  12. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  13. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Johanna Krüger

    Full Text Available The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase. In contrast, propidium iodide (PI and propidium monoazide (PMA were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the

  14. Discrepancy between myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism following acute myocardial infarction for evaluating the dysfunctional viable myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shankar K; Sarai, Masayoshi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Hishida, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) the area of myocardial perfusion and metabolism mismatch is designated as dysfunctional viable myocardium. (123)I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is clinically very useful for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism, and (99)mTc-Tetrofosmin (TF) is a widely used tracer for myocardial perfusion. This study was designed to evaluate the degree of discrepancy between BMIPP and TF at the subacute state of AMI. Fifty-two patients (aged 59 ± 10 years; mean 46 years) with AMI were enrolled, and all of them underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were classified according to ST-T change and PCI timing. (123)I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid and TF cardiac scintigraphy were performed on 7 ± 3.5 days of admission using a dual headed gamma camera. Perfusion and fatty acid metabolism defect were scored on a 17 segments model. The mean BMIPP defect score on early and delayed images were 16.67 ± 10.19 and 16.25 ± 10.40, respectively. The mean TF defect score was 10 ± 7.69. Defect score of BMIPP was significantly higher than that of the TF (P TF), and 5 (10%) patients showed matched defect (BMIPP = TF). Mismatched defect score (MMDS) was significantly higher in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) than that of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (P < 0.041; 95% CI 0.11-5.19). At the subacute state of AMI, most of the patients showed perfusion-metabolism mismatch, which represents the dysfunctional viable myocardium, and patients with STEMI showed higher mismatch. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  16. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  17. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on state/trait anxiety in full-term pregnancy and its influence on childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Requena Mullor, M; Parron Carreño, T; Alarcón Rodriguez, R

    2018-04-01

    Many researchers have pointed out the strong relationship between maternal psychological well-being and fetal welfare during pregnancy. The impact of music interventions during pregnancy should be examined in depth, as they could have an impact on stress reduction, not only during pregnancy but also during the course of delivery, and furthermore induce fetal awareness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of music on the birthing process. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) stimulation during an NST. The primary outcome was considered as the maternal state anxiety score before and after the NST, and the secondary outcome was the birthing process. Before their NST, full-term pregnant women who had received music intervention were found to have a similar state-trait anxiety score to those from the control group, with 38.10 ± 8.8 and 38.08 ± 8.2, respectively (p = .97). After the NST, the mean state-trait anxiety score of each group was recorded, with results of 30.58 ± 13.2 for those with music intervention, and 43.11 ± 15.0 for those without music intervention (p < .001). In the control group, the NST was followed by a statistically significant increase in the state-trait anxiety score (38.08 ± 8.2 versus 43.11 ± 15.0, p < .001). However, listening to music during the NST resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the state-trait anxiety score of the study group (38.10 ± 8.8 versus 30.58 ± 13.2, OR = 0.87, p < .001). Furthermore, the first stage of labor was shorter in women who received music stimulation (OR = 0.92, p < .004). They also presented a more natural delivery beginning (spontaneous) and less medication (stimulated and induced) than those who were

  18. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.; Jager, V.C. de; Geene, R.T.; Alen-Boerrigter, I.J. van; Hazelwood, L.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Kleerebezem, M; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem.

  19. Induction of viable 2n pollen in sterile Oriental × Trumpet Lilium hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.R.; Arens, P.; Niu, L.X.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to induce viable 2n pollen from highly sterile diploid Oriental × Trumpet (OT) (Lilium), N2O was used to treat flower buds of four sterile diploid OT cultivars (‘Nymph’, ‘Gluhwein’, ‘Yelloween’, and ‘Shocking’) at different stages of meiosis. There was no pollen germination in

  20. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section 113.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... in live vaccine. Each serial and subserial of biological product except live vaccines shall be tested...

  1. Oligonucleotide microarrays for the detection and identification of viable beer spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D G; Sahm, K; Polen, T; Wendisch, V F; Antranikian, G

    2008-10-01

    The design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect and identify viable bacterial species that play a significant role in beer spoilage. These belong to the species of the genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. Oligonucleotide probes specific to beer spoilage bacteria were designed. In order to detect viable bacteria, the probes were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 16S and 23S rRNA. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consenus primer. The developed oligonucleotide microarrays allows the detection of viable beer spoilage bacteria. This method allows the detection and discrimination of single bacterial species in a sample containing complex microbial community. Furthermore, microarrays using oligonucleotide probes targeting the ISR allow the distinction between viable bacteria with the potential to grow and non growing bacteria. The results demonstrate the feasibility of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in food industry for the detection and identification of spoilage micro-organisms within a mixed population.

  2. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  3. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  4. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  5. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  7. Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable eutrophication ... Microcystis in local eutrophic waters is perceived as a primary major constraint in implementing 'classical' food-web manip- ulation. Intrinsic ... cially in 'shallow' lakes) to dismal failure (often in deep lakes) and a range of ...

  8. Survey of state health information exchanges regarding inclusion of Continuity of Care Documents for long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, Andrea; Goodman, Laura; Younkin, Jim; Honicker, Mary; Chaundy, Kimberly; Walker, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to measure awareness and interest among state health information exchanges (HIEs) in a tool that translates long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment information to a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) format for sharing; whether any state HIEs currently integrate patient information from LTPAC providers; and the anticipated benefits and barriers to using such a tool. The study consisted of an online survey of state HIEs. Responses were received from representatives of 29 of the 51 HIEs (57 percent). Eleven of the 29 respondents (38 percent) were aware of the LTPAC-to-CCD translation tool, and 24 (83 percent of respondents) were interested in it or felt LTPAC providers in their state would be interested. Twenty-one of the 24 interested respondents (88 percent) indicated a desire for more information about this technology. Skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies receive no incentives for adoption of electronic health record systems and are not commonly included in HIEs. These organizations do, however collect extensive structured data about their patients (Minimum Data Set for nursing facilities, Outcome and Assessment Information Set for home health agencies) and transmit the data electronically to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A tool is now available that will intercept the transmissions to CMS, transform content extracted from patient assessments into CCDs, and send the CCDs to a designated HIE. Responding HIEs reported almost no experience exchanging patient assessment information from LTPAC providers. Anticipated benefits include safer care transitions; anticipated barriers include information technology constraints in LTPAC settings.

  9. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  10. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Bailey, Ernest; Go, Yun Young; Cook, R Frank; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Eberth, John; Chelvarajan, R Lakshman; Shuck, Kathleen M; Artiushin, Sergey; Timoney, Peter J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10-70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s) of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A) within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1) having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb) encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (PCD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R) was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence) in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and EqCXCL16Sb exert a dominant mode of inheritance

  11. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine arteritis virus (EAV is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA, a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10-70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16 that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1 having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001 and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and

  12. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Furosemide Prescription During the Dry State Is a Predictor of Long-Term Survival of Stable, Optimally Medicated Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargento, Luis; Simões, Andre Vicente; Longo, Susana; Lousada, Nuno; Reis, Roberto Palma Dos

    2017-05-01

    Furosemide is associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). To evaluate the association between daily furosemide dose prescribed during the dry state and long-term survival in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF. Two hundred sixty-six consecutive outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction Furosemide doses were categorized as low or none (0-40 mg/d), intermediate (41-80 mg/d), and high (>80 mg). Cox regression was adjusted for significant confounders. The 3-year mortality rate was 33.8%. Mean dose of furosemide was 57.3 ± 21.4 mg/d. A total of 47.6% of patients received the low dose, 42.1% the intermediate dose, and 2.3% the high dose. Receiver operating characteristics for death associated with furosemide dose showed an area under the curve of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.79; P 40 mg/d. An increasing daily dose of furosemide was associated with worse prognosis. Those receiving the intermediate dose (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.57-6.64; P 40 mg/d, in a propensity score-matched cohort, had a greater risk of mortality than those receiving a low dose (HR = 4.02; 95% CI: 1.8-8.8; P = .001) and those not receiving furosemide (HR = 3.9; 95% CI: 0.07-14.2; P = .039). Furosemide administration during the dry state in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF is unfavorably associated with long-term survival. The threshold dose was 40 mg/d.

  14. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  15. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O 2max : 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p < 0.05) despite an increase in time in bed (456 ± 50 to 509 ± 48 min; p = 0.02). Sleep efficiency decreased during intensified training (83.1 ± 5.3 to 77.8 ± 8.6%; p < 0.05). Actual sleep time was significantly higher in CON than HCHO throughout intensified training. Mood disturbance increased during intensified training and was higher in CON than HCHO (p < 0.05). Performance in the [Formula: see text] exercise protocol fell significantly with intensified training. The main findings of this study were that 9-days of intensified training in highly-trained cyclists resulted in significant and progressive declines in sleep quality, mood state and maximal exercise performance.

  16. Long-term test-retest reliability of resting-state networks in healthy elderly subjects and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blautzik, Janusch; Keeser, Daniel; Berman, Albert; Paolini, Marco; Kirsch, Valerie; Mueller, Sophia; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian; Teipel, Stefan J; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of cerebral resting-state networks (RSNs) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising tool for the early diagnosis and follow-up of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this context, the determination of inter-session reliability of these networks is crucial. However, data on network reliability in healthy elderly subjects is rare and does not exist for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-term test-retest reliability of RSNs in both groups. Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 aMCI patients underwent resting-state fMRI and neuropsychological testing (CERAD test battery) twice, at baseline and after 13-16 months. Resting-state fMRI data was decomposed into independent components using independent component analysis. Inter-session test-retest reliability of the resulting RSNs was determined by calculating voxel-wise intra-class correlation coefficients. Overall test-retest reliability of corresponding RSNs was moderate to high in both groups, but significantly higher in the HC group compared to the aMCI group (p < 0.001), while the cognitive performance within the CERAD test battery remained stable over time in either group. Most reliable RSNs derived from the HC group and were associated with sensory and motor as well as higher order cognitive and the default-mode function. Particularly low reliability was found in basal frontal regions, which are known to be prone to susceptibility-induced noise. We conclude that stable RSNs may represent healthy aging, whereas decreased RSN reliability may indicate progressive neuro-functional alterations before the actual manifestation of clinical symptoms.

  17. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  19. Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-11-27

    In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated

  1. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truernit Elisabeth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell death is a normal process during plant development. Mutant plants may exhibit misregulation of this process, which can lead to severe growth defects. Simple ways of visualising cell death in living plant tissues can aid the study of plant development and physiology. Results Spectral variants of the fluorescent SYTOX dyes were tested for their usefulness for the detection of non-viable cells within plant embryos and roots using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The dyes were selective for non-viable cells and showed very little background staining in living cells. Simultaneous detection of SYTOX dye and fluorescent protein (e.g. GFP fluorescence was possible. Conclusion The fluorescent SYTOX dyes are useful for an easy and quick first assay of plant cell viability in living plant samples using fluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.

  2. Assessing the value of post-processed state-of-the-art long-term weather forecast ensembles for agricultural water management mediated by farmers' behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in modelling of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics significantly improved skills of long-term climate forecast from global circulation models (GCMs). These more accurate weather predictions are supposed to be a valuable support to farmers in optimizing farming operations (e.g. crop choice, cropping and watering time) and for more effectively coping with the adverse impacts of climate variability. Yet, assessing how actually valuable this information can be to a farmer is not straightforward and farmers' response must be taken into consideration. Indeed, in the context of agricultural systems potentially useful forecast information should alter stakeholders' expectation, modify their decisions, and ultimately produce an impact on their performance. Nevertheless, long-term forecast are mostly evaluated in terms of accuracy (i.e., forecast quality) by comparing hindcast and observed values and only few studies investigated the operational value of forecast looking at the gain of utility within the decision-making context, e.g. by considering the derivative of forecast information, such as simulated crop yields or simulated soil moisture, which are essential to farmers' decision-making process. In this study, we contribute a step further in the assessment of the operational value of long-term weather forecasts products by embedding these latter into farmers' behavioral models. This allows a more critical assessment of the forecast value mediated by the end-users' perspective, including farmers' risk attitudes and behavioral patterns. Specifically, we evaluate the operational value of thirteen state-of-the-art long-range forecast products against climatology forecast and empirical prediction (i.e. past year climate and historical average) within an integrated agronomic modeling framework embedding an implicit model of the farmers' decision-making process. Raw ensemble datasets are bias-corrected and downscaled using a stochastic weather generator, in

  3. Assessing the Value of Post-processed State-of-the-art Long-term Weather Forecast Ensembles within An Integrated Agronomic Modelling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Y.; Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Over recent years, long-term climate forecast from global circulation models (GCMs) has been demonstrated to show increasing skills over the climatology, thanks to the advances in the modelling of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics. Improved information from long-term forecast is supposed to be a valuable support to farmers in optimizing farming operations (e.g. crop choice, cropping time) and for more effectively coping with the adverse impacts of climate variability. Yet, evaluating how valuable this information can be is not straightforward and farmers' response must be taken into consideration. Indeed, while long-range forecast are traditionally evaluated in terms of accuracy by comparison of hindcast and observed values, in the context of agricultural systems, potentially useful forecast information should alter the stakeholders' expectation, modify their decisions and ultimately have an impact on their annual benefit. Therefore, it is more desirable to assess the value of those long-term forecasts via decision-making models so as to extract direct indication of probable decision outcomes from farmers, i.e. from an end-to-end perspective. In this work, we evaluate the operational value of thirteen state-of-the-art long-range forecast ensembles against climatology forecast and subjective prediction (i.e. past year climate and historical average) within an integrated agronomic modeling framework embedding an implicit model of farmers' behavior. Collected ensemble datasets are bias-corrected and downscaled using a stochastic weather generator, in order to address the mismatch of the spatio-temporal scale between forecast data from GCMs and distributed crop simulation model. The agronomic model is first simulated using the forecast information (ex-ante), followed by a second run with actual climate (ex-post). Multi-year simulations are performed to account for climate variability and the value of the different climate forecast is evaluated against the perfect

  4. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzi, Fabiola; Poldermans, Don; Bax, Jeroen; Elhendy, Abdou; Vourvouri, Eleni; Valkema, Roelf; Sutter, J.; Schinkel, Arend; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, Jos

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference.
PATIENTS—30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men).
METHODS—Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simul...

  5. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H

    2012-10-01

    Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P  0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P = 0.0022, r = 0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  7. An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451 bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7 logs (10(7) cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25 U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ≥1 colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22 ml within 7.5 h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1 CFU/2.22 ml).

  8. Concurrent detection of other respiratory viruses in children shedding viable human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, T B; Paula, F E; Iwamoto, M A; Proença-Modena, J L; Santos, A E; Camara, A A; Cervi, M C; Cintra, O A L; Arruda, E

    2013-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f( R) gravity with producing Λ CDM background expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Liu, Molin; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H0 (or σ 8) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in Λ CDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f( R) gravity producing Λ CDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f( R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σ m_ν case, m_{ν , sterile}^effcase. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -1.89 and f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H_0 gets slightly weaker in the viable f( R) model than that in the base Λ CDM model.

  10. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, F B; Poldermans, D; Bax, J J; Elhendy, A; Vourvouri, E C; Valkema, R; De Sutter, J; Schinkel, A F; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, J R

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. 30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men). Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT) with (99m)technetium-tetrofosmin/(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose on a separate day. Myocardial viability was considered present by dobutamine stress echocardiography when segments with severe dysfunction showed a biphasic sustained improvement or an ischaemic response. Viability criteria on DISA-SPECT were normal or mildly reduced perfusion and metabolism, or perfusion/metabolism mismatch. Using fundamental imaging, 330 segments showed severe dysfunction at baseline; 144 (44%) were considered viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography by fundamental imaging and DISA-SPECT was 78%, kappa = 0.56. Using second harmonic imaging, 288 segments showed severe dysfunction; 138 (48%) were viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography and DISA-SPECT was significantly better when second harmonic imaging was used (89%, kappa = 0.77, p = 0.001 v fundamental imaging). Second harmonic imaging applied during dobutamine stress echocardiography increases the agreement with DISA-SPECT for detecting myocardial viability.

  11. Mice carrying a complete deletion of the talin2 coding sequence are viable and fertile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrand, Emmanuel; Conti, Francesco J.; Bate, Neil; Spence, Lorraine; Mazzeo, Daniela; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Monkley, Susan J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Critchley, David R., E-mail: drc@le.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking talin2 are viable and fertile with only a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Talin2 null fibroblasts show no major defects in proliferation, adhesion or migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a colony of talin2 null mice is difficult indicating an underlying defect. -- Abstract: Mice homozygous for several Tln2 gene targeted alleles are viable and fertile. Here we show that although the expression of talin2 protein is drastically reduced in muscle from these mice, other tissues continue to express talin2 albeit at reduced levels. We therefore generated a Tln2 allele lacking the entire coding sequence (Tln2{sup cd}). Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice were viable and fertile, and the genotypes of Tln2{sup cd/+} intercrosses were at the expected Mendelian ratio. Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice showed no major difference in body mass or the weight of the major organs compared to wild-type, although they displayed a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, Tln2{sup cd/cd} mouse embryo fibroblasts showed no obvious defects in cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. However, the number of Tln2{sup cd/cd} pups surviving to adulthood was variable suggesting that such mice have an underlying defect.

  12. Existence of both culturable and viable but non culturable (VNC) E. coli populations with distinct settling velocities in karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Massei, N.; Lafite, R.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2012-12-01

    associated to "non settleable" particles, decreased from the sinkhole to the spring. In contrast in dry period while the turbidity and the contamination by culturable E. coli is low, the three populations of viable, culturable and VNC E. coli are introduced in the karst. Within the population of culturable E. coli, persistent strains mainly belonging to B1 phylogroup and growing at 7°C were introduced in karst aquifer. At the spring, whatever the class of particles up to 96% of viable cells were in VNC state suggesting that a physiological change occurred within aquifer, independently of the association of E. coli with particles. At the well, the pumping of the water induced an input of resident VNC E. coli consecutively to a resuspension of particles previously settled within the karstic network, during a past turbid event.

  13. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  14. Isolation of Viable but Non-culturable Bacteria from Printing and Dyeing Wastewater Bioreactor Based on Resuscitation Promoting Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gan, Guojuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Na; Hu, Jiadan; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin; Hong, Huachang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Liang, Yan; Ding, Linxian; Pan, Yonglong

    2017-07-01

    Printing and dyeing wastewater with high content of organic matters, high colority, and poor biochemical performance is hard to be degraded. In this study, we isolated viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria from printing and dyeing wastewater with the culture media contained resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) protein secreted by Micrococcus luteus, counted the culturable cells number with the most probable number, sequenced 16S rRNA genes, and performed polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It is obviously that the addition of Rpf in the enrichment culture could promote growth and resuscitation of bacteria in VBNC state to obtain more fastidious bacteria significantly. The identified bacteria were assigned to nine genera in the treatment group, while the two strains of Ochrobactrum anthropi and Microbacterium sp. could not be isolated from the control group. The function of isolated strains was explored and these strains could degrade the dye of Congo red. This study provides a new sight into the further study including the present state, composition, formation mechanism, and recovery mechanism about VBNC bacteria in printing and dyeing wastewater, which would promote to understand bacterial community in printing and dyeing wastewater, and to obtain VBNC bacteria from ecological environment.

