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Sample records for viable eukaryotic host

  1. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes: Who is hosting whom?

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    Guillermo eTellez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals’ actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a ‘forgotten organ’, functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short chain fatty acids, a process which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system,. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host’s biology remains almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes which encourage us to postulate: Who is

  2. Tripartite species interaction: eukaryotic hosts suffer more from phage susceptible than from phage resistant bacteria.

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    Wendling, Carolin C; Piecyk, Agnes; Refardt, Dominik; Chibani, Cynthia; Hertel, Robert; Liesegang, Heiko; Bunk, Boyke; Overmann, Jörg; Roth, Olivia

    2017-04-11

    Evolutionary shifts in bacterial virulence are often associated with a third biological player, for instance temperate phages, that can act as hyperparasites. By integrating as prophages into the bacterial genome they can contribute accessory genes, which can enhance the fitness of their prokaryotic carrier (lysogenic conversion). Hyperparasitic influence in tripartite biotic interactions has so far been largely neglected in empirical host-parasite studies due to their inherent complexity. Here we experimentally address whether bacterial resistance to phages and bacterial harm to eukaryotic hosts is linked using a natural tri-partite system with bacteria of the genus Vibrio, temperate vibriophages and the pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We induced prophages from all bacterial isolates and constructed a three-fold replicated, fully reciprocal 75 × 75 phage-bacteria infection matrix. According to their resistance to phages, bacteria could be grouped into three distinct categories: highly susceptible (HS-bacteria), intermediate susceptible (IS-bacteria), and resistant (R-bacteria). We experimentally challenged pipefish with three selected bacterial isolates from each of the three categories and determined the amount of viable Vibrio counts from infected pipefish and the expression of pipefish immune genes. While the amount of viable Vibrio counts did not differ between bacterial groups, we observed a significant difference in relative gene expression between pipefish infected with phage susceptible and phage resistant bacteria. These findings suggest that bacteria with a phage-susceptible phenotype are more harmful against a eukaryotic host, and support the importance of hyperparasitism and the need for an integrative view across more than two levels when studying host-parasite evolution.

  3. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

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    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Optimizing eukaryotic cell hosts for protein production through systems biotechnology and genome-scale modeling.

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    Gutierrez, Jahir M; Lewis, Nathan E

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary cells, yeast, and insect cells, are invaluable hosts for the production of many recombinant proteins. With the advent of genomic resources, one can now leverage genome-scale computational modeling of cellular pathways to rationally engineer eukaryotic host cells. Genome-scale models of metabolism include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a specific cell. By describing these mathematically and using tools such as flux balance analysis, the models can simulate cell physiology and provide targets for cell engineering that could lead to enhanced cell viability, titer, and productivity. Here we review examples in which metabolic models in eukaryotic cell cultures have been used to rationally select targets for genetic modification, improve cellular metabolic capabilities, design media supplementation, and interpret high-throughput omics data. As more comprehensive models of metabolism and other cellular processes are developed for eukaryotic cell culture, these will enable further exciting developments in cell line engineering, thus accelerating recombinant protein production and biotechnology in the years to come. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cationic amphipathic peptides accumulate sialylated proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic host cells

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    Weghuber, Julian; Aichinger, Michael C.; Brameshuber, Mario; Wieser, Stefan; Ruprecht, Verena; Plochberger, Birgit; Madl, Josef; Horner, Andreas; Reipert, Siegfried; Lohner, Karl; Henics, Tamas; Schuetz, Gerhard J

    2011-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) selectively target bacterial membranes by electrostatic interactions with negatively charged lipids. It turned out that for inhibition of microbial growth a high CAMP membrane concentration is required, which can be realized by the incorporation of hydrophobic groups within the peptide. Increasing hydrophobicity, however, reduces the CAMP selectivity for bacterial over eukaryotic host membranes, thereby causing the risk of detrimental side-effects. In t...

  6. Eukaryotic-like Kinase Expression in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Potential for Enhancing Host Aggressive Inflammatory Response.

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    Li, Tao; Li, Zhan; Chen, Fanghong; Liu, Xiong; Ning, Nianzhi; Huang, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2017-11-27

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or other attaching/effacing pathogen infections often cause host intestinal inflammation and pathology, which is thought to result in part from a host aggressive innate immune response. However, few effectors that play an important role in this pathology change have been reported. In this study, we discovered a previously unknown EHEC effector, Stk (putative serine/threonine kinase), which induces host aggressive inflammatory response during EHEC infection. Interestingly, homologous proteins of Stk are widely distributed in many pathogens. After translocating into the infected host cells, Stk efficiently phosphorylates IκBα and activates the NF-κB pathway. In EHEC-infected mice, Stk increases serum keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) levels and hyperactivates the inflammatory response of the colon, intensifying pathological injury of the colon. The virulence of Stk is based on its eukaryotic-like kinase activity. In conclusion, our data suggest that Stk is a new effector that induces the host aggressive inflammatory response during EHEC infection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

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    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusion. The remarkable ability of L pneumophila to infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells suggests a common strategy that exploits very fundamental cellular processes. The bacteria enter host cells via coiling phagocytosis and quickly subvert organelle trafficking events, leading to formation of a replicative phagosome in which the bacteria multiply. Vegetative growth continues for 8 to 10 h, after which the bacteria develop into a short, highly motile form called the ‘mature form’. The mature form exhibits a thickening of the cell wall, stains red with the Gimenez stain, and is between 10 and 100 times more infectious than agar-grown bacteria. Following host cell lysis, the released bacteria infect other host cells, in which the mature form differentiates into a Gimenez-negative vegetative form, and the cycle begins anew. Virulence of L pneumophila is considered to be multifactorial, and there is growing evidence for both stage specific and sequential gene expression. Thus, L pneumophila may be a good model system for dissecting events associated with the host-parasite interactions.

  8. Cationic amphipathic peptides accumulate sialylated proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic host cells.

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    Weghuber, Julian; Aichinger, Michael C; Brameshuber, Mario; Wieser, Stefan; Ruprecht, Verena; Plochberger, Birgit; Madl, Josef; Horner, Andreas; Reipert, Siegfried; Lohner, Karl; Henics, Tamás; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2011-10-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) selectively target bacterial membranes by electrostatic interactions with negatively charged lipids. It turned out that for inhibition of microbial growth a high CAMP membrane concentration is required, which can be realized by the incorporation of hydrophobic groups within the peptide. Increasing hydrophobicity, however, reduces the CAMP selectivity for bacterial over eukaryotic host membranes, thereby causing the risk of detrimental side-effects. In this study we addressed how cationic amphipathic peptides-in particular a CAMP with Lysine-Leucine-Lysine repeats (termed KLK)-affect the localization and dynamics of molecules in eukaryotic membranes. We found KLK to selectively inhibit the endocytosis of a subgroup of membrane proteins and lipids by electrostatically interacting with negatively charged sialic acid moieties. Ultrastructural characterization revealed the formation of membrane invaginations representing fission or fusion intermediates, in which the sialylated proteins and lipids were immobilized. Experiments on structurally different cationic amphipathic peptides (KLK, 6-MO-LF11-322 and NK14-2) indicated a cooperation of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces that selectively arrest sialylated membrane constituents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative and functional genomics of Legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions

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    Laura eGomez-Valero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although best known for its ability to cause severe pneumonia in people whose immune defenses are weakened, Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, where they parasitize protozoa. Adaptation to the host environment and exploitation of host cell functions are critical for the success of these intracellular pathogens. The establishment and publication of the complete genome sequences of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae isolates paved the way for major breakthroughs in understanding the biology of these organisms. In this review we present the knowledge gained from the analyses and comparison of the complete genome sequences of different L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae strains. Emphasis is given on putative virulence and Legionella life cycle related functions, such as the identification of an extended array of eukaryotic-like proteins, many of which have been shown to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. Surprisingly, many of the eukaryotic domain proteins identified in L. pneumophila as well as many substrates of the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system essential for intracellular replication are different between these two species, although they cause the same disease. Finally, evolutionary aspects regarding the eukaryotic like proteins in Legionella are discussed.

  10. Clinical diagnostic value of viable Schistosoma japonicum eggs detected in host tissues.

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    Gu, Kongzhen; Li, Yuesheng; Driguez, Patrick; Zeng, Qingren; Yu, Xinlin; Sun, Hui; Cai, Liting; He, Yongkang; Wang, Wenyang; McManus, Donald P

    2017-04-04

    Schistosomiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases, is endemic in more than 70 countries. However, the clinical diagnosis of patients with a low degree of infection is an unsolved technical problem. In areas endemic for schistosomiasis japonica, proctoscopy detection of eggs has been one method used for clinical diagnosis. However, it is often a challenge to find typical live eggs and it is difficult to distinguish live eggs from large numbers of partially degraded and/or completely degraded eggs within colon biopsy tissue. To address this problem, we tested six different morphological and biochemical/molecular markers (ALP; morphological characteristics of egg; CalS (calcified substance); AOS (antioxidase); SDHG (succinic dehydrogenase) and SjR2 mRNA (retrotransposons 2 of S.japonicum genome mRNA)), including four new markers (CalS; AOS; SDHG and SjR2 mRNA.), to determine the viability of S. japonicum eggs deposited in human and mouse colon tissues. Our ultimate aim is to obtain a new method that is more sensitive, practical and accurate to clinically diagnose schistosomiasis. Tissue samples were collected from mice at six different time points during S. japonicum infection with or without treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Four new biochemical or molecular markers were used for the detection of egg viability from mouse liver and intestinal samples: CalS; AOS; SDHG and SjR2 mRNA. Subsequently, all markers were employed for the detection and analysis of eggs deposited in biopsy materials from patients with suspected schistosomiasis japonica for clinical evaluation. Microscopic examination of the egg morphology, worm burden in vivo and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) levels were used as a reference standard to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of four new markers detecting egg viability. The results of the study showed that the morphology of S. japonicum eggs deposited in tissues of hosts with schistosomiasis, especially cases with chronic schistosomiasis, is

  11. AHelicobacter pyloriHomolog of Eukaryotic Flotillin Is Involved in Cholesterol Accumulation, Epithelial Cell Responses and Host Colonization.

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    Hutton, Melanie L; D'Costa, Kimberley; Rossiter, Amanda E; Wang, Lin; Turner, Lorinda; Steer, David L; Masters, Seth L; Croker, Ben A; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Ferrero, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori acquires cholesterol from membrane raft domains in eukaryotic cells, commonly known as "lipid rafts." Incorporation of this cholesterol into the H. pylori cell membrane allows the bacterium to avoid clearance by the host immune system and to resist the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. The presence of cholesterol in H. pylori bacteria suggested that this pathogen may have cholesterol-enriched domains within its membrane. Consistent with this suggestion, we identified a hypothetical H. pylori protein (HP0248) with homology to the flotillin proteins normally found in the cholesterol-enriched domains of eukaryotic cells. As shown for eukaryotic flotillin proteins, HP0248 was detected in detergent-resistant membrane fractions of H. pylori . Importantly, H. pylori HP0248 mutants contained lower levels of cholesterol than wild-type bacteria ( P cells ( P < 0.05), and were less able to establish a chronic infection in mice than wild-type bacteria ( P < 0.05). Thus, we have identified an H. pylori flotillin protein and shown its importance for bacterial virulence. Taken together, the data demonstrate important roles for H. pylori flotillin in host-pathogen interactions. We propose that H. pylori flotillin may be required for the organization of virulence proteins into membrane raft-like structures in this pathogen.

  12. A Helicobacter pylori Homolog of Eukaryotic Flotillin Is Involved in Cholesterol Accumulation, Epithelial Cell Responses and Host Colonization

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    Melanie L. Hutton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori acquires cholesterol from membrane raft domains in eukaryotic cells, commonly known as “lipid rafts.” Incorporation of this cholesterol into the H. pylori cell membrane allows the bacterium to avoid clearance by the host immune system and to resist the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. The presence of cholesterol in H. pylori bacteria suggested that this pathogen may have cholesterol-enriched domains within its membrane. Consistent with this suggestion, we identified a hypothetical H. pylori protein (HP0248 with homology to the flotillin proteins normally found in the cholesterol-enriched domains of eukaryotic cells. As shown for eukaryotic flotillin proteins, HP0248 was detected in detergent-resistant membrane fractions of H. pylori. Importantly, H. pylori HP0248 mutants contained lower levels of cholesterol than wild-type bacteria (P < 0.01. HP0248 mutant bacteria also exhibited defects in type IV secretion functions, as indicated by reduced IL-8 responses and CagA translocation in epithelial cells (P < 0.05, and were less able to establish a chronic infection in mice than wild-type bacteria (P < 0.05. Thus, we have identified an H. pylori flotillin protein and shown its importance for bacterial virulence. Taken together, the data demonstrate important roles for H. pylori flotillin in host-pathogen interactions. We propose that H. pylori flotillin may be required for the organization of virulence proteins into membrane raft-like structures in this pathogen.

  13. Dynamic flux of microvesicles modulate parasite-host cell interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi in eukaryotic cells.

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    Ramirez, M I; Deolindo, P; de Messias-Reason, I J; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, H; Almeida, I C; Evans-Osses, I

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles released from pathogens may alter host cell functions. We previously demonstrated the involvement of host cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) during early interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (META) stage and THP-1 cells. Here, we aim to understand the contribution of different parasite stages and their extracellular vesicles in the interaction with host cells. First, we observed that infective host cell-derived trypomastigote (tissue culture-derived trypomastigote [TCT]), META, and noninfective epimastigote (EPI) stages were able to induce different levels of MV release from THP-1 cells; however, only META and TCT could increase host cell invasion. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy revealed that THP-1-derived MVs can fuse with parasite-derived MVs. Furthermore, MVs derived from the TCT-THP-1 interaction showed a higher fusogenic capacity than those from META- or EPI-THP-1 interaction. However, a higher presence of proteins from META (25%) than TCT (12%) or EPI (5%) was observed in MVs from parasite-THP-1 interaction, as determined by proteomics. Finally, sera from patients with chronic Chagas disease at the indeterminate or cardiac phase differentially recognized antigens in THP-1-derived MVs resulting only from interaction with infective stages. The understanding of intracellular trafficking and the effect of MVs modulating the immune system may provide important clues about Chagas disease pathophysiology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes.

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    Sudhir Kumar Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

  15. Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes.

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    Rai, Sudhir Kumar; Sangesland, Maya; Lee, Michael; Esnault, Caroline; Cui, Yujin; Chatterjee, Atreyi Ghatak; Levin, Henry L

    2017-12-01

    Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs) encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

  16. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

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    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  17. ACEMBL Tool-Kits for High-Throughput Multigene Delivery and Expression in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Hosts.

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    Nie, Yan; Chaillet, Maxime; Becke, Christian; Haffke, Matthias; Pelosse, Martin; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Collinson, Ian; Schaffitzel, Christiane; Berger, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent biological systems perform a wide variety of functions and are crucially important for a broad range of critical health and disease states. A multitude of applications in contemporary molecular and synthetic biology rely on efficient, robust and flexible methods to assemble multicomponent DNA circuits as a prerequisite to recapitulate such biological systems in vitro and in vivo. Numerous functionalities need to be combined to allow for the controlled realization of information encoded in a defined DNA circuit. Much of biological function in cells is catalyzed by multiprotein machines typically made up of many subunits. Provision of these multiprotein complexes in the test-tube is a vital prerequisite to study their structure and function, to understand biology and to develop intervention strategies to correct malfunction in disease states. ACEMBL is a technology concept that specifically addresses the requirements of multicomponent DNA assembly into multigene constructs, for gene delivery and the production of multiprotein complexes in high-throughput. ACEMBL is applicable to prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression hosts, to accelerate basic and applied research and development. The ACEMBL concept, reagents, protocols and its potential are reviewed in this contribution.

  18. The intracellular Scots pine shoot symbiont Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 aggregates around the host nucleus and encodes eukaryote-like proteins.

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    Koskimäki, Janne J; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Halonen, Outi; Frank, A Carolin

    2015-03-24

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit plant tissues without any apparent signs of infection, often fundamentally altering plant phenotypes. While endophytes are typically studied in plant roots, where they colonize the apoplast or dead cells, Methylobacterium extorquens strain DSM13060 is a facultatively intracellular symbiont of the meristematic cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot tips. The bacterium promotes host growth and development without the production of known plant growth-stimulating factors. Our objective was to examine intracellular colonization by M. extorquens DSM13060 of Scots pine and sequence its genome to identify novel molecular mechanisms potentially involved in intracellular colonization and plant growth promotion. Reporter construct analysis of known growth promotion genes demonstrated that these were only weakly active inside the plant or not expressed at all. We found that bacterial cells accumulate near the nucleus in intact, living pine cells, pointing to host nuclear processes as the target of the symbiont's activity. Genome analysis identified a set of eukaryote-like functions that are common as effectors in intracellular bacterial pathogens, supporting the notion of intracellular bacterial activity. These include ankyrin repeats, transcription factors, and host-defense silencing functions and may be secreted by a recently imported type IV secretion system. Potential factors involved in host growth include three copies of phospholipase A2, an enzyme that is rare in bacteria but implicated in a range of plant cellular processes, and proteins putatively involved in gibberellin biosynthesis. Our results describe a novel endophytic niche and create a foundation for postgenomic studies of a symbiosis with potential applications in forestry and agriculture. All multicellular eukaryotes host communities of essential microbes, but most of these interactions are still poorly understood. In plants, bacterial endophytes are found inside

  19. Development of viable TAP-tagged dengue virus for investigation of host-virus interactions in viral replication.

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    Poyomtip, Teera; Hodge, Kenneth; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Pisitkun, Trairak; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Chimnaronk, Sarin

    2016-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The viral replication machinery containing the core non-structural protein 5 (NS5) is implicated in severe dengue symptoms but molecular details remain obscure. To date, studies seeking to catalogue and characterize interaction networks between viral NS5 and host proteins have been limited to the yeast two-hybrid system, computational prediction and co-immunoprecipitation (IP) of ectopically expressed NS5. However, these traditional approaches do not reproduce a natural course of infection in which a number of DENV NS proteins colocalize and tightly associate during the replication process. Here, we demonstrate the development of a recombinant DENV that harbours a TAP tag in NS5 to study host-virus interactions in vivo. We show that our engineered DENV was infective in several human cell lines and that the tags were stable over multiple viral passages, suggesting negligible structural and functional disturbance of NS5. We further provide proof-of-concept for the use of rationally tagged virus by revealing a high confidence NS5 interaction network in human hepatic cells. Our analysis uncovered previously unrecognized hnRNP complexes and several low-abundance fatty acid metabolism genes, which have been implicated in the viral life cycle. This study sets a new standard for investigation of host-flavivirus interactions.

  20. Trojan horse strategies used by pathogens to influence the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) system of host eukaryotic cells.

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    Békés, Miklós; Drag, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable feature of pathogenic organisms is their ability to utilize the cellular machinery of host cells to their advantage in facilitating their survival and propagation. Posttranslational modification of proteins offers a quick way to achieve changes in the localization, binding partners or functions of a target protein. It is no surprise then that pathogens have evolved multiple ways to interfere with host posttranslational modifications and hijack them for their own purposes. Recently, modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier has emerged as an important posttranslational modification regulating transcription, DNA repair and cell division, and literature has started to emerge documenting how it could be utilized by pathogenic bacteria and viruses during infection. In this brief review, we focus on the host small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) system and how disease causing agents influence SUMO conjugation and deconjugation, highlighting the common theme of global hypoSUMOylation upon infection by pathogens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Eukaryotic origins

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    Lake, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endo...

  2. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin

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    Martin, William F.; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761

  3. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin.

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    Martin, William F; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-09-26

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. The Xenopus laevis Atg4B Protease: Insights into Substrate Recognition and Application for Tag Removal from Proteins Expressed in Pro- and Eukaryotic Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Frey

    Full Text Available During autophagy, members of the ubiquitin-like Atg8 protein family get conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine and act as protein-recruiting scaffolds on the autophagosomal membrane. The Atg4 protease produces mature Atg8 from C-terminally extended precursors and deconjugates lipid-bound Atg8. We now found that Xenopus laevis Atg4B (xAtg4B is ideally suited for proteolytic removal of N-terminal tags from recombinant proteins. To implement this strategy, an Atg8 cleavage module is inserted in between tag and target protein. An optimized xAtg4B protease fragment includes the so far uncharacterized C-terminus, which crucially contributes to recognition of the Xenopus Atg8 homologs xLC3B and xGATE16. xAtg4B-mediated tag cleavage is very robust in solution or on-column, efficient at 4°C and orthogonal to TEV protease and the recently introduced proteases bdSENP1, bdNEDP1 and xUsp2. Importantly, xLC3B fusions are stable in wheat germ extract or when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but cleavable by xAtg4B during or following purification. We also found that fusions to the bdNEDP1 substrate bdNEDD8 are stable in S. cerevisiae. In combination, or findings now provide a system, where proteins and complexes fused to xLC3B or bdNEDD8 can be expressed in a eukaryotic host and purified by successive affinity capture and proteolytic release steps.

  5. Precambrian Skeletonized Microbial Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Jere H.

    2017-04-01

    . Tintinnids first appear in the mid-Mesozoic, like other modern planktic groups, including planktic foraminifera, new types of radiolarians, and a host of skeletal micro-algae. Microbial eukaryotes track algal eukaryote and metazoan evolution—none or very few in the Precambrian, some in the early Paleozoic with radiations in the later Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, with extinctions ( 30) reducing their biodiversity at particular times in the fossil record—thus indicating strong environmental selection on all marine groups.

  6. Do the Microbiota Influence Vaccines and Protective Immunity to Pathogens? Issues of Sovereignty, Federalism, and Points-Testing in the Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Spaces of the Host-Microbial Superorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    In contrast to live attenuated vaccines, which are designed to induce immunity through a time-limited bloom in systemic tissues, the microbiota is a persistent feature of body surfaces, especially the intestine. The immune responses to the microbiota are idiosyncratic depending on the niche intimacy of different taxa and generally adapt the host to avoid overgrowth and maintain mutualism rather than to eliminate the organisms of that taxon. Both the microbiota and the host have so much molecular cross talk controlling each other, that the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic spaces of the host-microbial superorganism are federal rather than sovereign. This molecular cross talk is vital for the immune system to develop its mature form. Nevertheless, the microbiota/host biomass spaces are rather well separated: The microbiota also limits colonization and penetration of pathogens through intense metabolic competition. Immune responses to those members of the microbiota mutually adapted to intimate association at mucosal surfaces have attractive potential durability, but for clinical use as persistent vehicles they would require personalization and engineered reversibility to manage the immune context and complications in individual human subjects. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sriram G; Martin, William F

    2016-07-02

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origin of mitochondria and gene transfer to host's genome, generating a nucleus and a dedicated translational compartment, the eukaryotic cytosol, in which-by virtue of mitochondria-metabolic energy was not limiting. Spontaneous protein aggregation (monomer polymerization) and Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP)-dependent macromolecular movement in the cytosol thereby became selectable, giving rise to continuous microtubule-dependent chromosome separation (reduction division). We propose that eukaryotic chromosome division arose in a filamentous, syncytial, multinucleated ancestor, in which nuclei with insufficient chromosome numbers could complement each other through mRNA in the cytosol and generate new chromosome combinations through karyogamy. A syncytial (or coenocytic, a synonym) eukaryote ancestor, or Coeca, would account for the observation that the process of eukaryotic chromosome separation is more conserved than the process of eukaryotic cell division. The first progeny of such a syncytial ancestor were likely equivalent to meiospores, released into the environment by the host's vesicle secretion machinery. The natural ability of archaea (the host) to fuse and recombine brought forth reciprocal recombination among fusing (syngamy and karyogamy) progeny-sex-in an ancestrally meiotic cell cycle, from which the simpler haploid and diploid mitotic cell cycles arose. The origin of eukaryotes was the origin of vertical lineage inheritance, and sex was required to keep vertically

  8. A eukaryotic-acquired gene by a biotrophic phytopathogen allows prolonged survival on the host by counteracting the shut-down of plant photosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Garavaglia, Betiana S.

    2010-01-28

    Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, the bacteria responsible for citrus canker posses a biological active plant natriuretic peptide (PNP)-like protein, not present in any other bacteria. PNPs are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile peptides that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. Previously, we showed that a Xanthomonas citri pv. citri mutant lacking the PNP-like protein XacPNP produced more necrotic lesions in citrus leaves than wild type infections and suggested a role for XacPNP in the regulation of host homeostasis. Here we have analyzed the proteome modifications observed in citrus leaves infected with the wild type and XacPNP deletion mutant bacteria. While both of them cause downregulation of enzymes related to photosynthesis as well as chloroplastic ribosomal proteins, proteins related to defense responses are up-regulated. However, leaves infiltrated with the XacPNP deletion mutant show a more pronounced decrease in photosynthetic proteins while no reduction in defense related proteins as compared to the wild-type pathogen. This suggests that XacPNP serves the pathogen to maintain host photosynthetic efficiency during pathogenesis. The results from the proteomics analyses are consistent with our chlorophyll fluorescence data and transcript analyses of defense genes that show a more marked reduction in photosynthesis in the mutant but no difference in the induction of genes diagnostic for biotic-stress responses. We therefore conclude that XacPNP counteracts the shut-down of host photosynthesis during infection and in that way maintains the tissue in better conditions, suggesting that the pathogen has adapted a host gene to modify its natural host and render it a better reservoir for prolonged bacterial survival and thus for further colonization. 2010 Garavaglia et al.

  9. Transfer of DNA from Bacteria to Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lacroix

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the members of the Agrobacterium genus have been considered the only bacterial species naturally able to transfer and integrate DNA into the genomes of their eukaryotic hosts. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that this ability to genetically transform eukaryotic host cells might be more widespread in the bacterial world. Indeed, analyses of accumulating genomic data reveal cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and suggest that it represents a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. Specifically, recent reports indicate that bacteria other than Agrobacterium, such as Bartonella henselae (a zoonotic pathogen, Rhizobium etli (a plant-symbiotic bacterium related to Agrobacterium, or even Escherichia coli, have the ability to genetically transform their host cells under laboratory conditions. This DNA transfer relies on type IV secretion systems (T4SSs, the molecular machines that transport macromolecules during conjugative plasmid transfer and also during transport of proteins and/or DNA to the eukaryotic recipient cells. In this review article, we explore the extent of possible transfer of genetic information from bacteria to eukaryotic cells as well as the evolutionary implications and potential applications of this transfer.

  10. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  11. Communities of microbial eukaryotes in the mammalian gut within the context of environmental eukaryotic diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Walters, William A.; Lauber, Christian L.; Clemente, Jose C.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Teiling, Clotilde; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Brunelle, Julie; Driscoll, Mark; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Knight, Rob

    2014-06-19

    Eukaryotic microbes (protists) residing in the vertebrate gut influence host health and disease, but their diversity and distribution in healthy hosts is poorly understood. Protists found in the gut are typically considered parasites, but many are commensal and some are beneficial. Further, the hygiene hypothesis predicts that association with our co-evolved microbial symbionts may be important to overall health. It is therefore imperative that we understand the normal diversity of our eukaryotic gut microbiota to test for such effects and avoid eliminating commensal organisms. We assembled a dataset of healthy individuals from two populations, one with traditional, agrarian lifestyles and a second with modern, westernized lifestyles, and characterized the human eukaryotic microbiota via high-throughput sequencing. To place the human gut microbiota within a broader context our dataset also includes gut samples from diverse mammals and samples from other aquatic and terrestrial environments. We curated the SILVA ribosomal database to reflect current knowledge of eukaryotic taxonomy and employ it as a phylogenetic framework to compare eukaryotic diversity across environment. We show that adults from the non-western population harbor a diverse community of protists, and diversity in the human gut is comparable to that in other mammals. However, the eukaryotic microbiota of the western population appears depauperate. The distribution of symbionts found in mammals reflects both host phylogeny and diet. Eukaryotic microbiota in the gut are less diverse and more patchily distributed than bacteria. More broadly, we show that eukaryotic communities in the gut are less diverse than in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and few taxa are shared across habitat types, and diversity patterns of eukaryotes are correlated with those observed for bacteria. These results outline the distribution and diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in the mammalian gut and across

  12. Asgard archaea illuminate the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Caceres, Eva F; Saw, Jimmy H; Bäckström, Disa; Juzokaite, Lina; Vancaester, Emmelien; Seitz, Kiley W; Anantharaman, Karthik; Starnawski, Piotr; Kjeldsen, Kasper U; Stott, Matthew B; Nunoura, Takuro; Banfield, Jillian F; Schramm, Andreas; Baker, Brett J; Spang, Anja; Ettema, Thijs J G

    2017-01-19

    The origin and cellular complexity of eukaryotes represent a major enigma in biology. Current data support scenarios in which an archaeal host cell and an alphaproteobacterial (mitochondrial) endosymbiont merged together, resulting in the first eukaryotic cell. The host cell is related to Lokiarchaeota, an archaeal phylum with many eukaryotic features. The emergence of the structural complexity that characterizes eukaryotic cells remains unclear. Here we describe the 'Asgard' superphylum, a group of uncultivated archaea that, as well as Lokiarchaeota, includes Thor-, Odin- and Heimdallarchaeota. Asgard archaea affiliate with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses, and their genomes are enriched for proteins formerly considered specific to eukaryotes. Notably, thorarchaeal genomes encode several homologues of eukaryotic membrane-trafficking machinery components, including Sec23/24 and TRAPP domains. Furthermore, we identify thorarchaeal proteins with similar features to eukaryotic coat proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis. Our results expand the known repertoire of 'eukaryote-specific' proteins in Archaea, indicating that the archaeal host cell already contained many key components that govern eukaryotic cellular complexity.

  13. Autophagy in unicellular eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.A.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Cells need a constant supply of precursors to enable the production of macromolecules to sustain growth and survival. Unlike metazoans, unicellular eukaryotes depend exclusively on the extracellular medium for this supply. When environmental nutrients become depleted, existing cytoplasmic components

  14. An algorithm for detecting eukaryotic sequences in metagenomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    species but also from accidental contamination from the genome of eukaryotic host cells. The latter scenario generally occurs in the case of host-associated metagenomes, e.g. microbes living in human gut. In such cases, one needs to identify and remove contaminating host DNA sequences, since the latter sequences will ...

  15. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms

  16. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  17. Eukaryotic Cell Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific results that support an illustration of a eukaryotic cell, enlarged by one million times to show the distribution and arrangement of macromolecules. The panoramic cross section includes eight panels that extend…

  18. Energetics and genetics across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background All complex life on Earth is eukaryotic. All eukaryotic cells share a common ancestor that arose just once in four billion years of evolution. Prokaryotes show no tendency to evolve greater morphological complexity, despite their metabolic virtuosity. Here I argue that the eukaryotic cell originated in a unique prokaryotic endosymbiosis, a singular event that transformed the selection pressures acting on both host and endosymbiont. Results The reductive evolution and specialisation of endosymbionts to mitochondria resulted in an extreme genomic asymmetry, in which the residual mitochondrial genomes enabled the expansion of bioenergetic membranes over several orders of magnitude, overcoming the energetic constraints on prokaryotic genome size, and permitting the host cell genome to expand (in principle) over 200,000-fold. This energetic transformation was permissive, not prescriptive; I suggest that the actual increase in early eukaryotic genome size was driven by a heavy early bombardment of genes and introns from the endosymbiont to the host cell, producing a high mutation rate. Unlike prokaryotes, with lower mutation rates and heavy selection pressure to lose genes, early eukaryotes without genome-size limitations could mask mutations by cell fusion and genome duplication, as in allopolyploidy, giving rise to a proto-sexual cell cycle. The side effect was that a large number of shared eukaryotic basal traits accumulated in the same population, a sexual eukaryotic common ancestor, radically different to any known prokaryote. Conclusions The combination of massive bioenergetic expansion, release from genome-size constraints, and high mutation rate favoured a protosexual cell cycle and the accumulation of eukaryotic traits. These factors explain the unique origin of eukaryotes, the absence of true evolutionary intermediates, and the evolution of sex in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Eugene Koonin, William Martin

  19. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  20. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the archaebacteria, euryarchaeote genomes most frequently harbored the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear gene, whereas among eubacteria, the α-proteobacteria were most frequently represented within the sister group. Only 3 genes out of 571 gave a 3-domain tree. Homologues from α-proteobacterial genomes that branched as the sister to nuclear genes were found more frequently in genomes of facultatively anaerobic members of the rhiozobiales and rhodospirilliales than in obligate intracellular ricketttsial parasites. Following α-proteobacteria, the most frequent eubacterial sister lineages were γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and firmicutes, which were also the prokaryote genomes least frequently found as monophyletic groups in our trees. Although all 22 higher prokaryotic taxa sampled (crenarchaeotes, γ-proteobacteria, spirochaetes, chlamydias, etc.) harbor genes that branch as the sister to homologues present in the eukaryotic common ancestor, that is not evidence of 22 different prokaryotic cells participating at eukaryote origins because prokaryotic “lineages” have laterally acquired genes for more than 1.5 billion years since eukaryote origins. The data underscore the archaebacterial (host) nature of the eukaryotic informational genes and the eubacterial (mitochondrial) nature of eukaryotic energy metabolism. The network linking genes of the eukaryote ancestor to contemporary homologues distributed across prokaryotic genomes elucidates eukaryote gene origins in a

  1. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijffels, René H; Kruse, Olaf; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2013-06-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms for the production of small molecules that can be secreted such as ethanol, butanol, fatty acids and other organic acids. Eukaryotic microalgae are interesting for products for which cellular storage is important such as proteins, lipids, starch and alkanes. For the development of new and promising lines of production, strains of both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae have to be improved. Transformation systems have been much better developed in cyanobacteria. However, several products would be preferably produced with eukaryotic microalgae. In the case of cyanobacteria a synthetic-systems biology approach has a great potential to exploit cyanobacteria as cell factories. For eukaryotic microalgae transformation systems need to be further developed. A promising strategy is transformation of heterologous (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) genes in established eukaryotic hosts such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Experimental outdoor pilots under containment for the production of genetically modified cyanobacteria and microalgae are in progress. For full scale production risks of release of genetically modified organisms need to be assessed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication.

  3. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  4. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. Origins of eukaryotic sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Ursula; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Sexual reproduction is a nearly universal feature of eukaryotic organisms. Given its ubiquity and shared core features, sex is thought to have arisen once in the last common ancestor to all eukaryotes. Using the perspectives of molecular genetics and cell biology, we consider documented and hypothetical scenarios for the instantiation and evolution of meiosis, fertilization, sex determination, uniparental inheritance of organelle genomes, and speciation.