  15. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR for detection and quantification of viable Campylobacter jejuni directly from poultry faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and quantification of viable Campylobacter jejuni directly from chicken faecal samples. The results of this method anda DNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method were compared with those of a bacterial culture method. Using bacterial culture andRT-qPCR methods, viable C. jejuni cells could be detected...

  16. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky M Oelze

    Full Text Available Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation. These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet and lactation (high energy diet, which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment.

  17. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  18. Tailor-made finance versus tailor-made care. Can the state strengthen consumer choice in healthcare by reforming the financial structure of long-term care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grit, K; de Bont, A

    2010-02-01

    Policy instruments based on the working of markets have been introduced to empower consumers of healthcare. However, it is still not easy to become a critical consumer of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of the state to strengthen the position of patients with the aid of a new financial regime, such as personal health budgets. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with executives, managers, professionals and client representatives of six long-term care institutions. With the introduction of individual budgets the responsibility for budgetary control has shifted from the organisational level to the individual level in the caregiver-client relationship. Having more luxurious care on offer necessitates a stronger demarcation of regular care because organisations cannot simultaneously offer extra care as part of the standard care package. New financial instruments have an impact on the culture of receiving and giving care. Distributive justice takes on new meaning with the introduction of financial market mechanisms in healthcare; the distributing principle of 'need' is transformed into the principle of 'economic demand'. Financial instruments not only act as a countervailing power against providers insufficiently client-oriented, but are also used by providers to reinforce their own positions vis-à-vis demanding clients. Tailor-made finance is not the same as tailor-made care.

  19. Short-term test–retest reliability of resting state fMRI metrics in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Somandepalli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, only one study has examined test–retest reliability of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI in children, none in clinical developing groups. Here, we assessed short-term test–retest reliability in a sample of 46 children (11–17.9 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 57 typically developing children (TDC. Our primary test–retest reliability measure was the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, quantified for a range of R-fMRI metrics. We aimed to (1 survey reliability within and across diagnostic groups, and (2 compare voxel-wise ICC between groups. We found moderate-to-high ICC across all children and within groups, with higher-order functional networks showing greater ICC. Nearly all R-fMRI metrics exhibited significantly higher ICC in TDC than in children with ADHD for one or more regions. In particular, posterior cingulate and ventral precuneus exhibited group differences in ICC across multiple measures. In the context of overall moderate-to-high test–retest reliability in children, regional differences in ICC related to diagnostic groups likely reflect the underlying pathophysiology for ADHD. Our currently limited understanding of the factors contributing to inter- and intra-subject variability in ADHD underscores the need for large initiatives aimed at examining their impact on test–retest reliability in both clinical and developing populations.

  20. Identifying viable regulatory and innovation pathways for regenerative medicine: a case study of cultured red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, J; Tait, J; Mastroeni, M; Turner, M L; Mountford, J C; Bruce, K

    2015-01-25

    The creation of red blood cells for the blood transfusion markets represents a highly innovative application of regenerative medicine with a medium term (5-10 year) prospect for first clinical studies. This article describes a case study analysis of a project to derive red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells, including the systemic challenges arising from (i) the selection of appropriate and viable regulatory protocols and (ii) technological constraints related to stem cell manufacture and scale up to clinical Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standard. The method used for case study analysis (Analysis of Life Science Innovation Systems (ALSIS)) is also innovative, demonstrating a new approach to social and natural science collaboration to foresight product development pathways. Issues arising along the development pathway include cell manufacture and scale-up challenges, affected by regulatory demands emerging from the innovation ecosystem (preclinical testing and clinical trials). Our discussion reflects on the efforts being made by regulators to adapt the current pharmaceuticals-based regulatory model to an allogeneic regenerative medicine product and the broader lessons from this case study for successful innovation and translation of regenerative medicine therapies, including the role of methodological and regulatory innovation in future development in the field. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  2. Microfiltration of enzyme treated egg whites for accelerated detection of viable Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Seockmo; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Foster, Kirk; Deering, Amanda J; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    We report detection of egg white within 7 h by concentrating the bacteria using microfiltration through 0.2-μm cutoff polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. A combination of enzyme treatment, controlled cross-flow on both sides of the hollow fibers, and media selection were key to controlling membrane fouling so that rapid concentration and the subsequent detection of low numbers of microbial cells were achieved. We leveraged the protective effect of egg white proteins and peptone so that the proteolytic enzymes did not attack the living cells while hydrolyzing the egg white proteins responsible for fouling. The molecular weight of egg white proteins was reduced from about 70 kDa to 15 kDa during hydrolysis. This enabled a 50-fold concentration of the cells when a volume of 525 mL of peptone and egg white, containing 13 CFU of Salmonella, was decreased to a 10 mL volume in 50 min. A 10-min microcentrifugation step further concentrated the viable Salmonella cells by 10×. The final cell recovery exceeded 100%, indicating that microbial growth occurred during the 3-h processing time. The experiments leading to rapid concentration, recovery, and detection provided further insights on the nature of membrane fouling enabling fouling effects to be mitigated. Unlike most membrane processes where protein recovery is the goal, recovery of viable microorganisms for pathogen detection is the key measure of success, with modification of cell-free proteins being both acceptable and required to achieve rapid microfiltration of viable microorganisms. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1464-1471, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. A direct viable count method for the enumeration of attached bacteria and assessment of biofilm disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. P.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the adaptation of an in situ direct viable count (in situ DVC) method in biofilm disinfection studies. The results obtained with this technique were compared to two other enumeration methods, the plate count (PC) and conventional direct viable count (c-DVC). An environmental isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp1) was used to form biofilms on stainless steel coupons in a stirred batch reactor. The in situ DVC method was applied to directly assess the viability of bacteria in biofilms without disturbing the integrity of the interfacial community. As additional advantages, the results were observed after 4 h instead of the 24 h incubation time required for colony formation and total cell numbers that remained on the substratum were enumerated. Chlorine and monochloramine were used to determine the susceptibilities of attached and planktonic bacteria to disinfection treatment using this novel analytical approach. The planktonic cells in the reactor showed no significant change in susceptibility to disinfectants during the period of biofilm formation. In addition, the attached cells did not reveal any more resistance to disinfection than planktonic cells. The disinfection studies of young biofilms indicated that 0.25 mg/l free chlorine (at pH 7.2) and 1 mg/l monochloramine (at pH 9.0) have comparable disinfection efficiencies at 25 degrees C. Although being a weaker disinfectant, monochloramine was more effective in removing attached bacteria from the substratum than free chlorine. The in situ DVC method always showed at least one log higher viable cell densities than the PC method, suggesting that the in situ DVC method is more efficient in the enumeration of biofilm bacteria. The results also indicated that the in situ DVC method can provide more accurate information regarding the cell numbers and viability of bacteria within biofilms following disinfection.

  4. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  5. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  6. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An Extension of the Hawkins and Simon Condition Characterizing Viable Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an extended version of the Hawkins and Simon condition which constitutes a synthetic formulation of the mathematical properties that viable economies must satisfy in single production models. The new version is implicit in the economic interpretations offered by them of the Hawkins and Simon condition, once a correction is introduced in one of those interpretations. Moreover, the paper details the meaning of the extended version following the interpretation of the original version proposed by Dorfman, Samuelson, and Solow. It also introduces a characteristic property of indecomposable matrices that has not previously been published.

  9. THE CIVILIZATIONAL PROJECT AND lTS DISCONTENTS: TOWARD A VIABLE GLOBAL MARKET SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Bornschier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I agree with the point of an anonymous reviewer arguing that a pro-found discussion on the prerequisites of a viable global market society has too many facets to be contained within the bounds of a single journal article. Yet, in order to enter the debate now we should not wait until book length treatments become available-often only after years. This is, therfore, an essay attempting to overview various conflicts and contradictions within the global social system. It sythesizes arguments developed in more detail else-where.

  10. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  11. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  12. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  13. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  14. Texture analysis of cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging to detect non-viable segments in patients with chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroza, Andrés; López-Lereu, María P; Monmeneu, José V; Gavara, Jose; Chorro, Francisco J; Bodí, Vicente; Moratal, David

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ability of texture analysis to differentiate between infarcted non-viable, viable, and remote segments on cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study included 50 patients suffering chronic myocardial infarction. The data was randomly split into training (30 patients) and testing (20 patients) sets. The left ventricular myocardium was segmented according to the 17-segment model in both cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI. Infarcted myocardium regions were identified on LGE in short-axis views. Non-viable segments were identified as those showing LGE ≥ 50%, and viable segments those showing 0 cine images. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained with different combination of texture features to obtain a model that provided optimal classification performance. The best classification on testing set was achieved with local binary patterns features using a 2D + t approach, in which the features are computed by including information of the time dimension available in cine sequences. The best overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were: 0.849, sensitivity of 92% to detect non-viable segments, 72% to detect viable segments, and 85% to detect remote segments. Non-viable segments can be detected on cine MRI using texture analysis and this may be used as hypothesis for future research aiming to detect the infarcted myocardium by means of a gadolinium-free approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Application for Low Frequency Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as an Online Process Monitoring Tool for Viable Cell Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available New approaches in process monitoring during industrial fermentations are not only limited to classical pH, dO2 and offgas analysis, but use different in situ and online sensors based on different physical principles to determine biomass, product quality, lysis and far more. One of the very important approaches is the in situ accessibility of viable cell concentration (VCC. This knowledge provides increased efficiency in monitoring and controlling strategies during cultivations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy—EIS—is used to monitor biomass in a fermentation of E. coli BL21(DE3, producing a recombinant protein using a fed batch-based approach. Increases in the double layer capacitance (Cdl, determined at frequencies below 1 kHz, are proportional to the increase of biomass in the batch and fed batch phase, monitored in offline and online modes for different cultivations. A good correlation of Cdl with cell density is found and in order to get an appropriate verification of this method, different state-of-the-art biomass measurements are performed and compared. Since measurements in this frequency range are largely determined by the double layer region between the electrode and media, rather minor interferences with process parameters (aeration, stirring are to be expected. It is shown that impedance spectroscopy at low frequencies is a powerful tool for cultivation monitoring.

  16. Biofilms in Full-Scale Drinking Water Ozone Contactors Contribute Viable Bacteria to Ozonated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarz, Nadine; Rockey, Nicole; Olson, Terese M; Haig, Sarah-Jane; Sanford, Larry; LiPuma, John J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2018-02-13

    Concentrations of viable microbial cells were monitored using culture-based and culture-independent methods across multichamber ozone contactors in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. Membrane-intact and culturable cell concentrations in ozone contactor effluents ranged from 1200 to 3750 cells/mL and from 200 to 3850 colony forming units/mL, respectively. Viable cell concentrations decreased significantly in the first ozone contact chamber, but rose, even as ozone exposure increased, in subsequent chambers. Our results implicate microbial detachment from biofilms on contactor surfaces, and from biomass present within lime softening sediments in a hydraulic dead zone, as a possible reason for increasing cell concentrations in water samples from sequential ozone chambers. Biofilm community structures on baffle walls upstream and downstream from the dead zone were significantly different from each other (p = 0.017). The biofilms downstream of the dead zone contained a significantly (p = 0.036) higher relative abundance of bacteria of the genera Mycobacterium and Legionella than the upstream biofilms. These results have important implications as the effluent from ozone contactors is often treated further in biologically active filters and bacteria in ozonated water continuously seed filter microbial communities.

  17. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Viable Reserve Networks Arise From Individual Landholder Responses To Conservation Incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Chomitz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation in densely settled biodiversity hotspots often requires setting up reserve networks that maintain sufficient contiguous habitat to support viable species populations. Because it is difficult to secure landholder compliance with a tightly constrained reserve network design, attention has shifted to voluntary incentive mechanisms, such as purchase of conservation easements by reverse auction or through a fixed-price offer. These mechanisms carry potential advantages of transparency, simplicity, and low cost. However, uncoordinated individual response to these incentives has been assumed incompatible with the conservation goal of viability, which depends on contiguous habitat and biodiversity representation. We model such incentives for southern Bahia in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the biologically richest and most threatened global biodiversity hotspots. Here, forest cover is spatially autocorrelated and associated with depressed land values, a situation that may be characteristic of long-settled areas with forests fragmented by agriculture. We find that in this situation, a voluntary incentive system can yield a reserve network characterized by large, viable patches of contiguous forest, and representation of subregions with distinct vegetation types and biotic assemblages, without explicit planning for those outcomes.

  19. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  20. Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

  1. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. in a Biorefinery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  2. In vitro and in vivo bioluminescent quantification of viable stem cells in engineered constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Oudina, Karim; Bourguignon, Marianne; Delpierre, Laetitia; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Bensidhoum, Morad; Arnaud, Eric; Petite, Herve

    2010-06-01

    Bioluminescent quantification of viable cells inside three-dimensional porous scaffolds was performed in vitro and in vivo. The assay quantified the bioluminescence of murine stem (C3H10T1/2) cells tagged with the luciferase gene reporter and distributed inside scaffolds of either soft, translucent, AN69 polymeric hydrogel or hard, opaque, coral ceramic materials. Quantitative evaluation of bioluminescence emitted from tagged cells adhering to these scaffolds was performed in situ using either cell lysates and a luminometer or intact cells and a bioluminescence imaging system. Despite attenuation of the signal when compared to cells alone, the bioluminescence correlated with the number of cells (up to 1.5 x 10(5)) present on each material scaffold tested, both in vitro and noninvasively in vivo (subcutaneous implants in the mouse model). The noninvasive bioluminescence measurement technique proved to be comparable to the cell-destructive bioluminescence measurement technique. Monitoring the kinetics of luciferase expression via bioluminescence enabled real-time assessment of cell survival and proliferation on the scaffolds tested over prolonged (up to 59 days) periods of time. This novel, sensitive, easy, fast-to-implement, quantitative bioluminescence assay has great, though untapped, potential for screening and determining noninvasively the presence of viable cells on biomaterial constructs in the tissue engineering and tissue regeneration fields.

  3. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga A. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Anderson, Robin L. [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Russell, Prudence A. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, St. Vincent Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC (Australia); Ashley Cox, R. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ivashkevich, Alesia [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Laboratory of DNA Repair and Genomics, Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Disease, Monash Institute for Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P. [Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Jacobs, Daphne H.M. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Smith, Jai [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ball, David L. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using γ-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated γ-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed γ-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  4. Determination of viable wine yeast using DNA binding dyes and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorrà, Imma; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Guillamón, José M; Mas, Albert

    2010-12-15

    The detection and quantification of wine yeast can be misleading due to under or overestimation of these microorganisms. Underestimation may be caused by variable growing rates of different microorganisms in culture media or the presence of viable but non-cultivable microorganisms. Overestimation may be caused by the lack of discrimination between live and dead microorganisms if quantitative PCR is used to quantify with DNA as the template. However, culture-independent methods that use dyes have been described to remove the DNA from dead cells and then quantify the live microorganisms. Two dyes have been studied in this paper: ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) and propidium monoazide bromide (PMA). The technique was applied to grape must fermentation and ageing wines. Both dyes presented similar results on yeast monitoring. Membrane cell recovery was necessary when yeasts were originated from ethanol-containing media. When applied to grape must fermentation, differences of up to 1 log unit were seen between the QPCR estimation with or without the dye during the stationary phase. In ageing wines, good agreement was found between plating techniques and QPCR. Most of the viable cells were also culturable and no differences were observed with the methods, except for Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Dekkera bruxellensis where much higher counts were occasionally detected by QPCR. The presence of excess dead cells did not interfere with the quantification of live cells with either of the dyes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Economically viable components from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Hovmalm, Helena Persson

    2015-04-22

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  6. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  7. Low frequency oscillating gradient spin-echo sequences improve sensitivity to axon diameter: An experimental study in viable nerve tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Lebina S; Bennett, Oscar F; Siow, Bernard; Richardson, Simon; Ianuş, Andrada; Quick, Tom; Atkinson, David; Phillips, James B; Drobnjak, Ivana

    2017-08-01

    Mapping axon diameters within the central and peripheral nervous system could play an important role in our understanding of nerve pathways, and help diagnose and monitor an array of neurological disorders. Numerous diffusion MRI methods have been proposed for imaging axon diameters, most of which use conventional single diffusion encoding (SDE) spin echo sequences. However, a growing number of studies show that oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) sequences can provide additional advantages over conventional SDE sequences. Recent theoretical results suggest that this is especially the case in realistic scenarios, such as when fibres have unknown or dispersed orientation. In the present study, we adopt the ActiveAx approach to experimentally investigate the extent of these advantages by comparing the performances of SDE and trapezoidal OGSE in viable nerve tissue. We optimise SDE and OGSE ActiveAx protocols for a rat peripheral nerve tissue and test their performance using Monte Carlo simulations and a 800 mT/m gradient strength pre-clinical imaging experiment. The imaging experiment uses excised sciatic nerve from a rat's leg placed in a MRI compatible viable isolated tissue (VIT) maintenance chamber, which keeps the tissue in a viable physiological state that preserves the structural complexity of the nerve and enables lengthy scan times. We compare model estimates to histology, which we perform on the nerve post scanning. Optimisation produces a three-shell SDE and OGSE ActiveAx protocol, with the OGSE protocol consisting of one SDE sequence and two low-frequency oscillating gradient waveform sequences. Both simulation and imaging results show that the OGSE ActiveAx estimates of the axon diameter index have a higher accuracy and a higher precision compared to those from SDE. Histology estimates of the axon diameter index in our nerve tissue samples are 4-5.8 μm and these are excellently matched with the OGSE estimates 4.2-6.5 μm, while SDE overestimates at

  8. Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 57, 1303-1304.