  6. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F

    2015-08-18

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners--the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)--and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic--and plant and algal--lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller's ratchet--the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex--might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation.

  7. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.

    2014-11-21

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesizes 8–12 nucleotide RNA primers that are extended by the DNA polymerization activity of Pol α into 30–35 nucleotide RNA-DNA primers. Replication factor C (RFC) opens the polymerase clamp-like processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and loads it onto the primer-template. Pol δ utilizes PCNA to mediate highly processive DNA synthesis, while Pol ε has intrinsic high processivity that is modestly stimulated by PCNA. Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand in a division of labor that is not strict. The three polymerases are comprised of multiple subunits and share unifying features in their large catalytic and B subunits. The remaining subunits are evolutionarily not related and perform diverse functions. The catalytic subunits are members of family B, which are distinguished by their larger sizes due to inserts in their N- and C-terminal regions. The sizes of these inserts vary among the three polymerases, and their functions remain largely unknown. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε are arranged similarly. The catalytic subunits adopt a globular structure that is linked via its conserved C-terminal region to the B subunit. The remaining subunits are linked to the catalytic and B subunits in a highly flexible manner.

  8. An algorithm for detecting eukaryotic sequences in metagenomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a BLAST search of all these sequences against a database containing sequences of a host genome (e.g. human genome) will take enormous amount of time and computing resources. In this article, we present a novel alignment-free algorithm, called Eu-Detect, that can detect eukaryotic sequences in metagenomic data ...

  9. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments.Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms for

  10. High Throughput, Real-time, Dual-readout Testing of Intracellular Antimicrobial Activity and Eukaryotic Cell Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Kirby, James E

    2016-11-16

    Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity. Specifically, real-time intracellular bacterial growth detection was enabled by marking bacterial screening strains with either a bacterial lux operon (1 st generation assay) or fluorescent protein reporters (2 nd generation, orthogonal assay). A non-toxic, cell membrane-impermeant, nucleic acid-binding dye was also added during initial infection of macrophages. These dyes are excluded from viable cells. However, non-viable host cells lose membrane integrity permitting entry and fluorescent labeling of nuclear DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Notably, DNA binding is associated with a large increase in fluorescent quantum yield that provides a solution-based readout of host cell death. We have used this combined assay to perform a high-throughput screen in microplate format, and to assess intracellular growth and cytotoxicity by microscopy. Notably, antimicrobials may demonstrate synergy in which the combined effect of two or more antimicrobials when applied together is greater than when applied separately. Testing for in vitro synergy against intracellular pathogens is normally a prodigious task as combinatorial permutations of antibiotics at different concentrations must be assessed. However, we found that our real-time assay combined with automated, digital dispensing technology permitted facile synergy testing. Using these

  11. Chlamydial genes shed light on the evolution of photoautotrophic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkonian Michael

    2008-07-01

    Plantae by a chlamydial bacterium accompanied by horizontal gene transfer. Subsequently, chlamydial proteins spread through secondary endosymbioses to other eukaryotes. We conclude that intracellular chlamydiae likely persisted throughout the early history of the Plantae donating genes to their hosts that replaced their cyanobacterial/plastid homologs thus shaping early algal/plant evolution before they eventually vanished.

  12. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons: Structure and Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an assembly of filamentous proteins and a host of associated proteins that collectively serve functional needs ranging from spatial organization and transport to the production and transmission of forces. These systems can exhibit a wide variety of non-equilibrium, self-assembled phases depending on context and function. While much recent progress has been made in understanding the self-organization, rheology and nonlinear mechanical properties of such active systems, in this talk, we will concentrate on some emerging aspects of cytoskeletal physics that are promising. One such aspect is the influence of cytoskeletal network topology and its dynamics on both active and passive intracellular transport. Another aspect we will highlight is the interplay between chirality of filaments, their elasticity and their interactions with the membrane that can lead to novel conformational states with functional implications. Finally we will consider homologs of cytoskeletal proteins in bacteria, which are involved in templating cell growth, segregating genetic material and force production, which we will discuss with particular reference to contractile forces during cell division. These prokaryotic structures function in remarkably similar yet fascinatingly different ways from their eukaryotic counterparts and can enrich our understanding of cytoskeletal functioning as a whole.

  13. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  14. Phylogenomic analysis of the cystatin superfamily in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

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    Turk Vito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cystatin superfamily comprises cysteine protease inhibitors that play key regulatory roles in protein degradation processes. Although they have been the subject of many studies, little is known about their genesis, evolution and functional diversification. Our aim has been to obtain a comprehensive insight into their origin, distribution, diversity, evolution and classification in Eukaryota, Bacteria and Archaea. Results We have identified in silico the full complement of the cystatin superfamily in more than 2100 prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The analysis of numerous eukaryotic genomes has provided strong evidence for the emergence of this superfamily in the ancestor of eukaryotes. The progenitor of this superfamily was most probably intracellular and lacked a signal peptide and disulfide bridges, much like the extant Giardia cystatin. A primordial gene duplication produced two ancestral eukaryotic lineages, cystatins and stefins. While stefins remain encoded by a single or a small number of genes throughout the eukaryotes, the cystatins have undergone a more complex and dynamic evolution through numerous gene and domain duplications. In the cystatin superfamily we discovered twenty vertebrate-specific and three angiosperm-specific orthologous families, indicating that functional diversification has occurred only in multicellular eukaryotes. In vertebrate orthologous families, the prevailing trends were loss of the ancestral inhibitory activity and acquisition of novel functions in innate immunity. Bacterial cystatins and stefins may be emergency inhibitors that enable survival of bacteria in the host, defending them from the host's proteolytic activity. Conclusion This study challenges the current view on the classification, origin and evolution of the cystatin superfamily and provides valuable insights into their functional diversification. The findings of this comprehensive study provide guides for future

  15. Energide-cell body as smallest unit of eukaryotic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluška, František; Lyons, Sherrie

    2018-02-21

    The evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic nucleus is obscure and controversial. Currently preferred are autogenic concepts; ideas of a symbiotic origin are mostly discarded and forgotten. Here we briefly discuss these issues and propose a new version of the symbiotic and archaeal origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. The nucleus of eukaryotic cells forms via its perinuclear microtubules, the primary eukaryotic unit known also as the Energide-cell body. As for all other endosymbiotic organelles, new Energides are generated only from other Energides. While the Energide cannot be generated de novo, it can use its secretory apparatus to generate de novo the cell periphery apparatus. We suggest that Virchow's tenet Omnis cellula e cellula should be updated as Omnis Energide e Energide to reflect the status of the Energide as the primary unit of the eukaryotic cell, and life. In addition, the plasma membrane provides feedback to the Energide and renders it protection via the plasma membrane-derived endosomal network. New discoveries suggest archaeal origins of both the Energide and its host cell.

  16. Repertory of eukaryotes (eukaryome) in the human gastrointestinal tract: taxonomy and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, I; Raoult, D; Bittar, F

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotes are an important component of the human gut, and their relationship with the human host varies from parasitic to commensal. Understanding the diversity of human intestinal eukaryotes has important significance for human health. In the past few decades, most of the multitudes of techniques that are involved in the diagnosis of the eukaryotic population in the human intestinal tract were confined to pathological and parasitological aspects that mainly rely on traditionally based methods. However, development of culture-independent molecular techniques comprised of direct DNA extraction from faeces followed by sequencing, offer new opportunities to estimate the occurrence of eukaryotes in the human gut by providing data on the entire eukaryotic community, particularly not-yet-cultured or fastidious organisms. Further broad surveys of the eukaryotic communities in the gut based on high throughput tools such as next generation sequencing might lead to uncovering the real diversity of these ubiquitous organisms in the human intestinal tract and discovering the unrecognized roles of these eukaryotes in modulating the host immune system and inducing changes in host gut physiology and ecosystem. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Merigo, Flavia; Osculati, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    In the last decades, microbiologists demonstrated that microorganisms possess chemosensory capabilities and communicate with each other via chemical signals. In parallel, it was demonstrated that solitary eukaryotic chemosensory cells are diffusely located on the mucosae of digestive and respiratory apparatuses. It is now evident that on the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates, two chemoreceptorial systems (i.e. eukaryotic and prokaryotic) coexist in a common microenvironment. To date, it is not known if the two chemosensory systems reciprocally interact and compete for detection of chemical cues. This appears to be a fruitful field of study and future researches must consider that the mucosal epithelia possess more chemosensory capabilities than previously supposed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil eukaryotic functional diversity, a metatranscriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Julie; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Verner, Marie-Christine; Debaud, Jean-Claude; Lemaire, Marc; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Marmeisse, Roland

    2007-11-01

    To appreciate the functional diversity of communities of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms we evaluated an experimental approach based on the construction and screening of a cDNA library using polyadenylated mRNA extracted from a forest soil. Such a library contains genes that are expressed by each of the different organisms forming the community and represents its metatranscriptome. The diversity of the organisms that contributed to this library was evaluated by sequencing a portion of the 18S rDNA gene amplified from either soil DNA or reverse-transcribed RNA. More than 70% of the sequences were from fungi and unicellular eukaryotes (protists) while the other most represented group was the metazoa. Calculation of richness estimators suggested that more than 180 species could be present in the soil samples studied. Sequencing of 119 cDNA identified genes with no homologues in databases (32%) and genes coding proteins involved in different biochemical and cellular processes. Surprisingly, the taxonomic distribution of the cDNA and of the 18S rDNA genes did not coincide, with a marked under-representation of the protists among the cDNA. Specific genes from such an environmental cDNA library could be isolated by expression in a heterologous microbial host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is illustrated by the functional complementation of a histidine auxotrophic yeast mutant by two cDNA originating possibly from an ascomycete and a basidiomycete fungal species. Study of the metatranscriptome has the potential to uncover adaptations of whole microbial communities to local environmental conditions. It also gives access to an abundant source of genes of biotechnological interest.

  19. Eukaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer gives rise to genome mosaicism in euglenids

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    Weber Andreas PM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euglenophytes are a group of photosynthetic flagellates possessing a plastid derived from a green algal endosymbiont, which was incorporated into an ancestral host cell via secondary endosymbiosis. However, the impact of endosymbiosis on the euglenophyte nuclear genome is not fully understood due to its complex nature as a 'hybrid' of a non-photosynthetic host cell and a secondary endosymbiont. Results We analyzed an EST dataset of the model euglenophyte Euglena gracilis using a gene mining program designed to detect laterally transferred genes. We found E. gracilis genes showing affinity not only with green algae, from which the secondary plastid in euglenophytes evolved, but also red algae and/or secondary algae containing red algal-derived plastids. Phylogenetic analyses of these 'red lineage' genes suggest that E. gracilis acquired at least 14 genes via eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer from algal sources other than the green algal endosymbiont that gave rise to its current plastid. We constructed an EST library of the aplastidic euglenid Peranema trichophorum, which is a eukaryovorous relative of euglenophytes, and also identified 'red lineage' genes in its genome. Conclusions Our data show genome mosaicism in E. gracilis and P. trichophorum. One possible explanation for the presence of these genes in these organisms is that some or all of them were independently acquired by lateral gene transfer and contributed to the successful integration and functioning of the green algal endosymbiont as a secondary plastid. Alternative hypotheses include the presence of a phagocytosed alga as the single source of those genes, or a cryptic tertiary endosymbiont harboring secondary plastid of red algal origin, which the eukaryovorous ancestor of euglenophytes had acquired prior to the secondary endosymbiosis of a green alga.

  20. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

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    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  1. Heterogeneous Family of Cyclomodulins: Smart Weapons That Allow Bacteria to Hijack the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Promote Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aouar Filho, Rachid A; Nicolas, Aurélie; De Paula Castro, Thiago L; Deplanche, Martine; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A; Goossens, Pierre L; Taieb, Frédéric; Lina, Gerard; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations. We discuss the mechanisms of actions of cyclomodulins according to their biochemical properties, providing examples of various cyclomodulins such as cycle inhibiting factor, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, cytolethal distending toxins, shiga toxin, subtilase toxin, anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, adenylate cyclase toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol soluble modulins, and mycolactone. Special attention is paid to the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria during colonization of the host.

  2. Heterogeneous Family of Cyclomodulins: Smart Weapons That Allow Bacteria to Hijack the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Promote Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid A. El-Aouar Filho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations. We discuss the mechanisms of actions of cyclomodulins according to their biochemical properties, providing examples of various cyclomodulins such as cycle inhibiting factor, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, cytolethal distending toxins, shiga toxin, subtilase toxin, anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, adenylate cyclase toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol soluble modulins, and mycolactone. Special attention is paid to the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria during colonization of the host.

  3. Widespread horizontal gene transfer from double-stranded RNA viruses to eukaryotic nuclear genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Peng, Youliang; Ghabrial, Said A; Yi, Xianhong

    2010-11-01

    Horizontal gene transfer commonly occurs from cells to viruses but rarely occurs from viruses to their host cells, with the exception of retroviruses and some DNA viruses. However, extensive sequence similarity searches in public genome databases for various organisms showed that the capsid protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes from totiviruses and partitiviruses have widespread homologs in the nuclear genomes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, arthropods, fungi, nematodes, and protozoa. PCR amplification and sequencing as well as comparative evidence of junction coverage between virus and host sequences support the conclusion that these viral homologs are real and occur in eukaryotic genomes. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these genes were likely transferred horizontally from viruses to eukaryotic genomes. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that some of the transferred genes are conserved and expressed in eukaryotic organisms and suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the recipient genomes. Our findings imply that horizontal transfer of double-stranded RNA viral genes is widespread among eukaryotes and may give rise to functionally important new genes, thus entailing that RNA viruses may play significant roles in the evolution of eukaryotes.

  4. Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Tzeneva, V.A.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating

  5. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

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    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  6. Sulfate assimilation in eukaryotes: fusions, relocations and lateral transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durnford Dion G

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfate assimilation pathway is present in photosynthetic organisms, fungi, and many bacteria, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and a range of other metabolites. In photosynthetic eukaryotes sulfate is reduced in the plastids whereas in aplastidic eukaryotes the pathway is cytosolic. The only known exception is Euglena gracilis, where the pathway is localized in mitochondria. To obtain an insight into the evolution of the sulfate assimilation pathway in eukaryotes and relationships of the differently compartmentalized isoforms we determined the locations of the pathway in lineages for which this was unknown and performed detailed phylogenetic analyses of three enzymes involved in sulfate reduction: ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR and sulfite reductase (SiR. Results The inheritance of ATPS, APR and the related 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPR are remarkable, with multiple origins in the lineages that comprise the opisthokonts, different isoforms in chlorophytes and streptophytes, gene fusions with other enzymes of the pathway, evidence a eukaryote to prokaryote lateral gene transfer, changes in substrate specificity and two reversals of cellular location of host- and endosymbiont-originating enzymes. We also found that the ATPS and APR active in the mitochondria of Euglena were inherited from its secondary, green algal plastid. Conclusion Our results reveal a complex history for the enzymes of the sulfate assimilation pathway. Whilst they shed light on the origin of some characterised novelties, such as a recently described novel isoform of APR from Bryophytes and the origin of the pathway active in the mitochondria of Euglenids, the many distinct and novel isoforms identified here represent an excellent resource for detailed biochemical studies of the enzyme structure/function relationships.

  7. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  8. From archaeon to eukaryote: the evolutionary dark ages of the eukaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Joran; Ettema, Thijs J G

    2013-02-01

    The evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic cell represents an enigmatic, yet largely incomplete, puzzle. Several mutually incompatible scenarios have been proposed to explain how the eukaryotic domain of life could have emerged. To date, convincing evidence for these scenarios in the form of intermediate stages of the proposed eukaryogenesis trajectories is lacking, presenting the emergence of the complex features of the eukaryotic cell as an evolutionary deus ex machina. However, recent advances in the field of phylogenomics have started to lend support for a model that places a cellular fusion event at the basis of the origin of eukaryotes (symbiogenesis), involving the merger of an as yet unknown archaeal lineage that most probably belongs to the recently proposed 'TACK superphylum' (comprising Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Korarchaeota) with an alphaproteobacterium (the protomitochondrion). Interestingly, an increasing number of so-called ESPs (eukaryotic signature proteins) is being discovered in recently sequenced archaeal genomes, indicating that the archaeal ancestor of the eukaryotic cell might have been more eukaryotic in nature than presumed previously, and might, for example, have comprised primitive phagocytotic capabilities. In the present paper, we review the evolutionary transition from archaeon to eukaryote, and propose a new model for the emergence of the eukaryotic cell, the 'PhAT (phagocytosing archaeon theory)', which explains the emergence of the cellular and genomic features of eukaryotes in the light of a transiently complex phagocytosing archaeon.

  9. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  10. Broadly sampled multigene trees of eukaryotes

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    Logsdon John M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life and the tremendous diversity of microbial eukaryotes is in flux as additional genes and diverse taxa are sampled for molecular analyses. Despite instability in many analyses, there is an increasing trend to classify eukaryotic diversity into six major supergroups: the 'Amoebozoa', 'Chromalveolata', 'Excavata', 'Opisthokonta', 'Plantae', and 'Rhizaria'. Previous molecular analyses have often suffered from either a broad taxon sampling using only single-gene data or have used multigene data with a limited sample of taxa. This study has two major aims: (1 to place taxa represented by 72 sequences, 61 of which have not been characterized previously, onto a well-sampled multigene genealogy, and (2 to evaluate the support for the six putative supergroups using two taxon-rich data sets and a variety of phylogenetic approaches. Results The inferred trees reveal strong support for many clades that also have defining ultrastructural or molecular characters. In contrast, we find limited to no support for most of the putative supergroups as only the 'Opisthokonta' receive strong support in our analyses. The supergroup 'Amoebozoa' has only moderate support, whereas the 'Chromalveolata', 'Excavata', 'Plantae', and 'Rhizaria' receive very limited or no support. Conclusion Our analytical approach substantiates the power of increased taxon sampling in placing diverse eukaryotic lineages within well-supported clades. At the same time, this study indicates that the six supergroup hypothesis of higher-level eukaryotic classification is likely premature. The use of a taxon-rich data set with 105 lineages, which still includes only a small fraction of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes, fails to resolve deeper phylogenetic relationships and reveals no support for four of the six proposed supergroups. Our analyses provide a point of departure for future taxon- and gene-rich analyses of the

  11. Natural history of eukaryotic DNA methylation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of cytosines and adenines in DNA is a widespread epigenetic mark in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, it has a profound influence on chromatin structure and dynamics. Recent advances in genomics and biochemistry have considerably elucidated the functions and provenance of these DNA modifications. DNA methylases appear to have emerged first in bacterial restriction-modification (R-M) systems from ancient RNA-modifying enzymes, in transitions that involved acquisition of novel catalytic residues and DNA-recognition features. DNA adenine methylases appear to have been acquired by ciliates, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates, and certain chlorophyte algae. Six distinct clades of cytosine methylases, including the DNMT1, DNMT2, and DNMT3 clades, were acquired by eukaryotes through independent lateral transfer of their precursors from bacteria or bacteriophages. In addition to these, multiple adenine and cytosine methylases were acquired by several families of eukaryotic transposons. In eukaryotes, the DNA-methylase module was often combined with distinct modified and unmodified peptide recognition domains and other modules mediating specialized interactions, for example, the RFD module of DNMT1 which contains a permuted Sm domain linked to a helix-turn-helix domain. In eukaryotes, the evolution of DNA methylases appears to have proceeded in parallel to the elaboration of histone-modifying enzymes and the RNAi system, with functions related to counter-viral and counter-transposon defense, and regulation of DNA repair and differential gene expression being their primary ancestral functions. Diverse DNA demethylation systems that utilize base-excision repair via DNA glycosylases and cytosine deaminases appear to have emerged in multiple eukaryotic lineages. Comparative genomics suggests that the link between cytosine methylation and DNA glycosylases probably emerged first in a novel R-M system in bacteria. Recent studies suggest that the 5mC is not

  12. Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

  13. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  14. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  15. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo; Varzielas, I de Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama–Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well but at the cost of accidental cancelations between parameters. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing. (paper)

  16. Structural basis of eukaryotic cell targeting by type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Tommaso; Pflug, Alexander; Discola, Karen F; Neves, David; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are macromolecular complexes that translocate a wide number of effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Once within the cytoplasm, many T3SS effectors mimic the structure and/or function of eukaryotic proteins in order to manipulate signaling cascades, and thus play pivotal roles in colonization, invasion, survival and virulence. Structural biology techniques have played key roles in the unraveling of bacterial strategies employed for mimicry and targeting. This review provides an overall view of our current understanding of structure and function of T3SS effectors, as well as of the different classes of eukaryotic proteins that are targeted and the consequences for the infected cell. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. In silico ionomics segregates parasitic from free-living eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greganova, Eva; Steinmann, Michael; Mäser, Pascal; Fankhauser, Niklaus

    2013-01-01

    Ion transporters are fundamental to life. Due to their ancient origin and conservation in sequence, ion transporters are also particularly well suited for comparative genomics of distantly related species. Here, we perform genome-wide ion transporter profiling as a basis for comparative genomics of eukaryotes. From a given predicted proteome, we identify all bona fide ion channels, ion porters, and ion pumps. Concentrating on unicellular eukaryotes (n = 37), we demonstrate that clustering of species according to their repertoire of ion transporters segregates obligate endoparasites (n = 23) on the one hand, from free-living species and facultative parasites (n = 14) on the other hand. This surprising finding indicates strong convergent evolution of the parasites regarding the acquisition and homeostasis of inorganic ions. Random forest classification identifies transporters of ammonia, plus transporters of iron and other transition metals, as the most informative for distinguishing the obligate parasites. Thus, in silico ionomics further underscores the importance of iron in infection biology and suggests access to host sources of nitrogen and transition metals to be selective forces in the evolution of parasitism. This finding is in agreement with the phenomenon of iron withholding as a primordial antimicrobial strategy of infected mammals.

  18. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this “egalitarian” evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in “fraternal” transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals. PMID:26286983

  19. Convergent use of RhoGAP toxins by eukaryotic parasites and bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Colinet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of host Rho GTPases is a widespread strategy employed by bacterial pathogens to manipulate mammalian cellular functions and avoid immune defenses. Some bacterial toxins mimic eukaryotic Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs to inactivate mammalian GTPases, probably as a result of evolutionary convergence. An intriguing question remains whether eukaryotic pathogens or parasites may use endogenous GAPs as immune-suppressive toxins to target the same key genes as bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, a RhoGAP domain-containing protein, LbGAP, was recently characterized from the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and shown to protect parasitoid eggs from the immune response of Drosophila host larvae. We demonstrate here that LbGAP has structural characteristics of eukaryotic RhoGAPs but that it acts similarly to bacterial RhoGAP toxins in mammals. First, we show by immunocytochemistry that LbGAP enters Drosophila immune cells, plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and that morphological changes in lamellocytes are correlated with the quantity of LbGAP they contain. Demonstration that LbGAP displays a GAP activity and specifically interacts with the active, GTP-bound form of the two Drosophila Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2, both required for successful encapsulation of Leptopilina eggs, was then achieved using biochemical tests, yeast two-hybrid analysis, and GST pull-down assays. In addition, we show that the overall structure of LbGAP is similar to that of eukaryotic RhoGAP domains, and we identify distinct residues involved in its interaction with Rac GTPases. Altogether, these results show that eukaryotic parasites can use endogenous RhoGAPs as virulence factors and that despite their differences in sequence and structure, eukaryotic and bacterial RhoGAP toxins are similarly used to target the same immune pathways in insects and mammals.

  20. Eukaryotic acquisition of a bacterial operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the champions of basic biomedical research due to its compact eukaryotic genome and ease of experimental manipulation. Despite these immense strengths, its impact on understanding the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation has been limited by strai...

  1. The origin of the eukaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, H.

    1984-01-01

    The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the eukaryotic cell has been applied to the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. However as has been pointed out by Mereschowsky in 1905, it should also be applied to the nucleus as well. If the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts are endosymbionts, then it is likely that the organism that did the engulfing was not a DNA-based organism. In fact, it is useful to postulate that this organism was a primitive RNA-based organism. This hypothesis would explain the preponderance of RNA viruses found in eukaryotic cells. The centriole and basal body do not have a double membrane or DNA. Like all MTOCs (microtubule organising centres), they have a structural or morphic RNA implicated in their formation. This would argue for their origin in the early RNA-based organism rather than in an endosymbiotic event involving bacteria. Finally, the eukaryotic cell uses RNA in ways quite unlike bacteria, thus pointing to a greater emphasis of RNA in both control and structure in the cell. The origin of the eukaryotic cell may tell us why it rather than its prokaryotic relative evolved into the metazoans who are reading this paper.

  2. Evidence for a Minimal Eukaryotic Phosphoproteome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, Sander H.; Parikh, Kaushal; van der Sijde, Marijke; Joore, Jos; Ritsema, Tita; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Reversible phosphorylation catalysed by kinases is probably the most important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We studied the in vitro phosphorylation of peptide arrays exhibiting the majority of PhosphoBase-deposited protein sequences, by factors in

  3. Eukaryotic membrane protein overproduction in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunji, Edmund R.S.; Chan, Ka Wai; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Floyd, Suzanne; O’Connor, Rosemary; Monné, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Eukaryotic membrane proteins play many vital roles in the cell and are important drug targets. Approximately 25% of all genes identified in the genome are known to encode membrane proteins, but the vast majority have no assigned function. Although the generation of structures of soluble proteins has

  4. Network dynamics of eukaryotic LTR retroelements beyond phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Carlos; Muñoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Bernad, Lucia; Botella, Hector; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-02

    Sequencing projects have allowed diverse retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons from different eukaryotic organisms to be characterized. It is known that retroviruses and other retro-transcribing viruses evolve from LTR retrotransposons and that this whole system clusters into five families: Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia, Bel/Pao and Caulimoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses usually show that these split into multiple distinct lineages but what is yet to be understood is how deep evolution occurred in this system. We combined phylogenetic and graph analyses to investigate the history of LTR retroelements both as a tree and as a network. We used 268 non-redundant LTR retroelements, many of them introduced for the first time in this work, to elucidate all possible LTR retroelement phylogenetic patterns. These were superimposed over the tree of eukaryotes to investigate the dynamics of the system, at distinct evolutionary times. Next, we investigated phenotypic features such as duplication and variability of amino acid motifs, and several differences in genomic ORF organization. Using this information we characterized eight reticulate evolution markers to construct phenotypic network models. The evolutionary history of LTR retroelements can be traced as a time-evolving network that depends on phylogenetic patterns, epigenetic host-factors and phenotypic plasticity. The Ty1/Copia and the Ty3/Gypsy families represent the oldest patterns in this network that we found mimics eukaryotic macroevolution. The emergence of the Bel/Pao, Retroviridae and Caulimoviridae families in this network can be related with distinct inflations of the Ty3/Gypsy family, at distinct evolutionary times. This suggests that Ty3/Gypsy ancestors diversified much more than their Ty1/Copia counterparts, at distinct geological eras. Consistent with the principle of preferential attachment, the connectivities among phenotypic markers, taken as network-represented combinations, are power

  5. Network dynamics of eukaryotic LTR retroelements beyond phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernad Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing projects have allowed diverse retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons from different eukaryotic organisms to be characterized. It is known that retroviruses and other retro-transcribing viruses evolve from LTR retrotransposons and that this whole system clusters into five families: Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia, Bel/Pao and Caulimoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses usually show that these split into multiple distinct lineages but what is yet to be understood is how deep evolution occurred in this system. Results We combined phylogenetic and graph analyses to investigate the history of LTR retroelements both as a tree and as a network. We used 268 non-redundant LTR retroelements, many of them introduced for the first time in this work, to elucidate all possible LTR retroelement phylogenetic patterns. These were superimposed over the tree of eukaryotes to investigate the dynamics of the system, at distinct evolutionary times. Next, we investigated phenotypic features such as duplication and variability of amino acid motifs, and several differences in genomic ORF organization. Using this information we characterized eight reticulate evolution markers to construct phenotypic network models. Conclusion The evolutionary history of LTR retroelements can be traced as a time-evolving network that depends on phylogenetic patterns, epigenetic host-factors and phenotypic plasticity. The Ty1/Copia and the Ty3/Gypsy families represent the oldest patterns in this network that we found mimics eukaryotic macroevolution. The emergence of the Bel/Pao, Retroviridae and Caulimoviridae families in this network can be related with distinct inflations of the Ty3/Gypsy family, at distinct evolutionary times. This suggests that Ty3/Gypsy ancestors diversified much more than their Ty1/Copia counterparts, at distinct geological eras. Consistent with the principle of preferential attachment, the connectivities among phenotypic markers, taken as

  6. Salmonella Populations inside Host Cells

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    Sónia Castanheira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the Salmonella genus cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever and are among the most successful intracellular pathogens known. After the invasion of the eukaryotic cell, Salmonella exhibits contrasting lifestyles with different replication rates and subcellular locations. Although Salmonella hyper-replicates in the cytosol of certain host cell types, most invading bacteria remain within vacuoles in which the pathogen proliferates at moderate rates or persists in a dormant-like state. Remarkably, these cytosolic and intra-vacuolar intracellular lifestyles are not mutually exclusive and can co-exist in the same infected host cell. The mechanisms that direct the invading bacterium to follow the cytosolic or intra-vacuolar “pathway” remain poorly understood. In vitro studies show predominance of either the cytosolic or the intra-vacuolar population depending on the host cell type invaded by the pathogen. The host and pathogen factors controlling phagosomal membrane integrity and, as consequence, the egress into the cytosol, are intensively investigated. Other aspects of major interest are the host defenses that may affect differentially the cytosolic and intra-vacuolar populations and the strategies used by the pathogen to circumvent these attacks. Here, we summarize current knowledge about these Salmonella intracellular subpopulations and discuss how they emerge during the interaction of this pathogen with the eukaryotic cell.

  7. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Sriram G.; Martin, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origi...

  8. Joint Custody: A Viable and Ideal Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Douglas F.; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    Defines and restructures custodial rights and remedies of parents involved in a divorce proceeding. Conveys an alternative to custodial awards as they exist today and points toward joint custody as an ideal solution and viable alternative that cries out for acceptance. (Author)

  9. Alternative Eukaryotic Expression Systems for the Production of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Suárez, Teresa; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Besides the most established expression hosts, several eukaryotic microorganisms and filamentous fungi have also been successfully used as platforms for the production of foreign proteins. Filamentous fungi and Dictyostelium discoideum are two prominent examples. Filamentous fungi, typically Aspergillus and Trichoderma, are usually employed for the industrial production of enzymes and secondary metabolites for food processing, pharmaceutical drugs production, and textile and paper applications, with multiple products already accepted for their commercialization. The low cost of culture medium components, high secretion capability directly to the extracellular medium, and the intrinsic ability to produce post-translational modifications similar to the mammalian type, have promoted this group as successful hosts for the expression of proteins, including examples from phylogenetically distant groups: humans proteins such as IL-2, IL-6 or epithelial growth factor; α-galactosidase from plants; or endoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, among others. D. discoideum is a social amoeba that can be used as an expression platform for a variety of proteins, which has been extensively illustrated for cytoskeletal proteins. New vectors for heterologous expression in D. discoideum have been recently developed that might increase the usefulness of this system and expand the range of protein classes that can be tackled. Continuous developments are ongoing to improve strains, promoters, production and downstream processes for filamentous fungi, D. discoideum, and other alternative eukaryotic hosts. Either for the overexpression of individual genes, or in the coexpression of multiples genes, this chapter illustrates the enormous possibilities offered by these groups of eukaryotic organisms.

  10. The evolution of eukaryotic cells from the perspective of peroxisomes: phylogenetic analyses of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes support mitochondria-first models of eukaryotic cell evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Kathrin; Rensing, Stefan A; Maier, Uwe-G

    2015-02-01

    Beta-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of reactive oxygen species are generally accepted as being fundamental functions of peroxisomes. Additionally, these pathways might have been the driving force favoring the selection of this compartment during eukaryotic evolution. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses of enzymes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids in Bacteria, Eukaryota, and Archaea. These imply an alpha-proteobacterial origin for three out of four enzymes. By integrating the enzymes' history into the contrasting models on the origin of eukaryotic cells, we conclude that peroxisomes most likely evolved non-symbiotically and subsequent to the acquisition of mitochondria in an archaeal host cell. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rolling-circle transposons in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonov, V V; Jurka, J

    2001-07-17

    All eukaryotic DNA transposons reported so far belong to a single category of elements transposed by the so-called "cut-and-paste" mechanism. Here, we report a previously unknown category of eukaryotic DNA transposons, Helitron, which transpose by rolling-circle replication. Autonomous Helitrons encode a 5'-to-3' DNA helicase and nuclease/ligase similar to those encoded by known rolling-circle replicons. Helitron-like transposons have conservative 5'-TC and CTRR-3' termini and do not have terminal inverted repeats. They contain 16- to 20-bp hairpins separated by 10--12 nucleotides from the 3'-end and transpose precisely between the 5'-A and T-3', with no modifications of the AT target sites. Together with their multiple diverged nonautonomous descendants, Helitrons constitute approximately 2% of both the Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes and also colonize the Oriza sativa genome. Sequence conservation suggests that Helitrons continue to be transposed.

  12. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S.; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms exploit photosensory proteins to respond to changing light conditions. In land plants, phytochromes use the ratio of red to far-red light to detect shading by neighboring plants, leading to changes in growth and development. Light conditions can be more variable for algae because of the wavelength-dependent attenuation of light by water and because of ocean mixing. We studied phytochromes from taxonomically diverse eukaryotic algae from groups considered important for...

  13. Nitrogen fixation in eukaryotes – New models for symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockhart Peter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen, a component of many bio-molecules, is essential for growth and development of all organisms. Most nitrogen exists in the atmosphere, and utilisation of this source is important as a means of avoiding nitrogen starvation. However, the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme complex is restricted to some bacteria. Eukaryotic organisms are only able to obtain fixed nitrogen through their symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. These symbioses involve a variety of host organisms, including animals, plants, fungi and protists. Results We have compared the morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics of nitrogen fixing symbiotic associations of bacteria and their diverse hosts. Special features of the interaction, e.g. vertical transmission of symbionts, grade of dependency of partners and physiological modifications have been considered in terms of extent of co-evolution and adaptation. Our findings are that, despite many adaptations enabling a beneficial partnership, most symbioses for molecular nitrogen fixation involve facultative interactions. However, some interactions, among them endosymbioses between cyanobacteria and diatoms, show characteristics that reveal a more obligate status of co-evolution. Conclusion Our review emphasises that molecular nitrogen fixation, a driving force for interactions and co-evolution of different species, is a widespread phenomenon involving many different organisms and ecosystems. The diverse grades of symbioses, ranging from loose associations to highly specific intracellular interactions, might themselves reflect the range of potential evolutionary fates for symbiotic partnerships. These include the extreme evolutionary modifications and adaptations that have accompanied the formation of organelles in eukaryotic cells: plastids and mitochondria. However, age and extensive adaptation of plastids and mitochondria complicate the

  14. Did group II intron proliferation in an endosymbiont-bearing archaeon create eukaryotes?

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    Poole Anthony M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Martin & Koonin recently proposed that the eukaryote nucleus evolved as a quality control mechanism to prevent ribosome readthrough into introns. In their scenario, the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria was resident in an archaeal cell, and group II introns (carried by the fledgling mitochondrion inserted into coding regions in the archaeal host genome. They suggest that if transcription and translation were coupled, and because splicing is expected to have been slower than translation, the effect of insertion would have been ribosome readthrough into introns, resulting in production of aberrant proteins. The emergence of the nuclear compartment would thus have served to separate transcription and splicing from translation, thereby alleviating this problem. In this article, I argue that Martin & Koonin's model is not compatible with current knowledge. The model requires that group II introns would spread aggressively through an archaeal genome. It is well known that selfish elements can spread through an outbreeding sexual population despite a substantial fitness cost to the host. The same is not true for asexual lineages however, where both theory and observation argue that such elements will be under pressure to reduce proliferation, and may be lost completely. The recent introduction of group II introns into archaea by horizontal transfer provides a natural test case with which to evaluate Martin & Koonin's model. The distribution and behaviour of these introns fits prior theoretical expectations, not the scenario of aggressive proliferation advocated by Martin & Koonin. I therefore conclude that the mitochondrial seed hypothesis for the origin of eukaryote introns, on which their model is based, better explains the early expansion of introns in eukaryotes. The mitochondrial seed hypothesis has the capacity to separate the origin of eukaryotes from the origin of introns, leaving open the possibility that the cell that engulfed the

  15. Evidence for viable and stable triploid Trypanosoma congolense parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihon, Eliane; Imamura, Hideo; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2017-10-10

    Recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis identified a viable triploid strain of Trypanosoma congolense. This triploid strain BANANCL2 was a clone of the field isolate BANAN/83/CRTRA/64 that was collected from cattle in Burkina Faso in 1983. We demonstrated the viability and stability of triploidy throughout the complete life-cycle of the parasite by infecting tsetse flies with the triploid clone BANANCL2. Proboscis-positive tsetse flies efficiently transmitted the parasites to mice resulting in systemic infections. WGS of the parasites was performed at all life-cycle stages, and a method based on a block alternative allele frequency spectrum was developed to efficiently detect the ploidy profiles of samples with low read depth. This approach confirmed the triploid profile of parasites throughout their life-cycle in the tsetse fly and the mammalian host, demonstrating that triploidy is present at all stages and is stable over time. The presence of viable field-isolated triploid parasites indicates another possible layer of genetic diversity in natural T. congolense populations. The comparison between triploid and diploid parasites provides a unique model system to study the impact of chromosome copy number variations in African trypanosomes. In addition, the consequences of triploidy can be further investigated using this stable triploid model.

  16. Gene flow and biological conflict systems in the origin and evolution of eukaryotes

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    L eAravind

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes brought together two disparate genomes in the cell. Additionally, eukaryotic natural history has included other endosymbiotic events, phagotrophic consumption of organisms, and intimate interactions with viruses and endoparasites. These phenomena facilitated large-scale lateral gene transfer and biological conflicts. We synthesize information from nearly two decades of genomics to illustrate how the interplay between lateral gene transfer and biological conflicts has impacted the emergence of new adaptations in eukaryotes. Using apicomplexans as example, we illustrate how lateral transfer from animals has contributed to unique parasite-host interfaces comprised of adhesion- and O-linked glycosylation-related domains. Adaptations, emerging due to intense selection for diversity in the molecular participants in organismal and genomic conflicts, being dispersed by lateral transfer, were subsequently exapted for eukaryote-specific innovations. We illustrate this using examples relating to eukaryotic chromatin, RNAi and RNA-processing systems, signaling pathways, apoptosis and immunity. We highlight the major contributions from catalytic domains of bacterial toxin-systems to the origin of signaling enzymes (e.g. ADP-ribosylation and small-molecule messenger synthesis, mutagenic enzymes for immune receptor diversification and RNA-processing. Similarly, we discuss contributions of bacterial antibiotic/siderophore synthesis systems and intra-genomic and intra-cellular selfish elements (e.g. restriction-modification, mobile elements and lysogenic phages in the emergence of chromatin remodeling/modifying enzymes and RNA-based regulation. We develop the concept that biological conflict systems served as evolutionary nurseries for innovations in the protein world, which were delivered to eukaryotes via lateral gene flow to spur key evolutionary innovations all the way from nucleogenesis to lineage-specific adaptations

  17. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the a...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erives, Albert J

    2017-11-28

    the four core histone clades. We thus suggest MV histone doublet genes and their DNA topo II gene possibly were acquired from an organism with a chromatinized replisome that diverged prior to the origin of eukaryotic core histone variants for H2/H2A.Z and H3/cenH3. These results also imply that core histones were utilized ancestrally in viral DNA compaction and/or protection from host endonucleases.

  20. Transfer of genetic information between parasite and its host

    OpenAIRE

    Soukal, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is considered a rare evolutionary event. It can take place between unrelated organisms that coexist in an intimate symbiotic relationship. Such relationship have some parasites with its host. HGT between eukaryotic parasite and its host was identified in some holoparazitic and hemiparazitic plants, the most important human protozoan parasites, microsporidias, human blood-flukes, parasitoids and fruit flies.

  1. Host genes involved in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltani, Jalal

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium is the nature’s genetic engineer that can transfer genes across the kingdom barriers to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic host cells. The host genes which are involved in Agrobacterium-mediated transformatiom (AMT) are not well known. Here, I studied in a systematic way to identify the

  2. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  3. Genomic and experimental evidence suggests that Verrucomicrobium spinosum interacts with eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eSait

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of pathogens and symbionts is heavily biased towards phyla containing species that are straightforward to isolate in pure culture. Novel bacterial phyla are often represented by a handful of strains, and the number of species interacting with eukaryotes is likely underestimated. Identification of predicted pathogenesis and symbiosis determinants such as the Type III Secretion System (T3SS in the genomes of ‘free-living’ bacteria suggests that these microbes participate in uncharacterized interactions with eukaryotes. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis on Verrucomicrobium spinosum (phylum Verrucomicrobia and to begin characterization of its predicted T3SS. We showed the putative T3SS structural genes to be transcriptionally active, and that expression of predicted effector proteins was toxic to yeast in an established functional screen. Our results suggest that the predicted T3SS genes of V. spinosum could encode a functional T3SS, although further work is needed to determine whether V. spinosum produces a T3SS injectisome that delivers the predicted effectors. In the absence of a known eukaryotic host, we made use of invertebrate infection models. The injection or feeding of V. spinosum to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabiditis elegans, respectively, was shown to result in increased mortality rates relative to controls, a phenomenon exaggerated in C. elegans mutants hypersensitive to pathogen infection. This finding, although not conclusively demonstrating pathogenesis, suggests that V. spinosum is capable of pathogenic activity towards an invertebrate host. Symbiotic interactions with a natural host provide an alternative explanation for the results seen in the invertebrate models. Further work is needed to determine whether V. spinosum can establish and maintain interactions with eukaryotic species found in its natural habitat, and whether the predicted T3SS is directly involved in pathogenic or symbiotic activity.

  4. Trace detection of specific viable bacteria using tetracysteine-tagged bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lina; Luan, Tian; Yang, Xiaoting; Wang, Shuo; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tianxun; Zhu, Shaobin; Yan, Xiaomei

    2014-01-07

    Advanced methods are urgently needed to determine the identity and viability of trace amounts of pathogenic bacteria in a short time. Existing approaches either fall short in the accurate assessment of microbial viability or lack specificity in bacterial identification. Bacteriophages (or phages for short) are viruses that exclusively infect bacterial host cells with high specificity. As phages infect and replicate only in living bacterial hosts, here we exploit the strategy of using tetracysteine (TC)-tagged phage in combination with biarsenical dye to the discriminative detection of viable target bacteria from dead target cells and other viable but nontarget bacterial cells. Using recombinant M13KE-TC phage and Escherichia coli ER2738 as a model system, distinct differentiation between individual viable target cells from dead target cells was demonstrated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. As few as 1% viable E. coli ER2738 can be accurately quantified in a mix with dead E. coli ER2738 by flow cytometry. With fluorescence microscopic measurement, specific detection of as rare as 1 cfu/mL original viable target bacteria was achieved in the presence of a large excess of dead target cells and other viable but nontarget bacterial cells in 40 mL artificially contaminated drinking water sample in less than 3 h. This TC-phage-FlAsH approach is sensitive, specific, rapid, and simple, and thus shows great potential in water safety monitoring, health surveillance, and clinical diagnosis of which trace detection and identification of viable bacterial pathogens is highly demanded.

  5. Comparative genomics of eukaryotic small nucleolar RNAs reveals deep evolutionary ancestry amidst ongoing intragenomic mobility

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    Hoeppner Marc P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small nucleolar (snoRNAs are required for posttranscriptional processing and modification of ribosomal, spliceosomal and messenger RNAs. Their presence in both eukaryotes and archaea indicates that snoRNAs are evolutionarily ancient. The location of some snoRNAs within the introns of ribosomal protein genes has been suggested to belie an RNA world origin, with the exons of the earliest protein-coding genes having evolved around snoRNAs after the advent of templated protein synthesis. Alternatively, this intronic location may reflect more recent selection for coexpression of snoRNAs and ribosomal components, ensuring rRNA modification by snoRNAs during ribosome synthesis. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of this genetic organization, we examined the antiquity of snoRNA families and the stability of their genomic location across 44 eukaryote genomes. Results We report that dozens of snoRNA families are traceable to the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA, but find only weak similarities between the oldest eukaryotic snoRNAs and archaeal snoRNA-like genes. Moreover, many of these LECA snoRNAs are located within the introns of host genes independently traceable to the LECA. Comparative genomic analyses reveal the intronic location of LECA snoRNAs is not ancestral however, suggesting the pattern we observe is the result of ongoing intragenomic mobility. Analysis of human transcriptome data indicates that the primary requirement for hosting intronic snoRNAs is a broad expression profile. Consistent with ongoing mobility across broadly-expressed genes, we report a case of recent migration of a non-LECA snoRNA from the intron of a ubiquitously expressed non-LECA host gene into the introns of two LECA genes during the evolution of primates. Conclusions Our analyses show that snoRNAs were a well-established family of RNAs at the time when eukaryotes began to diversify. While many are intronic, this association is not

  6. Relative role of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in phenanthrene transformation in coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGillivray, A.R.; Shiaris, M.P. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The relative role of eukaryotic versus prokaryotic microorganisms in phenanthrene transformation was measured in slurries of coastal sediment by two different approaches: detection of marker metabolites and use of selective inhibitors on phenanthrene biotransformation. Phenanthrene biotransformation was measured by polar metabolite formation and CO[sub 2] evolution from [9-[sup 14]C]phenanthrene. Both yeasts and bacteria transformed phenanthrene in slurries of coastal sediment. Two products of phenanthrene oxidation by fungi, phenanthrene trans-3,4-dihydrodiol and 3-phenanthrol, were produced in yeast-inoculated sterile sediment. However, only products of phenanthrene oxidation typical of bacterial transformation, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and phenanthrene cis-3,4-dihydrodiol, were isolated from slurries of coastal sediment with natural microbial populations. Phenanthrene trans-dihydrodiols or other products of fungal oxidation of phenanthrene were not detected in the slurry containing a natural microbial population. A predominant role for bacterial transformation of phenanthrene was also suggested from selective inhibitor experiments. Addition of streptomycin to slurries, at a concentration which suppressed bacterial viable counts and rates of [methyl-[sup 3]H]thymidine uptake, completely inhibited phenanthrene transformation. Treatment with colchicine, at a concentration which suppressed yeast viable counts, depressed phenanthrene transformation by 40%, and this was likely due to nontarget inhibition of bacterial activity. The relative contribution of eukaryotic microorganisms to phenanthrene transformation in inoculated sterile sediment was estimated to be less than 3% of the total activity. We conclude that the predominant degraders of phenanthrene in muddy coastal sediments are bacteria and not eukaryotic microorganisms. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Probing eukaryotic cell mechanics via mesoscopic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor V.; Lykov, Kirill; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Shang, Menglin; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2017-11-01

    We developed a new mesoscopic particle based eukaryotic cell model which takes into account cell membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus. The breast epithelial cells were used in our studies. To estimate the viscoelastic properties of cells and to calibrate the computational model, we performed micropipette aspiration experiments. The model was then validated using data from microfluidic experiments. Using the validated model, we probed contributions of sub-cellular components to whole cell mechanics in micropipette aspiration and microfluidics experiments. We believe that the new model will allow to study in silico numerous problems in the context of cell biomechanics in flows in complex domains, such as capillary networks and microfluidic devices.

  8. Expression of eukaryotic polypeptides in chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2013-06-04

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  9. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion phospholipase D effector targets both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guowei; Jin, Qi

    2014-05-14

    Widely found in animal and plant-associated proteobacteria, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are potentially capable of facilitating diverse interactions with eukaryotes and/or other bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes three distinct T6SS haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) secretion islands (H1, H2, and H3-T6SS), each involved in different aspects of the bacterium's interaction with other organisms. Here we describe the characterization of a P. aeruginosa H3-T6SS-dependent phospholipase D effector, PldB, and its three tightly linked cognate immunity proteins. PldB targets the periplasm of prokaryotic cells and exerts an antibacterial activity. Surprisingly, PldB also facilitates intracellular invasion of host eukaryotic cells by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, revealing it to be a trans-kingdom effector. Our findings imply a potentially widespread T6SS-mediated mechanism, which deploys a single phospholipase effector to influence both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring microbial dark matter to resolve the deep archaeal ancestry of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Jimmy H.; Spang, Anja; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Juzokaite, Lina; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Colman, Dan R.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Hedlund, Brian P.; Guy, Lionel; Ettema, Thijs J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of eukaryotes represents an enigmatic puzzle, which is still lacking a number of essential pieces. Whereas it is currently accepted that the process of eukaryogenesis involved an interplay between a host cell and an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont, we currently lack detailed information regarding the identity and nature of these players. A number of studies have provided increasing support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, displaying a specific affiliation with the archaeal TACK superphylum. Recent studies have shown that genomic exploration of yet-uncultivated archaea, the so-called archaeal ‘dark matter’, is able to provide unprecedented insights into the process of eukaryogenesis. Here, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art cultivation-independent approaches, and demonstrate how these methods were used to obtain draft genome sequences of several novel members of the TACK superphylum, including Lokiarchaeum, two representatives of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (Bathyarchaeota), and a Korarchaeum-related lineage. The maturation of cultivation-independent genomics approaches, as well as future developments in next-generation sequencing technologies, will revolutionize our current view of microbial evolution and diversity, and provide profound new insights into the early evolution of life, including the enigmatic origin of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:26323759

  11. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  12. Structural studies demonstrating a bacteriophage-like replication cycle of the eukaryote-infecting Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Eyal; Dadosh, Tali; Rechav, Katya; Unger, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1). Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic-infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the virus internal membrane with the host membrane. Furthermore, our results imply that PBCV-1 DNA condensation that occurs shortly after infection probably plays a role in genome internalization, as hypothesized for the infection of some bacteriophages. The subsequent perforation of the host photosynthetic membranes presumably enables trafficking of viral genomes towards host nuclei. Previous studies established that at late infection stages PBCV-1 generates cytoplasmic organelles, termed viral factories, where viral assembly takes place, a feature characteristic of many large dsDNA viruses that infect eukaryotic organisms. PBCV-1 thus appears to combine a bacteriophage-like mechanism during early infection stages with a eukaryotic-like infection pathway in its late replication cycle. PMID:28850602

  13. Structural studies demonstrating a bacteriophage-like replication cycle of the eukaryote-infecting Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Milrot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1. Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic-infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the virus internal membrane with the host membrane. Furthermore, our results imply that PBCV-1 DNA condensation that occurs shortly after infection probably plays a role in genome internalization, as hypothesized for the infection of some bacteriophages. The subsequent perforation of the host photosynthetic membranes presumably enables trafficking of viral genomes towards host nuclei. Previous studies established that at late infection stages PBCV-1 generates cytoplasmic organelles, termed viral factories, where viral assembly takes place, a feature characteristic of many large dsDNA viruses that infect eukaryotic organisms. PBCV-1 thus appears to combine a bacteriophage-like mechanism during early infection stages with a eukaryotic-like infection pathway in its late replication cycle.

  14. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  15. Phosphorylation Stoichiometries of Human Eukaryotic Initiation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armann Andaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation initiation factors are the principal molecular effectors regulating the process converting nucleic acid to functional protein. Commonly referred to as eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors, this suite of proteins is comprised of at least 25 individual subunits that function in a coordinated, regulated, manner during mRNA translation. Multiple facets of eIF regulation have yet to be elucidated; however, many of the necessary protein factors are phosphorylated. Herein, we have isolated, identified and quantified phosphosites from eIF2, eIF3, and eIF4G generated from log phase grown HeLa cell lysates. Our investigation is the first study to globally quantify eIF phosphosites and illustrates differences in abundance of phosphorylation between the residues of each factor. Thus, identification of those phosphosites that exhibit either high or low levels of phosphorylation under log phase growing conditions may aid researchers to concentrate their investigative efforts to specific phosphosites that potentially harbor important regulatory mechanisms germane to mRNA translation.

  16. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  17. Cell cycle control across the eukaryotic kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, Hirofumi; Dissmeyer, Nico; Schnittger, Arp

    2013-07-01

    Almost two billion years of evolution have generated a vast and amazing variety of eukaryotic life with approximately 8.7 million extant species. Growth and reproduction of all of these organisms depend on faithful duplication and distribution of their chromosomes to the newly forming daughter cells in a process called the cell cycle. However, most of what is known today about cell cycle control comes from a few model species that belong to the unikonts; that is, to only one of five 'supergroups' that comprise the eukaryotic kingdom. Recently, analyzing species from distantly related clades is providing insights into general principles of cell cycle regulation and shedding light on its evolution. Here, referring to animal and fungal as opposed to non-unikont systems, especially flowering plants from the archaeplastid supergroup, we compare the conservation of central cell cycle regulator functions, the structure of network topologies, and the evolutionary dynamics of substrates of core cell cycle kinases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Big Bang of picorna-like virus evolution antedates the radiation of eukaryotic supergroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I; Nagasaki, Keizo; Dolja, Valerian V

    2008-12-01

    The recent discovery of RNA viruses in diverse unicellular eukaryotes and developments in evolutionary genomics have provided the means for addressing the origin of eukaryotic RNA viruses. The phylogenetic analyses of RNA polymerases and helicases presented in this Analysis article reveal close evolutionary relationships between RNA viruses infecting hosts from the Chromalveolate and Excavate supergroups and distinct families of picorna-like viruses of plants and animals. Thus, diversification of picorna-like viruses probably occurred in a 'Big Bang' concomitant with key events of eukaryogenesis. The origins of the conserved genes of picorna-like viruses are traced to likely ancestors including bacterial group II retroelements, the family of HtrA proteases and DNA bacteriophages.

  19. Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmark, Cecilia; Foster, Peter G; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have...... indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. RESULTS: We used a phylogenomic...... are conserved among lineages, the genes making up those pathways can have very different origins in different eukaryotes. Thus, from the perspective of the effects of lateral gene transfer on individual gene ancestries in different lineages, eukaryotic metabolism appears to be chimeric....

  20. The Genome of Naegleria gruberi Illuminates Early Eukaryotic Versatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Ginger, Michael L.; Dacks, Joel; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Field, Mark C.; Kuo, Alan; Paredez, Alex; Chapman, Jarrod; Pham, Jonathan; Shu, Shengqiang; Neupane, Rochak; Cipriano, Michael; Mancuso, Joel; Tu, Hank; Salamov, Asaf; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cande, W. Zacheus; Fulton, Chandler; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Dawson, Scott C.

    2010-03-01

    Genome sequences of diverse free-living protists are essential for understanding eukaryotic evolution and molecular and cell biology. The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi belongs to a varied and ubiquitous protist clade (Heterolobosea) that diverged from other eukaryotic lineages over a billion years ago. Analysis of the 15,727 protein-coding genes encoded by Naegleria's 41 Mb nuclear genome indicates a capacity for both aerobic respiration and anaerobic metabolism with concomitant hydrogen production, with fundamental implications for the evolution of organelle metabolism. The Naegleria genome facilitates substantially broader phylogenomic comparisons of free-living eukaryotes than previously possible, allowing us to identify thousands of genes likely present in the pan-eukaryotic ancestor, with 40% likely eukaryotic inventions. Moreover, we construct a comprehensive catalog of amoeboid-motility genes. The Naegleria genome, analyzed in the context of other protists, reveals a remarkably complex ancestral eukaryote with a rich repertoire of cytoskeletal, sexual, signaling, and metabolic modules.

  1. Eukaryotic LYR Proteins Interact with Mitochondrial Protein Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Angerer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine motif proteins (LYRMs of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6 or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1 of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria.

  2. A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Cytokinesis of Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    called cytokinesis. For eukaryotic cells , cell division is a much more complicated process than the division of prokaryotic cells . Despite of extensive...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Cytokinesis of Eukaryotic Cells ...stage of the mitotic cycle of eukaryotic cells , cytokinesis ensues where a parent cell replicates its nucleus with the necessary genetical substances

  3. [Bacterial infections as seen from the eukaryotic genome: DNA double strand breaks, inflammation and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemercier, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies report that infection by pathogenic bacteria alters the host genome, producing highly hazardous DNA double strand breaks for the eukaryotic cell. Even when DNA repair occurs, it often leaves "scars" on chromosomes that might generate genomic instability at the next cell division. Chronic intestinal inflammation promotes the expansion of genotoxic bacteria in the intestinal microbiote which in turn triggers tumor formation and colon carcinomas. Bacteria act at the level of the host DNA repair machinery. They also highjack the host cell cycle to allow themselves time for replication in an appropriate reservoir. However, except in the case of bacteria carrying the CDT nuclease, the molecular mechanisms responsible for DNA lesions are not well understood, even if reactive oxygen species released during infection make good candidates. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  4. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Andy; Vergnano, Marta; Wan, Chris; Oliver, Stephen G

    2017-07-25

    We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP), cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection. IMPORTANCE During infections, pathogenic bacteria can release nucleotides into the cells of their eukaryotic hosts. These nucleotides are recognized as signals that contribute to the initiation of defensive immune responses that help the infected

  5. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle

    2016-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which...... is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we...... investigated the presence of chimeric AGP-like core proteins in this lineage. We report that the genome sequence of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus encodes AGP protein backbone motifs, in a gene context that differs considerably from what is known in land plants. We showed the occurrence of AGP...

  6. DNA Mismatch Repair in Eukaryotes and Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fukui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA mismatch repair (MMR corrects mismatched base pairs mainly caused by DNA replication errors. The fundamental mechanisms and proteins involved in the early reactions of MMR are highly conserved in almost all organisms ranging from bacteria to human. The significance of this repair system is also indicated by the fact that defects in MMR cause human hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancers as well as sporadic tumors. To date, 2 types of MMRs are known: the human type and Escherichia coli type. The basic features of the former system are expected to be universal among the vast majority of organisms including most bacteria. Here, I review the molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic and bacterial MMR, emphasizing on the similarities between them.

  7. Protein splicing and its evolution in eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starokadomskyy P. L.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inteins, or protein introns, are parts of protein sequences that are post-translationally excised, their flanking regions (exteins being spliced together. This process was called protein splicing. Originally inteins were found in prokaryotic or unicellular eukaryotic organisms. But the general principles of post-translation protein rearrangement are evolving yielding different post-translation modification of proteins in multicellular organisms. For clarity, these non-intein mediated events call either protein rearrangements or protein editing. The most intriguing example of protein editing is proteasome-mediated splicing of antigens in vertebrates that may play important role in antigen presentation. Other examples of protein rearrangements are maturation of Hg-proteins (critical receptors in embryogenesis as well as maturation of several metabolic enzymes. Despite a lack of experimental data we try to analyze some intriguing examples of protein splicing evolution.

  8. Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derelle, R.; Torruella, G.; Klimeš, V.; Brinkmann, H.; Kim, E.; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B.F.; Eliáš, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 7 (2015), E693-E699 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24983S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100; Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Early Career Scientist Program(US) 55007424; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, European Molecular Biology Organization Young Investigator Program(ES) BFU2012-31329; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, "Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa" - European Regional Development Fund(ES) Sev-2012-0208, BES-2013-064004 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : eukaryote phylogeny * phylogenomics * Opimoda * Diphoda * LECA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  9. Balanced Codon Usage Optimizes Eukaryotic Translational Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenfeng; Yang, Jian-Rong; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Maclean, Calum; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Cellular efficiency in protein translation is an important fitness determinant in rapidly growing organisms. It is widely believed that synonymous codons are translated with unequal speeds and that translational efficiency is maximized by the exclusive use of rapidly translated codons. Here we estimate the in vivo translational speeds of all sense codons from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, preferentially used codons are not translated faster than unpreferred ones. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is a result of codon usage in proportion to cognate tRNA concentrations, the optimal strategy in enhancing translational efficiency under tRNA shortage. Our predicted codon–tRNA balance is indeed observed from all model eukaryotes examined, and its impact on translational efficiency is further validated experimentally. Our study reveals a previously unsuspected mechanism by which unequal codon usage increases translational efficiency, demonstrates widespread natural selection for translational efficiency, and offers new strategies to improve synthetic biology. PMID:22479199

  10. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  11. Gravitational Waves in Viable Modified Gravity Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, C Q

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work [1] on gravitational waves in viable f(R) models. We concentrate on the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. We show that in both cases, the mass of the scalar mode is order of 10 −33 eV when it propagates in vacuum. In the presence of matter density, such as galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. In particular, it becomes almost infinity so that the scalar mode of gravitational wave for the exponential model disappears like the ACDM, whereas it can be as low as 10 −24 eV in the Starobinsky model, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10 −9 Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes in space.

  12. Viable supersymmetry and leptogenesis with anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand-unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1) Y and U(1) B-L . Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1) B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint

  13. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  14. Nuclear importation of Mariner transposases among eukaryotes: motif requirements and homo-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Véronique Demattei

    Full Text Available Mariner-like elements (MLEs are widespread transposable elements in animal genomes. They have been divided into at least five sub-families with differing host ranges. We investigated whether the ability of transposases encoded by Mos1, Himar1 and Mcmar1 to be actively imported into nuclei varies between host belonging to different eukaryotic taxa. Our findings demonstrate that nuclear importation could restrict the host range of some MLEs in certain eukaryotic lineages, depending on their expression level. We then focused on the nuclear localization signal (NLS in these proteins, and showed that the first 175 N-terminal residues in the three transposases were required for nuclear importation. We found that two components are involved in the nuclear importation of the Mos1 transposase: an SV40 NLS-like motif (position: aa 168 to 174, and a dimerization sub-domain located within the first 80 residues. Sequence analyses revealed that the dimerization moiety is conserved among MLE transposases, but the Himar1 and Mcmar1 transposases do not contain any conserved NLS motif. This suggests that other NLS-like motifs must intervene in these proteins. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of the Mos1 transposase prevents its nuclear importation in HeLa cells, due to the assembly of transposase aggregates in the cytoplasm.

  15. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  16. Hijacking host cell highways: manipulation of the host actin cytoskeleton by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, subversion of cell intrinsic immunity, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions.

  17. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding...... yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells....

  18. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  19. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    checkpoints' which are known to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle may be absent or altered in. E. histolytica. [Banerjee S, Das S and Lohia A 2002 Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica; J. Biosci. (Suppl.

  20. Translation in giant viruses: a unique mixture of bacterial and eukaryotic termination schemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jeudy

    Full Text Available Mimivirus and Megavirus are the best characterized representatives of an expanding new family of giant viruses infecting Acanthamoeba. Their most distinctive features, megabase-sized genomes carried in particles of size comparable to that of small bacteria, fill the gap between the viral and cellular worlds. These giant viruses are also uniquely equipped with genes coding for central components of the translation apparatus. The presence of those genes, thought to be hallmarks of cellular organisms, revived fundamental interrogations on the evolutionary origin of these viruses and the link they might have with the emergence of eukaryotes. In this work, we focused on the Mimivirus-encoded translation termination factor gene, the detailed primary structure of which was elucidated using computational and experimental approaches. We demonstrated that the translation of this protein proceeds through two internal stop codons via two distinct recoding events: a frameshift and a readthrough, the combined occurrence of which is unique to these viruses. Unexpectedly, the viral gene carries an autoregulatory mechanism exclusively encountered in bacterial termination factors, though the viral sequence is related to the eukaryotic/archaeal class-I release factors. This finding is a hint that the virally-encoded translation functions may not be strictly redundant with the one provided by the host. Lastly, the perplexing occurrence of a bacterial-like regulatory mechanism in a eukaryotic/archaeal homologous gene is yet another oddity brought about by the study of giant viruses.

  1. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Chieng Yeo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  2. Non-coding RNA regulation in pathogenic bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alvaro D; Quereda, Juan J; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved distinct lifestyles inside eukaryotic cells. Some pathogens coexist with the infected cell in an obligate intracellular state, whereas others transit between the extracellular and intracellular environment. Adaptation to these intracellular lifestyles is regulated in both space and time. Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulatory molecules that fine-tune important processes in bacterial physiology including cell envelope architecture, intermediate metabolism, bacterial communication, biofilm formation, and virulence. Recent studies have shown production of defined sRNA species by intracellular bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells. The molecules targeted by these sRNAs and their expression dynamics along the intracellular infection cycle remain, however, poorly characterized. Technical difficulties linked to the isolation of "intact" intracellular bacteria from infected host cells might explain why sRNA regulation in these specialized pathogens is still a largely unexplored field. Transition from the extracellular to the intracellular lifestyle provides an ideal scenario in which regulatory sRNAs are intended to participate; so much work must be done in this direction. This review focuses on sRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens during the infection of eukaryotic cells, strategies used with these pathogens to identify sRNAs required for virulence, and the experimental technical challenges associated to this type of studies. We also discuss varied techniques for their potential application to study RNA regulation in intracellular bacterial infections.

  3. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-02-19

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  4. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  5. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  6. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  7. Eukaryotic versus prokaryotic marine picoplankton ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massana, Ramon; Logares, Ramiro

    2013-05-01

    Marine microorganisms contribute markedly to global biomass and ecosystem function. They include a diverse collection of organisms differing in cell size and in evolutionary history. In particular, microbes within the picoplankton are similar in size but belong to two drastically different cellular plans, the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. Compared with larger organisms, prokaryotes and picoeukaryotes share ecological features, such as high specific activity, large and constant abundances, and high dispersal potential. Still, there are some aspects where their different cell organization influences their ecological performance. First, prokaryotes have a huge metabolic versatility and are involved in all biogeochemical cycles, whereas picoeukaryotes are metabolically less flexible but can exploit diverse predatory life strategies due to their phagocytic capacity. Second, sexual reproduction is absent in prokaryotes but may be present in picoeukaryotes, thus determining different evolutionary diversification dynamics and making species limits clearer in picoeukaryotes. Finally, it is plausible that picoeukaryotes are less flexible to enter a reversible state of low metabolic activity, thus picoeukaryote assemblages may have fewer rare species and may be less resilient to environmental change. In summary, lumping together pico-sized microbes may be convenient for some ecological studies, but it is also important to keep in mind their differences. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Do lipids shape the eukaryotic cell cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furse, Samuel; Shearman, Gemma C

    2018-01-01

    Successful passage through the cell cycle presents a number of structural challenges to the cell. Inceptive studies carried out in the last five years have produced clear evidence of modulations in the lipid profile (sometimes referred to as the lipidome) of eukaryotes as a function of the cell cycle. This mounting body of evidence indicates that lipids play key roles in the structural transformations seen across the cycle. The accumulation of this evidence coincides with a revolution in our understanding of how lipid composition regulates a plethora of biological processes ranging from protein activity through to cellular signalling and membrane compartmentalisation. In this review, we discuss evidence from biological, chemical and physical studies of the lipid fraction across the cell cycle that demonstrate that lipids are well-developed cellular components at the heart of the biological machinery responsible for managing progress through the cell cycle. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms by which this careful control is exercised. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources

  10. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonin, Eugene V., E-mail: koonin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894 (United States); Dolja, Valerian V., E-mail: doljav@science.oregonstate.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krupovic, Mart, E-mail: krupovic@pasteur.fr [Institut Pasteur, Unité Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, Department of Microbiology, Paris 75015 (France)

    2015-05-15

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources

  11. Evolution and function of eukaryotic-like proteins from sponge symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are ancient metazoans that harbour diverse microorganisms, whose symbiotic interactions are essential for the host's health and function. Although symbiosis between bacteria and sponges are ubiquitous, the molecular mechanisms that control these associations are largely unknown. Recent (meta-) genomic analyses discovered an abundance of genes encoding for eukaryotic-like proteins (ELPs) in bacterial symbionts from different sponge species. ELPs belonging to the ankyrin repeat (AR) class from a bacterial symbiont of the sponge Cymbastela concentrica were subsequently found to modulate amoebal phagocytosis. This might be a molecular mechanism, by which symbionts can control their interaction with the sponge. In this study, we investigated the evolution and function of ELPs from other classes and from symbionts found in other sponges to better understand the importance of ELPs for bacteria-eukaryote interactions. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all of the nine ELPs investigated were most closely related to proteins found either in eukaryotes or in bacteria that can live in association with eukaryotes. ELPs were then recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and exposed to the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, which is functionally analogous to phagocytic cells in sponges. Phagocytosis assays with E. coli containing three ELP classes (AR, TPR-SEL1 and NHL) showed a significantly higher percentage of amoeba containing bacteria and average number of intracellular bacteria per amoeba when compared to negative controls. The result that various classes of ELPs found in symbionts of different sponges can modulate phagocytosis indicates that they have a broader function in mediating bacteria-sponge interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A comparison of autogenous theories for the origin of eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, David A

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells have many unique features that all evolved on the stem lineage of living eukaryotes, making it difficult to reconstruct the order in which they accumulated. Nuclear endosymbiotic theories hold that three prokaryotes (nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondrion) came together to form a eukaryotic cell, whereas autogenous models hold that the nucleus and cytoplasm formed through evolutionary changes in a single prokaryotic lineage. Given several problems with nuclear endosymbiotic theories, this review focuses on autogenous models. Until recently all autogenous models assumed an outside-in (OI) topology, proposing that the nuclear envelope was formed from membrane-bound vesicles within the original cell body. Buzz Baum and I recently proposed an inside-out (IO) alternative, suggesting that the nucleus corresponds to the original cell body, with the cytoplasmic compartment deriving from extracellular protrusions. In this review, I show that OI and IO models are compatible with both mitochondria early (ME) or mitochondria late (ML) formulations. Whereas ME models allow that the relationship between mitochondria and host was mutualistic from the outset, ML models imply that the association began with predation or parasitism, becoming mutualistic later. In either case, the mutualistic interaction that eventually formed was probably syntrophic. Diverse features of eukaryotic cell biology align well with the IOME model, but it would be premature to rule out the OIME model. ML models require that phagocytosis, a complex and energy expensive process, evolved before mitochondria, which seems unlikely. Nonetheless, further research is needed, especially resolution of the phylogenetic affinities of mitochondria. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  14. Evaluation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as food source for Balamuthia mandrillaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Jeong, Seok Ryoul; Faull, Jane; Rivas, Antonio Ortega; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently identified free-living protozoan pathogen that can cause fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. Recent studies have shown that B. mandrillaris consumes eukaryotic cells such as mammalian cell cultures as food source. Here, we studied B. mandrillaris interactions with various eukaryotic cells including, monkey kidney fibroblast-like cells (COS-7), human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and Acanthamoeba (an opportunistic protozoan pathogen) as well as prokaryotes, Escherichia coli. B. mandrillaris exhibited optimal growth on HBMEC compared with Cos-7 cells. In contrast, B. mandrillaris did not grow on bacteria but remained in the trophozoite stage. When incubated with Acanthamoeba trophozoites, B. mandrillaris produced partial Acanthamoeba damage and the remaining Acanthamoeba trophozoites underwent encystment. However, B. mandrillaris were unable to consume Acanthamoeba cysts. Next, we observed that B. mandrillaris-mediated Acanthamoeba encystment is a contact-dependent process that requires viable B. mandrillaris. In support, conditioned medium of B. mandrillaris did not stimulate Acanthamoeba encystment nor did lysates of B. mandrillaris. Overall, these studies suggest that B. mandrillaris target Acanthamoeba in the trophozoite stage; however, Acanthamoeba possess the ability to defend themselves by forming cysts, which are resistant to B. mandrillaris. Further studies will examine the mechanisms associated with food selectivity in B. mandrillaris.