  9. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  10. Changes in the relative population size of selected ruminal bacteria following an induced episode of acidosis in beef heifers receiving viable and non-viable active dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Vyas, D; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28-day periods. Treatments were: (i) control (CTRL; no yeast); (ii) ADY (4 g day-1 providing 1010  CFU per g; AB Vista, UK); and (iii) KDY (4 g day-1 autoclaved ADY). The acidosis challenge was induced on day 22 and rumen samples were collected on day 15 (baseline; BASE), day 22 (challenge day; CHAL), and on day 29 (168th hour post acid challenge or recovery, REC) of each period. Over the study, duration of pH acidosis) was less for ADY and KDY than CTRL, with ADY less than KDY. No treatment effects were observed on relative abundance of ruminal bacteria, but the day effect was significant. The RPS of lactate producers and utilizers was greater while RPS of fibrolytic bacteria was lower during CHAL than BASE and REC. Yeast supplementation, irrespective of its viability, showed beneficial effects on ruminal pH variables in animals more susceptible to acidosis. Rumen microbial population was altered with the induction of severe acidosis. Most of the changes reverted back to baseline values during the recovery phase. Yeast supplementation reduced subacute rumen acidosis in the most susceptible cattle, but failed to attenuate severe acidosis induced by a grain challenge. The study provided valuable insight into the mechanism by which acidosis affects cattle performance. Individual animal variation in ruminal fermentation partly explained the variability in response to yeast supplementation in the study. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The

  11. Factors affecting the numbers of expected viable lactic acid bacteria in inoculant applicator tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, M C; Kung, L

    2016-11-01

    The application of correct numbers of viable microorganisms to forages at the time of ensiling is one of the most important factors affecting the probability of a beneficial effect from an inoculant. The objective of this study was to determine relationships between numbers of expected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from silage inoculants in application tanks and various factors that might affect their viability. The pH and temperature of inoculant-water mixes were measured in applicator tanks (n=53) on farms in Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, and California during the corn harvest season of 2012. Samples were collected on-farm and plated on de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar to enumerate LAB and establish the number of viable LAB (cfu/mL). Expected numbers of LAB were calculated from the minimum label guarantees for viable bacteria and mixing rates with water. In addition, the pH of the inoculant-water mixes at sampling, the ambient temperature at sampling, and the length of time that the samples had been in the tank were measured and obtained. The log difference between the measured and expected numbers of LAB was calculated and expressed as ΔM - E in log scale. Ambient temperature at sampling had no relationship with time in the tank or ΔM - E. Most (83%) of the inoculants had been mixed with water in the applicator tanks for <10h. For these samples, a negative linear correlation (R2=0.36) existed between time that the inoculant-water mixes were in the applicators tanks and ΔM - E. The pH of the inoculant-water mixes was also negatively correlated (R2=0.28) with time in the applicator tank, but pH was not related to ΔM - E. The temperatures of the inoculant-water mixtures were negatively correlated with ΔM - E (R2=0.39). Seven of 8 samples whose ΔM - E were at least -0.95 or more lower than expected (equivalent of about 1 or more log concentration less than expected) had water temperatures above 35°C. These data support our previous laboratory findings and

  12. Is a Liquid Propellant Gun a Viable Option for the Future Main Battle Tank in the United States Army?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    Furlong , "Liquid Propellant for Future SP Howitzers?" International Defense Review Vol 16 (December 1983), 1765. 45 PFMPCLLANT 46WE The second function...Warfare, XCVII (September- October 1988): 24-25. Fletcher, Robin. "Creating the Turretless Tank," Military Iechnoloa_ 6/87: 140-146. Furlong , R.D.M...of the Fourth Generation,," Defence Tqc~y, 9/10: 312-315. Quinzio, Patrizia Flavio and Alfonso De Salva. "Armoured Vehicles: What’s in Store

  13. Employment Handbook for Fighting Counterinsurgencies: A Toolkit for How to Build Rapport, Create Jobs, and Work towards a Viable State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    academic articles and reports are readily available on the internet. Jstor is an online database of journal articles available in PDF format......contract funding for paying salaries (such as CERP money) • System for cataloguing people and creating a database • Basic understanding of terrain and

  14. Is Tube Artillery a Viable Fire Support Platform for the United States Military on the Battlefields of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Artillery fired more than 4000 shells in support of operations to retake the city .11 Other instances involving the effective use of PGMs by tube artillery...precision accuracy in a fire support role. Unlike the accuracy of the traditional free -flight MLRS rocket that degrades as the range to the target...detonation/air burst), smoke , white phosphorous, illumination, area denial munitions, rocket assisted projectiles, and improved conventional munitions

  15. Risk Assessment and Management for Long-Term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations — United States Department of Energy R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Deel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG and their impact on the earth's climate has grown significantly over the last decade. Many countries, including the United States, wrestle with balancing economic development and meeting critical near-term environmental goals while minimizing long-term environmental risks. One promising solution to the buildup of GHGs in the atmosphere, being pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL and its industrial and academic partners, is carbon sequestration—a process of permanent storage of CO2 emissions in underground geologic formations, thus avoiding CO2 release to the atmosphere. This option looks particularly attractive for point source emissions of GHGs, such as fossil fuel fired power plants. CO2 would be captured, transported to a sequestration site, and injected into an appropriate geologic formation. However, sequestration in geologic formations cannot achieve a significant role in reducing GHG emissions unless it is acceptable to stakeholders, regulators, and the general public, i.e., unless the risks involved are judged to be acceptable. One tool that can be used to achieve acceptance of geologic sequestration of CO2 is risk assessment, which is a proven method to objectively manage hazards in facilities such as oil and natural gas fields, pipelines, refineries, and chemical plants. Although probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been applied in many areas, its application to geologic CO2 sequestration is still in its infancy. The most significant risk from geologic carbon sequestration is leakage of CO2. Two types of CO2 releases are possible—atmospheric and subsurface. High concentrations of CO2 caused by a release to the atmosphere would pose health risks to humans and animals, and any leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere negates the effort expended to sequester the CO2

  16. CONCEIVING AND GENERATING A VIABLE COMPLEXITY MODEL FOR PERSONAL AND/OR ENTREPRENEURIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  17. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  18. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

    2013-10-07

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics.

  19. Environmental assessment and viable interdependence: the Great Whale River case in northern Quebec (First Nations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvihill, P. R.

    1997-12-31

    This study is based on the belief that environmental assessment (EA) can be supportive of viable interdependence between regions and cultures. The central focus is on the scoping stage of the EA conducted for the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric project in northern Quebec. The evaluative framework consists of 16 criteria divided into three interrelated categories, i.e. substantive, general process-oriented and specific process-oriented. The specific process-oriented criteria constitute the primary analytical focus and are the subject of five separate sub-analysis, which reveal various strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the case study. It was concluded that environmental assessment in an intercultural setting is largely within the control of EA panels and the key shortcoming of the process, namely the lack of dialogue between the proponents and the intervenors, could be addressed by making public hearings more dynamic and interactive.

  20. Is Telemental Health Services a Viable Alternative to Traditional Psychotherapy for Deaf Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Teresa V

    2017-02-01

    Access to mental health treatment is a vital part of a comprehensive health care plan. Deaf individuals often have difficulty accessing mental health services. Four-hundred twenty-two participants completed an anonymous questionnaire about their perspectives of telemental health services for deaf individuals. Results showed that several variables, such as if the participant was unable to receive another type of psychotherapy and whether the therapist was ASL-fluent, were significantly related to whether the respondent would use TMH. The participants reported that TMH services are a viable option for treating a variety of mental health issues. Telemental health services can act as a bridge between consumers of mental health care and their providers allowing accessible and equitable healthcare opportunities.

  1. Drug Delivery Interfaces in the 21st Century: From Science Fiction Ideas to Viable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J.; Succi, Marc D.; Langer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micron-scale submarines and ‘Cyborg’ body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery – the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the pre-defined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

  2. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  3. FREE OPEN SOURCE AND SOFTWARE IN THE TEACHING OF CAT TOOLS: OMEGAT, A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lúcio Caetano Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Computer Aided Translation (CAT tools is essential to all courses aimed at preparing students for the effective exercise of this profession, in particular those students who will translate technical texts, especially in the field of localization. As an alternative to the paid commercial software which dominate the translation industry (such as SDL Trados Studio, Wordfast Pro and MemoQ, there are free proprietary softwares (such as Wordfast Anywhere and Google Translator Toolkit, and free open source ones (such as OmegaT and Anaphraseus. Starting from a description of CAT types and main functions, the purpose of this article is to point out, through an evaluative-comparative analysis based on a research and on a comparison between OmegaT, free proprietary softwares and others open source softwares, why and for which situations OmegaT is a viable alternative for the teaching of CAT tools in higher education.

  4. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca

    2017-12-07

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living) epidermis. For this region, previous works suggested a diffusion model and an approximation of the cells by hexagonal prisms. The work at hand extends this in three ways. First, the extracellular space is treated with full spatial resolution. This induces a decrease of permeability by about 10%. Second, cells of tetrakaidecahedral shape are considered, in addition to the original hexagonal prisms. For both cell types, the resulting membrane permeabilities are compared. Third, for the first time, the influence of cell stacking in the vertical direction is considered. This is particularly important for the stratum granulosum, where tight junctions are present.

  5. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  6. Heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity, and multiculturalism What is a viable framework for Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thung Ju Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a plural society that consists of several hundred ethnic and sub-ethnic groups. One of its generic characteristics is heterogeneity. In the last ten years after the implementation of regional autonomy, we have witnessed the emergence of strong ethnic and religiously flavoured local identity politics in various places in Indonesia that created open and vicious conflicts. This periodical violence exploded especially during the election of district and provincial heads. The intimate relation multiculturalism, with the actual political praxis of everyday life as an alternative to the existing paradigm of the “homogenization” of nationhood, has not been discussed. I believe it is time to discuss the strategic junctures between heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity (and religion and multiculturalism as well as their possible realization at the local and national levels in order to find a viable framework for a future Indonesia.

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. Objective The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. Methods We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. Results On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: “positive emotion,” “negative emotion,” “anxiety,” “anger,” “sadness,” “first person singular,” “negation,” “swear words,” and “death.” Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. Conclusions We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  9. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    A series of hydroclimatic teleconnection patterns were identified between variations in either Atlantic or Pacific oceanic indices with precipitation and discharge anomalies in the northeastern United States. We hypothesized that temporal annual or seasonal changes in discharge could be explained by variations in extreme phases of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO index, SST: Sea Surface Temperature anomalies) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index, SLP: Sea-Level Pressure anomalies) up to three seasons in advance. The Merrimack River watershed, the fourth largest basin in New England, with a drainage area of 13,000 km2, is a compelling study site because it not only provides an opportunity to investigate the teleconnection between hydrologic variables and large-scale climate circulation patterns, but also how those patterns may become obscured by anthropogenic disturbances such as river regulation or urban development. We considered precipitation and discharge data of 21 gauging stations within the Merrimack River watershed, including the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, with a median record length of 55 years beginning as early as 1904. The discharge anomalies were statistically significant (p-value ≤ 0.2) between extreme positive and negative phases of AMO (1857-2011) and NAO (1900-2011) and revealed the potential teleconnectivity of climate circulation patterns with discharge. Annual and seasonal correlations of discharge were examined with the extreme phases of AMO and NAO at zero-, one-, or two- year/season lags (total of 30 scenarios). When AMO was greater than 0.2, the strongest correlations of AMO and NAO with discharge were observed at headwater catchments. This correlation weakened downstream towards larger regulated and/or developed sub-basins. We introduced a simple approach for near-term prediction of drought and flooding events. An exponential decay function was regressed through the historic occurrence of the relative

  10. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Damgaard

    Full Text Available Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC-fraction.Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA.Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013.60 donors (≥50 years old, self-reported medically healthy.Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35% of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53% of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively. Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5% or anaerobic (27.8% species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening.Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  11. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  12. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. METHODS In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. RESULTS Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1- fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity CONCLUSIONS Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  13. Beyond DAPA and DACA: Revisiting Legislative Reform in Light of Long-Term Trends in Unauthorized Immigration to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Warren

    2015-02-01

    exceeded the number who entered across the southern land border without inspection (EWIs in each year from 2008 to 2012.While the CMS estimates are based on sample data and assumptions that are subject to error, these trends are consistent with the best empirical information available.In November 2014 the Obama Administration announced an unprecedented set of executive action initiatives. At this writing, the Deferred Action for Parental Accountability (DAPA program and the expanded Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program, which would provide work authorization and temporary reprieve from removal to eligible persons, have been preliminarily enjoined. The temporary injunction, which the US Department of Justice plans to appeal to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, comes in response to a legal challenge to the two programs by 26 states under Article II, section 3 of the US Constitution which requires the president to “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” and under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA. In addition, the Republican majorities of the 114th Congress have vowed to prevent the implementation of these programs. However, the administration has expressed confidence that it will ultimately prevail in court and in its battle with Congress over these programs. Meanwhile, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs, and others continue to plan intensively for the DAPA and DACA programs, as well as for other executive action initiatives.This paper provides estimates of those who are potentially eligible for DAPA and DACA. However, it also looks beyond DAPA and DACA to make the case for broad legislative reform in light of long-term trends in unauthorized migration to the United States and the unauthorized resident population. In particular, it argues that substantial declines in the unauthorized population—a goal shared by partisans on both sides of the immigration debate—will require reform of the legal

  14. Application of Reverse Transcriptase -PCR (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of viable Escherichia coli in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaee, Neda; Abtahi, Hamid; Ghannadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Masoude; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is preferred to other methods for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water in terms of speed, accuracy and efficiency. False positive result is considered as the major disadvantages of PCR. For this reason, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used to solve this problem. The aim of present study was to determine the efficiency of RT-PCR for rapid detection of viable Escherichia coli in drinking water samples and enhance its sensitivity through application of different filter membranes. Specific primers were designed for 16S rRNA and elongation Factor II genes. Different concentrations of bacteria were passed through FHLP and HAWP filters. Then, RT-PCR was performed using 16srRNA and EF -Tu primers. Contamination of 10 wells was determined by RT-PCR in Arak city. To evaluate RT-PCR efficiency, the results were compared with most probable number (MPN) method. RT-PCR is able to detect bacteria in different concentrations. Application of EF II primers reduced false positive results compared to 16S rRNA primers. The FHLP hydrophobic filters have higher ability to absorb bacteria compared with HAWB hydrophilic filters. So the use of hydrophobic filters will increase the sensitivity of RT-PCR. RT-PCR shows a higher sensitivity compared to conventional water contamination detection method. Unlike PCR, RT-PCR does not lead to false positive results. The use of EF-Tu primers can reduce the incidence of false positive results. Furthermore, hydrophobic filters have a higher ability to absorb bacteria compared to hydrophilic filters.

  15. Comparison of radiorespirometric budemeyer assay with ATP assay and mouse foot pad test in detecting viable Mycobacterium leprae from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compares the results of radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay with adenosine triphosphate (ATP assay and mouse foot pad (MFP test to validate the sensitivity of Buddemeyer assay in detecting viable M. leprae in clinical samples. Methods: Viability was assessed using all the three methods in 60 skin biopsy specimens, including 20 untreated lepromatous leprosy (BL-LL, 13 treated BL-LL, 12 untreated borderline tuberculoid to mid borderline (BT-BB and 15 treated BT-BB cases. Results: Of the 20 untreated BL-LL cases tested, positivity indicating the presence of viable M. leprae was detected in 85, 60 and 85% with Buddemeyer, ATP and MFP test, respectively. Among the 13 treated BL-LL cases, scores were 61, 54 and 0%; among the 12 untreated BT-BB cases, the scores were 58, 16 and 16% and among the 15 treated BT-BB cases, the scores were 46, 20, 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The detection sensitivity (positive scores with three tests were closely comparable in the two untreated groups of cases. On the other hand, in the two treated groups, a good proportion of cases scored positive in the in vitro tests but none in the MFP test. Among the two in vitro methods, the Buddemeyer assay emerged as a better test, in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Comparison of radiorespirometric Budemeyer assay with ATP assay and mouse foot pad test in detecting viable Mycobacterium leprae from clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, V P; Shetty, V P

    2007-10-01

    This study compares the results of radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay and mouse foot pad (MFP) test to validate the sensitivity of Buddemeyer assay in detecting viable M. leprae in clinical samples. Viability was assessed using all the three methods in 60 skin biopsy specimens, including 20 untreated lepromatous leprosy (BL-LL), 13 treated BL-LL, 12 untreated borderline tuberculoid to mid borderline (BT-BB) and 15 treated BT-BB cases. Of the 20 untreated BL-LL cases tested, positivity indicating the presence of viable M. leprae was detected in 85, 60 and 85% with Buddemeyer, ATP and MFP test, respectively. Among the 13 treated BL-LL cases, scores were 61, 54 and 0%; among the 12 untreated BT-BB cases, the scores were 58, 16 and 16% and among the 15 treated BT-BB cases, the scores were 46, 20, 0%, respectively. The detection sensitivity (positive scores) with three tests were closely comparable in the two untreated groups of cases. On the other hand, in the two treated groups, a good proportion of cases scored positive in the in vitro tests but none in the MFP test. Among the two in vitro methods, the Buddemeyer assay emerged as a better test, in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Term Context

    OpenAIRE

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the co...

  18. Term Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the context substitution is introduced. Finally, the translations and endomorphisms are expressed by context substitution.

  19. Long-Term Effects of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams: A Multilevel Regression Analysis of Mediation Effects of Teaching Practices on Students' Motivational Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag Merki, Katharina; Oerke, Britta

    2017-01-01

    This study extends previous research investigating the effects of state-wide exit exams by studying the change from a class-based to a state-wide exit exam system over 5 years, using multilevel analyses and examining mediating effects of teachers' practices on students' motivational orientations. In this multi-cohort study, we analyzed in…

  20. High-Throughput Sequencing of Viable Microbial Communities in Raw Pork Subjected to a Fast Cooling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Che, You; Qi, Yan; Liang, Peixin; Song, Cunjiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the fast cooling process on the microbiological community in chilled fresh pork during storage. We established a culture-independent method to study viable microbes in raw pork. Tray-packaged fresh pork and chilled fresh pork were completely spoiled after 18 and 49 d in aseptic bags at 4 °C, respectively. 16S/18S ribosomal RNAs were reverse transcribed to cDNA to characterize the activity of viable bacteria/fungi in the 2 types of pork. Both cDNA and total DNA were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing, which revealed that viable Bacteroides sp. were the most active genus in rotten pork, although viable Myroides sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were also active. Moreover, viable fungi were only detected in chilled fresh pork. The sequencing results revealed that the fast cooling process could suppress the growth of microbes present initially in the raw meat to extend its shelf life. Our results also suggested that fungi associated with pork spoilage could not grow well in aseptic tray-packaged conditions. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Is digital cover photography a viable method for measuring leaf index for phenological research in closed forest ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, E. S.; Sonnentag, O.; Ryu, Y.; Macfarlane, C.; Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Friedl, M. A.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    a webcam overlooking the forest canopy. Preliminary results show that DCP-PAI is generally lower than LAI-2000 DCP regardless of image exposure, with discrepancies being largest (~30%) under full canopy development. Using the two PAI estimates as spring phenological metrics in comparison to canopy greenness, the two PAI estimates indicate later onset of green-up than canopy greenness, but the three metrics broadly agree in terms of green-up rate. Our results demonstrate that especially PAI from DCP is a viable method to track spring phenology in closed forest ecosystems but more work is needed to correctly account for the influence of woody canopy elements.