  15. Chloroplast division checkpoint in eukaryotic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont. It is believed that the synchronization of endosymbiotic and host cell division, as is commonly seen in existing algae, was a critical step in establishing the permanent organelle. Algal cells typically contain one or only a small number of chloroplasts that divide once per host cell cycle. This division is based partly on the S-phase–specific expression of nucleus-encoded proteins that constitute the chloroplast-division machinery. In this study, using the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we show that cell-cycle progression is arrested at the prophase when chloroplast division is blocked before the formation of the chloroplast-division machinery by the overexpression of Filamenting temperature-sensitive (Fts) Z2-1 (Fts72-1), but the cell cycle progresses when chloroplast division is blocked during division-site constriction by the overexpression of either FtsZ2-1 or a dominant-negative form of dynamin-related protein 5B (DRP5B). In the cells arrested in the prophase, the increase in the cyclin B level and the migration of cyclin-dependent kinase B (CDKB) were blocked. These results suggest that chloroplast division restricts host cell-cycle progression so that the cell cycle progresses to the metaphase only when chloroplast division has commenced. Thus, chloroplast division and host cell-cycle progression are synchronized by an interactive restriction that takes place between the nucleus and the chloroplast. In addition, we observed a similar pattern of cell-cycle arrest upon the blockage of chloroplast division in the glaucophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa, raising the possibility that the chloroplast division checkpoint contributed to the establishment of the permanent organelle. PMID:27837024

  16. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-05-01

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order "Megavirales" that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources along

  17. Wholly Rickettsia! Reconstructed Metabolic Profile of the Quintessential Bacterial Parasite of Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Driscoll

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reductive genome evolution has purged many metabolic pathways from obligate intracellular Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiaceae. While some aspects of host-dependent rickettsial metabolism have been characterized, the array of host-acquired metabolites and their cognate transporters remains unknown. This dearth of information has thwarted efforts to obtain an axenic Rickettsia culture, a major impediment to conventional genetic approaches. Using phylogenomics and computational pathway analysis, we reconstructed the Rickettsia metabolic and transport network, identifying 51 host-acquired metabolites (only 21 previously characterized needed to compensate for degraded biosynthesis pathways. In the absence of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, cell envelope glycoconjugates are synthesized from three imported host sugars, with a range of additional host-acquired metabolites fueling the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid and glycerophospholipid pathways also initiate from host precursors, and import of both isoprenes and terpenoids is required for the synthesis of ubiquinone and the lipid carrier of lipid I and O-antigen. Unlike metabolite-provisioning bacterial symbionts of arthropods, rickettsiae cannot synthesize B vitamins or most other cofactors, accentuating their parasitic nature. Six biosynthesis pathways contain holes (missing enzymes; similar patterns in taxonomically diverse bacteria suggest alternative enzymes that await discovery. A paucity of characterized and predicted transporters emphasizes the knowledge gap concerning how rickettsiae import host metabolites, some of which are large and not known to be transported by bacteria. Collectively, our reconstructed metabolic network offers clues to how rickettsiae hijack host metabolic pathways. This blueprint for growth determinants is an important step toward the design of axenic media to rescue rickettsiae from the eukaryotic cell.

  18. Single seed Near Infrared Spectroscopy discriminates viable and non-viable seeds of Juniperus polycarpos

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, Abolfazl; Tigabu, Mulualem; Karimidoost, Asaddollah; Oden, Per Christer

    2015-01-01

    A large quantity of non-viable (empty, insect-attacked and shriveled) seeds of Juniperus polycarpos (K. Koch) is often encountered during seed collection, which should be removed from the seed lots to ensure precision sowing in the nursery or out in the field. The aims of this study were to evaluate different modelling approaches and to examine the sensitivity of the change in detection system (Silicon-detector in the shorter vis-a-vis InGsAs-detector in the longer NIR regions) for discrimina...

  19. Repair of DNA DSB in higher eukaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Perrault, A.R.; Takeda, Y.; Iliakis, G.

    2003-01-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes process within minutes double strand breaks (DSBs) in their genome using a NHEJ apparatus that engages DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, and other as of yet unidentified factors. Although chemical inhibition, or mutation, in any of these factors delays processing, cells ultimately remove the majority of DNA DSBs using an alternative pathway operating with slower kinetics. This alternative pathway is active in mutants deficient in genes of the RAD52 epistasis group. We proposed, therefore, that it reflects an alternative form of NHEJ that operates as a backup (B-NHEJ) to the DNA-PK- dependent (D-NHEJ) pathway, rather than homology directed repair of DSBs. We studied the role of Ku and DNA-PKcs in the coordination of these pathways using as a model end joining of restriction endonuclease linearized plasmid DNA in whole cell extracts. Efficient error-free endjoining observed in such in-vitro reactions is strongly inhibited by anti-Ku antibodies. The inhibition requires DNA-PKcs, despite that fact that Ku efficiently binds DNA ends in the presence of antibodies, or in the absence of DNA-PKcs. Strong inhibition of DNA endjoining is also mediated by wortmannin, an inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, in the presence but not in the absence of Ku, and this inhibition can be rescued by pre-incubating the reaction with double stranded oligonucleotides. The results are compatible with a role of Ku in directing endjoining to a DNA-PK dependent pathway, mediated by efficient end binding and productive interactions with DNA-PKcs. On the other hand, efficient end joining is observed in extracts of cells lacking DNA-PKcs, as well as in Ku-depleted extracts sugggesting the operation of alternative pathways. Extracts depleted of Ku and DNA-PKcs rejoin blunt ends, as well as homologous ends with 3' or 5' protruding single strands with similar efficiency, but addition of Ku suppresses joining of blunt ends and homologous ends with 3' overhangs. We propose that the

  20. DNA mismatch repair and its many roles in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dekang; Keijzers, Guido; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-07-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an important DNA repair pathway that plays critical roles in DNA replication fidelity, mutation avoidance and genome stability, all of which contribute significantly to the viability of cells and organisms. MMR is widely-used as a diagnostic biomarker for human cancers in the clinic, and as a biomarker of cancer susceptibility in animal model systems. Prokaryotic MMR is well-characterized at the molecular and mechanistic level; however, MMR is considerably more complex in eukaryotic cells than in prokaryotic cells, and in recent years, it has become evident that MMR plays novel roles in eukaryotic cells, several of which are not yet well-defined or understood. Many MMR-deficient human cancer cells lack mutations in known human MMR genes, which strongly suggests that essential eukaryotic MMR components/cofactors remain unidentified and uncharacterized. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the eukaryotic MMR machinery discriminates between the parental (template) and the daughter (nascent) DNA strand is incompletely understood and how cells choose between the EXO1-dependent and the EXO1-independent subpathways of MMR is not known. This review summarizes recent literature on eukaryotic MMR, with emphasis on the diverse cellular roles of eukaryotic MMR proteins, the mechanism of strand discrimination and cross-talk/interactions between and co-regulation of MMR and other DNA repair pathways in eukaryotic cells. The main conclusion of the review is that MMR proteins contribute to genome stability through their ability to recognize and promote an appropriate cellular response to aberrant DNA structures, especially when they arise during DNA replication. Although the molecular mechanism of MMR in the eukaryotic cell is still not completely understood, increased used of single-molecule analyses in the future may yield new insight into these unsolved questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Diversification of the Translation Apparatus across Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is one of the most remarkable features of living organisms. Current assessments of eukaryote biodiversity reaches 1.5 million species, but the true figure could be several times that number. Diversity is ingrained in all stages and echelons of life, namely, the occupancy of ecological niches, behavioral patterns, body plans and organismal complexity, as well as metabolic needs and genetics. In this review, we will discuss that diversity also exists in a key biochemical process, translation, across eukaryotes. Translation is a fundamental process for all forms of life, and the basic components and mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes have been largely established upon the study of traditional, so-called model organisms. By using modern genome-wide, high-throughput technologies, recent studies of many nonmodel eukaryotes have unveiled a surprising diversity in the configuration of the translation apparatus across eukaryotes, showing that this apparatus is far from being evolutionarily static. For some of the components of this machinery, functional differences between different species have also been found. The recent research reviewed in this article highlights the molecular and functional diversification the translational machinery has undergone during eukaryotic evolution. A better understanding of all aspects of organismal diversity is key to a more profound knowledge of life.

  2. Single Cell Genomics and Transcriptomics for Unicellular Eukaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciobanu, Doina; Clum, Alicia; Singh, Vasanth; Salamov, Asaf; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Grigoriev, Igor; James, Timothy; Singer, Steven; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2014-03-14

    Despite their small size, unicellular eukaryotes have complex genomes with a high degree of plasticity that allow them to adapt quickly to environmental changes. Unicellular eukaryotes live with prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes, frequently in symbiotic or parasitic niches. To this day their contribution to the dynamics of the environmental communities remains to be understood. Unfortunately, the vast majority of eukaryotic microorganisms are either uncultured or unculturable, making genome sequencing impossible using traditional approaches. We have developed an approach to isolate unicellular eukaryotes of interest from environmental samples, and to sequence and analyze their genomes and transcriptomes. We have tested our methods with six species: an uncharacterized protist from cellulose-enriched compost identified as Platyophrya, a close relative of P. vorax; the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidate, a parasite of water flea Daphnia; the mycoparasitic fungi Piptocephalis cylindrospora, a parasite of Cokeromyces and Mucor; Caulochytrium protosteloides, a parasite of Sordaria; Rozella allomycis, a parasite of the water mold Allomyces; and the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we present the four components of our approach: pre-sequencing methods, sequence analysis for single cell genome assembly, sequence analysis of single cell transcriptomes, and genome annotation. This technology has the potential to uncover the complexity of single cell eukaryotes and their role in the environmental samples.

  3. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2016-04-27

    Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real-the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as "non-Darwinian" because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious-all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes.

  4. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W. Blackstone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real—the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as “non-Darwinian” because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious—all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes.

  5. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  6. Cross-kingdom host shifts of phytomyxid parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Kirchmair, Martin; Bulman, Simon; Bass, David

    2014-02-23

    Phytomyxids (plasmodiophorids and phagomyxids) are cosmopolitan, obligate biotrophic protist parasites of plants, diatoms, oomycetes and brown algae. Plasmodiophorids are best known as pathogens or vectors for viruses of arable crops (e.g. clubroot in brassicas, powdery potato scab, and rhizomania in sugar beet). Some phytomyxid parasites are of considerable economic and ecologic importance globally, and their hosts include important species in marine and terrestrial environments. However most phytomyxid diversity remains uncharacterised and knowledge of their relationships with host taxa is very fragmentary. Our molecular and morphological analyses of phytomyxid isolates-including for the first time oomycete and sea-grass parasites-demonstrate two cross-kingdom host shifts between closely related parasite species: between angiosperms and oomycetes, and from diatoms/brown algae to angiosperms. Switching between such phylogenetically distant hosts is generally unknown in host-dependent eukaryote parasites. We reveal novel plasmodiophorid lineages in soils, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously known, and also present the most comprehensive phytomyxid phylogeny to date. Such large-scale host shifts between closely related obligate biotrophic eukaryote parasites is to our knowledge unique to phytomyxids. Phytomyxids may readily adapt to a wide diversity of new hosts because they have retained the ability to covertly infect alternative hosts. A high cryptic diversity and ubiquitous distribution in agricultural and natural habitats implies that in a changing environment phytomyxids could threaten the productivity of key species in marine and terrestrial environments alike via host shift speciation.

  7. A Bacterial Pathogen uses Distinct Type III Secretion Systems to Alternate between Host Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of eukaryotes often secrete proteins directly into host cells via a needle-like protein channel called a ‘type III secretion system’ (T3SS). Bacteria that are adapted to either animal or plant hosts use phylogenetically distinct T3SSs for secreting proteins. Here, ...

  8. Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashipour, Mohammad; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2011-05-01

    Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the possibility of expression of the highly active and soluble mutant MeHNL-His103Leu as well as wild-type enzyme in several expression systems. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae and two cell-free translations, including an E. coli lysate (WakoPURE system) and wheat germ translation system were used to compare expression profiles of the genes. Two distinguishable protein expression patterns were observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems. The wild-type and mutant enzyme showed high activity for both genes (up to 10 U/ml) in eukaryotic hosts P. pastoris and L. tarentolae, while those of E. coli exhibited about 1 and 15 U/ml, respectively. The different activity level in prokaryotic systems but the same level among the eukaryotic hosts indicate the phenomenon is specific to the E. coli system. Both the wild-type and mutant enzymes were functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems, probably using the folding assistants such as chaperones. Properties of expression systems used in this study were precisely compared, too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusio...

  10. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, C.; Kjaerulff, S.; Muller, S.

    2010-01-01

    -control systems to retain misfolded proteins in the ER and redirect them for cytosolic degradation, thereby only allowing folded proteins to reach the cell surface. Accordingly, the folding potential of the tested protein determines the ability of autotrophic colony growth. This system was successfully...

  11. Crystal structure of eukaryotic ribosome and its complexes with inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2017-01-01

    A high-resolution structure of the eukaryotic ribosome has been determined and has led to increased interest in studying protein biosynthesis and regulation of biosynthesis in cells. The functional complexes of the ribosome crystals obtained from bacteria and yeast have permitted researchers to identify the precise residue positions in different states of ribosome function. This knowledge, together with electron microscopy studies, enhances our understanding of how basic ribosome processes, including mRNA decoding, peptide bond formation, mRNA, and tRNA translocation and cotranslational transport of the nascent peptide, are regulated. In this review, we discuss the crystal structure of the entire 80S ribosome from yeast, which reveals its eukaryotic-specific features, and application of X-ray crystallography of the 80S ribosome for investigation of the binding mode for distinct compounds known to inhibit or modulate the protein-translation function of the ribosome. We also refer to a challenging aspect of the structural study of ribosomes, from higher eukaryotes, where the structures of major distinctive features of higher eukaryote ribosome—the high-eukaryote–specific long ribosomal RNA segments (about 1MDa)—remain unresolved. Presently, the structures of the major part of these high-eukaryotic expansion ribosomal RNA segments still remain unresolved. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138070

  12. Evolution of DNA replication protein complexes in eukaryotes and Archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Chia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, replication factor C (RFC, and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex-all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota.

  13. Proving lipid rafts exist: membrane domains in the prokaryote Borrelia burgdorferi have the same properties as eukaryotic lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J LaRocca

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease [LaRocca et al. (2010 Cell Host & Microbe 8, 331-342]. Here, we show that these prokaryote membrane domains have the hallmarks of eukaryotic lipid rafts, despite lacking sphingolipids. Substitution experiments replacing cholesterol lipids with a set of sterols, ranging from strongly raft-promoting to raft-inhibiting when mixed with eukaryotic sphingolipids, showed that sterols that can support ordered domain formation are both necessary and sufficient for formation of B. burgdorferi membrane domains that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy or in living organisms by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. Raft-supporting sterols were also necessary and sufficient for formation of high amounts of detergent resistant membranes from B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, having saturated acyl chains was required for a biotinylated lipid to associate with the cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in B. burgdorferi, another characteristic identical to that of eukaryotic lipid rafts. Sterols supporting ordered domain formation were also necessary and sufficient to maintain B. burgdorferi membrane integrity, and thus critical to the life of the organism. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of lipid rafts and show that the same principles of lipid raft formation apply to prokaryotes and eukaryotes despite marked differences in their lipid compositions.

  14. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  15. Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  16. Interaction of tRNA with Eukaryotic Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of currently available data concerning interactions of tRNAs with the eukaryotic ribosome at various stages of translation. These data include the results obtained by means of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography applied to various model ribosomal complexes, site-directed cross-linking with the use of tRNA derivatives bearing chemically or photochemically reactive groups in the CCA-terminal fragment and chemical probing of 28S rRNA in the region of the peptidyl transferase center. Similarities and differences in the interactions of tRNAs with prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are discussed with concomitant consideration of the extent of resemblance between molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  17. Unraveling adaptation in eukaryotic pathways: lessons from protocells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna De Palo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic adaptation pathways operate within wide-ranging environmental conditions without stimulus saturation. Despite numerous differences in the adaptation mechanisms employed by bacteria and eukaryotes, all require energy consumption. Here, we present two minimal models showing that expenditure of energy by the cell is not essential for adaptation. Both models share important features with large eukaryotic cells: they employ small diffusible molecules and involve receptor subunits resembling highly conserved G-protein cascades. Analyzing the drawbacks of these models helps us understand the benefits of energy consumption, in terms of adjustability of response and adaptation times as well as separation of cell-external sensing and cell-internal signaling. Our work thus sheds new light on the evolution of adaptation mechanisms in complex systems.

  18. DNA mismatch repair and its many roles in eukaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dekang; Keijzers, Guido; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    in the clinic, and as a biomarker of cancer susceptibility in animal model systems. Prokaryotic MMR is well-characterized at the molecular and mechanistic level; however, MMR is considerably more complex in eukaryotic cells than in prokaryotic cells, and in recent years, it has become evident that MMR plays......DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an important DNA repair pathway that plays critical roles in DNA replication fidelity, mutation avoidance and genome stability, all of which contribute significantly to the viability of cells and organisms. MMR is widely-used as a diagnostic biomarker for human cancers...... novel roles in eukaryotic cells, several of which are not yet well-defined or understood. Many MMR-deficient human cancer cells lack mutations in known human MMR genes, which strongly suggests that essential eukaryotic MMR components/cofactors remain unidentified and uncharacterized. Furthermore...

  19. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly...... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...... storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described...

  20. Construction of a eukaryotic expression plasmid of Humanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ben-yan; Chen, Xiang-ming; Tang, Min; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    To construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)-Humanin. The recombinant plasmid pGEMEX-1-Humanin was digested with restriction endonucleases BamH I and Hind III and the Humanin gene fragments, about 100 bp length, were obtained. Then the Humanin gene fragments were inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(-) and the recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1(-)-Humanin were identified by sequencing. Recombinant plasmid DNA successfully produced a band which had the same size as that of the Humanin positive control. The sequence of recombinant plasmids accorded with the Humnain gene sequence. A eukaryotic expression plasmid of Humanin was successfully constructed.

  1. Construction of a eukaryotic expression plasmid of Humanin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ben-yan; Chen, Xiang-ming; Tang, Min; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)-Humanin. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pGEMEX-1-Humanin was digested with restriction endonucleases BamH I and Hind III and the Humanin gene fragments, about 100 bp length, were obtained. Then the Humanin gene fragments were inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(-) and the recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1(-)-Humanin were identified by sequencing. Results: Recombinant plasmid DNA successfully produced a band which had the same size as that of the Humanin positive control. The sequence of recombinant plasmids accorded with the Humnain gene sequence. Conclusions: A eukaryotic expression plasmid of Humanin was successfully constructed. PMID:15593385

  2. Avoidance and Subversion of Eukaryotic Homeostatic Autophagy Mechanisms by Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cheryl; Celli, Jean

    2016-08-28

    Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal recycling process, which maintains cellular homeostasis during stress and starvation conditions by degrading and recycling proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, ultimately increasing nutrient availability in eukaryotes. An additional function of autophagy, termed xenophagy, is to detect, capture, and destroy invading microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, providing autophagy with a role in innate immunity. Many intracellular pathogens have, however, developed mechanisms to avoid xenophagy and have evolved strategies to take advantage of select autophagic processes to undergo their intracellular life cycle. This review article will discuss the molecular mechanisms used by the intracellular bacterial pathogens Francisella spp. and Brucella spp. to manipulate components of the autophagic pathway, promoting cytosolic growth in the case of Francisella spp. and facilitating cellular egress and cell-to-cell spread in the case of Brucella spp. These examples highlight how successful, highly infectious bacterial pathogens avoid or subvert host autophagy mechanisms normally employed to maintain eukaryotic homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enumeration of probiotic strains: Review of culture-dependent and alternative techniques to quantify viable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Standard culture techniques are commonly used to quantify probiotic strains, but cell culture only measures replicating cells. In response to the stresses of processing and formulation, some fraction of the live probiotic microbes may enter a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in which they are dormant but metabolically active. These microbes are capable of replicating once acclimated to a more hospitable host environment. An operating definition of live probiotic bacteria that includes this range of metabolic states is needed for reliable enumeration. Alternative methods, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), nucleic acid amplification techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR), reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR), propidium monoazide-PCR, and cell sorting techniques such as flow cytometry (FC)/fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) offer the potential to enumerate both culturable and VBNC bacteria. Modern cell sorting techniques have the power to determine probiotic strain abundance and metabolic activity with rapid throughput. Techniques such as visual imaging, cell culture, and cell sorting, could be used in combination to quantify the proportion of viable microbes in various metabolic states. Consensus on an operational definition of viability and systematic efforts to validate these alternative techniques ultimately will strengthen the accuracy and reliability of probiotic strain enumeration. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of a eukaryotic expression plasmid of Humanin*

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ben-yan; Chen, Xiang-ming; Tang, Min; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)-Humanin. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pGEMEX-1-Humanin was digested with restriction endonucleases BamH I and Hind III and the Humanin gene fragments, about 100 bp length, were obtained. Then the Humanin gene fragments were inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(-) and the recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1(-)-Humanin were identified by sequencing. Results: Recombinant plasmid DNA successfully produced a band whic...

  5. How pathogens use linear motifs to perturb host cell networks

    KAUST Repository

    Via, Allegra

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is one of the powerful stratagems that pathogens employ to colonise their hosts and take advantage of host cell functions to guarantee their replication and dissemination. In particular, several viruses have evolved the ability to interact with host cell components through protein short linear motifs (SLiMs) that mimic host SLiMs, thus facilitating their internalisation and the manipulation of a wide range of cellular networks. Here we present convincing evidence from the literature that motif mimicry also represents an effective, widespread hijacking strategy in prokaryotic and eukaryotic parasites. Further insights into host motif mimicry would be of great help in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind host cell invasion and the development of anti-infective therapeutic strategies.

  6. Exploitation of eukaryotic ubiquitin signaling pathways by effectors translocated by bacterial type III and type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Angot

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific and covalent addition of ubiquitin to proteins, known as ubiquitination, is a eukaryotic-specific modification central to many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and hormone signaling. Polyubiquitination is a signal for the 26S proteasome to destroy earmarked proteins, but depending on the polyubiquitin chain topology, it can also result in new protein properties. Both ubiquitin-orchestrated protein degradation and modification have also been shown to be essential for the host's immune response to pathogens. Many animal and plant pathogenic bacteria utilize type III and/or type IV secretion systems to inject effector proteins into host cells, where they subvert host signaling cascades as part of their infection strategy. Recent progress in the determination of effector function has taught us that playing with the host's ubiquitination system seems a general tactic among bacteria. Here, we discuss how bacteria exploit this system to control the timing of their effectors' action by programming them for degradation, to block specific intermediates in mammalian or plant innate immunity, or to target host proteins for degradation by mimicking specific ubiquitin/proteasome system components. In addition to analyzing the effectors that have been described in the literature, we screened publicly available bacterial genomes for mimicry of ubiquitin proteasome system subunits and detected several new putative effectors. Our understanding of the intimate interplay between pathogens and their host's ubiquitin proteasome system is just beginning. This exciting research field will aid in better understanding this interplay, and may also provide new insights into eukaryotic ubiquitination processes.

  7. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity binding of the Tus protein to specific 21-bp sequences, called Ter, causes site-specific, and polar, DNA replication fork arrest in E coli. The Tus-Ter complex serves to coordinate DNA replication with chromosome segregation in this organism. A number of recent and ongoing studies have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells.

  8. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae; Progress report, June 20, 1990--July 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Many large polyhedral, dsDNA containing (ca. 330 kb), plaque forming viruses which infect a unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green alga have been isolated and characterized. The plaque assay, the ability to synchronously infect the host, the short life cycle, and the ability of the viruses to undergo homologous recombination make them excellent model systems for studying many plant cell functions in the manner that bacterial and animal viruses have been used to study bacterial and animal cell functions. These viruses have several unique features including: (1) coding for DNA methyltransferase and site-specific (restriction) endonucleases and (2) unlike other viruses, these viruses appear to code for the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of their glycoproteins.

  9. Burkholderia type VI secretion systems have distinct roles in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs of Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thai in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. Consistent with phylogenetic analyses comparing the distribution of the B. thai T6SSs with well-characterized bacterial and eukaryotic cell-targeting T6SSs, we found that T6SS-5 plays a critical role in the virulence of the organism in a murine melioidosis model, while a strain lacking the other four T6SSs remained as virulent as the wild-type. The function of T6SS-5 appeared to be specialized to the host and not related to an in vivo growth defect, as ΔT6SS-5 was fully virulent in mice lacking MyD88. Next we probed the role of the five systems in interbacterial interactions. From a group of 31 diverse bacteria, we identified several organisms that competed less effectively against wild-type B. thai than a strain lacking T6SS-1 function. Inactivation of T6SS-1 renders B. thai greatly more susceptible to cell contact-induced stasis by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia proteamaculans-leaving it 100- to 1000-fold less fit than the wild-type in competition experiments with these organisms. Flow cell biofilm assays showed that T6S-dependent interbacterial interactions are likely relevant in the environment. B. thai cells lacking T6SS-1 were rapidly displaced in mixed biofilms with P. putida, whereas wild-type cells persisted and overran the competitor. Our data show that T6SSs within a single organism can have distinct functions in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions. These systems are likely to be a decisive factor in the survival of bacterial cells of one species in intimate association with those of another, such as in polymicrobial communities present both in the environment and in many infections.

  10. A parasitic selfish gene that affects host promiscuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Selfish genes demonstrate transmission bias and invade sexual populations despite conferring no benefit to their hosts. While the molecular genetics and evolutionary dynamics of selfish genes are reasonably well characterized, their effects on hosts are not. Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are one well-studied family of selfish genes that are assumed to be benign. However, we show that carrying HEGs is costly for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating that these genetic elements are not necessarily benign but maybe parasitic. We estimate a selective load of approximately 1–2% in ‘natural’ niches. The second aspect we examine is the ability of HEGs to affect hosts' sexual behaviour. As all selfish genes critically rely on sex for spread, then any selfish gene correlated with increased host sexuality will enjoy a transmission advantage. While classic parasites are known to manipulate host behaviour, we are not aware of any evidence showing a selfish gene is capable of affecting host promiscuity. The data presented here show a selfish element may increase the propensity of its eukaryote host to undergo sex and along with increased rates of non-Mendelian inheritance, this may counterbalance mitotic selective load and promote spread. Demonstration that selfish genes are correlated with increased promiscuity in eukaryotes connects with ideas suggesting that selfish genes promoted the evolution of sex initially. PMID:24048156

  11. The biology of eukaryotic promoter prediction - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, Pierre; Chauvin, Yves

    1999-01-01

    Computational prediction of eukaryotic promoters from the nucleotide sequence is one of the most attractive problems in sequence analysis today, but it is also a very difficult one. Thus, current methods predict in the order of one promoter per kilobase in human DNA, while the average distance...

  12. Recognition of extremophilic archaeal viruses by eukaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch; Wu, Linping; Hall, Arnaldur

    2016-01-01

    Viruses from the third domain of life, Archaea, exhibit unusual features including extreme stability that allow their survival in harsh environments. In addition, these species have never been reported to integrate into human or any other eukaryotic genomes, and could thus serve for exploration...

  13. Tracking Eukaryotic Production and Burial Through Time with Zinc Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. Y. S.; Planavsky, N.; Owens, J. D.; Love, G. D.; Lyons, T.; Peterson, L. C.; Knoll, A. H.; Dupont, C. L.; Reinhard, C.; Zumberge, A.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc is an important, often co-limiting nutrient for eukaryotes in the oceans today. Given the importance of Zn in the modern oceans, we developed a Zn isotope approach to track the extent of Zn limitation and eukaryotic production through Earth's history. Specifically, we use the isotopic systematics of the pyrite (δ66Znpyr), rock extracts (bitumen) and kerogen pyrolysate (δ66Znorg) within euxinic black shales. We show that δ66Znpyr of euxinic core-top muds from the Cariaco basin capture the global deep seawater signature, validating its use as a seawater proxy. Additionally, we propose that Δ66Znpyr-org can be used to track surface water zinc bioavailability. Detailed studies of short-lived oceanic anoxic events such as Cretaceous OAE2, which punctuate an otherwise dominantly oxic Phanerozoic world, exhibit dramatic shifts in seawater δ66Zn and organic bound zinc. Such perturbations are consistent with the demise of eukaryotes under a nitrogen stressed regime, in which cyanobacteria carry the competitive advantage. Contradictory to previous models, however, our data suggest that zinc remained largely bioavailable throughout these anoxic intervals despite significant drawdown of the global reservoir. The framework developed from studies of the modern, Cenozoic, and Mesozoic can be used to track the Precambrian evolution of the marine Zn cycle and the rise of eukaryotic algae to ecological dominance.

  14. The emerging roles of inositol pyrophosphates in eukaryotic cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These energy-rich small molecules are present in all eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions including apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, DNA repair, osmoregulation, phosphate homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, immune signalling, cell cycle regulation, and ribosome ...

  15. Eu-Detect: An algorithm for detecting eukaryotic sequences in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plots depicting the classification accuracy of Eu-Detect with various combinations of. 'cumulative sequence count' (40K, 50K, 60K, 70K, 80K) and 'coverage threshold' (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%,. 80%). While blue bars represent Eu-Detect's average classification accuracy with eukaryotic data sets, red bars represent.

  16. Benthic eukaryotic diversity in the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Kysela, David T; Teske, Andreas; de Vera Gomez, Alvin; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2002-05-28

    Molecular microbial ecology studies have revealed remarkable prokaryotic diversity in extreme hydrothermal marine environments. There are no comparable reports of culture-independent surveys of eukaryotic life in warm, anoxic marine sediments. By using sequence comparisons of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNAs, we characterized eukaryotic diversity in hydrothermal vent environments of Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. Many sequences from these anoxic sediments and the overlaying seawater represent previously uncharacterized protists, including early branching eukaryotic lineages or extended diversity within described taxa. At least two mechanisms, with overlapping consequences, account for the eukaryotic community structure of this environment. The adaptation to anoxic environments is evidenced by specific affinity of environmental sequences to aerotolerant anaerobic species in molecular trees. This pattern is superimposed against a background of widely distributed aerophilic and aerotolerant protists, some of which may migrate into and survive in the sediment whereas others (e.g., phototrophs) are simply deposited by sedimentary processes. In contrast, bacterial populations in these sediments are primarily characteristic of anoxic, reduced, hydrocarbon-rich sedimentary habitats.

  17. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has also been shown that although this organism contains sequence homologs of genes which are known to control the cell cycle of most eukaryotes, these genes may be structurally altered and their equivalent function yet to be demonstrated in amoeba. The available information suggests that surveillance mechanisms ...

  18. Geminin: a major DNA replication safeguard in higher eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, Marina; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved multiple mechanisms to restrict DNA replication to once per cell cycle. These mechanisms prevent relicensing of origins of replication after initiation of DNA replication in S phase until the end of mitosis. Most of our knowledge of mechanisms controlling prereplication...

  19. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    are known to control the cell cycle of most eukaryotes, these genes may be structurally altered and their equiva- lent function yet to be ... points controlling the cell division of these organisms? Is the cell division cycle of these organisms ..... mitotic-phase inhibitor and may become a useful tool for studies on the relationship ...

  20. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to ...

  1. Monitoring disulfide bond formation in the eukaryotic cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Henrik; Tachibana, Christine; Winther, Jakob R.

    2004-01-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant low molecular weight thiol in the eukaryotic cytosol. The compartment-specific ratio and absolute concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively) are, however, not easily determined. Here, we present a glutathione-specific green...

  2. An inside-out origin for the eukaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, David A; Baum, Buzz

    2014-10-28

    Although the origin of the eukaryotic cell has long been recognized as the single most profound change in cellular organization during the evolution of life on earth, this transition remains poorly understood. Models have always assumed that the nucleus and endomembrane system evolved within the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell. Drawing on diverse aspects of cell biology and phylogenetic data, we invert the traditional interpretation of eukaryotic cell evolution. We propose that an ancestral prokaryotic cell, homologous to the modern-day nucleus, extruded membrane-bound blebs beyond its cell wall. These blebs functioned to facilitate material exchange with ectosymbiotic proto-mitochondria. The cytoplasm was then formed through the expansion of blebs around proto-mitochondria, with continuous spaces between the blebs giving rise to the endoplasmic reticulum, which later evolved into the eukaryotic secretory system. Further bleb-fusion steps yielded a continuous plasma membrane, which served to isolate the endoplasmic reticulum from the environment. The inside-out theory is consistent with diverse kinds of data and provides an alternative framework by which to explore and understand the dynamic organization of modern eukaryotic cells. It also helps to explain a number of previously enigmatic features of cell biology, including the autonomy of nuclei in syncytia and the subcellular localization of protein N-glycosylation, and makes many predictions, including a novel mechanism of interphase nuclear pore insertion.

  3. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes.

  4. Exploring the behavior of small eukaryotic gene networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Oancea, I.; van Driel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the genome organization of higher eukaryotes indicates that it contains many clusters of functionally related genes. In these clusters, the activity of a single gene is regulated hierarchically at a local gene-level and a global cluster-level. Whether a single gene can be activated by a

  5. Eu-Detect: An algorithm for detecting eukaryotic sequences in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Plots depicting the classification accuracy of Eu-Detect with various combinations of. 'cumulative sequence count' (40K, 50K, 60K, 70K, 80K) and 'coverage threshold' (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%,. 80%). While blue bars represent Eu-Detect's average classification accuracy with eukaryotic ...

  6. Polarised asymmetric inheritance of accumulated protein damage in higher eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rujano, Maria A.; Bosveld, Floris; Salomons, Florian A.; Dijk, Freark; van Waarde, Maria A. W. H.; van der Want, Johannes J. L.; de Vos, Rob A. I.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2006-01-01

    Disease-associated misfolded proteins or proteins damaged due to cellular stress are generally disposed via the cellular protein quality-control system. However, under saturating conditions, misfolded proteins will aggregate. In higher eukaryotes, these aggregates can be transported to accumulate in

  7. Patterns of intron gain and conservation in eukaryotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction of which share position in distant taxa, such as plants and animals. Depending on the methods and data sets used, researchers have reached opposite conclusions on the causes of the high fraction of shared introns in orthologous genes from distant eukaryotes. Some studies conclude that shared intron positions reflect, almost entirely, a remarkable evolutionary conservation, whereas others attribute it to parallel gain of introns. To resolve these contradictions, it is crucial to analyze the evolution of introns by using a model that minimally relies on arbitrary assumptions. Results: We developed a probabilistic model of evolution that allows for variability of intron gain and loss rates over branches of the phylogenetic tree, individual genes, and individual sites. Applying this model to an extended set of conserved eukaryotic genes, we find that parallel gain, on average, accounts for only ~8% of the shared intron positions. However, the distribution of parallel gains over the phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes is highly non-uniform. There are, practically, no parallel gains in closely related lineages, whereas for distant lineages, such as animals and plants, parallel gains appear to contribute up to 20% of the shared intron positions. In accord with these findings, we estimated that ancestral introns have a high probability to be retained in extant genomes, and conversely, that a substantial fraction of extant introns have retained their positions since the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. In addition, the density of sites that are available for intron insertion is estimated to be, approximately, one in seven basepairs. Conclusion: We obtained robust estimates of the contribution of parallel gain to the observed

  8. Aminoacyl-tRNA-charged eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is a bona fide substrate for Legionelle pneumophila effector glucosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzivelekidis, Tina; Jank, Thomas; Pohl, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, which is the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, translocates numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytosol by a type IV secretion system during infection. Among the most potent effector proteins of Legionella are glucosyltransferases (Lgt’s), which...... selectively modify eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A at Ser-53 in the GTP binding domain. Glucosylation results in inhibition of protein synthesis. Here we show that in vitro glucosylation of yeast and mouse eEF1A by Lgt3 in the presence of the factors Phe-tRNAPhe and GTP was enhanced 150 and 590-fold...

  9. Aminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorova, Irina; Altman, Roger B.; Djumagulov, Muminjon; Shrestha, Jaya P.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Ferguson, Angelica; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Yusupov, Marat; Blanchard, Scott C.; Yusupova, Gulnara

    2017-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are chemically diverse, broad-spectrum antibiotics that target functional centers within the bacterial ribosome to impact all four principle stages (initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling) of the translation mechanism. The propensity of aminoglycosides to induce miscoding errors that suppress the termination of protein synthesis supports their potential as therapeutic interventions in human diseases associated with premature termination codons (PTCs). However, the sites of interaction of aminoglycosides with the eukaryotic ribosome and their modes of action in eukaryotic translation remain largely unexplored. Here, we use the combination of X-ray crystallography and single-molecule FRET analysis to reveal the interactions of distinct classes of aminoglycosides with the 80S eukaryotic ribosome. Crystal structures of the 80S ribosome in complex with paromomycin, geneticin (G418), gentamicin, and TC007, solved at 3.3- to 3.7-Å resolution, reveal multiple aminoglycoside-binding sites within the large and small subunits, wherein the 6′-hydroxyl substituent in ring I serves as a key determinant of binding to the canonical eukaryotic ribosomal decoding center. Multivalent binding interactions with the human ribosome are also evidenced through their capacity to affect large-scale conformational dynamics within the pretranslocation complex that contribute to multiple aspects of the translation mechanism. The distinct impacts of the aminoglycosides examined suggest that their chemical composition and distinct modes of interaction with the ribosome influence PTC read-through efficiency. These findings provide structural and functional insights into aminoglycoside-induced impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome and implicate pleiotropic mechanisms of action beyond decoding. PMID:29208708

  10. Eukaryotic microorganisms in cold environments. Examples from Pyrenean glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGarcia-Descalzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the viability of eukaryotic microorganisms preserved in icy regions. Here we report on the diversity of microbial eukaryotes in ice samples derived from four Pyrenean glaciers. The species composition of eukaryotic communities in these glaciers is unknown mostly because of the presence of a multi-year ice cap, and it is not clear whether they harbor the same populations. The recent deglaciation of these areas is allowing an easy access to glacial layers that correspond to the Little Ice Age although some isolated deposits are attributed to previous glacial cycles. In this study, we use molecular 18S rRNA-based approaches to characterize some of the microbial eukaryotic populations associated with Pyrenean glaciers. Firstly, we performed a chemical and microscopical characterization of ice samples. Secondly, molecular analyses revealed interesting protist genetic diversity in glaciers. In order to understand the microbial composition of the ice samples the eukaryotic communities resident in the glacial samples were examined by amplifying community DNA and constructing clone libraries with 18S rRNA primers. After removal of potential chimeric sequences and derreplication of identical sequences, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that several different protists could be identified. Protist diversity was more phylum rich in Aneto and Monte Perdido glaciers. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (> 1 % of all sequences were Viridiplantae and Rhizaria. Significant variations in relative abundances of protist phyla between higher and lower glaciers were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Chloromonas, Raphidonema , Heteromita , Koliella and Bodomorpha. In addition, protist community structure showed significant differences between glaciers. The relative abundances of protist groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with the altitude and area of glaciers

  11. Eukaryotic microorganisms in cold environments: examples from Pyrenean glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Descalzo, Laura; García-López, Eva; Postigo, Marina; Baquero, Fernando; Alcazar, Alberto; Cid, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the viability of eukaryotic microorganisms preserved in icy regions. Here we report on the diversity of microbial eukaryotes in ice samples derived from four Pyrenean glaciers. The species composition of eukaryotic communities in these glaciers is unknown mostly because of the presence of a multi-year ice cap, and it is not clear whether they harbor the same populations. The recent deglaciation of these areas is allowing an easy access to glacial layers that correspond to the “Little Ice Age” although some isolated deposits are attributed to previous glacial cycles. In this study, we use molecular 18S rRNA-based approaches to characterize some of the microbial eukaryotic populations associated with Pyrenean glaciers. Firstly, we performed a chemical and microscopical characterization of ice samples. Secondly, molecular analyses revealed interesting protist genetic diversity in glaciers. In order to understand the microbial composition of the ice samples the eukaryotic communities resident in the glacial samples were examined by amplifying community DNA and constructing clone libraries with 18S rRNA primers. After removal of potential chimeric sequences and dereplication of identical sequences, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that several different protists could be identified. Protist diversity was more phylum rich in Aneto and Monte Perdido glaciers. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences) were Viridiplantae and Rhizaria. Significant variations in relative abundances of protist phyla between higher and lower glaciers were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Chloromonas, Raphidonema, Heteromita, Koliella, and Bodomorpha. In addition, protist community structure showed significant differences between glaciers. The relative abundances of protist groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with the altitude and area of glaciers and with pH of

  12. Eukaryotes dominate new production in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, S. E.; Lomas, M. W.; Ward, B. B.; Casey, J. R.; Sigman, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The vast subtropical ocean gyres are considered unproductive “deserts” due to the extremely low concentrations of essential nutrients in their sunlit surface waters. Because of intense upper ocean stratification, phytoplankton growth in the subtropical gyres is limited by the slow supply of nitrate from below, and is assumed to be supported predominantly by “regenerated” nitrogen (N): ammonium and other reduced N sources recycled in surface waters. The phytoplankton assemblage of the subtropical Sargasso Sea is dominated by the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which occur in very high cell numbers compared to the rarer, and usually larger, eukaryotic algae. Coupling flow cytometry and a new high-sensitivity method for N isotope analysis, we measure the 15N/14N of major phytoplankton taxa and other biologically distinct particle populations collected from the surface waters of the Sargasso Sea during the stratified summer period. We find that the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton show distinct N isotope signatures, indicating that they utilize different sources of N for growth. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have a uniformly low 15N/14N, consistent with the expectation that these phytoplankton rely on regenerated N. However, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton is higher and more variable, with a mean 15N/14N comparable to the new nitrate supply from below, indicating that eukaryotes dominate the consumption of this nitrate and rely on it for more than half of their N requirement. Using our measured 15N/14N values for the various sorted autotrophic populations, we calculate eukaryote-specific summer f-ratios of 0.6-0.67 and total community summer f-ratios of 0.15-0.23. These values are higher than those based on comparison of primary production and sediment-trap derived organic carbon (C) export, and agree well with annual f-ratio estimates implied by geochemical tracers. The high 15N/14N of eukaryotic biomass can

  13. Free-floating planets: a viable option for panspermia

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Manterola, Hector Javier

    2010-01-01

    Genomic complexity can be used as a clock with which the moment in which life originated can be measured. Some authors who have studied this problem have come to the conclusion that it is not possible that terrestrial life originated here and that, in reality, life originated giga-years ago, before the solar system existed. If we accept this conclusion there is no other option than to admit that panspermia is something viable.The goal of this study is to propose a viable hypothesis for the tr...

  14. Gene expression profiling in viable but nonculturable (VBNC cells of Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Postnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse crop plants and comprises at least 50 different pathovar strains with different host ranges. More information on the physiological and molecular effects of the host inhibitory environment on the pathogen is needed to develop resistant cultivars. Recently, we reported an in vitro model system that mimics the redox pulse associated with the oxidative burst in plant cells inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Using this system, we demonstrated that oxidation of acetosyringone, a major extracellular phenolic compound induced in some plants in response to bacteria, rendered Pseudomonas syringae. pv. syringae to a viable but nonculturable (VBNC state. Here we performed a large scale transcriptome profiling of P.s.pv. syringae in the VBNC state induced by acetosyringone treatment and identified bacterial genes and pathways presumably associated with this condition. The findings offer insight into what events occur when bacterial pathogens are first encountered and host defense responses are triggered. The acquired knowledge will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance. We believe that this is the first work on global gene expression profiling of VBNC cells in plant pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) Cells of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, Olga A; Shao, Jonathan; Mock, Norton M; Baker, Con J; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse crop plants and comprises at least 50 different pathovar strains with different host ranges. More information on the physiological and molecular effects of the host inhibitory environment on the pathogen is needed to develop resistant cultivars. Recently, we reported an in vitro model system that mimics the redox pulse associated with the oxidative burst in plant cells inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Using this system, we demonstrated that oxidation of acetosyringone, a major extracellular phenolic compound induced in some plants in response to bacteria, rendered Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae to a "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state. Here we performed a large scale transcriptome profiling of P. s. pv. syringae in the VBNC state induced by acetosyringone treatment and identified bacterial genes and pathways presumably associated with this condition. The findings offer insight into what events occur when bacterial pathogens are first encountered and host defense responses are triggered. The acquired knowledge will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance. We believe that this is the first work on global gene expression profiling of VBNC cells in plant pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson T Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or (3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  17. Use of Host-like Peptide Motifs in Viral Proteins Is a Prevalent Strategy in Host-Virus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzachi Hagai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Viruses interact extensively with host proteins, but the mechanisms controlling these interactions are not well understood. We present a comprehensive analysis of eukaryotic linear motifs (ELMs in 2,208 viral genomes and reveal that viruses exploit molecular mimicry of host-like ELMs to possibly assist in host-virus interactions. Using a statistical genomics approach, we identify a large number of potentially functional ELMs and observe that the occurrence of ELMs is often evolutionarily conserved but not uniform across virus families. Some viral proteins contain multiple types of ELMs, in striking similarity to complex regulatory modules in host proteins, suggesting that ELMs may act combinatorially to assist viral replication. Furthermore, a simple evolutionary model suggests that the inherent structural simplicity of ELMs often enables them to tolerate mutations and evolve quickly. Our findings suggest that ELMs may allow fast rewiring of host-virus interactions, which likely assists rapid viral evolution and adaptation to diverse environments.

  18. Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation in Bergville. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... accessibility of Bergville can support tourism development, they are also of the view that rural tourism is a very important, probably the most important, factor for economic development.

  19. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  20. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria: Overview of US and German Local Government Systems. ... The comment suggests a system that will be in tune with the Nigerian local milieu. Key terms: Local government, local administration, one-tier model, two-tier model, hybrid structure, Nigeria ...

  1. RF sputtering: A viable tool for MEMS fabrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RF sputtering: A viable tool for MEMS fabrication. 545 obtain highly c-axis oriented films, which is a requirement for these films to be piezoelectric in nature. In addition to the dielectric films, thin films of Cr, Au, Ti and Pt on silicon or glass substrates, (used for ZnO deposition) were also deposited by RF sputtering process.

  2. Induction and Resuscitation of Viable Nonculturable Arcobacter butzleri Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fera, M. T.; Maugeri, T. L.; Gugliandolo, C.; La Camera, E.; Lentini, V.; Favaloro, A.; Bonanno, D.; Carbone, M.

    2008-01-01

    Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4°C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition. PMID:18378639

  3. Metal ion transport in eukaryotic microorganisms: insights from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, D J

    2000-01-01

    Metal ions such as iron, copper, manganese, and zinc are essential nutrients for all eukaryotic microorganisms. Therefore, these organisms possess efficient uptake mechanisms to obtain these nutrients from their extracellular environment. Metal ions must also be transported into intracellular organelles where they function as catalytic and structural cofactors for compartmentalized enzymes. Thus, intracellular transport mechanisms are also present. When present in high levels, metal ions can also be toxic, so their uptake and intracellular transport is tightly regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels to limit metal ion overaccumulation and facilitate storage and sequestration. Remarkable molecular insight into these processes has come from recent studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism, which is the primary subject of this chapter, serves as a useful paradigm to understand metal ion metabolism in other eukaryotic microbes.

  4. [Advance of heterologous expression study of eukaryote-origin laccases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Tan, Huijun; Sun, Xinxin; Ni, Jinfeng

    2017-04-25

    Laccases are enzymes belonging to the group of multi-copper oxidases. These enzymes are widely distributed in insects, plants, fungi and bacteria. In general, laccases can oxidize an exceptionally high number of substrates, so they have broad applications in textile, pulp, food and the degradation of lignin. However, low yield, low activity and thermo-instability of laccase in nature limit the application of laccase. High efficient heterologous expression of the protein is an effective way for solving this problem. Here, we summarize the research advances of heterologous expression of eukaryote-origin laccases. We focus on the overexpression of eukaryote-origin laccases using different expression system and the method for improving the production yield and enzyme activity in yeast cells. Information provided in this review would be helpful for researchers in the field.

  5. Anionic lipids and the maintenance of membrane electrostatics in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics. In particular, membrane electrostatics specifies the identity of the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Membrane surface charges are carried by anionic phospholipids, however the exact nature of the lipid(s) that powers the plasma membrane electrostatic field varies among eukaryotes and has been hotly debated during the last decade. Herein, we discuss the role of anionic lipids in setting up plasma membrane electrostatics and we compare similarities and differences that were found in different eukaryotic cells.

  6. Starting the protein synthesis machine: eukaryotic translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Thomas; W Hentze, Matthias

    2003-12-01

    The final assembly of the protein synthesis machinery occurs during translation initiation. This delicate process involves both ends of eukaryotic messenger RNAs as well as multiple sequential protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions. As is expected from its critical position in the gene expression pathway between the transcriptome and the proteome, translation initiation is a selective and highly regulated process. This synopsis summarises the current status of the field and identifies intriguing open questions. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Extreme Diversity of Diplonemid Eukaryotes in the Ocean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontova, Olga; Flegontov, Pavel; Malviya, S.; Audic, S.; Wincker, P.; de Vargas, C.; Bowler, C.; Lukeš, Julius; Horák, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 22 (2016), s. 3060-3065 ISSN 0960-9822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP506/12/P931; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : virus-sized particles * microbial eukaryotes * sea-floor * phytoplankton * communities * euglenozoa * dispersal * ecosystem Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 8.851, year: 2016

  8. A selectable bifunctional beta-galactosidase::phleomycin-resistance fusion protein as a potential marker for eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M; Reynes, J P; Stassi, D; Tiraby, G

    1992-05-15

    The Sh ble gene, conferring phleomycin resistance (PhR), was fused in frame to both the 3' and 5' ends of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. The bifunctionality of the resulting 130-kDa hybrid proteins was demonstrated in E. coli and in the fungus, Tolypocladium geodes. PhR transformants of both organisms could be selected for. All transformants from E. coli and most from T. geodes displayed beta Gal activity. In the fungal host, higher transformation frequencies and greater levels of beta Gal activity were observed in clones harboring the lacZ::Sh ble fusion, as compared to the Sh ble::lacZ configuration. This system appears to be a potentially useful tool for the direct selection of transformants, and the evaluation of gene expression and regulation in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts.

  9. Nucleoporin Nup98: a gatekeeper in the eukaryotic kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2010-06-01

    The nucleoporin Nup98 is an essential component of the nuclear pore complex. This peripheral nucleoporin with its Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) repeat domain contributes to nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking, including mRNA export. In addition, accumulating studies indicate that Nup98 plays roles in several important biological events such as gene expression, mitotic checkpoint, and pathogenesis. Nup98 is well conserved among organisms belonging to the fungi and animal kingdoms. These kingdoms belong to the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta. However, there is considerable diversity in the Nup98 orthologs expressed in organisms belonging to other eukaryotic supergroups. Intriguingly, in ciliates, a unicellular organism having two functionally distinct nuclei, GLFG-Nup98 is present in one of the nuclei and a distinct Nup98 ortholog is present in the other nucleus, and these different Nup98s participate in a nucleus-selective transport mechanism. In this review, we focus on Nup98 function and discuss how this nucleoporin has evolved in eukaryotic kingdoms.

  10. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic promoter prediction using hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao; Li, Qian-Zhong

    2011-06-01

    Promoters are modular DNA structures containing complex regulatory elements required for gene transcription initiation. Hence, the identification of promoters using machine learning approach is very important for improving genome annotation and understanding transcriptional regulation. In recent years, many methods have been proposed for the prediction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic promoters. However, the performances of these methods are still far from being satisfactory. In this article, we develop a hybrid approach (called IPMD) that combines position correlation score function and increment of diversity with modified Mahalanobis Discriminant to predict eukaryotic and prokaryotic promoters. By applying the proposed method to Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis promoter sequences, we achieve the sensitivities and specificities of 90.6 and 97.4% for D. melanogaster, 88.1 and 94.1% for H. sapiens, 83.3 and 95.2% for C. elegans, 84.9 and 91.4% for E. coli, as well as 80.4 and 91.3% for B. subtilis. The high accuracies indicate that the IPMD is an efficient method for the identification of eukaryotic and prokaryotic promoters. This approach can also be extended to predict other species promoters.

  11. Eukaryotic transcriptomics in silico: Optimizing cDNA-AFLP efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wüst Christian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary-DNA based amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP is a commonly used tool for assessing the genetic regulation of traits through the correlation of trait expression with cDNA expression profiles. In spite of the frequent application of this method, studies on the optimization of the cDNA-AFLP assay design are rare and have typically been taxonomically restricted. Here, we model cDNA-AFLPs on all 92 eukaryotic species for which cDNA pools are currently available, using all combinations of eight restriction enzymes standard in cDNA-AFLP screens. Results In silco simulations reveal that cDNA pool coverage is largely determined by the choice of individual restriction enzymes and that, through the choice of optimal enzyme combinations, coverage can be increased from Conclusion The insights gained from in silico screening of cDNA-AFLPs from a broad sampling of eukaryotes provide a set of guidelines that should help to substantially increase the efficiency of future cDNA-AFLP experiments in eukaryotes. In silico simulations also suggest a novel use of cDNA-AFLP screens to determine the number of transcripts expressed in a target tissue, an application that should be invaluable as next-generation sequencing technologies are adapted for differential display.

  12. diArk – a resource for eukaryotic genome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmar Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completed eukaryotic genome sequences and cDNA projects has increased exponentially in the past few years although most of them have not been published yet. In addition, many microarray analyses yielded thousands of sequenced EST and cDNA clones. For the researcher interested in single gene analyses (from a phylogenetic, a structural biology or other perspective it is therefore important to have up-to-date knowledge about the various resources providing primary data. Description The database is built around 3 central tables: species, sequencing projects and publications. The species table contains commonly and alternatively used scientific names, common names and the complete taxonomic information. For projects the sequence type and links to species project web-sites and species homepages are stored. All publications are linked to projects. The web-interface provides comprehensive search modules with detailed options and three different views of the selected data. We have especially focused on developing an elaborate taxonomic tree search tool that allows the user to instantaneously identify e.g. the closest relative to the organism of interest. Conclusion We have developed a database, called diArk, to store, organize, and present the most relevant information about completed genome projects and EST/cDNA data from eukaryotes. Currently, diArk provides information about 415 eukaryotes, 823 sequencing projects, and 248 publications.

  13. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

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    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  14. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  15. Viruses comprise an extensive pool of mobile genetic elements in eukaryote cell cultures and human clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thannesberger, Jakob; Hellinger, Hans-Joerg; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Kastner, Marie-Theres; Rieder, Franz J J; Schneider, Martina; Fister, Susanne; Lion, Thomas; Kosulin, Karin; Laengle, Johannes; Bergmann, Michael; Rattei, Thomas; Steininger, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Viruses shape a diversity of ecosystems by modulating their microbial, eukaryotic, or plant host metabolism. The complexity of virus-host interaction networks is progressively fathomed by novel metagenomic approaches. By using a novel metagenomic method, we explored the virome in mammalian cell cultures and clinical samples to identify an extensive pool of mobile genetic elements in all of these ecosystems. Despite aseptic treatment, cell cultures harbored extensive and diverse phage populations with a high abundance of as yet unknown and uncharacterized viruses (viral dark matter). Unknown phages also predominated in the oropharynx and urine of healthy individuals and patients infected with cytomegalovirus despite demonstration of active cytomegalovirus replication. The novelty of viral sequences correlated primarily with the individual evaluated, whereas relative abundance of encoded protein functions was associated with the ecologic niches probed. Together, these observations demonstrate the extensive presence of viral dark matter in human and artificial ecosystems.-Thannesberger, J., Hellinger, H.-J., Klymiuk, I., Kastner, M.-T., Rieder, F. J. J., Schneider, M., Fister, S., Lion, T., Kosulin, K., Laengle, J., Bergmann, M., Rattei, T., Steininger, C. Viruses comprise an extensive pool of mobile genetic elements in eukaryote cell cultures and human clinical samples. © FASEB.

  16. Leucine-Rich repeat receptor kinases are sporadically distributed in eukaryotic genomes

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    Diévart Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs are receptor kinases that contain LRRs in their extracellular domain. In the last 15 years, many research groups have demonstrated major roles played by LRR-RLKs in plants during almost all developmental processes throughout the life of the plant and in defense/resistance against a large range of pathogens. Recently, a breakthrough has been made in this field that challenges the dogma of the specificity of plant LRR-RLKs. Results We analyzed ~1000 complete genomes and show that LRR-RK genes have now been identified in 8 non-plant genomes. We performed an exhaustive phylogenetic analysis of all of these receptors, revealing that all of the LRR-containing receptor subfamilies form lineage-specific clades. Our results suggest that the association of LRRs with RKs appeared independently at least four times in eukaryotic evolutionary history. Moreover, the molecular evolutionary history of the LRR-RKs found in oomycetes is reminiscent of the pattern observed in plants: expansion with amplification/deletion and evolution of the domain organization leading to the functional diversification of members of the gene family. Finally, the expression data suggest that oomycete LRR-RKs may play a role in several stages of the oomycete life cycle. Conclusions In view of the key roles that LRR-RLKs play throughout the entire lifetime of plants and plant-environment interactions, the emergence and expansion of this type of receptor in several phyla along the evolution of eukaryotes, and particularly in oomycete genomes, questions their intrinsic functions in mimicry and/or in the coevolution of receptors between hosts and pathogens.

  17. Origin of phagotrophic eukaryotes as social cheaters in microbial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jékely Gáspár

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of eukaryotic cells was one of the most dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. It is generally assumed that eukaryotes evolved later then prokaryotes by the transformation or fusion of prokaryotic lineages. However, as yet there is no consensus regarding the nature of the prokaryotic group(s ancestral to eukaryotes. Regardless of this, a hardly debatable fundamental novel characteristic of the last eukaryotic common ancestor was the ability to exploit prokaryotic biomass by the ingestion of entire cells, i.e. phagocytosis. The recent advances in our understanding of the social life of prokaryotes may help to explain the origin of this form of total exploitation. Presentation of the hypothesis Here I propose that eukaryotic cells originated in a social environment, a differentiated microbial mat or biofilm that was maintained by the cooperative action of its members. Cooperation was costly (e.g. the production of developmental signals or an extracellular matrix but yielded benefits that increased the overall fitness of the social group. I propose that eukaryotes originated as selfish cheaters that enjoyed the benefits of social aggregation but did not contribute to it themselves. The cheaters later evolved into predators that lysed other cells and eventually became professional phagotrophs. During several cycles of social aggregation and dispersal the number of cheaters was contained by a chicken game situation, i.e. reproductive success of cheaters was high when they were in low abundance but was reduced when they were over-represented. Radical changes in cell structure, including the loss of the rigid prokaryotic cell wall and the development of endomembranes, allowed the protoeukaryotes to avoid cheater control and to exploit nutrients more efficiently. Cellular changes were buffered by both the social benefits and the protective physico-chemical milieu of the interior of biofilms. Symbiosis

  18. Automated tissue dissociation for rapid extraction of viable cells

    OpenAIRE

    McBeth, Christine; Gutermuth, Angela; Ochs, Jelena; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F.

    2017-01-01

    Viable cells from healthy tissues are a rich resource in high demand for many next-generation therapeutics and regenerative medicine applications. Cell extraction from the dense connective matrix of most tissues is a labor-intensive task and high variability makes cGMP compliance difficult. To reduce costs and ensure greater reproducibility, automated tissue dissociators compatible with robotic liquid handling systems are required. Here we demonstrate the utility of our automated tissue disso...

  19. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  20. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  1. Chitinolytic activity in viable spores of encephalitozoon species

    OpenAIRE

    Schottelius,J; Hünger,F; Schüler,Th; Gonçalves da Costa,SC

    2000-01-01

    By employing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-NN',N"-triacetylchitotriose substrate in a semi quantitative assay, chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis was detected and dependence on reaction time, spore concentration, concentration of substrate and temperature were demonstrated. It was possible to block the chitinolytic activity by chitin hydrolysate. By incubation at 80°C for 10 min or at 55°C for 20 min the spores were loosing the chitinolytic ac...

  2. Origin and evolution of the self-organizing cytoskeleton in the network of eukaryotic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jékely, Gáspár

    2014-09-02

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton evolved from prokaryotic cytomotive filaments. Prokaryotic filament systems show bewildering structural and dynamic complexity and, in many aspects, prefigure the self-organizing properties of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Here, the dynamic properties of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoskeleton are compared, and how these relate to function and evolution of organellar networks is discussed. The evolution of new aspects of filament dynamics in eukaryotes, including severing and branching, and the advent of molecular motors converted the eukaryotic cytoskeleton into a self-organizing "active gel," the dynamics of which can only be described with computational models. Advances in modeling and comparative genomics hold promise of a better understanding of the evolution of the self-organizing cytoskeleton in early eukaryotes, and its role in the evolution of novel eukaryotic functions, such as amoeboid motility, mitosis, and ciliary swimming. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Observation on gamma ray induced viable mutations in vegetable cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanasundaram, M.; Thamburaj, S.; Natarajan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties 'Pusa Komal' and 'Co 2' were irradiated with gamma rays at 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy. After mutagenic treatment, M 1 generation was raised. Ten M 1 plants in each treatment and in the control were advanced to M 2 generation. The M 2 seedling progenies were examined for viable mutants. In a population of 3,199 and 3,538 plants in Pusa Komal and Co 2 respectively, a total number of 140 mutants were observed for variation in cotyledonary leaves in the early stage of growth to abberants possessing modified plant structure, leaf morphology, pod size, pod color and seed coat color. In the progeny of Pusa Komal variety, the percentage of viable mutation was the highest at 300 Gy while in Co 2, at 500 Gy. Mutants for plant habit have also been reported in greengram. The data on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency are given. In Pusa Komal, the effectiveness for viable mutation ranged from 4.22 to 12.45 and in Co 2 ranged from 6.60 to 13.35. The effectiveness and efficiency were decreased with increased doses of gamma rays as was also noted for mungbean

  4. Hexavalent chromium removal by viable, granular anaerobic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Hafez; Mulligan, Catherine N; Hadjinicolaou, John

    2008-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium in industrial wastewater is a major concern due to its extreme toxicity. This study investigates the removal of Cr(VI) using viable anaerobic granular biomass as a biosorbent. The effect of Cr(VI) concentration on biogas content and COD removal using batch studies indicated that the phase II (methanogenic-rich) culture was more sensitive than the phase I (acidogenic-rich) culture. Toxicity indices for both cultures using COD removal were developed based on linear-log interpolation. The median inhibition Cr(VI) concentration (IC(50)), for phase II cultures was found to be 263mg/L, while that for phase I cultures was 309mg/L. A sorption study was conducted on viable and non-viable (dried) phase I-rich biomass: both followed the Langmuir model. In addition, the biosorption capacity for metabolically inhibited biomass was 25% less indicating some level of cellular uptake associated with Cr(VI) removal. This study demonstrated the potential for a two-phase anaerobic treatment system for a Cr(VI)-contaminated effluent.

  5. Nuclear techniques in detection of dysfunctional but viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents an assessment of dysfunctional but viable myocardium, which is caused by 'stunned' and 'hibernating' myocardium. 'Stunned' myocardium refers to prolonged but reversible postischemic left ventricular dysfunction after a period of acute ischemia and coronary reperfusion. The regional dysfunction associated with 'stunning' represents the combinated effects of ischemic injury and reperfusion injury. 'Hibernating' myocardium refers to chronic left ventricular regional dysfunction arising from prolonged myocardium hypoperfusion in which myocytes remain viable but contraction is chronically depressed. This may be a protective response of the myocytes to reduce oxygen demand in the setting of reduced oxygen availability. Such nuclear imaging techniques as: thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy and positron emission tomography are employed for evaluation dysfunctional but viable myocardium. For detection of 'stunned' myocardium all of this techniques are equal but sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy is more costless. For detection 'hibernating' myocardium the best sensitivity and specificity show positron emission tomography and thallium-201 reinjection imaging but sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy is also useful for this reason. (author)

  6. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham

    2016-01-01

    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Challenges in Whole-Genome Annotation of Pyrosequenced Eukaryotic Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-04-17

    Pyrosequencing technologies such as 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina vastly lower the cost of nucleotide sequencing compared to the traditional Sanger method, and thus promise to greatly expand the number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. However, the new technologies also bring new challenges such as shorter reads and new kinds and higher rates of sequencing errors, which complicate genome assembly and gene prediction. At JGI we are deploying 454 technology for the sequencing and assembly of ever-larger eukaryotic genomes. Here we describe our first whole-genome annotation of a purely 454-sequenced fungal genome that is larger than a yeast (>30 Mbp). The pezizomycotine (filamentous ascomycote) Aspergillus carbonarius belongs to the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex, members of which are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as agricultural toxigens. Application of a modified version of the standard JGI Annotation Pipeline has so far predicted ~;;10k genes. ~;;12percent of these preliminary annotations suffer a potential frameshift error, which is somewhat higher than the ~;;9percent rate in the Sanger-sequenced and conventionally assembled and annotated genome of fellow Aspergillus section Nigri member A. niger. Also,>90percent of A. niger genes have potential homologs in the A. carbonarius preliminary annotation. Weconclude, and with further annotation and comparative analysis expect to confirm, that 454 sequencing strategies provide a promising substrate for annotation of modestly sized eukaryotic genomes. We will also present results of annotation of a number of other pyrosequenced fungal genomes of bioenergy interest.