  2. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  3. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the

  4. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  5. Graphene oxide and carboxylated graphene oxide: Viable two-dimensional nanolabels for lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and carboxylated GO were used as labels for lateral flow immunoassays, instead of the conventionally used colloidal gold and colored latex labels. A sensor is demonstrated that enables fast screening for aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) as a model analyte using the antibody-GO complex as the recognition element. The visual limit of detection and cut-off value for AFB 1 are 0.3 and 1ng/mL, respectively. It is shown that GO and carboxylated GO are viable black labels for use in lateral flow assays, one typical advantage being the saving cost (compared to the use of colloidal gold). Qualitative results are achieved within 15min, and the analytical results were in good agreement with the reference LC MS/MS method. The method was successfully applied to the on-site determination of AFB 1 in agricultural products. In our perception, it opens new possibilities for the screening of other toxins by lateral flow immunoassays using GO and carboxylated GO as labels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Meatal Mobilization and Glanuloplasty: A Viable Option for Coronal and Glanular Hypospadias Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Kazemzadeh, Babak; Hood, Brandy; Rezaee, Haress; Kaseb, Kaveh

    2016-08-01

    To present the meatal mobilization with glanuloplasty inclusive (MMGPI) modification of meatal advancement and glanuloplasty inclusive. A total of 120 patients with anterior hypospadias underwent MMGPI between September 2008 and October 2014 at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Satisfactory outcomes were defined as continuous straight urinary flow and catheterization of new meatus without difficulty. Cosmetic outcomes were considered acceptable if patients maintained a slit-like meatus at the glanular tip. Patients were examined at 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The 120 patients with anterior hypospadias underwent MMGPI. There were no hematoma, meatal necrosis, or other early complications. In patients with glanular hypospadias, there were no meatal regressions or stenosis, all voiding patterns were normal, and all patients maintained a slit-like meatus at the glanular tip. Two patients with coronal hypospadias had meatal stenosis and 2 patients had meatal regression. Five patients with sub-coronal hypospadias had 2-mm meatal regression with downward sloping urinary stream, and 2 patients had meatal stenosis. In all, meatus remained distal to the preoperative meatus with no necrosis. Small sample size was the major limitation of this study. MMGPI represents a viable option for glanular and coronal hypospadias repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eradication of high viable loads of Listeria monocytogenes contaminating food-contact surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ede Candia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the efficacy of cold gaseous ozone treatments at low concentrations in the eradication of high Listeria monocytogenes viable cell loads from glass, polypropylene, stainless steel and expanded polystyrene food-contact surfaces. Using a step by step approach, involving the selection of the most resistant strain-surface combinations, 11 Listeria spp. strains resulted inactivated by a continuous ozone flow at 1.07 mg m-3 after 24 or 48 h of cold incubation, depending on both strain and surface evaluated. Increasing the inoculum level to 9 log CFU coupon-1, the best inactivation rate was obtained after 48h of treatment at 3.21 mg m-3 ozone concentration when cells were deposited onto stainless steel and expanded polystyrene coupons, resulted the most resistant food-contact surfaces in the previous assays.The addition of naturally microbiologically contaminated meat extract to a high load of L. monocytogenes LMG 23775 cells, the most resistant strain out of the 11 assayed Listeria spp. strains, led to its complete inactivation after four days of treatment.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the survival of L. monocytogenes and the effect of ozone treatment under cold storage conditions on expanded polystyrene, a commonly-used material in food packaging. These results could be useful for reducing pathogen cross-contamination phenomena during cold food storage.

  8. A clinically viable capsule endoscopy video analysis platform for automatic bleeding detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Steven; Jiao, Heng; Xie, Jean; Mui, Peter; Leighton, Jonathan A.; Pasha, Shabana; Rentz, Lauri; Abedi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel and clinically valuable software platform for automatic bleeding detection on gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Capsule Endoscopy (CE) videos. Typical CE videos for GI tract run about 8 hours and are manually reviewed by physicians to locate diseases such as bleedings and polyps. As a result, the process is time consuming and is prone to disease miss-finding. While researchers have made efforts to automate this process, however, no clinically acceptable software is available on the marketplace today. Working with our collaborators, we have developed a clinically viable software platform called GISentinel for fully automated GI tract bleeding detection and classification. Major functional modules of the SW include: the innovative graph based NCut segmentation algorithm, the unique feature selection and validation method (e.g. illumination invariant features, color independent features, and symmetrical texture features), and the cascade SVM classification for handling various GI tract scenes (e.g. normal tissue, food particles, bubbles, fluid, and specular reflection). Initial evaluation results on the SW have shown zero bleeding instance miss-finding rate and 4.03% false alarm rate. This work is part of our innovative 2D/3D based GI tract disease detection software platform. While the overall SW framework is designed for intelligent finding and classification of major GI tract diseases such as bleeding, ulcer, and polyp from the CE videos, this paper will focus on the automatic bleeding detection functional module.

  9. Birth of viable puppies derived from breeding cloned female dogs with a cloned male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J E; Hong, S G; Kang, J T; Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Kim, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, D Y; Jang, G; Lee, B C

    2009-09-15

    Since the establishment of production of viable cloned dogs by somatic cell nucleus transfer, great concern has been given to the reproductive abilities of these animals (Canis familiaris). Therefore, we investigated reproductive activity of cloned dogs by (1) performing sperm analysis using computer-assisted sperm analysis and early embryonic development, (2) assessing reproductive cycling by measuring serum progesterone (P4) levels and performing vaginal cytology, and (3) breeding cloned dogs using artificial insemination. Results showed that most parameters of sperm motility in a cloned male dog were within the reference range, and in vivo-matured oocytes from a noncloned female were successfully fertilized by spermatozoa from a cloned male dog and develop normally to the 8-cell stage. Three cloned female dogs displayed normal patterns of P4 levels and morphologic changes of the vaginal epithelium. Two cloned female dogs became pregnant using semen from a cloned male dog and successfully delivered 10 puppies by natural labor. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that both cloned male and female dogs are fertile, and their puppies are currently alive and healthy with normal growth patterns.

  10. Exploring viable vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuria, Jyotiranjan [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Chattopadhyay, Utpal [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Datta, AseshKrishna [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dey, Abhishek [Maulana Azad College, Government of West Bengal, 8 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata 700013 (India)

    2017-04-05

    We explore the vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and their stability by going beyond the simplistic paradigm that works with a tree-level neutral scalar potential and adheres to some specific flat directions in the field space. We work in the so-called phenomenological NMSSM (pNMSSM) scenario. Also, for our purpose, we adhere to a reasonably ‘natural’ setup by requiring |μ{sub eff}| not too large. Key effects are demonstrated by first studying the profiles of this potential under various circumstances of physical interest via a semi-analytical approach. The results thereof are compared to the ones obtained from a dedicated package like Vevacious which further incorporates the thermal effects to the potential. Regions of the pNMSSM parameter space that render the desired symmetry breaking (DSB) vacuum absolutely stable, long- or short-lived (in relation to the age of the Universe) under quantum/thermal tunneling are delineated. Regions that result in the appearance of color and charge breaking (CCB) minima are also presented. It is demonstrated that light singlet scalars along with a light LSP (lightest supersymmetric particle) having an appreciable singlino admixture are compatible with a viable DSB vacuum. Their implications for collider experiments are commented upon.

  11. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O. [Research Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Low-dose dobutamine myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the identification of viable myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Renata Freire de [Instituto Hermes Pardini, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis. Div. of Nuclear Medicine; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio [Instituto do Coracao (InCor-HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Barroso, Adelanir Antonio, E-mail: renatafreire@yahoo.com.b [Nuclear Medcenter, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the increase in specificity of dual isotope myocardial perfusion gated SPECT ({sup 99m}Tcsestamibi/thallium-201), a highly sensitive method to detect viable myocardium, with addition of data on contractile reserve simultaneously acquired by low-dose dobutamine gated SPECT, similarly to echocardiography. Materials and methods: a total of 260 myocardial segments were assessed in 13 patients with myocardial infarction referred for investigation of myocardial viability before undergoing revascularization. Cellular integrity and contractile reserve were evaluated by dual isotope perfusion myocardial gated SPECT with thallium rest and redistribution images and post-stress {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated-SPECT images under basal conditions and with low-dose dobutamine. The improvement in the contractile performance detected by post-revascularization {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT was the parameter considered for determining myocardial viability. For the purpose of results analysis, the functional parameters of the myocardial segments were quantified at the different phases of the study and stratified according to their viability for a later post-revascularization functional comparison. Results: in the statistical analysis, systolic wall thickening demonstrated to be a relevant parameter in the evaluation of myocardial contractile reserve by this method, with a tendency of improvement in the specificity (84%), demonstrating higher values than those observed in the literature. Conclusion: this method tends to present an effective contribution in the assessment of myocardial viability. (author)

  14. IN-VITRO BIOREDUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM BY VIABLE WHOLE CELLS OF Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Dey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A chromium resistant and reducing bacterium Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. Viable whole cells of this isolate was capable of completely reducing 100 µM Cr(VI in chemically defined MS medium within 28 h of incubation under batch cultivation. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at a density of 1010 cells/ml, but the reduction potential of the suspended cells decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration in the medium. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors, while the optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI reduction was found to be 7.0 and 35°C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Ni, Co and Cd, but not by Cu and Fe. Similarly, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, N,N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide (DCC, sodium azide and sodium fluoride were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while in presence of 2,4 dinitrophenol (2,4 DNP chromate reduction by SUK 1201 cells remained unaffected.

  15. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  16. Viable cold-tolerant iron-reducing microorganisms in geographically diverse subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Telling, Jon P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-03-01

    Subglacial environments are known to harbour metabolically diverse microbial communities. These microbial communities drive chemical weathering of underlying bedrock and influence the geochemistry of glacial meltwater. Despite its importance in weathering reactions, the microbial cycling of iron in subglacial environments, in particular the role of microbial iron reduction, is poorly understood. In this study we address the prevalence of viable iron-reducing microorganisms in subglacial sediments from five geographically isolated glaciers. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures were established with sediment from beneath Engabreen (Norway), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), Leverett and Russell glaciers (Greenland), and Lower Wright Glacier (Antarctica). Rates of iron reduction were higher at 4 °C compared with 15 °C in all but one duplicated second-generation enrichment culture, indicative of cold-tolerant and perhaps cold-adapted iron reducers. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicates Desulfosporosinus were the dominant iron-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature Engabreen, Finsterwalderbreen and Lower Wright Glacier enrichments, and Geobacter dominated in Russell and Leverett enrichments. Results from this study suggest microbial iron reduction is widespread in subglacial environments and may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.

  17. Flow Cytometry Sorting to Separate Viable Giant Viruses from Amoeba Co-culture Supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Jacques Y B; Langlois, Thierry; Andreani, Julien; Sorraing, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Camoin, Laurence; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry has contributed to virology but has faced many drawbacks concerning detection limits, due to the small size of viral particles. Nonetheless, giant viruses changed many concepts in the world of viruses, as a result of their size and hence opened up the possibility of using flow cytometry to study them. Recently, we developed a high throughput isolation of viruses using flow cytometry and protozoa co-culture. Consequently, isolating a viral mixture in the same sample became more common. Nevertheless, when one virus multiplies faster than others in the mixture, it is impossible to obtain a pure culture of the minority population. Here, we describe a robust sorting system, which can separate viable giant virus mixtures from supernatants. We tested three flow cytometry sorters by sorting artificial mixtures. Purity control was assessed by electron microscopy and molecular biology. As proof of concept, we applied the sorting system to a co-culture supernatant taken from a sample containing a viral mixture that we couldn't separate using end point dilution. In addition to isolating the quick-growing Mimivirus, we sorted and re-cultured a new, slow-growing virus, which we named "Cedratvirus." The sorting assay presented in this paper is a powerful and versatile tool for separating viral populations from amoeba co-cultures and adding value to the new field of flow virometry.

  18. In search of a viable reaction pathway in the chelation of a metallo-protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Frisco; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2010-03-01

    Misfolded metallo-proteins are potential causal agents in the onset of neuro-degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases (PD). Experimental results involving metal chelation have shown significant promise in symptom reduction and misfolding reversal. We explore, through atomistic simulations, potential reaction pathways for the chelation of Cu^2+ from the metal binding site in our representation of a partially misfolded α-synuclein, the protein implicated in PD. Our ab initio simulations use Density Functional Theory (DFT) and nudged elastic band to obtain the minimized energy coordinates of this reaction. Our simulations include ab initio water at the interaction site and in its first solvation shells, while the remainder is fully solvated with orbital-free DFT water representation [1]. Our ongoing studies of viable chelation agents include nicotine, caffeine and other potential reagents, we will review the best case agents in this presentation. [4pt] [1] Hodak M, Lu W, Bernholc J. Hybrid ab initio Kohn-Sham density functional theory/frozen-density orbital-free density functional theory simulation method suitable for biological systems. J. Chem. Phys. 2008 Jan;128(1):014101-9.

  19. Wormholes in viable f(R) modified theories of gravity and weak energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Petar [Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Sossich, Marko [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-03-01

    In this work wormholes in viable f(R) gravity models are analyzed. We are interested in exact solutions for stress-energy tensor components depending on different shape and redshift functions. Several solutions of gravitational equations for different f(R) models are examined. The solutions found imply no need for exotic material, while this need is implied in the standard general theory of relativity. A simple expression for weak energy condition (WEC) violation near the throat is derived and analyzed. High curvature regime is also discussed, as well as the question of the highest possible values of the Ricci scalar for which the WEC is not violated near the throat, and corresponding functions are calculated for several models. The approach here differs from the one that has been common since no additional assumptions to simplify the equations have been made, and the functions in f(R) models are not considered to be arbitrary functions, but rather a feature of the theory that has to be evaluated on the basis of consistency with observations for the Solar System and cosmological evolution. Therefore in this work we show that the existence of wormholes without exotic matter is not only possible in simple arbitrary f(R) models, but also in models that are in accordance with empirical data. (orig.)

  20. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    ATP content, oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were tested for the ability to express the amount of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge. The relationship between biomass and these activity parameters was established in growth cultures made...... with biomass, while FDA hydrolysis in the sludge failed to show any such correlation. Conversion factors of 3 mg ATP/g dw, 300 mg O2/h g dw and 0.4 A/h (mg dw/ml) for ATP, OUR and FDA methods, respectively, were calculated. When the methods were applied for in situ determinations in four different wastewater...... plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable biomass...

  1. Trypan blue dye enters viable cells incubated with the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seav-Ly Tran

    Full Text Available Trypan blue is a dye that has been widely used for selective staining of dead tissues or cells. Here, we show that the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus allows trypan blue staining of macrophage cells, despite the cells remaining viable and metabolically active. These findings suggest that the dye enters viable cells through the pores. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that trypan blue may enter viable cells. Consequently, the use of trypan blue staining as a marker of vital status should be interpreted with caution. The blue coloration does not necessarily indicate cell lysis, but may rather indicate pore formation in the cell membranes and more generally increased membrane permeability.

  2. Removal of viable bioaerosol particles with a low-efficiency HVAC filter enhanced by continuous emission of unipolar air ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Agranovski, I; Pyankov, O; Grinshpun, S

    2008-04-01

    Continuous emission of unipolar ions has been shown to improve the performance of respirators and stationary filters challenged with non-biological particles. In this study, we investigated the ion-induced enhancement effect while challenging a low-efficiency heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) filter with viable bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and viruses. The aerosol concentration was measured in real time. Samples were also collected with a bioaerosol sampler for viable microbial analysis. The removal efficiency of the filter was determined, respectively, with and without an ion emitter. The ionization was found to significantly enhance the filter efficiency in removing viable biological particles from the airflow. For example, when challenged with viable bacteria, the filter efficiency increased as much as four- to fivefold. For viable fungal spores, the ion-induced enhancement improved the efficiency by a factor of approximately 2. When testing with virus-carrying liquid droplets, the original removal efficiency provided by the filter was rather low: 9.09 +/- 4.84%. While the ion emission increased collection about fourfold, the efficiency did not reach 75-100% observed with bacteria and fungi. These findings, together with our previously published results for non-biological particles, demonstrate the feasibility of a new approach for reducing aerosol particles in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control. Recirculated air in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control in buildings often contains considerable number of viable bioaerosol particles because of limited efficiency of the filters installed in these systems. In the present study, we investigated - using aerosolized bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and virus-carrying particles - a novel idea of enhancing the performance of a low-efficiency HVAC filter utilizing continuous emission of unipolar ions in the filter vicinity. The findings described in

  3. Forgotten but Not Gone: Retro-Cue Costs and Benefits in a Double-Cueing Paradigm Suggest Multiple States in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Sligte, Ilja G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM…

  4. Two Centuries of State Involvement in the Dutch Agro sector: An Assessment of Policy in a Long-term Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of Dutch government policies on the agro sector in a long-term historical perspective. Agro policies touch upon a wide range of matters, from export, competitiveness and employment to sustainability, animal welfare and food security, Unsurprisingly, they are a

  5. Determination of Self-Efficacy and Burnout State of Teachers Working in the Special Education Field in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuri, Cahit; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli; Direktör, Cemaliye

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the self-efficacy and burnout of special education teachers in terms of different variables such as gender, teachers' educational levels, teachers' daily working hours, and teachers' daily student numbers. 7 special education schools, affiliated to Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) Ministry of Education…

  6. Forgotten but not gone: retro-cue cost and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  7. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties following organic matter removal and compaction: 20-year response of the aspen Lake-States Long Term Soil Productivity installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato; Valerie J. Kurth

    2017-01-01

    Soil functions that control plant resource availability can be altered by management activities such as increased organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction during forest harvesting. The Long Term Soil Productivity study was established to evaluate how these practices influence soil and site productivity using experimental treatments that span a range of forest...

  8. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  9. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  10. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Mila F M; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Werneck, Silvia M C; Corrêa, Jôice D; Soriani, Frederico M; Garlet, Gustavo P; Souza, Daniele G; Teixeira, Mauro M; Silva, Tarcilia A; Perretti, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a result of an aggressive form of periodontal disease (PD) associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) infection. PD is often observed with other systemic inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. Melanocortin peptides activate specific receptors to exert antiarthritic properties, avoiding excessing inflammation and modulating macrophage function. Recent work has indicated that melanocortin can control osteoclast development and function, but whether such protection takes place in infection-induced alveolar bone loss has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of melanocortin in Aa-induced PD. Mice were orally infected with Aa and treated with the melanocortin analog DTrp8-γMSH or vehicle daily for 30 d. Then, periodontal tissue was collected and analyzed. Aa-infected mice treated with DTrp8-γMSH presented decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower degree of neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium than vehicle-treated animals; these actions were associated with reduced periodontal levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A. In vitro experiments with cells differentiated into osteoclasts showed that osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were attenuated after treatment with DTrp8-γMSH. Thus, melanocortin agonism could represent an innovative way to tame overexuberant inflammation and, at the same time, preserve bone physiology, as seen after Aa infection.-Madeira, M. F. M., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Montero-Melendez, T., Werneck, S. M. C., Corrêa, J. D., Soriani, F. M., Garlet, G. P., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Silva, T. A., Perretti, M. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection. © FASEB.