  8. Interaction of Low Temperature Plasmas with Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2008-10-01

    Due to promising possibilities for their use in medical applications such as wound healing, surface modification of biocompatible materials, and the sterilization of reusable heat-sensitive medical instruments, low temperature plasmas and plasma jets are making big strides as a technology that can potentially be used in medicine^1-2. At this stage of research, fundamental questions about the effects of plasma on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are still not completely answered. An in-depth understanding of the pathway whereby cold plasma interact with biological cells is necessary before real applications can emerge. In this paper, first an overview of non-equilibrium plasma sources (both low and high pressures) will be presented. Secondly, the effects of plasma on bacterial cells will be discussed. Here, the roles of the various plasma agents in the inactivation process will be outlined. In particular, the effects of UV and that of various reactive species (O3, O, OH) are highlighted. Thirdly, preliminary findings on the effects of plasma on few types of eukaryotic cells will be presented. How plasma affects eukaryotic cells, such as mammalian cells, is very important in applications where the viability/preservation of the cells could be an issue (such as in wound treatment). Another interesting aspect is the triggering of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some investigators have claimed that plasma is able to induce apoptosis in some types of cancer cells. If successfully replicated, this can open up a novel method of cancer treatment. In this talk however, I will briefly focus more on the wound healing potential of cold plasmas. ^1E. A. Blakely, K. A. Bjornstad, J. E. Galvin, O. R. Monteiro, and I. G. Brown, ``Selective Neuron Growth on Ion Implanted and Plasma Deposited Surfaces'', In Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Plasma Sci., (2002), p. 253. ^2M. Laroussi, ``Non-thermal Decontamination of Biological Media by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas: Review, Analysis, and

  9. Comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Anireddy SN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinesins, a superfamily of molecular motors, use microtubules as tracks and transport diverse cellular cargoes. All kinesins contain a highly conserved ~350 amino acid motor domain. Previous analysis of the completed genome sequence of one flowering plant (Arabidopsis has resulted in identification of 61 kinesins. The recent completion of genome sequencing of several photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes that belong to divergent lineages offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in plant and non-plant systems and infer their evolutionary relationships. Results We used the kinesin motor domain to identify kinesins in the completed genome sequences of 19 species, including 13 newly sequenced genomes. Among the newly analyzed genomes, six represent photosynthetic eukaryotes. A total of 529 kinesins was used to perform comprehensive analysis of kinesins and to construct gene trees using the Bayesian and parsimony approaches. The previously recognized 14 families of kinesins are resolved as distinct lineages in our inferred gene tree. At least three of the 14 kinesin families are not represented in flowering plants. Chlamydomonas, a green alga that is part of the lineage that includes land plants, has at least nine of the 14 known kinesin families. Seven of ten families present in flowering plants are represented in Chlamydomonas, indicating that these families were retained in both the flowering-plant and green algae lineages. Conclusion The increase in the number of kinesins in flowering plants is due to vast expansion of the Kinesin-14 and Kinesin-7 families. The Kinesin-14 family, which typically contains a C-terminal motor, has many plant kinesins that have the motor domain at the N terminus, in the middle, or the C terminus. Several domains in kinesins are present exclusively either in plant or animal lineages. Addition of novel domains to kinesins in lineage

  10. Automatic generation of gene finders for eukaryotic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background The number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes is rapidly increasing. This means that over time it will be hard to keep supplying customised gene finders for each genome. This calls for procedures to automatically generate species-specific gene finders and to re-train them as the quantity...... length distributions. The performance of each individual gene predictor on each individual genome is comparable to the best of the manually optimised species-specific gene finders. It is shown that species-specific gene finders are superior to gene finders trained on other species....

  11. Rationales and Approaches for Studying Metabolism in Eukaryotic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Veyel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of efficient production strains is essential for the use of eukaryotic microalgae for biofuel production. Systems biology approaches including metabolite profiling on promising microalgal strains, will provide a better understanding of their metabolic networks, which is crucial for metabolic engineering efforts. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii represents a suited model system for this purpose. We give an overview to genetically amenable microalgal strains with the potential for biofuel production and provide a critical review of currently used protocols for metabolite profiling on Chlamydomonas. We provide our own experimental data to underpin the validity of the conclusions drawn.

  12. Geminin: a major DNA replication safeguard in higher eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, Marina; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved multiple mechanisms to restrict DNA replication to once per cell cycle. These mechanisms prevent relicensing of origins of replication after initiation of DNA replication in S phase until the end of mitosis. Most of our knowledge of mechanisms controlling prereplication...... complex (preRC) formation are based on studies from yeast and Xenopus, while much less is known for mammalian cells. Here we discuss our recent data demonstrating that Geminin is required for preventing rereplication in human normal and cancer cells....

  13. Localization of checkpoint and repair proteins in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the cellular response to DNA damage depends on the type of DNA structure being recognized by the checkpoint and repair machinery. DNA ends and single-stranded DNA are hallmarks of double-strand breaks and replication stress. These two structures are recognized by distinct sets...... of proteins, which are reorganized into a focal assembly at the lesion. Moreover, the composition of these foci is coordinated with cell cycle progression, reflecting the favoring of end-joining in the G1 phase and homologous recombination in S and G2. The assembly of proteins at sites of DNA damage...... focusing on budding yeast and mammalian cells....

  14. DNA resection in eukaryotes: deciding how to fix the break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by different mechanisms, including homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining. DNA-end resection, the first step in recombination, is a key step that contributes to the choice of DSB repair. Resection, an evolutionarily conserved process that generates single-stranded DNA, is linked to checkpoint activation and is critical for survival. Failure to regulate and execute this process results in defective recombination and can contribute to human disease. Here I review recent findings on the mechanisms of resection in eukaryotes, from yeast to vertebrates, provide insights into the regulatory strategies that control it, and highlight the consequences of both its impairment and its deregulation.

  15. Recent progress in understanding host immune response to Avian Coccidiosis: Th1 and Th17 responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-pathogen interaction leading to protection against coccidiosis is complex, involving many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity to intracellular parasites. The etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis is Eimeria, a genus of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Apico...

  16. Strategies for the production of difficult-to-express full-length eukaryotic proteins using microbial cell factories: production of human alpha-galactosidase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Vázquez, Felicitas; Accardi, Giulia; Mendoza, Rosa; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Giuliani, Maria; Sannino, Filomena; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Abasolo, Ibane; Schwartz, Simo; Tutino, Maria L; Villaverde, Antonio; Corchero, José L; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining high levels of pure proteins remains the main bottleneck of many scientific and biotechnological studies. Among all the available recombinant expression systems, Escherichia coli facilitates gene expression by its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast cultivation, well-known genetics and the large number of tools available for its biotechnological application. However, recombinant expression in E. coli is not always a straightforward procedure and major obstacles are encountered when producing many eukaryotic proteins and especially membrane proteins, linked to missing posttranslational modifications, proteolysis and aggregation. In this context, many conventional and unconventional eukaryotic hosts are under exploration and development, but in some cases linked to complex culture media or processes. In this context, alternative bacterial systems able to overcome some of the limitations posed by E. coli keeping the simplicity of prokaryotic manipulation are currently emerging as convenient hosts for protein production. We have comparatively produced a "difficult-to-express" human protein, the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (hGLA) in E. coli and in the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 cells (P. haloplanktis TAC125). While in E. coli the production of active hGLA was unreachable due to proteolytic instability and/or protein misfolding, the expression of hGLA gene in P. haloplanktis TAC125 allows obtaining active enzyme. These results are discussed in the context of emerging bacterial systems for protein production that represent appealing alternatives to the regular use of E. coli and also of more complex eukaryotic systems.

  17. A possible mechanism for exonuclease 1-independent eukaryotic mismatch repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, Farid A.; Genschel, Jochen; Fang, Yanan; Penland, Elisabeth; Edelmann, Winfried; Modrich, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Mismatch repair contributes to genetic stability, and inactivation of the mammalian pathway leads to tumor development. Mismatch correction occurs by an excision-repair mechanism and has been shown to depend on the 5′ to 3′ hydrolytic activity exonuclease 1 (Exo1) in eukaryotic cells. However, genetic and biochemical studies have indicated that one or more Exo1-independent modes of mismatch repair also exist. We have analyzed repair of nicked circular heteroduplex DNA in extracts of Exo1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cells. Exo1-independent repair under these conditions is MutLα-dependent and requires functional integrity of the MutLα endonuclease metal-binding motif. In contrast to the Exo1-dependent reaction, we have been unable to detect a gapped excision intermediate in Exo1-deficient extracts when repair DNA synthesis is blocked. A possible explanation for this finding has been provided by analysis of a purified system comprised of MutSα, MutLα, replication factor C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, replication protein A, and DNA polymerase δ that supports Exo1-independent repair in vitro. Repair in this system depends on MutLα incision of the nicked heteroduplex strand and dNTP-dependent synthesis-driven displacement of a DNA segment spanning the mismatch. Such a mechanism may account, at least in part, for the Exo1-independent repair that occurs in eukaryotic cells, and hence the modest cancer predisposition of Exo1-deficient mammalian cells. PMID:19420220

  18. Eukaryotic snoRNAs: a paradigm for gene expression flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieci, Giorgio; Preti, Milena; Montanini, Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are one of the most ancient and numerous families of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The main function of snoRNAs - to guide site-specific rRNA modification - is the same in Archaea and all eukaryotic lineages. In contrast, as revealed by recent genomic and RNomic studies, their genomic organization and expression strategies are the most varied. Seemingly snoRNA coding units have adopted, in the course of evolution, all the possible ways of being transcribed, thus providing a unique paradigm of gene expression flexibility. By focusing on representative fungal, plant and animal genomes, we review here all the documented types of snoRNA gene organization and expression, and we provide a comprehensive account of snoRNA expressional freedom by precisely estimating the frequency, in each genome, of each type of genomic organization. We finally discuss the relevance of snoRNA genomic studies for our general understanding of ncRNA family evolution and expression in eukaryotes.

  19. Generic eukaryotic core promoter prediction using structural features of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeel, Thomas; Saeys, Yvan; Bonnet, Eric; Rouzé, Pierre; Van de Peer, Yves

    2008-02-01

    Despite many recent efforts, in silico identification of promoter regions is still in its infancy. However, the accurate identification and delineation of promoter regions is important for several reasons, such as improving genome annotation and devising experiments to study and understand transcriptional regulation. Current methods to identify the core region of promoters require large amounts of high-quality training data and often behave like black box models that output predictions that are difficult to interpret. Here, we present a novel approach for predicting promoters in whole-genome sequences by using large-scale structural properties of DNA. Our technique requires no training, is applicable to many eukaryotic genomes, and performs extremely well in comparison with the best available promoter prediction programs. Moreover, it is fast, simple in design, and has no size constraints, and the results are easily interpretable. We compared our approach with 14 current state-of-the-art implementations using human gene and transcription start site data and analyzed the ENCODE region in more detail. We also validated our method on 12 additional eukaryotic genomes, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi, and protists.

  20. Characterization of an eukaryotic peptide deformylase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchi-Ricard, V; Nguyen, K T; Zhou, Y; Rajagopalan, P T; Chakrabarti, D; Pei, D

    2001-12-15

    Ribosomal protein synthesis in eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles initiates with an N-formylmethionyl-tRNA(i), resulting in N-terminal formylation of all nascent polypeptides. Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the subsequent removal of the N-terminal formyl group from the majority of bacterial proteins. Until recently, PDF has been thought as an enzyme unique to the bacterial kingdom. Searches of the genomic DNA databases identified several genes that encode proteins of high sequence homology to bacterial PDF from eukaryotic organisms. The cDNA encoding Plasmodium falciparum PDF (PfPDF) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein is catalytically active in deformylating N-formylated peptides, shares many of the properties of bacterial PDF, and is inhibited by specific PDF inhibitors. Western blot analysis indicated expression of mature PfPDF in trophozoite, schizont, and segmenter stages of intraerythrocytic development. These results provide strong evidence that a functional PDF is present in P. falciparum. In addition, PDF inhibitors inhibited the growth of P. falciparum in the intraerythrocytic culture. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  1. Eukaryotic Replisome Components Cooperate to Process Histones During Chromosome Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Foltman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA unwinding at eukaryotic replication forks displaces parental histones, which must be redeposited onto nascent DNA in order to preserve chromatin structure. By screening systematically for replisome components that pick up histones released from chromatin into a yeast cell extract, we found that the Mcm2 helicase subunit binds histones cooperatively with the FACT (facilitiates chromatin transcription complex, which helps to re-establish chromatin during transcription. FACT does not associate with the Mcm2-7 helicase at replication origins during G1 phase but is subsequently incorporated into the replisome progression complex independently of histone binding and uniquely among histone chaperones. The amino terminal tail of Mcm2 binds histones via a conserved motif that is dispensable for DNA synthesis per se but helps preserve subtelomeric chromatin, retain the 2 micron minichromosome, and support growth in the absence of Ctf18-RFC. Our data indicate that the eukaryotic replication and transcription machineries use analogous assemblies of multiple chaperones to preserve chromatin integrity.

  2. Marine biofilm bacteria evade eukaryotic predation by targeted chemical defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Matz

    Full Text Available Many plants and animals are defended from predation or herbivory by inhibitory secondary metabolites, which in the marine environment are very common among sessile organisms. Among bacteria, where there is the greatest metabolic potential, little is known about chemical defenses against bacterivorous consumers. An emerging hypothesis is that sessile bacterial communities organized as biofilms serve as bacterial refuge from predation. By testing growth and survival of two common bacterivorous nanoflagellates, we find evidence that chemically mediated resistance against protozoan predators is common among biofilm populations in a diverse set of marine bacteria. Using bioassay-guided chemical and genetic analysis, we identified one of the most effective antiprotozoal compounds as violacein, an alkaloid that we demonstrate is produced predominately within biofilm cells. Nanomolar concentrations of violacein inhibit protozoan feeding by inducing a conserved eukaryotic cell death program. Such biofilm-specific chemical defenses could contribute to the successful persistence of biofilm bacteria in various environments and provide the ecological and evolutionary context for a number of eukaryote-targeting bacterial metabolites.

  3. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  4. Chitinolytic activity in viable spores of encephalitozoon species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Schottelius

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By employing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-NN',N"-triacetylchitotriose substrate in a semi quantitative assay, chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis was detected and dependence on reaction time, spore concentration, concentration of substrate and temperature were demonstrated. It was possible to block the chitinolytic activity by chitin hydrolysate. By incubation at 80°C for 10 min or at 55°C for 20 min the spores were loosing the chitinolytic activity. Incubation of the spores in trypsin reduced the chitinolytic activity. Cellulase activity could not be detected.

  5. Chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottelius, J; Hünger, F; Schüler, T; Gonçalves da Costa, S C

    2000-01-01

    By employing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-NN',N"-triacetylchitotriose substrate in a semi quantitative assay, chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis was detected and dependence on reaction time, spore concentration, concentration of substrate and temperature were demonstrated. It was possible to block the chitinolytic activity by chitin hydrolysate. By incubation at 80 degrees C for 10 min or at 55 degrees C for 20 min the spores were loosing the chitinolytic activity. Incubation of the spores in trypsin reduced the chitinolytic activity. Cellulase activity could not be detected.

  6. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  7. Viral Mimicry to Usurp Ubiquitin and SUMO Host Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wimmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins include enzymatic changes by covalent addition of cellular regulatory determinants such as ubiquitin (Ub and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO moieties. These modifications are widely used by eukaryotic cells to control the functional repertoire of proteins. Over the last decade, it became apparent that the repertoire of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation regulating various biological functions is not restricted to eukaryotic cells, but is also a feature of human virus families, used to extensively exploit complex host-cell networks and homeostasis. Intriguingly, besides binding to host SUMO/Ub control proteins and interfering with the respective enzymatic cascade, many viral proteins mimic key regulatory factors to usurp this host machinery and promote efficient viral outcomes. Advanced detection methods and functional studies of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation during virus-host interplay have revealed that human viruses have evolved a large arsenal of strategies to exploit these specific PTM processes. In this review, we highlight the known viral analogs orchestrating ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation events to subvert and utilize basic enzymatic pathways.

  8. Cosmological constraints and comparison of viable f (R ) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Judit; Nesseris, Savvas

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present cosmological constraints on several well-known f (R ) models, but also on a new class of models that are variants of the Hu-Sawicki one of the form f (R )=R -2/Λ 1 +b y (R ,Λ ) , that interpolate between the cosmological constant model and a matter dominated universe for different values of the parameter b , which is usually expected to be small for viable models and which in practice measures the deviation from general relativity. We use the latest growth rate, cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae type Ia and Hubble parameter data to place stringent constraints on the models and to compare them to the cosmological constant model but also other viable f (R ) models such as the Starobinsky or the degenerate hypergeometric models. We find that these kinds of Hu-Sawicki variant parametrizations are in general compatible with the currently available data and can provide useful toy models to explore the available functional space of f (R ) models, something very useful with the current and upcoming surveys that will test deviations from general relativity.

  9. Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included [methyl- 3 H] thymidine or [U- 14 C] glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate

  10. The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Pauline D; Stensvold, Christen R; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Heilig, Hans G H J; De Vos, Willem M; O'Toole, Paul W; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    To date, the majority of research into the human gut microbiota has focused on the bacterial fraction of the community. Inevitably, this has resulted in a poor understanding of the diversity and functionality of other intestinal microorganisms in the human gut. One such nonbacterial member is the microbial eukaryote Blastocystis, which has been implicated in the aetiology of a range of different intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. However, prevalence data from different studies are conflicting, and crucially, there is limited information on its incidence and diversity in healthy individuals. Here, we survey the prevalence, genetic diversity and temporal stability of Blastocystis in a group of healthy adults (n = 105) using a sensitive PCR assay. Blastocystis was present in 56% of our sample set, which is much higher than previously reported from an industrialised county (Ireland). Moreover, a diversity of different subtypes (species) were detected, and Blastocystis was present in a subset of individuals sampled over a period of time between 6 and 10 years, indicating that it is capable of long-term host colonisation. These results show that Blastocystis is a common and diverse member of the healthy gut microbiota, thereby extending our knowledge of the microbial ecology of the healthy human intestine. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HSV usurps eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit M for viral protein translation: novel prevention target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cheshenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of genital herpes is a global health priority. B5, a recently identified ubiquitous human protein, was proposed as a candidate HSV entry receptor. The current studies explored its role in HSV infection. Viral plaque formation was reduced by approximately 90% in human cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting B5 or nectin-1, an established entry receptor. However, the mechanisms were distinct. Silencing of nectin-1 prevented intracellular delivery of viral capsids, nuclear transport of a viral tegument protein, and release of calcium stores required for entry. In contrast, B5 silencing had no effect on these markers of entry, but inhibited viral protein translation. Specifically, viral immediate early genes, ICP0 and ICP4, were transcribed, polyadenylated and transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but the viral transcripts did not associate with ribosomes or polysomes in B5-silenced cells. In contrast, immediate early gene viral transcripts were detected in polysome fractions isolated from control cells. These findings are consistent with sequencing studies demonstrating that B5 is eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit m (eIF3m. Although B5 silencing altered the polysome profile of cells, silencing had little effect on cellular RNA or protein expression and was not cytotoxic, suggesting that this subunit is not essential for host cellular protein synthesis. Together these results demonstrate that B5 plays a major role in the initiation of HSV protein translation and could provide a novel target for strategies to prevent primary and recurrent herpetic disease.

  12. Robots, pipelines, polyproteins: enabling multiprotein expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayachandran, Lakshmi Sumitra; Viola, Cristina; Garzoni, Frederic; Trowitzsch, Simon; Bieniossek, Christoph; Chaillet, Maxime; Schaffitzel, Christiane; Busso, Didier; Romier, Christophe; Poterszman, Arnaud; Richmond, Timothy J; Berger, Imre

    2011-08-01

    Multiprotein complexes catalyze vital biological functions in the cell. A paramount objective of the SPINE2 project was to address the structural molecular biology of these multiprotein complexes, by enlisting and developing enabling technologies for their study. An emerging key prerequisite for studying complex biological specimens is their recombinant overproduction. Novel reagents and streamlined protocols for rapidly assembling co-expression constructs for this purpose have been designed and validated. The high-throughput pipeline implemented at IGBMC Strasbourg and the ACEMBL platform at the EMBL Grenoble utilize recombinant overexpression systems for heterologous expression of proteins and their complexes. Extension of the ACEMBL platform technology to include eukaryotic hosts such as insect and mammalian cells has been achieved. Efficient production of large multicomponent protein complexes for structural studies using the baculovirus/insect cell system can be hampered by a stoichiometric imbalance of the subunits produced. A polyprotein strategy has been developed to overcome this bottleneck and has been successfully implemented in our MultiBac baculovirus expression system for producing multiprotein complexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane vesicle release in bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea: a conserved yet underappreciated aspect of microbial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Brooke L; Cookson, Brad T

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of microbes with their environment depends on features of the dynamic microbial surface throughout cell growth and division. Surface modifications, whether used to acquire nutrients, defend against other microbes, or resist the pressures of a host immune system, facilitate adaptation to unique surroundings. The release of bioactive membrane vesicles (MVs) from the cell surface is conserved across microbial life, in bacteria, archaea, fungi, and parasites. MV production occurs not only in vitro but also in vivo during infection, underscoring the influence of these surface organelles in microbial physiology and pathogenesis through delivery of enzymes, toxins, communication signals, and antigens recognized by the innate and adaptive immune systems. Derived from a variety of organisms that span kingdoms of life and called by several names (membrane vesicles, outer membrane vesicles [OMVs], exosomes, shedding microvesicles, etc.), the conserved functions and mechanistic strategies of MV release are similar, including the use of ESCRT proteins and ESCRT protein homologues to facilitate these processes in archaea and eukaryotic microbes. Although forms of MV release by different organisms share similar visual, mechanistic, and functional features, there has been little comparison across microbial life. This underappreciated conservation of vesicle release, and the resulting functional impact throughout the tree of life, explored in this review, stresses the importance of vesicle-mediated processes throughout biology.

  14. UVB-irradiated apoptotic cells induce accelerated growth of co-implanted viable tumor cells in immune competent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Schorn, Christine; Maueröder, Christian; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Gaipl, Udo; Schett, Georg; Berens, Christian; Frey, Benjamin; Munoz, Luis E

    2013-08-01

    The presence of a solid tumor is the result of a complex balance between rejection, tolerance and regeneration in which the interactions of tumor cells with cells of the host immune system contribute strongly to the final outcome. Here we report on a model where lethally UVB-irradiated cells cause accelerated growth of viable tumor cells in vitro and in allogeneic immune competent mice. UVB-irradiated tumor cells alone did not form tumors and failed to induce tolerance for a second challenge with the same allogeneic tumor. Our data show an important role for dying cells in promoting accelerated tumor cell growth of a small number of viable tumor cells in a large inoculum of UVB-irradiated tumor cells. This occurs when viable and dying/dead tumor cells are in close proximity, suggesting that mobile factors contribute to growth promotion. The anti-inflammatory and growth promoting properties of apoptotic cells are based on several independent effects. UVB-irradiated apoptotic cells directly release a growth promoting activity and clearance by macrophages of apoptotic cells is accompanied by the secretion of IL10, TGFß, and PGE2. Growth promotion is even observed with dying heterologous cells implying a conserved mechanism. Future experiments should focus on the effects of dying tumor cells generated in vivo on the outgrowth of surviving tumor cells which is prone to have implications for cancer therapy.

  15. Biological processing of dinuclear ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Heimann, Kirsten; Dinh, Xuyen Thi; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2016-10-20

    The biological processing - mechanism of cellular uptake, effects on the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes, intracellular sites of localisation and induction of reactive oxygen species - of two dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes has been examined in three eukaryotic cells lines. Flow cytometry was used to determine the uptake of [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bb12}](4+) (Rubb12) and [Ru(phen)2(μ-bb7)Ru(tpy)Cl](3+) {Rubb7-Cl, where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bbn = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane} in baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results demonstrated that the major uptake mechanism for Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl was active transport, although with a significant contribution from carrier-assisted diffusion for Rubb12 and passive diffusion for Rubb7-Cl. Flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V/TO-PRO-3 double-staining was used to compare cell death by membrane damage or apoptosis. Rubb12 induced significant direct membrane damage, particularly with HepG2 cells, while Rubb7-Cl caused considerably less membrane damage but induced greater levels of apoptosis. Confocal microscopy, coupled with JC-1 assays, demonstrated that Rubb12 depolarises the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Rubb7-Cl had a much smaller affect. Cellular localisation experiments indicated that Rubb12 did not accumulate in the mitochondria, whereas significant mitochondrial accumulation was observed for Rubb7-Cl. The effect of Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity showed that the ruthenium complexes could induce cell death via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. The results of this study demonstrate that Rubb12 predominantly kills eukaryotic cells by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. As this dinuclear ruthenium complex has been previously shown to exhibit greater toxicity towards bacteria than eukaryotic cells, the results of the present study suggest that

  16. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. METHODS In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. RESULTS Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1- fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity CONCLUSIONS Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  17. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  18. Current Perspectives of Telomerase Structure and Function in Eukaryotes with Emerging Views on Telomerase in Human Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Kausik

    2018-01-24

    Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host. Although telomerase is key to unlimited cellular proliferation in both cases, not much was known about the role of telomerase in human parasites (malaria, Trypanosoma , etc.) until recently. Since telomerase regulation is mediated via its own structural components, interactions with catalytic reverse transcriptase and several factors that can recruit and assemble telomerase to telomeres in a cell cycle-dependent manner, we compare and discuss here recent findings in telomerase biology in cancer, aging and parasitic diseases to give a broader perspective of telomerase function in human diseases.

  19. Re-evaluating the green versus red signal in eukaryotes with secondary plastid of red algal origin

    KAUST Repository

    Burki, Fabien

    2012-05-16

    The transition from endosymbiont to organelle in eukaryotic cells involves the transfer of significant numbers of genes to the host genomes, a process known as endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). In the case of plastid organelles, EGTs have been shown to leave a footprint in the nuclear genome that can be indicative of ancient photosynthetic activity in present-day plastid-lacking organisms, or even hint at the existence of cryptic plastids. Here,we evaluated the impact of EGTon eukaryote genomes by reanalyzing the recently published EST dataset for Chromera velia, an interesting test case of a photosynthetic alga closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Previously, 513 genes were reported to originate from red and green algae in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, by manually inspecting newly generated trees indicating putative algal ancestry, we recovered only 51 genes congruent with EGT, of which 23 and 9 were of red and green algal origin, respectively,whereas 19 were ambiguous regarding the algal provenance.Our approach also uncovered 109 genes that branched within a monocot angiosperm clade, most likely representing a contamination. We emphasize the lack of congruence and the subjectivity resulting from independent phylogenomic screens for EGT, which appear to call for extreme caution when drawing conclusions for major evolutionary events. 2012 The Author(s).

  20. An Interactive Exercise To Learn Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Organelle Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klionsky, Daniel J.; Tomashek, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cooperative, interactive problem-solving exercise for studying eukaryotic cell structure and function. Highlights the dynamic aspects of movement through the cell. Contains 15 references. (WRM)

  1. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  2. Eukaryotic Mismatch Repair in Relation to DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Dorothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Three processes act in series to accurately replicate the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The major replicative DNA polymerases strongly prevent mismatch formation, occasional mismatches that do form are proofread during replication, and rare mismatches that escape proofreading are corrected by mismatch repair (MMR). This review focuses on MMR in light of increasing knowledge about nuclear DNA replication enzymology and the rate and specificity with which mismatches are generated during leading- and lagging-strand replication. We consider differences in MMR efficiency in relation to mismatch recognition, signaling to direct MMR to the nascent strand, mismatch removal, and the timing of MMR. These studies are refining our understanding of relationships between generating and repairing replication errors to achieve accurate replication of both DNA strands of the nuclear genome. PMID:26436461

  3. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial communities during microalgal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Hulatt, Chris J; Wakeman, Kathryn D; Thomas, David N; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2012-11-01

    Eukaryotic and bacterial communities were characterized and quantified in microalgal photobioreactor cultures of freshwater Chlorella vulgaris and marine Dunaliella tertiolecta. The microalgae exhibited good growth, whilst both cultures contained diverse bacterial communities. Both cultures included Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, while C. vulgaris cultures also contained Actinobacteria. The bacterial genera present in the cultures were different due to different growth medium salinities and possibly different extracellular products. Bacterial community profiles were relatively stable in D. tertiolecta cultures but not in C. vulgaris cultures likely due to presence of ciliates (Colpoda sp.) in the latter. The presence of ciliates did not, however, cause decrease in total number of C. vulgaris or bacteria during 14 days of cultivation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) reliably showed relative microalgal and bacterial cell numbers in the batch cultures with stable microbial communities, but was not effective when bacterial communities varied. Raw culture samples were successfully used as qPCR templates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pi sensing and signalling: from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wanjun; Baldwin, Stephen A; Muench, Stephen P; Baker, Alison

    2016-06-15

    Phosphorus is one of the most important macronutrients and is indispensable for all organisms as a critical structural component as well as participating in intracellular signalling and energy metabolism. Sensing and signalling of phosphate (Pi) has been extensively studied and is well understood in single-cellular organisms like bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In comparison, the mechanism of Pi regulation in plants is less well understood despite recent advances in this area. In most soils the available Pi limits crop yield, therefore a clearer understanding of the molecular basis underlying Pi sensing and signalling is of great importance for the development of plants with improved Pi use efficiency. This mini-review compares some of the main Pi regulation pathways in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and identifies similarities and differences among different organisms, as well as providing some insight into future research. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Eukaryotic promoter prediction based on relative entropy and positional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuanhu; Xie, Xudong; Liew, Alan Wee-Chung; Yan, Hong

    2007-04-01

    The eukaryotic promoter prediction is one of the most important problems in DNA sequence analysis, but also a very difficult one. Although a number of algorithms have been proposed, their performances are still limited by low sensitivities and high false positives. We present a method for improving the performance of promoter regions prediction. We focus on the selection of most effective features for different functional regions in DNA sequences. Our feature selection algorithm is based on relative entropy or Kullback-Leibler divergence, and a system combined with position-specific information for promoter regions prediction is developed. The results of testing on large genomic sequences and comparisons with the PromoterInspector and Dragon Promoter Finder show that our algorithm is efficient with higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting promoter regions.

  6. Substrate protein recognition mechanism of archaeal and eukaryotic chaperonins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pooja; Jayasinghe, Manori; Stan, George

    2009-03-01

    Chaperonins are double ring-shaped biological nanomachines that assist protein folding. Spectacular conformational changes take place within each chaperonin ring using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. These changes result in transitions from the open to the closed ring. Substrate proteins bind to the open ring and are encapsulated within the closed ring cavity. We focus on the substrate protein recognition mechanism of archaeal and eukaryotic chaperonins. We predict substrate protein binding sites using structural and bioinformatic analyses of functional states during the chaperonin cycle. Based on large changes in solvent accessible surface area and contact maps we glean the functional role of chaperonin amino acids. During the transition between open to closed chaperonin ring, the largest change in accessible surface area of amino acids is found in helical protrusion and two helices located at the cavity opening. Our calculations suggest that the helical protrusion and two helices constitute the substrate protein binding site.

  7. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W; Tinberg, Christine E; Mandell, Daniel J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Chari, Raj; Morey, Kevin J; Rios, Xavier; Medford, June I; Church, George M; Fields, Stanley; Baker, David

    2015-12-29

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activates transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. This work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.

  8. Crystal structures of two eukaryotic nucleases involved in RNA metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Midtgaard, Søren Fuglsang; Van, Lan Bich

    specific transcripts. Here, we present the crystal structure of the S. pombe Pop2p protein to 1.4 Å resolution. The high resolution structure provides a clear picture of the active site architecture. Structural alignment of single nucleotides and poly(A)-oligonucleotides from earlier co-crystal structures...... form the 3'-end of mRNA, is normally the first and also rate-limiting step in cellular mRNA degradation and therefore a key process in the control of eukaryotic mRNA turnover. Since Ccr4p is believed to be the main deadenylase the precise role of Pop2p in the complex is less clear. Nevertheless, Pop2p...

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  10. Mechanisms of heat-shock gene activation in higher eukaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, M.; Pelham, H.R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-shock genes are activated under conditions of heat shock or other environmental stresses. This gene activation is rapid and reversible, resulting in a transition from hardly detectable levels of transcription to extremely high transcription rates causing heat-shock proteins (HSP) to accumulate to high levels. In this review, the components of the heat-shock gene activation systems, including the cis-acting elements and the trans-acting factors, are considered. Data on how these components act together to result in transcription activation and how multiple controls are achieved are summarized. Finally, the questions of how the cell detects the environmental stimulus and translates it into gene activation and how the functions of the gene products relate to this process are addressed. The article focuses on heat-shock gene activation in higher eukaryotes. Only those aspects of heat-shock genes and proteins which are relevant to the question of gene activation are included

  11. Polarised asymmetric inheritance of accumulated protein damage in higher eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Rujano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease-associated misfolded proteins or proteins damaged due to cellular stress are generally disposed via the cellular protein quality-control system. However, under saturating conditions, misfolded proteins will aggregate. In higher eukaryotes, these aggregates can be transported to accumulate in aggresomes at the microtubule organizing center. The fate of cells that contain aggresomes is currently unknown. Here we report that cells that have formed aggresomes can undergo normal mitosis. As a result, the aggregated proteins are asymmetrically distributed to one of the daughter cells, leaving the other daughter free of accumulated protein damage. Using both epithelial crypts of the small intestine of patients with a protein folding disease and Drosophila melanogaster neural precursor cells as models, we found that the inheritance of protein aggregates during mitosis occurs with a fixed polarity indicative of a mechanism to preserve the long-lived progeny.