  11. Clinically Viable Gene Expression Assays with Potential for Predicting Benefit from MEK Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Roz; Sharpe, Alan; Liptrot, Tom; Dry, Jonathan R; Harrington, Elizabeth A; Barrett, J Carl; Whalley, Nicky; Womack, Christopher; Smith, Paul; Hodgson, Darren R

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinically viable gene expression assay to measure RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (RAS-ERK) pathway output suitable for hypothesis testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinical studies. Experimental Design: A published MEK functional activation signature (MEK signature) that measures RAS-ERK functional output was optimized for NSCLC in silico NanoString assays were developed for the NSCLC optimized MEK signature and the 147-gene RAS signature. First, platform transfer from Affymetrix to NanoString, and signature modulation following treatment with KRAS siRNA and MEK inhibitor, were investigated in cell lines. Second, the association of the signatures with KRAS mutation status, dynamic range, technical reproducibility, and spatial and temporal variation was investigated in NSCLC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) samples. Results: We observed a strong cross-platform correlation and modulation of signatures in vitro Technical and biological replicates showed consistent signature scores that were robust to variation in input total RNA; conservation of scores between primary and metastatic tumor was statistically significant. There were statistically significant associations between high MEK ( P = 0.028) and RAS ( P = 0.003) signature scores and KRAS mutation in 50 NSCLC samples. The signatures identify overlapping but distinct candidate patient populations from each other and from KRAS mutation testing. Conclusions: We developed a technically and biologically robust NanoString gene expression assay of MEK pathway output, compatible with the quantities of FFPET routinely available. The gene signatures identified a different patient population for MEK inhibitor treatment compared with KRAS mutation testing. The predictive power of the MEK signature should be studied further in clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 23(6); 1471-80. ©2016 AACR See related commentary by Xue and Lito, p. 1365 . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  13. Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1996-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  14. Morphological assessment on day 4 and its prognostic power in selecting viable embryos for transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabozzi, Gemma; Alteri, Alessandra; Rega, Emilia; Starita, Maria Flavia; Piscitelli, Claudio; Giannini, Pierluigi; Colicchia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a system for embryo morphology scoring at the morula stage and to determine the efficiency of this model in selecting viable embryos for transfer. In total, 519 embryos from 122 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were scored retrospectively on day 4 according to the grading system proposed in this article. Two separate quality scores were assigned to each embryo in relation to the grade of compaction and fragmentation and their developmental fate was then observed on days 5 and 6. Secondly, the prediction value of this scoring system was compared with the prediction value of the traditional scoring system adopted on day 3. Morulas classified as grade A showed a significant higher blastocyst formation rate (87.2%) compared with grades B, C and D (63.8, 41.3 and 15.0%, respectively), (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the ability to form top quality blastocysts was significantly higher for grade A morulas with respect to grades B, and C and D (37.8% vs. 22.4% vs. 11.1%), (P < 0.001). Finally, the morula scoring system showed more prediction power with respect to the embryo scoring a value of 1 [Akaike information criterion (AIC) index 16.4 vs. 635.3 and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) index -68.8 vs. -30.0 for morulas and embryos respectively]. In conclusion, results demonstrated that the presented scoring system allows for the evaluation of eligible embryos for transfer as a significant correlation between the grade of morula, blastulation rate and blastocyst quality was observed. Furthermore, the morula scoring system was shown to be the best predictive model when compared with the traditional scoring system performed on day 3.

  15. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  16. Minimum viable metapopulation size, extinction debt, and the conservation of a declining species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Caroline R; Wilson, Robert J; Holt, Alison R; Gálvez Bravo, Lucia; Early, Regan I; Warren, Martin S; Thomas, Chris D

    2007-07-01

    A key question facing conservation biologists is whether declines in species' distributions are keeping pace with landscape change, or whether current distributions overestimate probabilities of future persistence. We use metapopulations of the marsh fritillary butterfly Euphydryas aurinia in the United Kingdom as a model system to test for extinction debt in a declining species. We derive parameters for a metapopulation model (incidence function model, IFM) using information from a 625-km2 landscape where habitat patch occupancy, colonization, and extinction rates for E. aurinia depend on patch connectivity, area, and quality. We then show that habitat networks in six extant metapopulations in 16-km2 squares were larger, had longer modeled persistence times (using IFM), and higher metapopulation capacity (lambdaM) than six extinct metapopulations. However, there was a > 99% chance that one or more of the six extant metapopulations would go extinct in 100 years in the absence of further habitat loss. For 11 out of 12 networks, minimum areas of habitat needed for 95% persistence of metapopulation simulations after 100 years ranged from 80 to 142 ha (approximately 5-9% of land area), depending on the spatial location of habitat. The area of habitat exceeded the estimated minimum viable metapopulation size (MVM) in only two of the six extant metapopulations, and even then by only 20%. The remaining four extant networks were expected to suffer extinction in 15-126 years. MVM was consistently estimated as approximately 5% of land area based on a sensitivity analysis of IFM parameters and was reduced only marginally (to approximately 4%) by modeling the potential impact of long-distance colonization over wider landscapes. The results suggest a widespread extinction debt among extant metapopulations of a declining species, necessitating conservation management or reserve designation even in apparent strongholds. For threatened species, metapopulation modeling is a

  17. Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Bobinet, Kyra J; McCabe, Kelley; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Fekete, Erin; Kusnick, Catherine A; Baime, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Highly stressed employees are subject to greater health risks, increased cost, and productivity losses than those with normal stress levels. To address this issue in an evidence-based manner, worksite stress management programs must be able to engage individuals as well as capture data on stress, health indices, work productivity, and health care costs. In this randomized controlled pilot, our primary objective was to evaluate the viability and proof of concept for two mind-body workplace stress reduction programs (one therapeutic yoga-based and the other mindfulness-based), in order to set the stage for larger cost-effectiveness trials. A second objective was to evaluate 2 delivery venues of the mindfulness-based intervention (online vs. in-person). Intention-to-treat principles and 2 (pre and post) × 3 (group) repeated-measures analysis of covariance procedures examined group differences over time on perceived stress and secondary measures to clarify which variables to include in future studies: sleep quality, mood, pain levels, work productivity, mindfulness, blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic balance). Two hundred and thirty-nine employee volunteers were randomized into a therapeutic yoga worksite stress reduction program, 1 of 2 mindfulness-based programs, or a control group that participated only in assessment. Compared with the control group, the mind-body interventions showed significantly greater improvements on perceived stress, sleep quality, and the heart rhythm coherence ratio of heart rate variability. The two delivery venues for the mindfulness program produced basically equivalent results. Both the mindfulness-based and therapeutic yoga programs may provide viable and effective interventions to target high stress levels, sleep quality, and autonomic balance in employees. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Immediate natural tooth pontic: a viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: a patient reported outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Rashi

    2012-01-01

    In patients with hopeless prognosis of the anterior teeth there is still a strong desire to save them for the sake of esthetics. If not grossly carious, broken down or discolored the extracted tooth after suitable modifications can be placed back in its original site by splinting it to the adjacent stable teeth. Fifteen patients (10 males, 5 females) in the age range of 40-65 years with pathologically migrated, unsalvageable teeth were treated by splinting the extracted teeth immediately with the stable adjacent teeth. After 12 weeks, all the patients were explained various treatment options available for replacement of the lost teeth. The patients were asked to fill out a simple closed ended questionnaire citing the various difficulties encountered during this transitional period, selection of further treatment modalities and the reasons for their choice. The feedback obtained was then analyzed statistically. Hundred percent of patients were happy with the esthetics; however, 60% of them were dissatisfied with the function that it provided. The primary problem being apprehension of splint fracture and difficulty while incising and the data was found to be statistically significant (P=0.01**). All patients demanded a permanent treatment option following this with a fixed prosthesis. None of the patients were interested in the implant supported prosthesis due to cost, treatment time involved, and need for surgery. The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  19. Bariatric surgery: a viable treatment option for patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Sarah R; Labott, Susan; Stout, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Although bariatric surgery has become a recognized treatment for obesity, its utility among patients with severe psychiatric disorders has not been extensively studied. A few studies have reported similar weight loss outcomes in these patients, but psychiatric status after bariatric surgery has been studied only minimally, and it is unknown if exacerbation of the mental illness affects weight loss. The aim of this study was to shed greater light on the issue of serious mental illness and bariatric surgery. Specifically, do patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II have poorer weight loss outcomes postbariatric surgery than the general bariatric surgery population? Also, do patients with these diagnoses experience an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery, and if so, is the exacerbation of these disorders linked to poorer weight loss results? Midwest university medical center. A medical record review of approximately 1500 bariatric patients in a Midwest university medical center was conducted to identify those patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II. Information was gathered on bariatric surgery outcomes and changes in psychiatric status postsurgery. Eighteen patients were identified as undergoing bariatric surgery and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, or bipolar II. Weight loss in this group was significant and comparable to expected outcomes of absolute weight lost, changes in body mass index, and percentage excess weight loss for patients in the typical bariatric population. Postsurgery psychiatric status was known on 10 patients. All 10 patients experienced some exacerbation of psychiatric problems yet weight loss outcomes were still as expected. Bariatric surgery is a viable obesity treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II disorders. Symptom exacerbations occurred postsurgery, although it is not clear if these were due to the surgery or

  20. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment.

  1. Induction of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella in Exponentially Grown Cells by Exposure to a Low-Humidity Environment and Their Resuscitation by Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Yuta; Koike, Atsushi; Tamura-Ueyama, Ai; Amano, Fumio

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease that sometimes occurs in massive outbreaks around the world. This pathogen is tolerant of low-humidity conditions. We previously described a method for induction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and subsequent resuscitation with 0.3 mM sodium pyruvate. Here, we report a new method for the induction of the VBNC state in Salmonella Enteritidis cells, one involving dehydration. Exposure of Salmonella Enteritidis cells to dehydration stress under poor nutritional conditions (0.9% [wt/vol] NaCl) and 10 to 20% relative humidity at room temperature decreased the presence of culturable population to 0.0067%, but respiratory and glucose uptake active populations were maintained at 0.46 and 1.12%, respectively, meaning that approximately 1% may have entered the VBNC state. Furthermore, these VBNC cells could be resuscitated to acquire culturability by incubation with catalase in M9 minimal medium without glucose in a manner dependent on the dose of catalase but not sodium pyruvate. These results suggest that a low-humidity environment could cause Salmonella Enteritidis cells to enter the VBNC state and the cells could then be resuscitated for growth by treatment with catalase, suggesting a potential risk of Salmonella Enteritidis to survive in low water activity foods in the VBNC state and to start regrowth for foodborne illness.

  2. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Volume II. Survey of near-term (1976--1985) civilian applications in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattin, E. J.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this market study was to identify and evaluate potential terrestrial civilian photovoltaic applications in the U.S. which were most likely to contribute significantly to the growth of near-term (to 1985) markets. A survey was conducted which led to the identification of many potential applications for photovoltaic power. These applications were subjected to a screening process which selected about 50 application groupings with considerable promise as near-term markets for photovoltaic arrays. For 21 of these 50 promising application groups, it was possible to make quantitative market estimates that totaled 13 MW/sub pk/ in projected annual array sales in 1985. The markets associated with the remaining 29 groups could not be quantitatively evaluated because of lack of an adequate existing data base and because the primary research required in order to provide such a data base was not feasible within the resources available in the study. If the average size of the markets associated with the unquantified groups, however, is comparable to the average for the quantified cases, then the total non-military U.S. market for arrays may well exceed 25 MW/sub pk//year in 1985. Foreign and U.S. military markets should add significantly to this total. In fact, the consensus of the photovoltaic industry representatives who were contacted is that the total foreign market over the near term may be several times as large as the domestic one.

  3. Simultaneous Antidepressant and Benzodiazepine New Use and Subsequent Long-term Benzodiazepine Use in Adults With Depression, United States, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Greta A; Stürmer, Til; Gaynes, Bradley N; Pate, Virginia; Miller, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Benzodiazepines have been prescribed for short periods to patients with depression who are beginning antidepressant therapy to improve depressive symptoms more quickly, mitigate concomitant anxiety, and improve antidepressant treatment continuation. However, benzodiazepine therapy is associated with risks, including dependency, which may take only a few weeks to develop. To examine trends in simultaneous benzodiazepine and antidepressant new use among adults with depression initiating an antidepressant, assess antidepressant treatment length by simultaneous new use status, estimate subsequent long-term benzodiazepine use in those with simultaneous antidepressant and benzodiazepine new use, and identify determinants of simultaneous new use and long-term benzodiazepine use. This cohort study using a US commercial claims database included commercially insured adults (aged 18-64 years) from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2014, with a recent depression diagnosis who began antidepressant therapy but had not used antidepressants or benzodiazepines in the prior year. Simultaneous new use, defined as a new benzodiazepine prescription dispensed on the same day as a new antidepressant prescription. The proportion of antidepressant initiators with simultaneous new use and continuing antidepressant treatment for 6 months and the proportion of simultaneous new users receiving long-term (6-months) benzodiazepine therapy. Of the 765 130 adults (median age, 39 years; interquartile range, 29-49 years; 507 451 women [66.3%]) who initiated antidepressant treatment, 81 020 (10.6%) also initiated benzodiazepine treatment. The mean annual increase in the proportion simultaneously starting use of both agents from 2001 to 2014 was 0.49% (95% CI, 0.47%-0.51%), increasing from 6.1% (95% CI, 5.5%-6.6%) in 2001 to 12.5% (95% CI, 12.3%-12.7%) in 2012 and stabilizing through 2014 (11.3%; 95% CI, 11.1%-11.5%). Similar findings were apparent by age group and physician type

  4. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  5. Beer's viable system model and Luhmann's communication theory: ‘organizations’ from the perspective of meta-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, M.W.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the descriptions of ‘viability’ provided by Beer's Viable System Model, Maturana's autopoietic theory or Luhmann's communication theory, questions remain as to what ‘viability’ means across different contexts. How is ‘viability’ affected by the Internet and the changing information

  6. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pmultiple linear regression, a positive correlation between total viable count and formation of TVB-N in chicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (p<0.05), while the intensity of TVB-N formation was lowest in chicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  7. An obesity-dependent lactation defect in the viable yellow agouti mouse is associated with mammary inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity is known to delay lactogenesis in breast-feeding women, as well as negatively impact lactation in other species. Obesity is also understood to be associated with inflammation. Work with the viable yellow agouti (Avy) mouse in our laboratory has documented a lactation defect in obese...

  8. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-jun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 103 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds. PMID:27739469

  9. The molecularly crowded cytoplasm of bacterialcCells : Dividing cells contrasted with viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevors, J. T.; van Elsas, J. D.; Bej, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    In this perspective, we discuss the cytoplasm in actively growing bacterial cells contrasted with viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Actively growing bacterial cells contain a more molecularly crowded and organized cytoplasm, and are capable of completing their cell cycle resulting in cell

  10. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, Leonoor; Van Oostwaard, Miriam F.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M.; Pajkrt, Eva; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Vandenbussche, Frank P.; Oei, Swan G.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Van Eyck, Jim; Middeldorp, Johanna M.; Koenen, Steven V.; De Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. Study design: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n = 10), between January 2000 and January 2014.

  11. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, L. van; Oostwaard, M.F. Van; Zeeman, G.G.; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Pajkrt, E.; Duvekot, J.J.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.; Oei, S.G.; Scheepers, H.C.; Eyck, J. van; Middeldorp, J.M.; Koenen, S.V.; Groot, C.J. de; Bolte, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n=10), between January 2000 and January 2014. All

  12. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

  13. Special aspects of motivation of the structural subdivisions of the state emergency service of Ukraine in terms of physical self-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko A.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the motivation of employees of structural subdivisions of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine to improve their level of professional competence by means of physical training. Material: questionnaire survey of 130 rescue workers aged 25 to 40 years. Results: the main motives of rescue team personnel for physical culture and sports activities are gain in physical health and professional competence, while performing rescue missions. It was established that, when on duty, most of the firefighters and rescue workers are not engaged in physical exercise at all; household chores and poor state of health in case of men prevent rescue team employees from doing exercises outside of working hours. It was found that fire-rescue specialists give preference to the development of muscle strength during professional physical trainings and would like to perform power exercises. Conclusions: the low level of motivation of current fire-rescue workers for physical self-improvement requires optimization of control over professional physical education in departments of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.

  14. Investigating the state-like and trait-like characters of social cognition in schizophrenia: a short term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Nóra; Egerházi, Anikó; Berecz, Roland; Csukly, Gábor

    2014-11-01

    Controversial findings exist in the literature regarding the state- and trait-like characters of social cognition in schizophrenia. In order to explore the relationship of social cognition with symptom severity in the present study, Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition were tested in an acute phase and later in a clinically stable phase in patients. ToM and emotion recognition abilities were examined by using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the Ekman 60 Faces Test (FEEST) in 43 patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Research diagnoses were based on SCID interviews. Symptom severity in patients was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). ToM and emotion recognition deficits improved in the clinically stable phase compared to relapse, but were still found to be impaired compared to healthy controls. Negative symptom severity showed strong correlation with emotion recognition and ToM at both visits. Both ToM and emotion recognition fluctuated together with symptom severity, which confirmed the "state-like" component of these abilities. Our results, taken together with the findings of previous investigations show that social cognition deficits in schizophrenia have both state-like and trait-like components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing long-term land use/cover change in the United States from 1850 to 2000 using a nonlinear bi-analytical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Merwade, Venkatesh; Rao, P Suresh C; Pijanowski, Bryan C

    2013-04-01

    We relate the historical (1850-2000) spatial and temporal changes in cropland cover in the conterminous United States to several socio-economic and biophysical determinants using an eco-region based spatial framework. Results show population density as a major determinant during the nineteenth century, and biophysical suitability as the major determinant during the twentieth century. We further examine the role of technological innovations, socio-economic and socio-ecological feedbacks that have either sustained or altered the cropland trajectories in different eco-regions. The cropland trajectories for each of the 84 level-III eco-regions were analyzed using a nonlinear bi-analytical model. In the Eastern United States, low biophysically suitable eco-regions, e.g., New England, have shown continual decline in the cropland after reaching peak levels. The cropland trajectories in high biophysically suitable regions, e.g., Corn Belt, have stabilized after reaching peak levels. In the Western United States, low-intensity crop cover (<10 %) is sustained with irrigation support. A slower rate of land conversion was found in the industrial period. Significant effect of Conservation Reserve Program on planted crop area is found in last two decades (1990-2010).

  16. Morpho-functional state of the liver and changes of blood biochemical parameters in rats exposed to lead sulfide nanoparticles in the remote terms of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchuk S.T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the framework of technical progress a huge amount of nanoparticles arose, and unknowingly people come into contact with them as a result of industrial activities and in everyday life. Particularly noteworthy is the situation that concerns lead nanoparticles, because the possibility of its formation in the manufacturing process is sufficiently large, and the impact on the body is still poorly understood. The aim of our work was to determine the nature of morphological changes in the liver and dynamics of corresponding blood biochemical changes under exposure to lead sulfide nanoparticles of different sizes and lead nitrate in long-term administration of substances immediately and in long-term periods. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity in blood serum was studied by a colorimetric method with a set of «Phyllis Diagnostics» reagents. Histological sections of fixed liver preparations derived from routine experimental subjects served as materials for morphological studies. Studies have found that in long-term exposure to lead sulphide nanoparticles (groups 1 and 2 and ionic form of lead nitrate (group 3 activity of ALT and AST increases with the same levels of intensity. Decrease of activity of ALT and AST enzymes takes place in the post-exposure period. Morphological examinations of internal organs of experimental animals revealed presence of dystrophic changes in the liver parenchyma, reactive changes in hepatic stroma and vascular reactions, the intensity of which was more clearly marked in 60-fold administration of the test substances (12 weeks and is expressed less in 60-fold administration of the same substances, taking into account the post-exposure period (18 weeks. The results will be taken into consideration at the subsequent stages of the study.

  17. Use of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) in viable real-time PCR for enumeration of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2014-03-01

    The cell membranes of inactivated Escherichia coli are not always permeable to propidium monoazide (PMA). This limits the use of PMA real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR) for quantification of DNA from only viable cells for enumeration of E. coli. The aim of this study was to develop PMA-qPCR procedures for E. coli with improved selectivity for viable cells. E. coli inactivated by incubation at 52°C were treated with 12 detergents before PMA treatment, and DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Treatment with each of the 12 detergents and PMA increased the cycle threshold (Ct) values for heat inactivated E. coli suspensions. The greatest increase, of 10.68 Ct was obtained with sarkosyl. Treatment with sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) increased the Ct value by 8.99 Ct. Treatment with sarkosyl or NaDC of 16 heat treated 5-strain cocktails of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) increased the mean Ct values by 8.15 or 6.82 Ct, respectively. Those mean values were significantly (pnumbers of viable E. coli were 2.24 and 2.47, respectively, with regression coefficient values ≥0.85. The findings show that sarkosyl was more effective than NaDC for dissipation of PMA-barrier properties of membranes of inactivated E. coli cells. Viable E. coli in mixtures of viable E. coli and E. coli inactivated by heat, lactic acid or peroxyacetic acid could be reliably enumerated by sarkosyl PMA-qPCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A retrospective cohort study of long-term immediate-release hydrocodone/acetaminophen use and acetaminophen dosing above the Food and Drug Administration recommended maximum daily limit among commercially insured individuals in the United States (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVeaugh-Geiss, Angela; Kadakia, Aditi; Chilcoat, Howard; Alexander, Louis; Coplan, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Immediate-release (IR) hydrocodone/acetaminophen is the most prescribed opioid in the United States; however, patterns of use, including long-term treatment and dose, are not well described. Duration of use, including the percentage of patients on long-term treatment (>90 days of continuous use), was assessed for patients newly prescribed IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen compared to other opioid analgesics in a national commercial insurance database (January 2008-September 2013). Though only a small percentage of IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen patients continued treatment long-term (1.7%), the number was large (104,839) and was nearly 5 times the number receiving extended-release (ER) morphine (n = 22,338) and nearly 4 times the number receiving ER oxycodone (n = 26,946) long-term. Using a less conservative allowable gap in treatment increased the number of patients meeting the criteria for long-term use (approximately 160,000 for IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen vs 20 and ≤60 mg/d (n = 56,220, 53.6%) in month 4; 5.5% (n = 5,743) received doses >60 mg/d. Moreover, approximately 15% of IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen patients (n > 900,000) were prescribed total daily acetaminophen doses exceeding 4 g (the limit recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) at their initial IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen prescription or any time during therapy. Although most patients were prescribed IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen for acute pain, the number of patients prescribed long-term therapy exceeds the number of patients prescribed ER opioids. It is important to consider the benefits and risks inherent with long-term opioid therapy, whether with IR or ER opioids, to ensure safe use of these products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of long-term forestry drainage on the current state of peatland soils: A case study from the Central Sudetes, SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Glina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One important need in the context of peatland restoration is to gain knowledge of soil organic matter quality and current soil-forming process in degraded peatlands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of long-term drainage on soil transformation processes. In autumn 2012, soil survey and sampling was carried out on five shallow peatlands in the Central Sudeten Mountains (Poland which had been drained for forestry use in the late 1800s or early 1900s. Four organic soils (Histosols and one organo-mineral soil (Histic Gleysol were studied. The surface soil horizons were mainly transformed due to long-term forestry drainage. Increased aeration of these layers had enhanced their content of labile forms of carbon and they were undergoing secondary transformation. Soil transformation was more advanced in fen peatlands than in transitional mire or raised bogs. Only the fens exhibited characteristic evidence of the moorsh-forming process. Further drying of these soils will negatively affect their rewetting potential and significantly reduce the effective application of restoration treatments. In order to reduce organic matter transformation and loss from the investigated peatland areas, their drainage ditches should be blocked. Additionally, some trees should be removed from their central areas to reduce evapotranspiration.

  20. Evaluation of respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallapura G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gopala Kallapura,1 Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco,2 Neil R Pumford,1 Lisa R Bielke,1 Billy M Hargis,1 Guillermo Tellez1 1Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, The National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico Abstract: With increasing reports of Salmonella infection, we are forced to question whether the fecal–oral route is the major route of infection and consider the possibility that airborne Salmonella infections might have a major unappreciated role. Today's large-scale poultry production, with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings, is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Considering that the upper and lower respiratory lymphoid tissue requires up to 6 weeks to be fully developed, these immune structures seem to have a very minor role in preventing pathogen infection. In addition, the avian respiratory system in commercial poultry has anatomic and physiologic properties that present no challenge to the highly adapted Salmonella. The present review evaluates the hypothesis that transmission by the fecal–respiratory route may theoretically be a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. First, we update the current knowledge on generation of Salmonella bioaerosols, and the transport and fate of Salmonella at various stages of commercial poultry production. Further, emphasis is placed on survivability of Salmonella in these bioaerosols, as a means to assess the transport and subsequent risk of exposure and infection of poultry. Additionally, the main anatomic structures, physiologic functions, and immunologic defense in the avian respiratory system are discussed to understand the potential entry points inherent in each component that could potentially lead to infection and subsequent systemic infection of poultry by Salmonella. In this context, we also evaluate the role of the mucosal immune

  1. Cellular bone matrices: viable stem cell-containing bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K; Iatridis, James C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. Areview of literature. A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs' survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery

  2. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Brown, J; Verma, S K; Cerqueira-Cézar, C K; Banfield, J; Kwok, O C H; Ying, Y; Murata, F H A; Pradhan, A K; Su, C

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69.7%) had MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 28, 1:100 in 34, and 1:200 or higher in 140. Thus most (44.1%) elk had relatively high titers. Seroprevalence was slightly higher in males (76.9%) than females (67.5%, not statistically significant, Chi-square tests, P<0.0001) and was higher in adults (76.5%) than yearlings (46.4%, Odds ratio 3.82; 95% CL 1.72-8.47; P=0.001) or calves (21.7%, Odds ratio 12.58; 95% CL 4.51-35.10; P<0.0001). Annual seroprevalence was relatively stable throughout the period tested and ranged from 66.6% to 72.2%. Of the 101 elk harvested in 2016, hearts were bioassayed from 20 elk and tongues were bioassayed from 56; all tongue samples were negative. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of two female elk, one of these was a seronegative adult and the other was a calf with no serum available for testing. Both T. gondii isolates were cultivated in cell culture and DNA derived from tachyzoites was characterized using the PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'- 3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. One isolate belongs to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 and the other is genotype #5. Both genotypes are frequently identified in animals in North America. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP: a viable agent for palliative radiotherapy of painful bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, S. [Radiopharmaceuticals Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sarma, H.D. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2008-07-01

    The suitable nuclear decay characteristics [T{sub 1/2} = 6.73 d, E{sub {beta}}{sub (max)} = 497 keV, E{sub {gamma}} = 113 keV (6.4%), 208 keV (11%)] as well as the feasibility of large-scale production with adequate specific activity and radionuclidic purity using a moderate flux reactor are important attributes towards {sup 177}Lu to be considered as a promising radionuclide for palliative care in painful bone metastasis. The present study describes the preparation of {sup 177}Lu complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and its preliminary biological evaluation in animal models with an aim to proposing it as a viable radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation. The choice DOTMP as the polyaminophosphonic acid carrier ligand is based on the enhanced thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the metal-ligand complexes with macrocyclic chelators. {sup 177}Lu was produced with a specific activity of {proportional_to} 12 GBq/mg ({proportional_to} 324 mCi/mg) and radionuclidic purity of 99.98% by irradiation of natural Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} target at a thermal neutron flux of {proportional_to} 6 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} s for 21 d. {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP complex was prepared in high yield and excellent radiochemical purity (> 99%) using DOTMP synthesized and characterized in-house. The complex exhibited excellent in-vitro stability at room temperature. Biodistribution studies in Wistar rats showed rapid skeletal accumulation of the injected activity [(1.60{+-}0.19)% per gram in femur at 3 h post-injection] with fast clearance from blood and minimal uptake in any of the major organs. Scintigraphic studies carried out in normal Wistar rats and New Zealand white rabbits also demonstrated significant accumulation of the agent in skeleton and almost no retention in any other vital organs. (orig.)

  4. Presence of viable Mycobacterium leprae in environmental specimens around houses of leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turankar, R P; Lavania, M; Singh, M; Sengupta, U; Siva Sai, Ksr; Jadhav, R S

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, one of the first organisms to be established as the cause for disease in humans. Because of high prevalence pockets of leprosy in the endemic regions, it is necessary to identify the possible sources of M. leprae in the environment and its mode of transmission. Slit skin smears (SSSs) from lesions were collected in 70% ethanol from 50 leprosy cases staying in the leprosy resettlement village and hospital from a high endemic area. One hundred and sixty soil samples were collected from different areas around the leprosy hospital and from the resettlement village of cured leprosy patients where active cases also resided at the time of sample collection. M. leprae specific gene region (RLEP 129 bp) and 16S rRNA targets were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection for the presence and viability of M. leprae. An rpoT region was also amplified to determine presence of numbers of 6 bp tandem repeats. All the SSS samples collected from patients showed three copies of rpoT region (6 bp tandem repeat, an ancient Indian type). Fifty-two soil samples showed presence of M. leprae DNA whereas M. leprae specific 16S rRNA gene was amplified in sixteen of these samples. PCR amplification and fragment length analysis showed 91 bp, i.e., three copies of the rpoT 6 bp tandem repeats from soil samples and similar three copies observed in patient samples. Presence of viable M. leprae in the soil having same rpoT genotype of M. leprae noted in patients suggests that it could be the same strain of M. leprae. M. leprae found in the soil could be the one that is excreted out by the patient. Significance of its viability in the environment and its pathogenicity with respect to transmission needs to be further explored. Findings of this study might provide possible insights for further exploration into understanding transmission patterns in leprosy and also will throw light on identifying

  5. Liposomal systems as viable drug delivery technology for skin cancer sites with an outlook on lipid-based delivery vehicles and diagnostic imaging inputs for skin conditions'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naseem; Khan, Riaz A

    2016-10-01

    Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery. The lipid-based liposomal drug delivery is an attractive and emerging option, and which is meticulously shaping up beyond a threshold level to a promising, and viable route for the effective delivery of therapeutic agents and other required injuctions to the skin cancer. An update on liposomal delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, natural-origin compounds, photosensitizer, and DNA repair enzymes as well as other desirable and typical delivery modes employed in drug delivery and in the treatment of skin cancers is discussed in details. Moreover, liposomal delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA), mRNA therapy, and RGD-linked liposomes are among the other promising novel technology under constant development. The current clinical applicability, viable clinical plans, future prospects including transport feasibility of delivery vesicles and imaging techniques in conjunction with the therapeutic agents is also discussed. The ongoing innovations in liposomal drug delivery technology for skin cancers hold promise for further development of the methodology for better, more effective and site-specific delivery as part of the better treatment plan by ensuring faster drug transport, better and full payload delivery with enough and required concentration of the dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pancreatic PYY but not PPY expression is responsive to short-term nutritional state and the pancreas constitutes the major site of PYY mRNA expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Angus M A; Wilson, Peter W; Caughey, Sarah D; Dixon, Laura M; D'Eath, Rick B; Sandilands, Victoria; Boswell, Timothy; Dunn, Ian C

    2017-10-01

    PP-fold peptides such as peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) are known to play key roles in vertebrate energy homeostasis. Until recently, no gene sequence was available for avian PYY and therefore a gap in knowledge of regulation of its expression exists in avian species. Here we further evidence the mRNA sequence for chicken PYY and show that the pancreas is the major site of its mRNA expression, with a secondary peak of expression around the distal jejunum, in contrast to mammals where the large intestine is the major site of PYY expression. We also demonstrate that pancreatic PYY expression is responsive to short-term and long-term nutritional state, increasing within hours of feeding, in contrast to intestinal PYY which does not fluctuate to the same extent, and pancreatic PPY which appears to be primarily determined by long-term energy state. Both pancreatic PYY and PPY expression were found to exhibit ontogeny, being evenly distributed throughout the pancreas in young (2wk) chicks but having a decreasing splenic to duodenal gradient by adolescence (12wk). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New Insights into the Formation of Viable but Nonculturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 Induced by High-Pressure CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced by high-pressure CO2 (HPCD was investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq transcriptomics and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ proteomic methods. The analyses revealed that 97 genes and 56 proteins were significantly changed upon VBNC state entry. Genes and proteins related to membrane transport, central metabolisms, DNA replication, and cell division were mainly downregulated in the VBNC cells. This caused low metabolic activity concurrently with a division arrest in cells, which may be related to VBNC state formation. Cell division repression and outer membrane overexpression were confirmed to be involved in VBNC state formation by homologous expression of z2046 coding for transcriptional repressor and ompF encoding outer membrane protein F. Upon VBNC state entry, pyruvate catabolism in the cells shifted from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle toward the fermentative route; this led to a low level of ATP. Combating the low energy supply, ATP production in the VBNC cells was compensated by the degradation of l-serine and l-threonine, the increased AMP generation, and the enhanced electron transfer. Furthermore, tolerance of the cells with respect to HPCD-induced acid, oxidation, and high CO2 stresses was enhanced by promoting the production of ammonia and NADPH and by reducing CO2 production during VBNC state formation. Most genes and proteins related to pathogenicity were downregulated in the VBNC cells. This would decrease the cell pathogenicity, which was confirmed by adhesion assays. In conclusion, the decreased metabolic activity, repressed cell division, and enhanced survival ability in E. coli O157:H7 might cause HPCD-induced VBNC state formation.

  8. Comparison of geostatistical interpolation and remote sensing techniques for estimating long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations across the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Serre, Marc L; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Jerrett, Michael

    2012-12-01

    A better understanding of the adverse health effects of chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) requires accurate estimates of PM2.5 variation at fine spatial scales. Remote sensing has emerged as an important means of estimating PM2.5 exposures, but relatively few studies have compared remote-sensing estimates to those derived from monitor-based data. We evaluated and compared the predictive capabilities of remote sensing and geostatistical interpolation. We developed a space-time geostatistical kriging model to predict PM2.5 over the continental United States and compared resulting predictions to estimates derived from satellite retrievals. The kriging estimate was more accurate for locations that were about 100 km from a monitoring station, whereas the remote sensing estimate was more accurate for locations that were > 100 km from a monitoring station. Based on this finding, we developed a hybrid map that combines the kriging and satellite-based PM2.5 estimates. We found that for most of the populated areas of the continental United States, geostatistical interpolation produced more accurate estimates than remote sensing. The differences between the estimates resulting from the two methods, however, were relatively small. In areas with extensive monitoring networks, the interpolation may provide more accurate estimates, but in the many areas of the world without such monitoring, remote sensing can provide useful exposure estimates that perform nearly as well.

  9. Viable and testable SUSY GUTs with Yukawa unification the case of split trilinears

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Straub, David M

    2009-01-01

    We explore general SUSY GUT models with exact third-generation Yukawa unification, but where the requirement of universal soft terms at the GUT scale is relaxed. We consider the scenario in which the breaking of universality inherits from the Yukawa couplings, i.e. is of minimal flavor violating (MFV) type. In particular, the MFV principle allows for a splitting between the up-type and the down-type soft trilinear couplings. We explore the viability of this trilinear splitting scenario by means of a fitting procedure to electroweak observables, quark masses as well as flavor-changing neutral current processes. Phenomenological viability singles out one main scenario. This scenario is characterized by a sizable splitting between the trilinear soft terms and a large mu term. Remarkably, this scenario does not invoke a partial decoupling of the sparticle spectrum, as in the case of universal soft terms, but instead it requires part of the spectrum, notably the lightest stop, the gluino and the lightest charginos...

  10. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte with effective charge transport property for long-term stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Changneng; Kong, Fantai; Fang, Xiaqin; Guo, Lei; Liu, Weiqing; Hu, Linhua; Pan, Xu; Wang, Kongjia

    2008-10-16

    Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were fabricated using 12-hydroxystearic acid as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte. TEM image of the gel exhibited the self-assembled network constructed by the LMOG, which hindered flow and volatilization of the liquid. The formation of less-mobile polyiodide ions such as I 3 (-) and I 5 (-) confirmed by Raman spectroscopy increased the conductivity of the gel electrolytes by electronic conduction process, which should be rationalized by the Grotthuss-type electron exchange mechanism caused by rather packed polyiodide species in the electrolytes. The results of the accelerated aging tests showed that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell could retain over 97% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 degrees C for 1000 h and device degradation was also negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h.

  11. Current state of peatland soils as an effect of long-term drainage – preliminary results of peatland ecosystems investigation in the Grójecka Valley (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of long-term drainage of peatland areas is helpful in future peatland management and regulations of water conditions. The aim of this work was to assess the current state of fen peatland soils in the Grójecka Valley (eastern part of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, central Poland, affected by long-term agricultural use (pastures, meadows since the 1960s and potentially by lignite open pit mining industry (KWB Konin since 1980s. Field studies were carried out in 2015 in selected fen peatland areas. Soil material for laboratory analysis was collected from genetic horizons from four soil profiles. The surface horizons of studied organic and organo-mineral soils were built with well-developed moorsh material. They were classified as medium moorshiefied – MtII (profile 1, 3 and 4 and strongly moorshiefied – MtIII (profile 2. Obtained results of physical and physico-chemical analysis indicate that long-term peatland utilization connected with potential impact of the lignite mining, transformed mainly the upper horizons of studied organic and organo-mineral soils. However, despite obvious strong human impact on peatlands ecosystems, we cannot exclude the climate variables, what should be confirmed by long-term monitoring program. Furthermore, presented paper indicated that new subtype moorsh-muddy soils (in Polish: gleby murszowo-mułowe within the type of gleyic soils should be implemented in the next version of Polish Soil Classification.