  12. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic contributions to colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Kyle L; McCoy, Kathy D; Wallace, John L

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an important modulator of many aspects of digestive function, both in health and disease. Colonic tissue H(2)S synthesis increases markedly during injury and inflammation and appears to contribute to resolution. Some of the bacteria residing in the colon can also produce H(2)S. The extent to which bacterial H(2)S synthesis contributes to what is measured as colonic H(2)S synthesis is not clear. Using conventional and germ-free mice, we have delineated the eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic contributions to colonic H(2)S synthesis, both in healthy and colitic mice. Colonic tissue H(2)S production is entirely dependent on the presence of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B(6)), while bacterial H(2)S synthesis appears to occur independent of this cofactor. As expected, approximately one-half of the H(2)S produced by feces is derived from eukaryotic cells. While colonic H(2)S synthesis is markedly increased when the tissue is inflamed, and, in proportion to the extent of inflammation, fecal H(2)S synthesis does not change and tissue granulocytes do not appear to be the source of the elevated H(2)S production. Rats fed a B vitamin-deficient diet for 6 wk exhibited significantly diminished colonic H(2)S synthesis, but fecal H(2)S synthesis was not different from that of rats on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that H(2)S production by colonic bacteria does not contribute significantly to what is measured as colonic tissue H(2)S production, using the acetate trapping assay system employed in this study.

  13. Synthesis of eukaryotic lipid biomarkers in the bacterial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, P. V.; Banta, A. B.; Lee, A. K.; Wei, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Lipid biomarkers are organic molecules preserved in sediments and sedimentary rocks that can function as geological proxies for certain microbial taxa or for specific environmental conditions. These molecular fossils provide a link between organisms and their environments in both modern and ancient settings and have afforded significant insight into ancient climatic events, mass extinctions, and various evolutionary transitions throughout Earth's history. However, the proper interpretation of lipid biomarkers is dependent on a broad understanding of their diagenetic precursors in modern systems. This includes understanding the taphonomic transformations that these molecules undergo, their biosynthetic pathways, and the ecological conditions that affect their cellular production. In this study, we focus on one group of lipid biomarkers - the sterols. These are polycyclic isoprenoidal lipids that have a high preservation potential and play a critical role in the physiology of most eukaryotes. However, the synthesis and function of these lipids in the bacterial domain has not been fully explored. Here we utilize a combination of bioinformatics, microbial genetics, and biochemistry to demonstrate that bacterial sterol producers are more prevalent in environmental metagenomic samples than in the genomic databases of cultured organisms and to identify novel proteins required to synthesize and modify sterols in bacteria. These proteins represent a distinct pathway for sterol synthesis exclusive to bacteria and indicate that sterol synthesis in bacteria may have evolved independently of eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate how studies in extant bacteria can provide insight into the biological sources and the biosynthetic pathways of specific lipid biomarkers and in turn may allow for more robust interpretation of biomarker signatures.

  14. Differential Effect of Viable Versus Necrotic Neutrophils on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Cytokine Induction in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Lowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis-lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96 h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells (p < 0.001. Augmentation of blood with viable granulocytes significantly improved control of mycobacteria by 96 h (p = 0.001, but augmentation with necrotic granulocytes had the opposite effect (p = 0.01. Both augmentations decreased supernatant concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL-12 p40/p70, but necrotic granulocyte augmentation also increased concentrations of IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2. Necrotic neutrophil augmentation reduced phagocytosis of FITC-labeled M. bovis BCG by all phagocytes, whereas viable neutrophil augmentation specifically reduced early uptake by CD14+ cells. The immunosuppressive effect of dead neutrophils required necrotic debris rather than supernatant. We conclude that viable neutrophils enhance control of M. tuberculosis in blood, but necrotic neutrophils have the opposite effect—the latter associated with induction of IL-10, growth factors, and chemoattractants. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which necrotic neutrophils may exert detrimental effects on the host response in active tuberculosis.

  15. VALUE OF STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF VIABLE MYOCARDIUM IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    D. N. Perutskiy; T. I. Makeeva; S. L. Konstantinov

    2011-01-01

    The main methods of viable myocardium diagnosis in patients with ischemic heart disease are discussed. Сurrent opportunities of stress echocardiography and tissue Doppler echocardiography in viable myocardium detection are presented.

  16. Predicting the subcellular localization of viral proteins within a mammalian host cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas DY

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioinformatic prediction of protein subcellular localization has been extensively studied for prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, this is not the case for viruses whose proteins are often involved in extensive interactions at various subcellular localizations with host proteins. Results Here, we investigate the extent of utilization of human cellular localization mechanisms by viral proteins and we demonstrate that appropriate eukaryotic subcellular localization predictors can be used to predict viral protein localization within the host cell. Conclusion Such predictions provide a method to rapidly annotate viral proteomes with subcellular localization information. They are likely to have widespread applications both in the study of the functions of viral proteins in the host cell and in the design of antiviral drugs.

  17. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  18. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  19. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  20. ARE COPEPODS VIABLE OPTIONS AS LIVE FOOD IN AQUACULTURE HATCHERIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Iba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This present paper overviews the use of copepods in aquaculture. Some culture methods and nutritional values also described to decide whether copepods are viable and reliable to be used as live food in aquaculture hatcheries. Copepods have been known to have higher nutritional value than Artemia and rotifers. In aquaculture, they have been used to fed various species of marine finfish with better results in terms of growth, larval survival and pigmentation compared to some fish larvae fed on other live feeds. However, culturing copepods in intensive systems to harvest high number of copepods is not well established yet due to lack of funding and knowledge. Meanwhile extensive and semi intensive systems are possible to transfer parasites and diseases from wild environment. Furthermore, nutritional value can not be controlled in such systems.

  1. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond. (invited comment)

  2. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S.; Salah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  3. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  4. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  5. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  6. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  7. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  8. Production of viable homozygous, doubled haploid channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Bosworth, Brian G; Quiniou, Sylvie M A

    2010-08-01

    Production of doubled haploids via mitotic gynogenesis is a useful tool for the creation of completely inbred fish. In order to produce viable doubled haploid channel catfish, we utilized hydrostatic pressure or thermal treatments on eggs fertilized with sperm that had been exposed to ultraviolet light. At 1.5 h post-fertilization, the embryos were exposed to either 590 kg/cm(2) hydrostatic pressure for 3 min, 37 degrees C for 5 min, or 41 degrees C for 3 min. In the pressure-treated group, only 21 offspring hatched from five spawns with family sizes of one, two, two, four, and 12 offspring each. Eight embryos from the 37 degrees C treatment and 32 embryos from the 41 degrees C treatment survived to hatch. Genotype analysis using microsatellite loci demonstrated all 21 offspring resulting from pressure treatment were homozygous at the 64 loci tested, and none contained alleles unique to the donor male. Eleven of 32 offspring from the 41 degrees C treatment were homozygous at the 18 loci tested, while 21 offspring were heterozygous at six to 12 of these loci. Again, no offspring contained alleles unique to the donor male. However, all eight offspring from the 37 degrees C treatment were heterozygous at multiple loci, and one contained unambiguous paternal alleles. These experiments demonstrated our ability to produce viable homozygous, doubled haploid channel catfish. Doubled haploid catfish can be used to create completely inbred populations for genetic analyses, and homozygous genomic templates will be useful in gene identification and genome characterization.

  9. Simultaneous transcriptional profiling of bacteria and their host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Humphrys

    Full Text Available We developed an RNA-Seq-based method to simultaneously capture prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression profiles of cells infected with intracellular bacteria. As proof of principle, this method was applied to Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, successfully obtaining transcriptomes of both C. trachomatis and the host cells at 1 and 24 hours post-infection. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause a range of mammalian diseases. In humans chlamydiae are responsible for the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections and trachoma (infectious blindness. Disease arises by adverse host inflammatory reactions that induce tissue damage & scarring. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these outcomes. Chlamydia are genetically intractable as replication outside of the host cell is not yet possible and there are no practical tools for routine genetic manipulation, making genome-scale approaches critical. The early timeframe of infection is poorly understood and the host transcriptional response to chlamydial infection is not well defined. Our simultaneous RNA-Seq method was applied to a simplified in vitro model of chlamydial infection. We discovered a possible chlamydial strategy for early iron acquisition, putative immune dampening effects of chlamydial infection on the host cell, and present a hypothesis for Chlamydia-induced fibrotic scarring through runaway positive feedback loops. In general, simultaneous RNA-Seq helps to reveal the complex interplay between invading bacterial pathogens and their host mammalian cells and is immediately applicable to any bacteria/host cell interaction.

  10. Understanding complex host-microbe interactions in Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thomas C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Any multicellular organism may be considered a metaorganism or holobiont—comprised of the macroscopic host and synergistic interdependence with bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and numerous other microbial and eukaryotic species including algal symbionts. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. Dissecting the fundamental principles that underlie all host-microbe interactions requires simple animal models with only a few specific bacterial species. Here I present Hydra as such a model with one of the simplest epithelia in the animal kingdom, with the availability of a fully sequenced genome and numerous genomic tools, and with few associated bacterial species. PMID:22688725

  11. RNase MRP and the RNA processing cascade in the eukaryotic ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Michael D; Stadler, Peter F; Penny, David; Collins, Lesley J

    2007-02-08

    Within eukaryotes there is a complex cascade of RNA-based macromolecules that process other RNA molecules, especially mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. An example is RNase MRP processing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome biogenesis. One hypothesis is that this complexity was present early in eukaryotic evolution; an alternative is that an initial simpler network later gained complexity by gene duplication in lineages that led to animals, fungi and plants. Recently there has been a rapid increase in support for the complexity-early theory because the vast majority of these RNA-processing reactions are found throughout eukaryotes, and thus were likely to be present in the last common ancestor of living eukaryotes, herein called the Eukaryotic Ancestor. We present an overview of the RNA processing cascade in the Eukaryotic Ancestor and investigate in particular, RNase MRP which was previously thought to have evolved later in eukaryotes due to its apparent limited distribution in fungi and animals and plants. Recent publications, as well as our own genomic searches, find previously unknown RNase MRP RNAs, indicating that RNase MRP has a wide distribution in eukaryotes. Combining secondary structure and promoter region analysis of RNAs for RNase MRP, along with analysis of the target substrate (rRNA), allows us to discuss this distribution in the light of eukaryotic evolution. We conclude that RNase MRP can now be placed in the RNA-processing cascade of the Eukaryotic Ancestor, highlighting the complexity of RNA-processing in early eukaryotes. Promoter analyses of MRP-RNA suggest that regulation of the critical processes of rRNA cleavage can vary, showing that even these key cellular processes (for which we expect high conservation) show some species-specific variability. We present our consensus MRP-RNA secondary structure as a useful model for further searches.

  12. Unbiased RNA Shotgun Metagenomics in Social and Solitary Wild Bees Detects Associations with Eukaryote Parasites and New Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonvaere, Karel; De Smet, Lina; Smagghe, Guy; Vierstraete, Andy; Braeckman, Bart P; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3.8 million high quality reads. The most significant eukaryote associations were two protozoan, Apicystis bombi and Crithidia bombi, and one nematode parasite Sphaerularia bombi in bumble bees. The trypanosome protozoan C. bombi was also found in the solitary bee O. cornuta. Next to the identification of three honey bee viruses Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Varroa destructor virus-1 and four plant viruses, we describe two novel RNA viruses Scaldis River bee virus (SRBV) and Ganda bee virus (GABV) based on their partial genomic sequences. The novel viruses belong to the class of negative-sense RNA viruses, SRBV is related to the order Mononegavirales whereas GABV is related to the family Bunyaviridae. The potential biological role of both viruses in bees is discussed in the context of recent advances in the field of arthropod viruses. Further, fragmentary sequence evidence for other undescribed viruses is presented, among which a nudivirus in O. cornuta and an unclassified virus related to Chronic bee paralysis virus in B. terrestris. Our findings extend the current knowledge of wild bee parasites in general and addsto the growing evidence of unexplored arthropod viruses in valuable insects.

  13. Unbiased RNA Shotgun Metagenomics in Social and Solitary Wild Bees Detects Associations with Eukaryote Parasites and New Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schoonvaere

    Full Text Available The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3.8 million high quality reads. The most significant eukaryote associations were two protozoan, Apicystis bombi and Crithidia bombi, and one nematode parasite Sphaerularia bombi in bumble bees. The trypanosome protozoan C. bombi was also found in the solitary bee O. cornuta. Next to the identification of three honey bee viruses Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Varroa destructor virus-1 and four plant viruses, we describe two novel RNA viruses Scaldis River bee virus (SRBV and Ganda bee virus (GABV based on their partial genomic sequences. The novel viruses belong to the class of negative-sense RNA viruses, SRBV is related to the order Mononegavirales whereas GABV is related to the family Bunyaviridae. The potential biological role of both viruses in bees is discussed in the context of recent advances in the field of arthropod viruses. Further, fragmentary sequence evidence for other undescribed viruses is presented, among which a nudivirus in O. cornuta and an unclassified virus related to Chronic bee paralysis virus in B. terrestris. Our findings extend the current knowledge of wild bee parasites in general and addsto the growing evidence of unexplored arthropod viruses in valuable insects.

  14. The inadequacy of morphology for species and genus delineation in microbial eukaryotes: an example from the parabasalian termite symbiont coronympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, James T; Gile, Gillian H; James, Erick R; Carpenter, Kevin J; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-08-11

    For the majority of microbial eukaryotes (protists, algae), there is no clearly superior species concept that is consistently applied. In the absence of a practical biological species concept, most species and genus level delineations have historically been based on morphology, which may lead to an underestimate of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes. Indeed, a growing body of molecular evidence, such as barcoding surveys, is beginning to support the conclusion that significant cryptic species diversity exists. This underestimate of diversity appears to be due to a combination of using morphology as the sole basis for assessing diversity and our inability to culture the vast majority of microbial life. Here we have used molecular markers to assess the species delineations in two related but morphologically distinct genera of uncultivated symbionts found in the hindgut of termites. Using single-cell isolation and environmental PCR, we have used a barcoding approach to characterize the diversity of Coronympha and Metacoronympha symbionts in four species of Incisitermes termites, which were also examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microcopy. Despite the fact that these genera are significantly different in morphological complexity and structural organisation, we find they are two life history stages of the same species. At the same time, we show that the symbionts from different termite hosts show an equal or greater level of sequence diversity than do the hosts, despite the fact that the symbionts are all classified as one species. The morphological information used to describe the diversity of these microbial symbionts is misleading at both the genus and species levels, and led to an underestimate of species level diversity as well as an overestimate of genus level diversity. The genus 'Metacoronympha' is invalid and appears to be a life history stage of Coronympha, while the single recognized species of Coronympha octonaria inhabiting these four

  15. The inadequacy of morphology for species and genus delineation in microbial eukaryotes: an example from the parabasalian termite symbiont coronympha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Harper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the majority of microbial eukaryotes (protists, algae, there is no clearly superior species concept that is consistently applied. In the absence of a practical biological species concept, most species and genus level delineations have historically been based on morphology, which may lead to an underestimate of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes. Indeed, a growing body of molecular evidence, such as barcoding surveys, is beginning to support the conclusion that significant cryptic species diversity exists. This underestimate of diversity appears to be due to a combination of using morphology as the sole basis for assessing diversity and our inability to culture the vast majority of microbial life. Here we have used molecular markers to assess the species delineations in two related but morphologically distinct genera of uncultivated symbionts found in the hindgut of termites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using single-cell isolation and environmental PCR, we have used a barcoding approach to characterize the diversity of Coronympha and Metacoronympha symbionts in four species of Incisitermes termites, which were also examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microcopy. Despite the fact that these genera are significantly different in morphological complexity and structural organisation, we find they are two life history stages of the same species. At the same time, we show that the symbionts from different termite hosts show an equal or greater level of sequence diversity than do the hosts, despite the fact that the symbionts are all classified as one species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The morphological information used to describe the diversity of these microbial symbionts is misleading at both the genus and species levels, and led to an underestimate of species level diversity as well as an overestimate of genus level diversity. The genus 'Metacoronympha' is invalid and appears to be a life history stage of

  16. THE HUNT FOR EXOMOONS WITH KEPLER (HEK). II. ANALYSIS OF SEVEN VIABLE SATELLITE-HOSTING PLANET CANDIDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, D. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hartman, J.; Bakos, G. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Buchhave, L. A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schmitt, A. R. [Citizen Science, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nesvorny, D., E-mail: dkipping@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    From the list of 2321 transiting planet candidates announced by the Kepler Mission, we select seven targets with favorable properties for the capacity to dynamically maintain an exomoon and present a detectable signal. These seven candidates were identified through our automatic target selection (TSA) algorithm and target selection prioritization (TSP) filtering, whereby we excluded systems exhibiting significant time-correlated noise and focused on those with a single transiting planet candidate of radius less than 6 R{sub Circled-Plus }. We find no compelling evidence for an exomoon around any of the seven Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) but constrain the satellite-to-planet mass ratios for each. For four of the seven KOIs, we estimate a 95% upper quantile of M{sub S} /M{sub P} < 0.04, which given the radii of the candidates, likely probes down to sub-Earth masses. We also derive precise transit times and durations for each candidate and find no evidence for dynamical variations in any of the KOIs. With just a few systems analyzed thus far in the ongoing ''Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler'' (HEK) project, projections on eta-moon would be premature, but a high frequency of large moons around Super-Earths/Mini-Neptunes would be premature, but a high frequency of large moons around Super-Earths/Mini-Neptunes would appear to be incommensurable with our results so far.

  17. The metabolic pathways utilized by Salmonella Typhimurium during infection of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Arthur; Fulde, Marcus; Tedin, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    Only relatively recently has research on the metabolism of intracellular bacterial pathogens within their host cells begun to appear in the published literature. This reflects in part the experimental difficulties encountered in separating host metabolic processes from those of the resident pathogen. One of the most genetically tractable and thoroughly studied intracellular bacterial pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), has been at the forefront of metabolic studies within eukaryotic host cells. In this review, we offer a synthesis of what has been discovered to date regarding the metabolic adaptation of S. Typhimurium to survival and growth within the infected host. We discuss many studies in the context of techniques used, types of host cells, how host metabolites contribute to intracellular survival and proliferation of the pathogen and how bacterial metabolism affects the virulence and persistence of the pathogen. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Eelgrass Leaf Surface Microbiomes Are Locally Variable and Highly Correlated with Epibiotic Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia M. Bengtsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina is a marine foundation species essential for coastal ecosystem services around the northern hemisphere. Like all macroscopic organisms, it possesses a microbiome (here defined as an associated prokaryotic community which may play critical roles in modulating the interaction of eelgrass with its environment. For example, its leaf surface microbiome could inhibit or attract eukaryotic epibionts which may overgrow the eelgrass leading to reduced primary productivity and subsequent eelgrass meadow decline. We used amplicon sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes to assess the leaf surface microbiome (prokaryotes as well as eukaryotic epibionts in- and outside lagoons on the German Baltic Sea coast. Prokaryote microbiomes varied substantially both between sites inside lagoons and between open coastal and lagoon sites. Water depth, leaf area and biofilm chlorophyll a concentration explained a large amount of variation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic community composition. The prokaryotic microbiome and eukaryotic epibiont communities were highly correlated, and network analysis revealed disproportionate co-occurrence between a limited number of eukaryotic taxa and several bacterial taxa. This suggests that eelgrass leaf surfaces are home to a mosaic of microbiomes of several epibiotic eukaryotes, in addition to the microbiome of the eelgrass itself. Our findings thereby underline that eukaryotic diversity should be taken into account in order to explain prokaryotic microbiome assembly and dynamics in aquatic environments.

  19. Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijer, Dave; Lukeš, Julius; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Sexual reproduction and clonality in eukaryotes are mostly seen as exclusive, the latter being rather exceptional. This view might be biased by focusing almost exclusively on metazoans. We analyze and discuss reproduction in the context of extant eukaryotic diversity, paying special attention to

  20. Heavy metal whole-cell biosensors using eukaryotic microorganisms: an updated critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos eGutierrez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of using eukaryotic microorganisms to design whole-cell biosensors (WCBs for monitoring environmental heavy metal pollution in soil or aquatic habitats. Basic considerations for designing an eukaryotic WCB are also shown. A comparative analysis of the promoter genes used to design whole-cell biosensors is carried out, and the sensitivity and reproducibility of the main reporter genes used is also reviewed. Three main eukaryotic taxonomic groups are considered: yeasts, microalgae and ciliated protozoa. Models that have been widely analyzed as potential WCBs are the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model among yeasts, the Tetrahymena thermophila model for ciliates and Chlamydomonas model for microalgae. The advantages and disadvantages of each microbial group are discussed, and a ranking of sensitivity to the same type of metal pollutant from reported eukaryotic WCBs is also shown. General conclusions and possible future developments of eukaryotic WCBs are reported.

  1. On the Archaeal Origins of Eukaryotes and the Challenges of Inferring Phenotype from Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam; Thattai, Mukund; Baum, Buzz

    2016-07-01

    If eukaryotes arose through a merger between archaea and bacteria, what did the first true eukaryotic cell look like? A major step toward an answer came with the discovery of Lokiarchaeum, an archaeon whose genome encodes small GTPases related to those used by eukaryotes to regulate membrane traffic. Although 'Loki' cells have yet to be seen, their existence has prompted the suggestion that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes engulfed the future mitochondrion by phagocytosis. We propose instead that the archaeal ancestor was a relatively simple cell, and that eukaryotic cellular organization arose as the result of a gradual transfer of bacterial genes and membranes driven by an ever-closer symbiotic partnership between a bacterium and an archaeon. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. On the age of eukaryotes: evaluating evidence from fossils and molecular clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, Laura; Sharpe, Susan C; Brown, Matthew W; Roger, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    Our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among eukaryotic lineages has improved dramatically over the few past decades thanks to the development of sophisticated phylogenetic methods and models of evolution, in combination with the increasing availability of sequence data for a variety of eukaryotic lineages. Concurrently, efforts have been made to infer the age of major evolutionary events along the tree of eukaryotes using fossil-calibrated molecular clock-based methods. Here, we review the progress and pitfalls in estimating the age of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) and major lineages. After reviewing previous attempts to date deep eukaryote divergences, we present the results of a Bayesian relaxed-molecular clock analysis of a large dataset (159 proteins, 85 taxa) using 19 fossil calibrations. We show that for major eukaryote groups estimated dates of divergence, as well as their credible intervals, are heavily influenced by the relaxed molecular clock models and methods used, and by the nature and treatment of fossil calibrations. Whereas the estimated age of LECA varied widely, ranging from 1007 (943-1102) Ma to 1898 (1655-2094) Ma, all analyses suggested that the eukaryotic supergroups subsequently diverged rapidly (i.e., within 300 Ma of LECA). The extreme variability of these and previously published analyses preclude definitive conclusions regarding the age of major eukaryote clades at this time. As more reliable fossil data on eukaryotes from the Proterozoic become available and improvements are made in relaxed molecular clock modeling, we may be able to date the age of extant eukaryotes more precisely. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Corbett, Anita H; Doetsch, Paul W

    2015-12-02

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. MCM Paradox: Abundance of Eukaryotic Replicative Helicases and Genomic Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of DNA replication licensing system, minichromosome maintenance (MCM 2–7 complex acts as the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase. The six related MCM proteins form a heterohexamer and bind with ORC, CDC6, and Cdt1 to form the prereplication complex. Although the MCMs are well known as replicative helicases, their overabundance and distribution patterns on chromatin present a paradox called the “MCM paradox.” Several approaches had been taken to solve the MCM paradox and describe the purpose of excess MCMs distributed beyond the replication origins. Alternative functions of these MCMs rather than a helicase had also been proposed. This review focuses on several models and concepts generated to solve the MCM paradox coinciding with their helicase function and provides insight into the concept that excess MCMs are meant for licensing dormant origins as a backup during replication stress. Finally, we extend our view towards the effect of alteration of MCM level. Though an excess MCM constituent is needed for normal cells to withstand stress, there must be a delineation of the threshold level in normal and malignant cells. This review also outlooks the future prospects to better understand the MCM biology.

  5. The prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy: meanings and mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the "prokaryote," in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology.

  6. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O 2 # sm b ullet# - ) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR Gi ) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T final ) with Fe 3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK a = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR Gi reacts with O 2 # sm b ullet# - with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k 1 = 1.0 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T 1 ; this in turn rapidly decays to the T final state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR Gi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  7. Break induced replication in eukaryotes: mechanisms, functions, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakofsky, Cynthia J; Malkova, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Break-induced replication (BIR) is an important pathway specializing in repair of one-ended double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). This type of DSB break typically arises at collapsed replication forks or at eroded telomeres. BIR initiates by invasion of a broken DNA end into a homologous template followed by initiation of DNA synthesis that can proceed for hundreds of kilobases. This synthesis is drastically different from S-phase replication in that instead of a replication fork, BIR proceeds via a migrating bubble and is associated with conservative inheritance of newly synthesized DNA. This unusual mode of DNA replication is responsible for frequent genetic instabilities associated with BIR, including hyper-mutagenesis, which can lead to the formation of mutation clusters, extensive loss of heterozygosity, chromosomal translocations, copy-number variations and complex genomic rearrangements. In addition to budding yeast experimental systems that were initially employed to investigate eukaryotic BIR, recent studies in different organisms including humans, have provided multiple examples of BIR initiated within different cellular contexts, including collapsed replication fork and telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase. In addition, significant progress has been made towards understanding microhomology-mediated BIR (MMBIR) that can promote complex chromosomal rearrangements, including those associated with cancer and those leading to a number of neurological disorders in humans.

  8. Searching for the role of protein phosphatases in eukaryotic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da-Silva A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for specific protein substrates together with differential sensitivity to activators and inhibitors has allowed classification of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs into four major types designated types 1, 2A, 2B and 2C (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP2C, respectively. Comparison of sequences within their catalytic domains has indicated that PP1, PP2A and PP2B are members of the same gene family named PPP. On the other hand, the type 2C enzyme does not share sequence homology with the PPP members and thus represents another gene family, known as PPM. In this report we briefly summarize some of our studies about the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in growth and differentiation of three different eukaryotic models: Blastocladiella emersonii, Neurospora crassa and Dictyostelium discoideum. Our observations suggest that PP2C is the major phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of amidotransferase, an enzyme that controls cell wall synthesis during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. We also report the existence of a novel acid- and thermo-stable protein purified from Neurospora crassa mycelia, which specifically inhibits the PP1 activity of this fungus and mammals. Finally, we comment on our recent results demonstrating that Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a gene that codes for PP1, although this activity has never been demonstrated biochemically in this organism.

  9. Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-04-01

    We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem à la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

  10. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  11. Large-scale structure phenomenology of viable Horndeski theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirone, Simone; Koyama, Kazuya; Pogosian, Levon; Raveri, Marco; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    Phenomenological functions Σ and μ , also known as Glight/G and Gmatter/G , are commonly used to parametrize modifications of the growth of large-scale structure in alternative theories of gravity. We study the values these functions can take in Horndeski theories, i.e., the class of scalar-tensor theories with second order equations of motion. We restrict our attention to models that are in broad agreement with tests of gravity and the observed cosmic expansion history. In particular, we require the speed of gravity to be equal to the speed of light today, as required by the recent detection of gravitational waves and electromagnetic emission from a binary neutron star merger. We examine the correlations between the values of Σ and μ analytically within the quasistatic approximation and numerically by sampling the space of allowed solutions. We confirm that the conjecture made in [L. Pogosian and A. Silvestri, Phys. Rev. D 94, 104014 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104014], that (Σ -1 )(μ -1 )≥0 in viable Horndeski theories, holds very well. Along with that, we check the validity of the quasistatic approximation within different corners of Horndeski theory. Our results show that, even with the tight bound on the present-day speed of gravitational waves, there is room within Horndeski theories for nontrivial signatures of modified gravity at the level of linear perturbations.

  12. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

  13. Pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic Lambda Cold Dark Matter, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a nonzero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive ''fifth force.'' We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth

  14. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of 35 S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue

  15. A microscopic multiphase diffusion model of viable epidermis permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Johannes M; Kasting, Gerald B

    2013-05-21

    A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-μm layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯(epi), and partition coefficient, K¯(epi/w), for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes-water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone-covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z 3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism

  17. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  18. Horizontal transfer of bacterial polyphosphate kinases to eukaryotes: implications for the ice age and land colonisation.

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    Whitehead, Michael P; Hooley, Paul; W Brown, Michael R

    2013-06-05

    Studies of online database(s) showed that convincing examples of eukaryote PPKs derived from bacteria type PPK1 and PPK2 enzymes are rare and currently confined to a few simple eukaryotes. These enzymes probably represent several separate horizontal transfer events. Retention of such sequences may be an advantage for tolerance to stresses such as desiccation or nutrient depletion for simple eukaryotes that lack more sophisticated adaptations available to multicellular organisms. We propose that the acquisition of encoding sequences for these enzymes by horizontal transfer enhanced the ability of early plants to colonise the land. The improved ability to sequester and release inorganic phosphate for carbon fixation by photosynthetic algae in the ocean may have accelerated or even triggered global glaciation events. There is some evidence for DNA sequences encoding PPKs in a wider range of eukaryotes, notably some invertebrates, though it is unclear that these represent functional genes.Polyphosphate (poly P) is found in all cells, carrying out a wide range of essential roles. Studied mainly in prokaryotes, the enzymes responsible for synthesis of poly P in eukaryotes (polyphosphate kinases PPKs) are not well understood. The best characterised enzyme from bacteria known to catalyse the formation of high molecular weight polyphosphate from ATP is PPK1 which shows some structural similarity to phospholipase D. A second bacterial PPK (PPK2) resembles thymidylate kinase. Recent reports have suggested a widespread distribution of these bacteria type enzymes in eukaryotes. On - line databases show evidence for the presence of genes encoding PPK1 in only a limited number of eukaryotes. These include the photosynthetic eukaryotes Ostreococcus tauri, O. lucimarinus, Porphyra yezoensis, Cyanidioschyzon merolae and the moss Physcomitrella patens, as well as the amoeboid symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki and the non-photosynthetic eukaryotes Dictyostelium (3 species

  19. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

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    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The independent prokaryotic origins of eukaryotic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase and the implications of their origins for the evolution of eukaryotic Calvin cycle

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    Jiang Yong-Hai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Calvin cycle of eubacteria, the dephosphorylations of both fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphate (SBP are catalyzed by the same bifunctional enzyme: fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase/sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (F/SBPase, while in that of eukaryotic chloroplasts by two distinct enzymes: chloroplastic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase, respectively. It was proposed that these two eukaryotic enzymes arose from the divergence of a common ancestral eubacterial bifunctional F/SBPase of mitochondrial origin. However, no specific affinity between SBPase and eubacterial FBPase or F/SBPase can be observed in the previous phylogenetic analyses, and it is hard to explain why SBPase and/or F/SBPase are/is absent from most extant nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes according to this scenario. Results Domain analysis indicated that eubacterial F/SBPase of two different resources contain distinct domains: proteobacterial F/SBPases contain typical FBPase domain, while cyanobacterial F/SBPases possess FBPase_glpX domain. Therefore, like prokaryotic FBPase, eubacterial F/SBPase can also be divided into two evolutionarily distant classes (Class I and II. Phylogenetic analysis based on a much larger taxonomic sampling than previous work revealed that all eukaryotic SBPase cluster together and form a close sister group to the clade of epsilon-proteobacterial Class I FBPase which are gluconeogenesis-specific enzymes, while all eukaryotic chloroplast FBPase group together with eukaryotic cytosolic FBPase and form another distinct clade which then groups with the Class I FBPase of diverse eubacteria. Motif analysis of these enzymes also supports these phylogenetic correlations. Conclusions There are two evolutionarily distant classes of eubacterial bifunctional F/SBPase. Eukaryotic FBPase and SBPase do not diverge from either of them but have two independent origins

  1. Evidence that the intra-amoebal Legionella drancourtii acquired a sterol reductase gene from eukaryotes

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    Fournier Pierre-Edouard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living amoebae serve as a natural reservoir for some bacteria that have evolved into «amoeba-resistant» bacteria. Among these, some are strictly intra-amoebal, such as Candidatus "Protochlamydia amoebophila" (Candidatus "P. amoebophila", whose genomic sequence is available. We sequenced the genome of Legionella drancourtii (L. drancourtii, another recently described intra-amoebal bacterium. By comparing these two genomes with those of their closely related species, we were able to study the genetic characteristics specific to their amoebal lifestyle. Findings We identified a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene common to these two bacteria and absent in their relatives. This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyses the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes, and is probably functional within L. drancourtii since it is transcribed. The phylogenetic analysis of this protein suggests that it was acquired horizontally by a few bacteria from viridiplantae. This gene was also found in the Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus genome, a virus that grows in amoebae and possesses the largest viral genome known to date. Conclusion L. drancourtii acquired a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene of viridiplantae origin. The most parsimonious hypothesis is that this gene was initially acquired by a Chlamydiales ancestor parasite of plants. Subsequently, its descendents transmitted this gene in amoebae to other intra-amoebal microorganisms, including L. drancourtii and Coxiella burnetii. The role of the sterol delta-7 reductase in prokaryotes is as yet unknown but we speculate that it is involved in host cholesterol parasitism.

  2. Innate immune evasion mediated by the Ambystoma tigrinum virus eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha homologue.

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    Jancovich, James K; Jacobs, Bertram L

    2011-05-01

    Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) are large, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses whose replication is restricted to ectothermic vertebrates. Many highly pathogenic members of the genus Ranavirus encode a homologue of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Data in a heterologous vaccinia virus system suggest that the Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) eIF2α homologue (vIF2αH; open reading frame [ORF] 57R) is involved in evading the host innate immune response by degrading the interferon-inducible, dsRNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. To test this hypothesis directly, the ATV vIF2αH gene (ORF 57R) was deleted by homologous recombination, and a selectable marker was inserted in its place. The ATVΔ57R virus has a small plaque phenotype and is 8-fold more sensitive to interferon than wild-type ATV (wtATV). Infection of fish cells with the ATVΔ57R virus leads to eIF2α phosphorylation, in contrast to infection with wtATV, which actively inhibits eIF2α phosphorylation. The inability of ATVΔ57R to prevent phosphorylation of eIF2α correlates with degradation of fish PKZ, an interferon-inducible enzyme that is closely related to mammalian PKR. In addition, salamanders infected with ATVΔ57R displayed an increased time to death compared to that of wtATV-infected salamanders. Therefore, in a biologically relevant system, the ATV vIF2αH gene acts as an innate immune evasion factor, thereby enhancing virus pathogenesis.