  12. Multilingual Self-Management Resources for Prostate Cancer Survivors and Their Partners: Results of a Long-Term Academic-State Health Department Partnership to Promote Survivorship Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Garlinghouse, Carol; Schafenacker, Ann; Webster, Debbie; Hager, Polly; Wittmann, Daniela; Northouse, Laurel

    2017-12-01

    To provide innovative, evidence-based self management information and supportive care for prostate cancer survivors and their partners. We describe how an academic-public partnership facilitated the broad dissemination of evidence-based, multilingual survivorship educational materials via a state-managed prostate cancer website. We outline the steps of an academic-public partnership leading to dissemination of online, survivorship materials as a resource for prostate cancer survivors and their partners. We examined the 5-year utilization of the materials from January 2011 to December 2015 according to 14 content areas (e.g., urinary, bowel, and sexual problems, fatigue, communication, cancer stress) and across 3 languages (English, Spanish, Arabic). The total number of prostate cancer survivorship materials downloaded from January 2011 to December 2015 was 89,348. The number of downloaded materials increased over time from 6,421 in 2011 to 17,496 in 2015. The most commonly downloaded content area was urine problems (27.5%), followed by bowel problems (23.4%) and sexual side effects (16.2%). The majority of downloaded materials was in English (86.3%), followed by Spanish (9.8%) and Arabic (3.9%). The academic-public partnership facilitated broad dissemination of evidence-based informational materials for prostate cancer survivors and their partners through a state-managed website from 2011 to 2015. Given the increasing role of academic-public partnerships in funding and development of robust, sustainable prostate cancer survivorship resources, this work serves as an introduction to these evidence-based materials and highlights a successful model of engagement between practitioners, research scientists, and public health administration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Dual Mode Offering As Viable Approach 
For Promotion Of Higher Education In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE in 2011. The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats. However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term. The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software. At the

  14. DUAL MODE OFFERING AS VIABLE APPROACH FOR PROMOTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE in 2011. The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats. However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term. The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software. At the

  15. Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely either for the nitrite shunt process or intermediate nitrite generation step for the Anammox process. However, partial nitrification has been hindered by the complexity of maintaining stable nitrite accumulation at high nitrogen loading rates (NLR) which affect the feasibility of the process for high nitrogen content wastewater. Thus, the operational data of a lab scale SBR performing complete partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process at NLRs of 0.3-1.2kg/(m3d) have been used to calibrate and validate a process model developed using BioWin® in order to describe the long-term dynamic behavior of the SBR. Moreover, an identifiability analysis step has been introduced to the calibration protocol to eliminate the needs of the respirometric analysis for SBR models. The calibrated model was able to predict accurately the daily effluent ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity concentrations and pH during all different operational conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systemic Virus Infections Differentially Modulate Cell Cycle State and Functionality of Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hirche

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quiescent long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs are efficiently activated by type I interferon (IFN-I. However, this effect remains poorly investigated in the context of IFN-I-inducing virus infections. Here we report that both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection induce LT-HSC activation that substantially differs from the effects triggered upon injection of synthetic IFN-I-inducing agents. In both infections, inflammatory responses had to exceed local thresholds within the bone marrow to confer LT-HSC cell cycle entry, and IFN-I receptor triggering was not critical for this activation. After resolution of acute MCMV infection, LT-HSCs returned to phenotypic quiescence. However, non-acute MCMV infection induced a sustained inflammatory milieu within the bone marrow that was associated with long-lasting impairment of LT-HSC function. In conclusion, our results show that systemic virus infections fundamentally affect LT-HSCs and that also non-acute inflammatory stimuli in bone marrow donors can affect the reconstitution potential of bone marrow transplants.

  17. Is exponential gravity a viable description for the whole cosmological history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Chillón Gómez, Diego; Sharov, German S.

    2017-12-01

    Here we analyse a particular type of F( R) gravity, the so-called exponential gravity which includes an exponential function of the Ricci scalar in the action. Such a term represents a correction to the usual Hilbert-Einstein action. By using Supernovae Ia, Barionic Acoustic Oscillations, Cosmic Microwave Background and H( z) data, the free parameters of the model are well constrained. The results show that such corrections to General Relativity become important at cosmological scales and at late times, providing an alternative to the dark energy problem. In addition, the fits do not determine any significant difference statistically with respect to the Λ CDM model. Finally, such model is extended to include the inflationary epoch in the same gravitational Lagrangian. As shown in the paper, the additional terms can reproduce the inflationary epoch and satisfy the constraints from Planck data.

  18. An Analysis of Viable Financial Negotiations Processes and Related Internal Controls for Procurement in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    FINANCIAL NEGOTIATIONS Defense system acquisition is normally done in a fiscal resource-constrained environment. Acquisition teams are always under...legal regulations of the United States and of all governments therein and never be a party to their evasion . 3. Give a full day’s labor for a full

  19. Combined bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry and Masson trichrome staining: facilitated detection of cell proliferation in viable vs. infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarous, D F; Shou, M; Unger, E F

    1992-09-01

    Cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle can be identified in tissue sections by immunohistochemical localization of the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Generally, a single counterstain is used to visualize the underlying tissue; however, interpretation of morphologic detail is often difficult. We have utilized BrdU to localize proliferating cells in myocardium exposed to angiogenic mitogens. To facilitate identification of labelled nuclei in the context of infarcted vs. viable myocardium, BrdU immunohistochemistry was followed by a modified Masson trichrome stain. The time of exposure to the counterstains and the wash protocol were re-revised, permitting clear identification of the labelled brown nuclei against a background of red viable myocardium vs. blue infarct. The combined technique also provides color contrast suitable for computer-based image analysis.

  20. Liquid biopsy in cancer patients: advances in capturing viable CTCs for functional studies using the EPISPOT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Panabières, Catherine; Pantel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients have received increasing attention as new diagnostic tool enabling 'liquid biopsies'. In contrast to the wealth of descriptive studies demonstrating the clinical relevance of CTCs as biomarkers, the extremely low concentration of CTCs in the peripheral blood of most cancer patients challenges further functional studies. This article discusses the current possibilities to enrich and, in particular, detect viable CTCs with emphasis on the EPithelial ImmunoSPOT technology. This functional assay detects viable CTCs at the single-cell level and has been used on hundreds of patients with different tumor types including epithelial tumors (breast, prostate and colon cancer) and melanomas. Moreover, the article summarizes recent advances in the in vitro and in vivo expansion of CTCs from cancer patients. These functional analyses will contribute to identifying the biological properties of metastatic cells and reveal new therapeutic targets against disseminating cancer cells.

  1. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative assessment of viable cells of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in single, dual and multi-strain biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Smid, Eddy J; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2017-03-06

    Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum are a potential source for contamination and recontamination of food products. Although biofilms have been mostly studied using single species or even single strains, it is conceivable that in a range of environmental settings including food processing areas, biofilms are composed of multiple species with each species represented by multiple strains. In this study six spoilage related L. plantarum strains FBR1-FBR6 and the model strain L. plantarum WCFS1 were characterised in single, dual and multiple strain competition models. A quantitative PCR approach was used with added propidium monoazide (PMA) enabling quantification of intact cells in the biofilm, representing the viable cell fraction that determines the food spoilage risk. Our results show that the performance of individual strains in multi-strain cultures generally correlates with their performance in pure culture, and relative strain abundance in multi-strain biofilms positively correlated with the relative strain abundance in suspended (planktonic) cultures. Performance of individual strains in dual-strain biofilms was highly influenced by the presence of the secondary strain, and in most cases no correlation between the relative contributions of viable planktonic cells and viable cells in the biofilm was noted. The total biofilm quantified by CV staining of the dual and multi-strain biofilms formed was mainly correlated to CV values of the dominant strain obtained in single strain studies. However, the combination of strain FBR5 and strain WCFS1 showed significantly higher CV values compared to the individual performances of both strains indicating that total biofilm formation was higher in this specific condition. Notably, L. plantarum FBR5 was able to outgrow all other strains and showed the highest relative abundance in dual and multi-strain biofilms. All the dual and multi-strain biofilms contained a considerable number of viable cells, representing a potential

  3. Two Paradigmatic Waves of Public Discourse on Nuclear Waste in the United States, 1945-2009: Understanding a Magnitudinal and Longitudinal Phenomenon in Anthropological Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajo, Judi

    2016-01-01

    This project set out to illuminate the discursive existence of nuclear waste in American culture. Given the significant temporal dimension of the phenomenon as well as the challenging size of the United States setting, the project adapted key methodological elements of the sociocultural anthropology tradition and produced proxies for ethnographic fieldnotes and key informant interviews through sampling the digital archives of the New York Times over a 64-year period that starts with the first recorded occurrence of the notion of nuclear waste and ends with the conclusion of the presidency of George W. Bush. Two paradigmatic waves of American public discourse on nuclear waste come to light when subjecting this empirical data to quantitative inventorying and interpretive analysis: between 1945 and 1969 nuclear waste was generally framed in light of the beneficial utilizations of nuclear reactions and with optimistic expectations for a scientific/technological solution; by contrast, between 1969 and 2009 nuclear waste was conceptualized as inherited harm that could not be undone and contestation that required political/legal management. Besides this key finding and the empirical timing of the two paradigms, the study's value lies also with its detailed empirical documentation of nuclear waste in its sociocultural existence.

  4. Downregulation of the Proinflammatory State of Circulating Mononuclear Cells by Short-Term Treatment with Pioglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pfützner

    2011-01-01

    Methods and Results. Sixty-three patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (52 males, 11 females, age (Mean ± SD: 66±7 yrs, disease duration: 6.6±9.6 yrs, HbA1c: 6.7±0.6% were randomized to additional 45 mg of pioglitazone or placebo to their existing metformin and sulfonylurea therpay for four weeks in a double-blind study design. Protein risk marker levels (hsCRP, MMP-9, MCP-1, etc. and the expression of NFκB subunits and NFκB-modulated cytokines from isolated peripheral monocyte/macrophages were determined at baseline and endpoint. There were no changes in HbA1c, but significant biomarker improvements were seen with pioglitazone only. The mRNA marker expression was downregulated by pioglitazone and further up-regulated with placebo (e.g., P105 pioglitazone: −19%/placebo: +6%, RelA: −20%/+2%, MMP−9: −36%/+9%, TNFα: −10%/+14%, P<0.05 between groups in all cases. Conclusions. Pioglitazone very rapidly down-regulated the activated state of peripheral monocytes/macrophages as assessed by mRNA expression of NFκB and NFκB-modulated cytokines and decreased plasma levels of cardiovascular risk marker proteins independent of glycemic control.

  5. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  6. Interannual and long-term changes in the trophic state of a multibasin lake: Effects of morphology, climate, winter aeration, and beaver activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale; Rose, William; Reneau, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Little St. Germain Lake (LSG), a relatively pristine multibasin lake in Wisconsin, USA, was examined to determine how morphologic (internal), climatic (external), anthropogenic (winter aeration), and natural (beaver activity) factors affect the trophic state (phosphorus, P; chlorophyll, CHL; and Secchi depth, SD) of each of its basins. Basins intercepting the main flow and external P sources had highest P and CHL and shallowest SD. Internal loading in shallow, polymictic basins caused P and CHL to increase and SD to decrease as summer progressed. Winter aeration used to eliminate winterkill increased summer internal P loading and decreased water quality, while reductions in upstream beaver impoundments had little effect on water quality. Variations in air temperature and precipitation affected each basin differently. Warmer air temperatures increased productivity throughout the lake and decreased clarity in less eutrophic basins. Increased precipitation increased P in the basins intercepting the main flow but had little effect on the isolated deep West Bay. These relations are used to project effects of future climatic changes on LSG and other temperate lakes.

  7. Two Paradigmatic Waves of Public Discourse on Nuclear Waste in the United States, 1945-2009: Understanding a Magnitudinal and Longitudinal Phenomenon in Anthropological Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajo, Judi

    2016-01-01

    This project set out to illuminate the discursive existence of nuclear waste in American culture. Given the significant temporal dimension of the phenomenon as well as the challenging size of the United States setting, the project adapted key methodological elements of the sociocultural anthropology tradition and produced proxies for ethnographic fieldnotes and key informant interviews through sampling the digital archives of the New York Times over a 64-year period that starts with the first recorded occurrence of the notion of nuclear waste and ends with the conclusion of the presidency of George W. Bush. Two paradigmatic waves of American public discourse on nuclear waste come to light when subjecting this empirical data to quantitative inventorying and interpretive analysis: between 1945 and 1969 nuclear waste was generally framed in light of the beneficial utilizations of nuclear reactions and with optimistic expectations for a scientific/technological solution; by contrast, between 1969 and 2009 nuclear waste was conceptualized as inherited harm that could not be undone and contestation that required political/legal management. Besides this key finding and the empirical timing of the two paradigms, the study’s value lies also with its detailed empirical documentation of nuclear waste in its sociocultural existence. PMID:27310719

  8. Understanding recurrent land use processes and long-term transitions in the dynamic south-central United States, c. 1800 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Griffith, Glenn E.; Auch, Roger F.; Stier, Michael P.; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, David J.; Riegle, Jodi L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2017-01-01

    Forests have historically been under significant land use pressures that cause periods of degradation, clearance, and recovery. To understand these changes, studies are needed that place trends in a historical landscape context and also examine recent dynamics. Here, we use historical investigation (c. 1800) and an examination of land use and land cover change between 1973 and 2006 to establish a baseline trajectory of the forested system of the south-central United States (US) plains. The study culminates in a highly detailed accounting of the processes and causes of land change between 2001 and 2006. In the study region, the forest transitioned from early low-intensity use, to clearance for farming and timber, to widespread recovery from degradation beginning in the 1930s. By 1970, the region was transitioning from recovered woodlands to an intensive regime of recurrent timber harvest and replanting. The recurring cycle inherent in intensive silviculture has been the main cause of land change for the past several decades, accounting for more than 95% of the total extent of change between 2001 and 2006. The transition to forest recovery in the south-central US was an important historical occurrence. However, the dynamic post-transition landscape needs to be better understood.

  9. Mantle helium and carbon isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon: Evidence for renewed volcanic activity or a long term steady state system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Soest, M.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, W.C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-04-30

    Cold bubbling springs in the Separation Creek area, the locus of current uplift at South Sister volcano show strong mantle signatures in helium and carbon isotopes and CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He. This suggests the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. Currently there is no evidence to link this system directly to the uplift, which started in 1998. To the contrary, all geochemical evidence suggests that there is a long-lived geothermal system in the Separation Creek area, which has not significantly changed since the early 1990s. There was no archived helium and carbon data, so a definite conclusion regarding the strong mantle signature observed in these tracers cannot yet be drawn. There is a distinct discrepancy between the yearly magma supply required to explain the current uplift (0.006 km{sup 3}/yr) and that required to explain the discharge of CO{sub 2} from the system (0.0005 km{sup 3}/yr). This discrepancy may imply that the chemical signal associated with the increase in magma supply has not reached the surface yet. With respect to this the small changes observed at upper Mesa Creek require further attention, due to the recent volcanic vent in that area it may be the location were the chemical signal related to the uplift can most quickly reach the surface. Occurrence of such strong mantle signals in cold/diffuse geothermal systems suggests that these systems should not be ignored during volcano monitoring or geothermal evaluation studies. Although the surface-expression of these springs in terms of heat is minimal, the chemistry carries important information concerning the size and nature of the underlying high-temperature system and any changes taking place in it.

  10. Proportion of long-term injection drug users as an indicator to characterize the state and prognosis of HIV-epidemic within a certain territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of drug use and thus the spread of HIV have different duration in different regions, and, therefore, the prognosis of these epidemics may differ. We aimed to assess indicators measuring the peculiarities of injection drug use epidemics by region, informative for prevention activities among vulnerable to HIV groups. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional survey of 4026 injection drug users (IDUs conducted in 2007 in Ukraine were analyzed. The outcome measure was a binary variable depicting whether a respondent injects drugs for 20 years and over. Binary Logistic Regression in SPSS software was used to test associations with socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: More respondents from Odessa, Mykolayiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Cherkassy, Poltava, and Crimea regions inject over 20 years. Older respondents were more likely to belong to the group of long-term users. Men were more likely to inject over 20 years than women. Those respondents who were married, but did not live with their spouse or other sexual partner were more likely to inject longer than 20 years compared to those single or in a stable marriage. Those respondents who use opiates or combine them with stimulants were more likely to inject over 20 years and those who use only stimulants were more likely to inject less than 20 years. CONCLUSION: Injection drug use in Ukraine started earlier among men, on certain territories and was associated with opiate use. Percentage of IDUs who inject for more than 20 years was found to be a good indicator to distinguish territories with long-lasting epidemics.

  11. Delayed uptake and washout of contrast in non-viable infarcted myocardium shown with dynamic computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udholm, Sebastian; Laugesen, Sofie; Agger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of ischemic but potentially viable myocardium plays an important role in the planning of coronary revascularization. Until now SPECT, PET, and MRI have been used to identify viable myocardium. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose coronary atherosclerosis...... zone and the normal lateral wall were performed at 20 s, and 1, 3, 5, 8 and 12 min after contrast injection. RESULTS: We found highly significant differences in attenuation values between the two zones at all-time points except t =1 min (ANOVA P=0.85). The normal myocardium showed higher uptake......- and washout-rates of contrast than the infarct zone (84±15 vs. 58±8 at 20 s, P=0.0001 and 27±12 vs. 81±13 at 12 min, P=0.0001). Specifically, the ratio between early (20 s) and late (12 min) uptake is a valid marker of viable myocardium. In all animals this ration was above one in the normal zone and below...

  12. Blood flow, flow reserve, and glucose utilization in viable and nonviable myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Schindler, Thomas H.; Prior, John O.; Sayre, James; Dahlbom, Magnus; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to determine whether glucose uptake in viable myocardium of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients depends on rest myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the residual myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Methods Thirty-six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction 25±10 %) were studied with 13N-ammonia and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty age-matched normals served as controls. Regional MBF was determined at rest and during dipyridamole hyperemia and regional FDG extraction was estimated from regional FDG to 13N-ammonia activity ratios. Results Rest MBF was reduced in viable (0.42±0.18 ml/min per g) and nonviable regions (0.32±0.09 ml/min per g) relative to remote regions (0.68±0.23 ml/min per g, p0.05). Compared to MFR in remote myocardium, MFRs in viable regions were similar (1.39±0.56 vs 1.70±0.45, p>0.05) but were significantly lower in nonviable regions (1.23±0.43, pmyocardium are associated with increasing glucose extraction that likely reflects a metabolic adaptation of remodeling hibernating myocytes. PMID:23287994

  13. Effect of triple viable bifidobacterium combined with mosapride on hemorheology and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Bin Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of triple viable bifidobacterium combined with mosapride on hemorheology and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Methods: A total of 127 patients with FD were randomly divided into the observation group (67cases and the control group (62 cases. The control group was given mosapride, the observation group was given triple viable bifidobacterium on the base of the control group. For 2 months, to observe the efficacy and changes of hemorheology [the whole blood viscosity (high and low shear, plasma viscosity] and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels (MTL, NPY, VIP. Results: After treatment, the observation group of the whole blood viscosity (high and low shear, plasma viscosity were decreased significantly (P0.05. There was significantly difference between the two groups (P<0.05; After treatment, serum MTL, NPY were increased and VIP was increased in both groups (P<0.05, and all indexes of the observation group were improved more significant than those of the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Efficacy of triple viable bifidobacterium combined with mosapride is more better than single mosapride in the treatment of FD. It may be related to its effects on hemorheology and gastrointestinal hormone.

  14. Efficacy evaluation of bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation in treatment of neonatal jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Ying Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tabletsassisted blu-ray irradiation in treatment of neonatal jaundice. Methods: A total of 118 cases of children with neonatal jaundice were randomly divided into observation group (n=59 and control group (n=59, control group received blu-ray irradiation treatment alone, observation group received bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation treatment and then levels of bilirubin-related indicators, nerve damage indexes and liver function indexes of two groups were compared. Results: 3 d after treatment, total serum bilirubin (TSB, direct bilirubin (DB and transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant; 3 d after treatment, serum neuron specific enolase (NSE, amyloid β-protein (A β and astrocytederived protein (S100 β levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant; 3 d after treatment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation has better effect in treatment of neonatal jaundice and has advantages in reducing bilirubin level, protecting nerve function and liver function and other aspects.

  15. Regeneration of viable oil palm plants from protoplasts by optimizing media components, growth regulators and cultivation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Oil palm protoplasts are suitable as a starting material for the production of oil palm plants with new traits using approaches such as somatic hybridization, but attempts to regenerate viable plants from protoplasts have failed thus far. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the regeneration of viable plants from protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. We achieved a protoplast yield of 1.14×10(6) per gram fresh weight with a viability of 82% by incubating the callus in a digestion solution comprising 2% cellulase, 1% pectinase, 0.5% cellulase onuzuka R10, 0.1% pectolyase Y23, 3% KCl, 0.5% CaCl2 and 3.6% mannitol. The regeneration of protoplasts into viable plants required media optimization, the inclusion of plant growth regulators and the correct culture technique. Microcalli derived from protoplasts were obtained by establishing agarose bead cultures using Y3A medium supplemented with 10μM naphthalene acetic acid, 2μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2μM indole-3-butyric acid, 2μM gibberellic acid and 2μM 2-γ-dimethylallylaminopurine. Small plantlets were regenerated from microcalli by somatic embryogenesis after successive subculturing steps in medium with limiting amounts of growth regulators supplemented with 200mg/l ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Articular Cartilage Repair Using Marrow Stimulation Augmented with a Viable Chondral Allograft: 9-Month Postoperative Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marrow stimulation is frequently employed to treat focal chondral defects of the knee. However, marrow stimulation typically results in fibrocartilage repair tissue rather than healthy hyaline cartilage, which, over time, predisposes the repair to failure. Recently, a cryopreserved viable chondral allograft was developed to augment marrow stimulation. The chondral allograft is comprised of native viable chondrocytes, chondrogenic growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins within the superficial, transitional, and radial zones of hyaline cartilage. Therefore, host mesenchymal stem cells that infiltrate the graft from the underlying bone marrow following marrow stimulation are provided with the optimal microenvironment to undergo chondrogenesis. The present report describes treatment of a trochlear defect with marrow stimulation augmented with this novel chondral allograft, along with nine month postoperative histological results. At nine months, the patient demonstrated complete resolution of pain and improvement in function, and the repair tissue consisted of 85% hyaline cartilage. For comparison, a biopsy obtained from a patient 8.2 months after treatment with marrow stimulation alone contained only 5% hyaline cartilage. These outcomes suggest that augmenting marrow stimulation with the viable chondral allograft can eliminate pain and improve outcomes, compared with marrow stimulation alone.

  17. Adobe connect as a viable tool for educating Russian students by American professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinov, B. M.; Myakinina, N. P.; Tworek, A. R.; Mazetov, O. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of using videoconferencing via Adobe Connect software as a new form of distance learning and contains a case study of inviting leading professors from top universities of the United States of America to participate in the educational process of the students of the Institute of International Relations, NRNU MEPhI. The article describes the general course structure and the technical means used for setting up the course, discloses the technique used to ensure active student participation and outlines the key competencies that students are expected to gain after completing the course. The conclusions drawn from this case study can be of interest when solving the issues of modern techniques used for online distance education. The authors hope that these forms of education will also indirectly contribute to the stabilization of relations between the Russian Federation and the United States of America on a non-governmental level in the field of international scientific and technological cooperation.

  18. States of Liberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2015-01-01

    When Hamas won the 2006 Palestinian Legislative Council elections it was a critical juncture in the life of a Palestinian faction that had, over the years, garnered the status of an iconic armed resistance. Was it viable, scholars asked, for the organization to maintain its position of resistance...... the existence of a Palestinian governing authority. This despite being cast in the image of the post-colonial state, with its attendant bureaucratic and state-like coercive practices experienced by Palestinians in their everyday lives. In this way, while many have struggled to explain Hamas’ dual status...

  19. Prediction of subsequent miscarriage risk in women who present with a viable pregnancy at the first early pregnancy scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nicole; Lu, Chuan; Casikar, Ishwari; Reid, Shannon; Mongelli, Max; Hardy, Nigel; Condous, George

    2015-10-01

    To generate and evaluate a new prediction model for miscarriage in women who present with a viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) at the primary early pregnancy scan and to compare this new model to a previously published model. Data were collected prospectively from women presenting to the early pregnancy unit with a viable IUP between November 2006 and January 2013. More than 30 historical, clinical and ultrasonographic variables were recorded on a standardised datasheet at the first visit. Women were followed until the final outcome was known at the end of the first trimester: viable IUP or miscarriage. A new multinomial logistic regression model was developed retrospectively on training cases and tested prospectively on test cases. The performance of the new prediction model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared to a previously published model. After removing cases with missing values for the model of Oates, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was also calculated for the new model and the Oates model. A total of 1115 consecutive first-trimester women presented to the early pregnancy unit. Eight hundred and sixty-two women with a viable IUP at the first scan whose outcome was known at the end of the first trimester were included in the final analysis. Five hundred and sixty-six women were included in the training set and 296 in the test set. 92.1% were viable and 7.9% had miscarried at the end of the first trimester. The most significant independent prognostic variables for the logistic regression model were as follows: maternal age, embryonic heart rate (EHR), logarithm [gestational sac (GS) volume/crown-rump length (CRL)], CRL and the presence or absence of clots per vagina (PV) at presentation. The performance of the new model compared with the Oates model gave an AUC of 0.870 vs 0.847 for the training set and 0.783 vs 0.744 for the test set. After removing cases with missing values for the model of Oates 2013, the

  20. Comparison of culture-based, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2017-06-01

    Accurate quantitative measurement of viable hookworm ova from environmental samples is the key to controlling hookworm re-infections in the endemic regions. In this study, the accuracy of three quantitative detection methods [culture-based, vital stain and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR)] was evaluated by enumerating 1,000 ± 50 Ancylostoma caninum ova in the laboratory. The culture-based method was able to quantify an average of 397 ± 59 viable hookworm ova. Similarly, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods quantified 644 ± 87 and 587 ± 91 viable ova, respectively. The numbers of viable ova estimated by the culture-based method were significantly (P methods. Therefore, both PMA-qPCR and vital stain methods appear to be suitable for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova. However, PMA-qPCR would be preferable over the vital stain method in scenarios where ova speciation is needed.

  1. Long-term survival of human faecal microorganisms on the Antarctic Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Nobbs, Simon J.

    2004-01-01

    Human faecal waste has been discarded at inland Antarctic sites for over 100 years, but little is known about the long-term survival of faecal microorganisms in the Antarctic terrestrial environment or the environmental impact. This study identified viable faecal microorganisms in 30-40 year old human faeces sampled from the waste dump at Fossil Bluff Field Station, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were predominantly spore-forming varieties (Bacillu...

  2. Self-monitoring as a viable fading option in check-in/check-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leila M; Dufrene, Brad A; Joe Olmi, D; Tingstrom, Daniel; Filce, Hollie

    2015-04-01

    This study systematically replaced the teacher completed Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) and feedback component of check-in/check-out (CICO) with self-monitoring for four elementary students referred for Tier 2 behavioral supports within School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the effectiveness of CICO. Then, following the second B phase, teacher completion of the DBRC and corresponding feedback to students was replaced with self-monitoring. For all four participants, CICO was associated with increases in academic engagement and reductions in disruptive behavior. Moreover, students' behavioral gains were maintained when teacher completion of the DBRC was replaced with self-monitoring. Results are discussed in terms of CICO research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Holistic approach to production systems from the perspective of lean manufacturing and viable systems model; Aproximacion holistica a los sistemas de produccion desde la perspectiva Lean Manufacturing y Modelos de Sistemas Viables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puche Regaliza, J. C.; Costas Gual, J.

    2012-07-01

    The reductionism approach usually adopted by many organizations provokes too often a problem of sustain ability in the market over time in these organizations. To increase this sustain ability, we propose a structural and a behavioral change, in a way that the reductionism is replaced by an holistic approach appropriate to address the dynamic complexity inherent in any organization. With regard to structural change, we propose the use of Organizational Cybernetics and particularly the Viable System Model. With respect to behavior change, we propose the use of Lean Manufacturing paradigm. (Author)

  4. Non-local gravity with a Weyl-square term

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has shown that modifications of General Relativity based on the addition of a non-local term $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ produce a dynamical model of dark energy, which is cosmologically viable both at the background level and at the level of cosmological perturbations. We explore a more general class of models based on the addition of terms proportional to $R_{\\mu\

  5. Effects of water-filtered infrared-A and of heat on cell death, inflammation, antioxidative potential and of free radical formation in viable skin--first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazena, Helmut; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner; Jung, Katinka; Kelleher, Debra K; Herrling, Thomas; Meffert, Peter; Uebelhack, Ralf; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2014-09-05

    The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m(-2) which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37 °C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  7. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  8. Optimizing Viable Leukocyte Sampling from the Female Genital Tract for Clinical Trials: An International Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Stephen C.; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Plants, Jill; Brady, Kirsten E.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Adams, Devin J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Galloway, Christine G.; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Gao, Dayong; Shu, Zhiquan; Nyanga, Billy; Izulla, Preston; Kimani, Joshua; Kimwaki, Steve; Bere, Alfred; Moodie, Zoe; Landay, Alan L.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Kaul, Rupert; Novak, Richard M.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. Methods and Findings We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to compare three genital leukocyte sampling methods: cervicovaginal lavages (CVL), endocervical cytobrushes, and ectocervical biopsies. Absolute yields of mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometric bead-based cell counting. Of the non-invasive sampling types, two combined sequential cytobrushes yielded significantly more viable mononuclear leukocytes than a CVL (pbiopsies. Sample yields were consistent between sites. In a subgroup analysis, we observed significant reproducibility between replicate same-day biopsies (r = 0.89, p = 0.0123). Visible red blood cells in cytobrushes increased leukocyte yields more than three-fold (p = 0.0078), but did not change their subpopulation profile, indicating that these leukocytes were still largely derived from the mucosa and not peripheral blood. We also confirmed that many CD4+ T cells in the female genital tract express the α4β7 integrin, an HIV envelope-binding mucosal homing receptor. Conclusions CVL sampling recovered the lowest number of viable mononuclear leukocytes. Two cervical cytobrushes yielded comparable total numbers of viable leukocytes to one biopsy, but cytobrushes and biopsies were biased toward macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. Our study also established the feasibility of obtaining consistent flow cytometric analyses of isolated genital cells from four study sites in the US and Africa. These data represent an important step towards implementing mucosal cell sampling in international clinical trials of HIV prevention. PMID:24454917

  9. A simple approach for making a viable, safe, and high-performances lithium-sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Coneglian, Thomas; Gobet, Mallory; Munoz, Stephen; Devany, Matthew; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2018-02-01

    We report an electrolyte with low flammability, based on diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME) dissolving lithium bis-trifluoromethane sulfonimidate (LiTFSI), and lithium nitrate (LiNO3) for high-performances lithium/sulfur battery. Self-diffusion coefficients, conductivity, and lithium transport number of the electrolyte are obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Interface stability, lithium stripping/deposition ability, and the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte are determined by voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The tests suggest conductivity higher than 10-2 S cm-1, lithium transport number of about 0.5, electrochemical stability extending from 0 V to 4.6 V, and excellent compatibility with lithium metal. A composite cathode using sulfur and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is characterized in terms of structure and morphology by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The study shows spherical flakes in which the carbon nanotubes protect the crystalline sulfur from excessive dissolution, and create the optimal host for allowing the proper cell operation. The Li/S cell reveals highly reversible process during charge/discharge cycles, fast kinetic, and lithium diffusion coefficient in the sulfur electrode ranging from 10-12 to 10-10 cm2 s-1. The cell evidences a coulombic efficiency approaching 100%, capacity from 1300 mAh g-1 to 900 mAh g-1 and practical energy density higher than 400 Wh kg-1.

  10. A viable method to predict acoustic streaming in presence of cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisnard, O

    2017-03-01

    The steady liquid flow observed under ultrasonic emitters generating acoustic cavitation can be successfully predicted by a standard turbulent flow calculation. The flow is driven by the classical averaged volumetric force density calculated from the acoustic field, but the inertial term in Navier-Stokes equations must be kept, and a turbulent solution must be sought. The acoustic field must be computed with a realistic model, properly accounting for dissipation by the cavitation bubbles [Louisnard, Ultrason. Sonochem., 19, (2012) 56-65]. Comparison with 20kHz experiments, involving the combination of acoustic streaming and a perpendicular forced flow in a duct, shows reasonably good agreement. Moreover, the persistence of the cavitation effects on the wall facing the emitter, in spite of the deflection of the streaming jet, is correctly reproduced by the model. It is also shown that predictions based either on linear acoustics with the correct turbulent solution, or with Louisnard's model with Eckart-Nyborg's theory yields unrealistic results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dail, David Bryan [University of Maine

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  12. [Viable allergenic fungi in a documentary deposit of the National Archive of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Veloso, Alian; Borrego-Alonso, Sofía F

    2017-01-01

    Intense and persistent exposure to indoor-air biological agents has been associated with the appearance of allergic diseases. Archives and libraries Indoor environments in tropical countries are an important reservoir of fungal propagules. To evaluate the degree of air pollution with allergenic fungi in a repository of frequently-manipulated documents. Air sampling was performed by two methods: active (biocollector) and passive (sedimentation plate). Fungi were taxonomically identified, and spores were measured to determine their penetrability in the human respiratory tract, and its impact on episodes of allergy. In terms of concentration and diversity, the local environment behaved as a fungal propagule reservoir, which showed that there is significant health risk for the staff that manipulates the documents. Some spores were shown to be able to reach the lower respiratory tract when inhaled, which increases their allergenic and pathogenic potential. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria, which are referred to as highly allergenic fungi, were prevalent. Aerobiological studies are a valuable tool for the treatment of patients with allergy to fungi and other disorders they produce.

  13. Scenario Analysis to Identify Viable Conservation Strategies in Paraguay's Imperiled Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Carlson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge facing land use planning is assessment of the future performance of land use options. The challenge can be acute in developing regions where land use is expanding rapidly and funding and data needed for planning are scarce. To inform land use planning for a biosphere reserve located in Paraguay's Atlantic forest region, a scenario analysis explored the relative merits of conventional and conservation agricultural practices, sustained yield forestry, and protection. Simulations compared the long-term impacts on land cover, biotic carbon, and income of the area's residents. Ecological and economic decline were projected under conventional practices. Protection and forestry scenarios achieved only small relative improvements to ecological indicators at the cost of reduced economic performance. By addressing the underlying issue of land degradation, conservation agriculture including no-tillage was the most successful land use strategy both ecologically and economically. Identification of conservation agriculture as the most promising land use strategy prioritizes issues that must be addressed to achieve sustainability, most importantly the provision of education and funding to smallholder farmers. We conclude that scenario analysis offers a flexible strategy to integrate available data for the purpose of informing land use planning in data-limited regions such as Paraguay's Atlantic forest.

  14. Increasing Vero viable cell densities for yellow fever virus production in stirred-tank bioreactors using serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Diogo A; Silva, Marlon V; Gaspar, Luciane P; Castilho, Leda R

    2015-08-20

    In this work, changes in Vero cell cultivation methods have been employed in order to improve cell growth conditions to obtain higher viable cell densities and to increase viral titers. The propagation of the 17DD yellow fever virus (YFV) in Vero cells grown on Cytodex I microcarriers was evaluated in 3-L bioreactor vessels. Prior to the current changes, Vero cells were repeatedly displaying insufficient microcarrier colonization. A modified cultivation process with four changes has resulted in higher cell densities and higher virus titers than previously observed for 17DD YFV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification des cellules viables de P. phosphoreum dans les pavés de saumon cru par PCR temps reel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabine; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka

    ’altération. Par conséquent, nous avons développé une méthode de PCR temps réel spécifique combinée avec une étape de traitement au PMA pour quantifier les cellules viable de P.phosphoreum dans le saumon cru conditionné sous atmosphère modifiée. Les amorces spécifiques ont été dessinées pour amplifier un fragment...

  16. Where is the café? The challenge of making retail uses viable in mixed-use suburban developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill; Perrott, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary planners see mixing residential, retail and other compatible uses as an essential planning principle. This paper explores the challenges that planners, developers and municipal councillors encounter in trying to implement retail uses as part of the mix in suburban areas in three Canadian cities. The study finds that planners employ evolutionary theories of urban development to naturalise their normative visions of walkable and sociable communities. By contrast, developers point to consumer behaviour to explain why planners' ideas on mix do not work. In a society where people shop at big-box outlets, making the local café or pub commercially viable proves increasingly challenging.

  17. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments.

  18. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Acute and long-term treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M; Bowden, Charles; Licht, Rasmus W; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Yatham, Lakshmi; Mosolov, Sergey; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Kasper, Siegfried

    2017-11-03

    Although clinically highly relevant, the recognition and treatment of bipolar mixed states has played only an underpart in recent guidelines. This WFSBP guideline has been developed to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar mixed states in adults. Material used for these guidelines is based on a systematic literature search using various data bases. Their scientific rigour was categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F), and different grades of recommendation to ensure practicability were assigned. We examined data pertaining to the acute treatment of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar mixed patients, as well as data pertaining to the prevention of mixed recurrences after an index episode of any type, or recurrence of any type after a mixed index episode. Manic symptoms in bipolar mixed states appeared responsive to treatment with several atypical antipsychotics, the best evidence resting with olanzapine. For depressive symptoms, addition of ziprasidone to treatment as usual may be beneficial; however, the evidence base is much more limited than for the treatment of manic symptoms. Besides olanzapine and quetiapine, valproate and lithium should also be considered for recurrence prevention. The concept of mixed states changed over time, and recently became much more comprehensive with the release of DSM-5. As a consequence, studies in bipolar mixed patients targeted slightly different bipolar subpopulations. In addition, trial designs in acute and maintenance treatment also advanced in recent years in response to regulatory demands. Current treatment recommendations are still based on limited evidence, and there is a clear demand for confirmative studies adopting the DSM-5 specifier with mixed features concept.

  19. TB Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  20. The unipolar ASR : Viable option in unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya SKS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient has remained an unresolved dilemma. Articular surface replacement of the hip has recently made some headway in terms of providing near-normal hip joint mechanics and function. However, this surgery has been limited to early stages of arthritis only with reasonable maintenance of head-neck congruity and morphology. Femoral neck fractures, osteonecrosis with large segment collapse, advanced arthritis with femoral incongruity, etc are traditional contraindications to the resurfacing technique. Methods: We present here a report on our series of 20 cases of unsalvageable femoral heads in young patients (age range, 27 to 52yrs, over a twelve month period (Aug 2004 to Jul 2005, treated with the unipolar ASR prosthesis. Fifteen patients (two had bilateral hip pathology had primary or secondary arthritis (degenerative, post-traumatic, ankylosing spondylitis and post-avascular necrosis while three had old operated femoral neck fractures. All patients underwent hip replacement surgery using the Unipolar ASR prosthesis. Results: Clinical and radiological results at 6-month follow up have been very encouraging and warrant further study. At an average of 4 months post-operatively, patients were able to squat, sit on the ground and perform light sporting activities. Conclusions: The Unipolar ASR prosthesis is an extension of the articular resurfacing technique employing similar principles (large size bearings, metal-on-metal interfaces, and has incorporated the advantages of the uncemented technique. We propose that this technique be more frequently used so as to brighten the prognosis of the young active patient with unsalvageable hip conditions, especially in the Asian scenario.