  3. Quantitative prediction of shrimp disease incidence via the profiles of gut eukaryotic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Weina; Dai, Wenfang; Zhang, Jinjie; Qiu, Qiongfen; Ou, Changrong

    2018-04-01

    One common notion is emerging that gut eukaryotes are commensal or beneficial, rather than detrimental. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have been taken to discern the factors that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes, despite growing interest in the dysbiosis of gut microbiota-disease relationship. Herein, we firstly explored how the gut eukaryotic microbiotas were assembled over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. The gut eukaryotic communities changed markedly as healthy shrimp aged, and converged toward an adult-microbiota configuration. However, the adult-like stability was distorted by disease exacerbation. A null model untangled that the deterministic processes that governed the gut eukaryotic assembly tended to be more important over healthy shrimp development, whereas this trend was inverted as the disease progressed. After ruling out the baseline of gut eukaryotes over shrimp ages, we identified disease-discriminatory taxa (species level afforded the highest accuracy of prediction) that characteristic of shrimp health status. The profiles of these taxa contributed an overall 92.4% accuracy in predicting shrimp health status. Notably, this model can accurately diagnose the onset of shrimp disease. Interspecies interaction analysis depicted how the disease-discriminatory taxa interacted with one another in sustaining shrimp health. Taken together, our findings offer novel insights into the underlying ecological processes that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. Intriguingly, the established model can quantitatively and accurately predict the incidences of shrimp disease.

  4. Mice Lacking Hbp1 Function Are Viable and Fertile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dagmar; Jans, David A.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest. In somatic cells, HBP1 is classified as a tumour suppressor protein, known to regulate proliferation and senescence. We therefore investigated the possible role of HBP1 in the initiation and maintenance of fetal germ cell G1/G0 arrest using the mouse model. We identified two splice variants of Hbp1, both of which are expressed in XY and XX fetal gonads, but only one of which is localised to the nucleus in in vitro assays. To investigate Hbp1 loss of function, we used embryonic stem (ES) cells carrying a Genetrap mutation for Hbp1 to generate mice lacking Hbp1 function. We found that Hbp1-genetrap mouse mutant germ cells proliferated correctly throughout development, and adult males were viable and fertile. Multiple Hbp1-LacZ reporter mouse lines were generated, unexpectedly revealing Hbp1 embryonic expression in hair follicles, eye and limbs. Lastly, in a model of defective germ cell G1/G0 arrest, the Rb1-knockout model, we found no evidence for Hbp1 mis-regulation, suggesting that the reported RB1-HBP1 interaction is not critical in the germline, despite co-expression. PMID:28107452

  5. Mice Lacking Hbp1 Function Are Viable and Fertile.

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    Cassy M Spiller

    Full Text Available Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1 is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest. In somatic cells, HBP1 is classified as a tumour suppressor protein, known to regulate proliferation and senescence. We therefore investigated the possible role of HBP1 in the initiation and maintenance of fetal germ cell G1/G0 arrest using the mouse model. We identified two splice variants of Hbp1, both of which are expressed in XY and XX fetal gonads, but only one of which is localised to the nucleus in in vitro assays. To investigate Hbp1 loss of function, we used embryonic stem (ES cells carrying a Genetrap mutation for Hbp1 to generate mice lacking Hbp1 function. We found that Hbp1-genetrap mouse mutant germ cells proliferated correctly throughout development, and adult males were viable and fertile. Multiple Hbp1-LacZ reporter mouse lines were generated, unexpectedly revealing Hbp1 embryonic expression in hair follicles, eye and limbs. Lastly, in a model of defective germ cell G1/G0 arrest, the Rb1-knockout model, we found no evidence for Hbp1 mis-regulation, suggesting that the reported RB1-HBP1 interaction is not critical in the germline, despite co-expression.

  6. Myosin repertoire expansion coincides with eukaryotic diversification in the Mesoproterozoic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmar, Martin; Mühlhausen, Stefanie

    2017-09-04

    The last eukaryotic common ancestor already had an amazingly complex cell possessing genomic and cellular features such as spliceosomal introns, mitochondria, cilia-dependent motility, and a cytoskeleton together with several intracellular transport systems. In contrast to the microtubule-based dyneins and kinesins, the actin-filament associated myosins are considerably divergent in extant eukaryotes and a unifying picture of their evolution has not yet emerged. Here, we manually assembled and annotated 7852 myosins from 929 eukaryotes providing an unprecedented dense sequence and taxonomic sampling. For classification we complemented phylogenetic analyses with gene structure comparisons resulting in 79 distinct myosin classes. The intron pattern analysis and the taxonomic distribution of the classes suggest two myosins in the last eukaryotic common ancestor, a class-1 prototype and another myosin, which is most likely the ancestor of all other myosin classes. The sparse distribution of class-2 and class-4 myosins outside their major lineages contradicts their presence in the last eukaryotic common ancestor but instead strongly suggests early eukaryote-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. By correlating the evolution of myosin diversity with the history of Earth we found that myosin innovation occurred in independent major "burst" events in the major eukaryotic lineages. Most myosin inventions happened in the Mesoproterozoic era. In the late Neoproterozoic era, a process of extensive independent myosin loss began simultaneously with further eukaryotic diversification. Since the Cambrian explosion, myosin repertoire expansion is driven by lineage- and species-specific gene and genome duplications leading to subfunctionalization and fine-tuning of myosin functions.

  7. Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2α during Stress and Encystation in Entamoeba Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Holland M; Welter, Brenda H; Hapstack, Matthew A; Sykes, Steven E; Sullivan, William J; Temesvari, Lesly A

    2016-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric pathogen responsible for amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. It alternates between the host-restricted trophozoite form and the infective environmentally-stable cyst stage. Throughout its lifecycle E. histolytica experiences stress, in part, from host immune pressure. Conversion to cysts is presumed to be a stress-response. In other systems, stress induces phosphorylation of a serine residue on eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This inhibits eIF2α activity resulting in a general decline in protein synthesis. Genomic data reveal that E. histolytica possesses eIF2α (EheIF2α) with a conserved phosphorylatable serine at position 59 (Ser59). Thus, this pathogen may have the machinery for stress-induced translational control. To test this, we exposed cells to different stress conditions and measured the level of total and phospho-EheIF2α. Long-term serum starvation, long-term heat shock, and oxidative stress induced an increase in the level of phospho-EheIF2α, while short-term serum starvation, short-term heat shock, or glucose deprivation did not. Long-term serum starvation also caused a decrease in polyribosome abundance, which is in accordance with the observation that this condition induces phosphorylation of EheIF2α. We generated transgenic cells that overexpress wildtype EheIF2α, a non-phosphorylatable variant of eIF2α in which Ser59 was mutated to alanine (EheIF2α-S59A), or a phosphomimetic variant of eIF2α in which Ser59 was mutated to aspartic acid (EheIF2α-S59D). Consistent with the known functions of eIF2α, cells expressing wildtype or EheIF2α-S59D exhibited increased or decreased translation, respectively. Surprisingly, cells expressing EheIF2α-S59A also exhibited reduced translation. Cells expressing EheIF2α-S59D were more resistant to long-term serum starvation underscoring the significance of EheIF2α phosphorylation in managing stress. Finally, phospho-eIF2α accumulated during

  8. MetWAMer: eukaryotic translation initiation site prediction

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    Brendel Volker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translation initiation site (TIS identification is an important aspect of the gene annotation process, requisite for the accurate delineation of protein sequences from transcript data. We have developed the MetWAMer package for TIS prediction in eukaryotic open reading frames of non-viral origin. MetWAMer can be used as a stand-alone, third-party tool for post-processing gene structure annotations generated by external computational programs and/or pipelines, or directly integrated into gene structure prediction software implementations. Results MetWAMer currently implements five distinct methods for TIS prediction, the most accurate of which is a routine that combines weighted, signal-based translation initiation site scores and the contrast in coding potential of sequences flanking TISs using a perceptron. Also, our program implements clustering capabilities through use of the k-medoids algorithm, thereby enabling cluster-specific TIS parameter utilization. In practice, our static weight array matrix-based indexing method for parameter set lookup can be used with good results in data sets exhibiting moderate levels of 5'-complete coverage. Conclusion We demonstrate that improvements in statistically-based models for TIS prediction can be achieved by taking the class of each potential start-methionine into account pending certain testing conditions, and that our perceptron-based model is suitable for the TIS identification task. MetWAMer represents a well-documented, extensible, and freely available software system that can be readily re-trained for differing target applications and/or extended with existing and novel TIS prediction methods, to support further research efforts in this area.

  9. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

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    Wu M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  10. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

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    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  11. [Legionella pneumophila eukaryotic-like effector LegK3 inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and modulates its vesicle trafficking pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Li, Xianghui; Chen, Aifeng; Lu, Yongjun

    2014-04-04

    To study biochemical functions of the Legionella pneumophila eukaryotic-like effector protein LegK3, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as an alternative host in which growth defect induced by the ectopic expression of LegK3 was assessed. Using genomic DNA of the L. pneumophila strain Lp02 as template, we respectively amplified and inserted the ORF sequences of legK3, ralF or lidA into the plasmid pESC-HK to yield the ectopic-expression plasmids. Then, the recombination plasmids were transformed into the yeast strain W301-1A. With 2% -galactose induction, growth defect and carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) delay were determined simultaneously. In parallel, total yeast proteins before or after induction were extracted and subjected to Immunoblot assay. For detecting the expression of effector proteins or determining CPY delay, anti-c-myc or anti-PGK/anti-CPY antibodies were utilized respectively. The expression of LegK3 resulted in visible growth defect in yeast cells, together with obvious retard in CPY processing. L. pneumophila eukaryotic-like effector LegK3 might target and interfere with the vesicle-trafficking pathways, thereby to inhibit the growth and division of host cells.

  12. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Apicomplexan autophagy and modulation of autophagy in parasite-infected host cells

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    Perle Laté de Laté

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a number of important human pathologies. Obviously, as Eukaryotes they share a number of cellular features and pathways with their respective host cells. One of them is autophagy, a process involved in the degradation of the cell's own components. These intracellular parasites nonetheless seem to present a number of original features compared to their very evolutionarily distant host cells. In mammals and other metazoans, autophagy has been identified as an important contributor to the defence against microbial pathogens. Thus, host autophagy also likely plays a key role in the control of apicomplexan parasites, although its potential manipulation and subversion by intracellular parasites creates a complex interplay in the regulation of host and parasite autophagy. In this mini-review, we summarise current knowledge on autophagy in both parasites and their host cells, in the context of infection by three Apicomplexa: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Theileria.

  14. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

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    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  15. The genomic underpinnings of eukaryotic virus taxonomy: creating a sequence-based framework for family-level virus classification.

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    Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Simmonds, Peter

    2018-02-20

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies viruses into families, genera and species and provides a regulated system for their nomenclature that is universally used in virus descriptions. Virus taxonomic assignments have traditionally been based upon virus phenotypic properties such as host range, virion morphology and replication mechanisms, particularly at family level. However, gene sequence comparisons provide a clearer guide to their evolutionary relationships and provide the only information that may guide the incorporation of viruses detected in environmental (metagenomic) studies that lack any phenotypic data. The current study sought to determine whether the existing virus taxonomy could be reproduced by examination of genetic relationships through the extraction of protein-coding gene signatures and genome organisational features. We found large-scale consistency between genetic relationships and taxonomic assignments for viruses of all genome configurations and genome sizes. The analysis pipeline that we have called 'Genome Relationships Applied to Virus Taxonomy' (GRAViTy) was highly effective at reproducing the current assignments of viruses at family level as well as inter-family groupings into orders. Its ability to correctly differentiate assigned viruses from unassigned viruses, and classify them into the correct taxonomic group, was evaluated by threefold cross-validation technique. This predicted family membership of eukaryotic viruses with close to 100% accuracy and specificity potentially enabling the algorithm to predict assignments for the vast corpus of metagenomic sequences consistently with ICTV taxonomy rules. In an evaluation run of GRAViTy, over one half (460/921) of (near)-complete genome sequences from several large published metagenomic eukaryotic virus datasets were assigned to 127 novel family-level groupings. If corroborated by other analysis methods, these would potentially more than double the number of

  16. Host Identity Protocol Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of P5 P-type ATPases, a eukaryotic lineage of secretory pathway pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Annette; Asp, Torben; Holm, Preben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes encompass a remarkable variety of organisms and unresolved lineages. Different phylogenetic analyses have lead to conflicting conclusions as to the origin and associations between lineages and species. In this work, we investigated evolutionary relationship of a family of cation pumps...... exclusive for the secretory pathway of eukaryotes by combining the identification of lineage-specific genes with phylogenetic evolution of common genes. Sequences of P5 ATPases, which are regarded to be cation pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), were identified in all eukaryotic lineages but not in any...... far, while P5B ATPases appear to be lost in three eukaryotic lineages; excavates, entamoebas and land plants. A lineage-specific gene expansion of up to four different P5B ATPases is seen in animals....

  18. Bacterial and eukaryotic systems collide in the three Rs of Methanococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard P; Walters, Alison D; Chong, James P J

    2011-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis S2 is a methanogenic archaeon with a well-developed genetic system. Its mesophilic nature offers a simple system in which to perform complementation using bacterial and eukaryotic genes. Although information-processing systems in archaea are generally more similar to those in eukaryotes than those in bacteria, the order Methanococcales has a unique complement of DNA replication proteins, with multiple MCM (minichromosome maintenance) proteins and no obvious originbinding protein. A search for homologues of recombination and repair proteins in M. maripaludis has revealed a mixture of bacterial, eukaryotic and some archaeal-specific homologues. Some repair pathways appear to be completely absent, but it is possible that archaeal-specific proteins could carry out these functions. The replication, recombination and repair systems in M. maripaludis are an interesting mixture of eukaryotic and bacterial homologues and could provide a system for uncovering novel interactions between proteins from different domains of life.

  19. Meeting Report: Minutes from EMBO: Ten Years of Comparative Genomics of Eukaryotic Microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; López-García, P.; Louis, E.; Boekhout, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 3 (2016), s. 217-221 ISSN 1434-4610 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : protist * eukaryotic microorganisms * genomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.794, year: 2016

  20. Non-coding RNA regulation in pathogenic bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, Alvaro D.; Quereda, Juan J; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved distinct lifestyles inside eukaryotic cells. Some pathogens coexist with the infected cell in an obligate intracellular state, whereas others transit between the extracellular and intracellular environment. Adaptation to these intracellular lifestyles

  1. Internalization of a polysialic acid-binding Escherichia coli bacteriophage into eukaryotic neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti, Timo A; Pajunen, Maria I; Skog, Maria S; Finne, Jukka

    2017-12-04

    Eukaryotic organisms are continuously exposed to bacteriophages, which are efficient gene transfer agents in bacteria. However, bacteriophages are considered not to pass the eukaryotic cell membrane and enter nonphagocytic cells. Here we report the binding and penetration of Escherichia coli PK1A2 bacteriophage into live eukaryotic neuroblastoma cells in vitro. The phage interacts with cell surface polysialic acid, which shares structural similarity with the bacterial phage receptor. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, we show that phages are internalized via the endolysosomal route and persist inside the human cells up to one day without affecting cell viability. Phage capsid integrity is lost in lysosomes, and the phage DNA is eventually degraded. We did not detect the entry of phage DNA into the nucleus; however, we speculate that this might occur as a rare event, and propose that this potential mechanism could explain prokaryote-eukaryote gene flow.

  2. Host Cell Targeting by Enteropathogenic Bacteria T3SS Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Laurie; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Phalipon, Armelle

    2018-04-01

    Microbial pathogens possess a diversity of weapons that disrupt host homeostasis and immune defenses, thus resulting in the establishment of infection. The best-characterized system mediating bacterial protein delivery into target eukaryotic cells is the type III secretion system (T3SS) expressed by Gram-negative bacteria, including the human enteric pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic/enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC). The emerging global view is that these T3SS-bearing pathogens share similarities in their ability to target key cellular pathways such as the cell cytoskeleton, trafficking, cell death/survival, and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In particular, multiple host proteins are targeted in a given pathway, and different T3SS effectors from various pathogens share functional similarities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hijacking of the Host Ubiquitin Network by Legionella pneumophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is critical for regulation of numerous eukaryotic cellular processes such as protein homeostasis, cell cycle progression, immune response, DNA repair, and vesicular trafficking. Ubiquitination often leads to the alteration of protein stability, subcellular localization, or interaction with other proteins. Given the importance of ubiquitination in the regulation of host immunity, it is not surprising that many infectious agents have evolved strategies to interfere with the ubiquitination network with sophisticated mechanisms such as functional mimicry. The facultative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila is phagocytosed by macrophages and is able to replicate within a niche called Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV. The biogenesis of LCV is dependent upon the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system which delivers more than 330 effector proteins into host cytosol. The optimal intracellular replication of L. pneumophila requires the host ubiquitin-proteasome system. Furthermore, membranes of the bacterial phagosome are enriched with ubiquitinated proteins in a way that requires its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, suggesting the involvement of effectors in the manipulation of the host ubiquitination machinery. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms exploited by L. pneumophila effector proteins to hijack the host ubiquitination pathway.

  4. Alternatives to vitamin B1 uptake revealed with discovery of riboswitches in multiple marine eukaryotic lineages

    OpenAIRE

    McRose, Darcy; Guo, Jian; Monier, Adam; Sudek, Sebastian; Wilken, Susanne; Yan, Shuangchun; Mock, Thomas; Archibald, John M; Begley, Tadhg P; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) is essential to all life but scarce in ocean surface waters. In many bacteria and a few eukaryotic groups thiamine biosynthesis genes are controlled by metabolite-sensing mRNA-based gene regulators known as riboswitches. Using available genome sequences and transcriptomes generated from ecologically important marine phytoplankton, we identified 31 new eukaryotic riboswitches. These were found in alveolate, cryptophyte, haptophyte and rhizarian phytopla...

  5. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  6. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    activity was used to clone analogous genes from different eukaryotes. Putative PYD3 sequences from the yeast S. kluyveri, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster complemented the pyd3 defect. When the S. kluyveri PYD3 gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae, which has......-carbamyl-beta -alanine, but not by uracil. This wrork establishes S. kluyveri as a model organism for studying pyrimidine degradation and beta -alanine production in eukaryotes....

  7. Construction of sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries using low input of total environmental metatranscriptomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajiv Kumar; Barbi, Florian; Ziller, Antoine; Luis, Patricia; Marmeisse, Roland; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2014-09-03

    Construction of high quality cDNA libraries from the usually low amounts of eukaryotic mRNA extracted from environmental samples is essential in functional metatranscriptomics for the selection of functional, full-length genes encoding proteins of interest. Many of the inserts in libraries constructed by standard methods are represented by truncated cDNAs due to premature stoppage of reverse transcriptase activity and preferential cloning of short cDNAs. We report here a simple and cost effective technique for preparation of sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries from as low as three microgram of total soil RNA dominated by ribosomal and bacterial RNA. cDNAs synthesized by a template switching approach were size-fractionated by two dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis prior to PCR amplification and cloning. Effective size selection was demonstrated by PCR amplification of conserved gene families specific of each size class. Libraries of more than one million independent inserts whose sizes ranged between one and four kb were thus produced. Up to 80% of the insert sequences were homologous to eukaryotic gene sequences present in public databases. A simple and cost effective technique has been developed to construct sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries from environmental samples. This technique will facilitate expression cloning of environmental eukaryotic genes and contribute to a better understanding of basic biological and/or ecological processes carried out by eukaryotic microbial communities.

  8. Why did eukaryotes evolve only once? Genetic and energetic aspects of conflict and conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2013-07-19

    According to multi-level theory, evolutionary transitions require mediating conflicts between lower-level units in favour of the higher-level unit. By this view, the origin of eukaryotes and the origin of multicellularity would seem largely equivalent. Yet, eukaryotes evolved only once in the history of life, whereas multicellular eukaryotes have evolved many times. Examining conflicts between evolutionary units and mechanisms that mediate these conflicts can illuminate these differences. Energy-converting endosymbionts that allow eukaryotes to transcend surface-to-volume constraints also can allocate energy into their own selfish replication. This principal conflict in the origin of eukaryotes can be mediated by genetic or energetic mechanisms. Genome transfer diminishes the heritable variation of the symbiont, but requires the de novo evolution of the protein-import apparatus and was opposed by selection for selfish symbionts. By contrast, metabolic signalling is a shared primitive feature of all cells. Redox state of the cytosol is an emergent feature that cannot be subverted by an individual symbiont. Hypothetical scenarios illustrate how metabolic regulation may have mediated the conflicts inherent at different stages in the origin of eukaryotes. Aspects of metabolic regulation may have subsequently been coopted from within-cell to between-cell pathways, allowing multicellularity to emerge repeatedly.

  9. Patterns of kinesin evolution reveal a complex ancestral eukaryote with a multifunctional cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Thomas A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genesis of the eukaryotes was a pivotal event in evolution and was accompanied by the acquisition of numerous new cellular features including compartmentalization by cytoplasmic organelles, mitosis and meiosis, and ciliary motility. Essential for the development of these features was the tubulin cytoskeleton and associated motors. It is therefore possible to map ancient cell evolution by reconstructing the evolutionary history of motor proteins. Here, we have used the kinesin motor repertoire of 45 extant eukaryotes to infer the ancestral state of this superfamily in the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA. Results We bioinformatically identified 1624 putative kinesin proteins, determined their protein domain architectures and calculated a comprehensive Bayesian phylogeny for the kinesin superfamily with statistical support. These data enabled us to define 51 anciently-derived kinesin paralogs (including three new kinesin families and 105 domain architectures. We then mapped these characters across eukaryotes, accounting for secondary loss within established eukaryotic groupings, and alternative tree topologies. Conclusions We show that a minimum of 11 kinesin families and 3 protein domain architectures were present in the LCEA. This demonstrates that the microtubule-based cytoskeleton of the LCEA was surprisingly highly developed in terms of kinesin motor types, but that domain architectures have been extensively modified during the diversification of the eukaryotes. Our analysis provides molecular evidence for the existence of several key cellular functions in the LCEA, and shows that a large proportion of motor family diversity and cellular complexity had already arisen in this ancient cell.

  10. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  11. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Generalized selection to overcome innate immunity selects for host breadth in an RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Brian R; Muñoz-Rojas, Andrés R; Okamoto, Kenichi W; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn; Turner, Paul E

    2016-02-01

    Virus-host coevolution has selected for generalized host defense against viruses, exemplified by interferon production/signaling and other innate immune function in eukaryotes such as humans. Although cell-surface binding primarily limits virus infection success, generalized adaptation to counteract innate immunity across disparate hosts may contribute to RNA virus emergence potential. We examined this idea using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) populations previously evolved on strictly immune-deficient (HeLa) cells, strictly immune competent (MDCK) cells, or on alternating deficient/competent cells. By measuring viral fitness in unselected human cancer cells of differing innate immunity, we confirmed that HeLa-adapted populations were specialized for innate immune-deficient hosts, whereas MDCK-adapted populations were relatively more generalized for fitness on hosts of differing innate immune capacity and of different species origin. We also confirmed that HeLa-evolved populations maintained fitness in immune-deficient nonhuman primate cells. These results suggest that innate immunity is more prominent than host species in determining viral fitness at the host-cell level. Finally, our prediction was inexact that selection on alternating deficient/competent hosts should produce innate viral generalists. Rather, fitness differences among alternating host-evolved VSV populations indicated variable capacities to evade innate immunity. Our results suggest that the evolutionary history of innate immune selection can affect whether RNA viruses evolve greater host-breadth. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  14. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a diverse repertoire of genes involved in prokaryote-eukaryote interactions within the Pseudovibrio genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eRomano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage.Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus.Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Diverse Repertoire of Genes Involved in Prokaryote-Eukaryote Interactions within the Pseudovibrio Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Stefano; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antonio; Reen, F Jerry; Glöckner, Frank O; Crowley, Susan P; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage. Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus. Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche within its

  16. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  17. Expression and cytosolic assembly of the S-layer fusion protein mSbsC-EGFP in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenhuis Marten

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Native as well as recombinant bacterial cell surface layer (S-layer protein of Geobacillus (G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 assembles to supramolecular structures with an oblique symmetry. Upon expression in E. coli, S-layer self assembly products are formed in the cytosol. We tested the expression and assembly of a fusion protein, consisting of the mature part (aa 31–1099 of the S-layer protein and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein, in eukaryotic host cells, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human HeLa cells. Results Upon expression in E. coli the recombinant mSbsC-EGFP fusion protein was recovered from the insoluble fraction. After denaturation by Guanidine (Gua-HCl treatment and subsequent dialysis the fusion protein assembled in solution and yielded green fluorescent cylindric structures with regular symmetry comparable to that of the authentic SbsC. For expression in the eukaryotic host Saccharomyces (S. cerevisiae mSbsC-EGFP was cloned in a multi-copy expression vector bearing the strong constitutive GPD1 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosophate-dehydrogenase promoter. The respective yeast transfomants were only slightly impaired in growth and exhibited a needle-like green fluorescent pattern. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM studies revealed the presence of closely packed cylindrical structures in the cytosol with regular symmetry comparable to those obtained after in vitro recrystallization. Similar structures are observed in HeLa cells expressing mSbsC-EGFP from the Cytomegalovirus (CMV IE promoter. Conclusion The mSbsC-EGFP fusion protein is stably expressed both in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in HeLa cells. Recombinant mSbsC-EGFP combines properties of both fusion partners: it assembles both in vitro and in vivo to cylindrical structures that show an intensive green fluorescence. Fusion of proteins to S-layer proteins may be a useful tool for high level expression in yeast and HeLa cells of

  18. NMR analysis of the interaction of picornaviral proteinases Lb and 2A with their substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 4GII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Martina; Fedosyuk, Sofiya; Ruzicska, Katharina; Sousa-Blin, Carla; Kontaxis, Georg; Skern, Tim

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eIF4G and the RNA helicase eIF4A. To shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eIF4G is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eIF4E is unclear. We have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (Lb(pro)), human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) 2A proteinase (2A(pro)) and coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) 2A(pro) with purified eIF4GII, eIF4E and the eIF4GII/eIF4E complex. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we completed (13)C/(15) N sequential backbone assignment of human eIF4GII residues 551-745 and examined their binding to murine eIF4E. eIF4GII551-745 is intrinsically unstructured and remains so when bound to eIF4E. NMR and biophysical techniques for determining stoichiometry and binding constants revealed that the papain-like Lb(pro) only forms a stable complex with eIF4GII(551-745) in the presence of eIF4E, with KD values in the low nanomolar range; Lb(pro) contacts both eIF4GII and eIF4E. Furthermore, the unrelated chymotrypsin-like 2A(pro) from HRV2 and CVB4 also build a stable complex with eIF4GII/eIF4E, but with K(D) values in the low micromolar range. The HRV2 enzyme also forms a stable complex with eIF4E; however, none of the proteinases tested complex stably with eIF4GII alone. Thus, these three picornaviral proteinases have independently evolved to establish distinct triangular heterotrimeric protein complexes that may actively target ribosomes involved in mRNA recruitment to ensure efficient host cell shut-off. © 2015 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  19. Brazilian actual conditions of the blood irradiation practice in graft-versus-host disease prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Evamberto G. de; Borges, Jose C.; Pela, Carlos A.

    1997-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and cellular components containing viable lymphocytes can result in Graft-Versus Host Disease (GVHD) in immuno compromised patients. It can be prevented by irradiation, prior to transfusion, of blood components. This work presents an overview of the Brazilian reality and suggests policies to optimise GVHD prevention. (author). 4 refs

  20. The evolution of sex: A new hypothesis based on mitochondrial mutational erosion: Mitochondrial mutational erosion in ancestral eukaryotes would favor the evolution of sex, harnessing nuclear recombination to optimize compensatory nuclear coadaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havird, Justin C; Hall, Matthew D; Dowling, Damian K

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of sex in eukaryotes represents a paradox, given the "twofold" fitness cost it incurs. We hypothesize that the mutational dynamics of the mitochondrial genome would have favored the evolution of sexual reproduction. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exhibits a high-mutation rate across most eukaryote taxa, and several lines of evidence suggest that this high rate is an ancestral character. This seems inexplicable given that mtDNA-encoded genes underlie the expression of life's most salient functions, including energy conversion. We propose that negative metabolic effects linked to mitochondrial mutation accumulation would have invoked selection for sexual recombination between divergent host nuclear genomes in early eukaryote lineages. This would provide a mechanism by which recombinant host genotypes could be rapidly shuffled and screened for the presence of compensatory modifiers that offset mtDNA-induced harm. Under this hypothesis, recombination provides the genetic variation necessary for compensatory nuclear coadaptation to keep pace with mitochondrial mutation accumulation. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity and in situ detection of eukaryotes in anaerobic sludge digesters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Matsubayashi

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic communities in aerobic wastewater treatment processes are well characterized, but little is known about them in anaerobic processes. In this study, abundance, diversity and morphology of eukaryotes in anaerobic sludge digesters were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, 18S rRNA gene clone library construction and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH. Samples were taken from four different anaerobic sludge digesters in Japan. Results of qPCR of rRNA genes revealed that Eukarya accounted from 0.1% to 1.4% of the total number of microbial rRNA gene copy numbers. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 251 clones were Fungi, Alveolata, Viridiplantae, Amoebozoa, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and Metazoa. Eighty-five percent of the clones showed less than 97.0% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating most of the eukaryotes in anaerobic sludge digesters are largely unknown. Clones belonging to the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota of Fungi were most abundant in anaerobic sludge, which accounted for 50% of the total clones. The most dominant OTU in each library belonged to either the LKM11 lineage or the uncultured lineage A31 in Alveolata. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that the eukaryotic and prokaryotic community structures were related. The detection of anaerobic eukaryotes, including the members of the LKM11 and A31 lineages in anaerobic sludge digesters, by CARD-FISH revealed their sizes in the range of 2-8 μm. The diverse and uncultured eukaryotes in the LKM11 and the A31 lineages are common and ecologically relevant members in anaerobic sludge digester.

  2. Structure of a bacterial type III secretion system in contact with a host membrane in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nans, Andrea; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Saibil, Helen R.; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of animals and plants use a conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells to subvert host functions. Contact with host membranes is critical for T3SS activation, yet little is known about T3SS architecture in this state or the conformational changes that drive effector translocation. Here we use cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging to derive the intact structure of the primordial Chlamydia trachomatis T3SS in the presence and absence of host membrane contact. Comparison of the averaged structures demonstrates a marked compaction of the basal body (4 nm) occurs when the needle tip contacts the host cell membrane. This compaction is coupled to a stabilization of the cytosolic sorting platform-ATPase. Our findings reveal the first structure of a bacterial T3SS from a major human pathogen engaged with a eukaryotic host, and reveal striking `pump-action' conformational changes that underpin effector injection.

  3. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  4. Metabarcoding analysis of eukaryotic microbiota in the gut of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Abou Abdallah, Rita; Ravaux, Isabelle; Mokhtari, Saadia; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Michelle, Caroline; Stein, Andreas; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples. Our results revealed that recovering eukaryotic components from fecal samples differs significantly among DNA extraction methods. Subsequently, the composition of the intestinal eukaryotic microbiota was evaluated in HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers through clone sequencing, high-throughput sequencing of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) amplicons and real-time PCRs. Our results revealed that not only richness (Chao-1 index) and alpha diversity (Shannon diversity) differ between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, depending on the molecular strategy used, but also the global eukaryotic community composition, with little overlapping taxa found between techniques. Moreover, our results based on cloning libraries and ITS1/ITS2 metabarcoding sequencing showed significant differences in fungal composition between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, but without distinct clusters separating the two groups. Malassezia restricta was significantly more prevalent in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients, according to cloning libraries, whereas operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were significantly more abundant in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients compared to healthy subjects in both ITS subregions. Finally, real-time PCR showed the presence of Microsporidia, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis and

  5. Metabarcoding analysis of eukaryotic microbiota in the gut of HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hamad

    Full Text Available Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples. Our results revealed that recovering eukaryotic components from fecal samples differs significantly among DNA extraction methods. Subsequently, the composition of the intestinal eukaryotic microbiota was evaluated in HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers through clone sequencing, high-throughput sequencing of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1 and 2 (ITS2 amplicons and real-time PCRs. Our results revealed that not only richness (Chao-1 index and alpha diversity (Shannon diversity differ between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, depending on the molecular strategy used, but also the global eukaryotic community composition, with little overlapping taxa found between techniques. Moreover, our results based on cloning libraries and ITS1/ITS2 metabarcoding sequencing showed significant differences in fungal composition between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, but without distinct clusters separating the two groups. Malassezia restricta was significantly more prevalent in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients, according to cloning libraries, whereas operational taxonomic units (OTUs belonging to Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were significantly more abundant in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients compared to healthy subjects in both ITS subregions. Finally, real-time PCR showed the presence of Microsporidia, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis

  6. Evolution of glutamate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for lateral gene transfer within and between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral gene transfer can introduce genes with novel functions into genomes or replace genes with functionally similar orthologs or paralogs. Here we present a study of the occurrence of the latter gene replacement phenomenon in the four gene families encoding different classes of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, to evaluate and compare the patterns and rates of lateral gene transfer (LGT in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Results We extend the taxon sampling of gdh genes with nine new eukaryotic sequences and examine the phylogenetic distribution pattern of the various GDH classes in combination with maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. The distribution pattern analyses indicate that LGT has played a significant role in the evolution of the four gdh gene families. Indeed, a number of gene transfer events are identified by phylogenetic analyses, including numerous prokaryotic intra-domain transfers, some prokaryotic inter-domain transfers and several inter-domain transfers between prokaryotes and microbial eukaryotes (protists. Conclusion LGT has apparently affected eukaryotes and prokaryotes to a similar extent within the gdh gene families. In the absence of indications that the evolution of the gdh gene families is radically different from other families, these results suggest that gene transfer might be an important evolutionary mechanism in microbial eukaryote genome evolution.

  7. Proton-pumping rhodopsins are abundantly expressed by microbial eukaryotes in a high-Arctic fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Anna; Laughinghouse, Haywood D; Griffiths, Colin; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Gabrielsen, Tove M

    2018-02-01

    Proton-pumping rhodopsins provide an alternative pathway to photosynthesis by which solar energy can enter the marine food web. Rhodopsin genes are widely found in marine bacteria, also in the Arctic, and were recently reported from several eukaryotic lineages. So far, little is known about rhodopsin expression in Arctic eukaryotes. In this study, we used metatranscriptomics and 18S rDNA tag sequencing to examine the mid-summer function and composition of marine protists (size 0.45-10 µm) in the high-Arctic Billefjorden (Spitsbergen), especially focussing on the expression of microbial proton-pumping rhodopsins. Rhodopsin transcripts were highly abundant, at a level similar to that of genes involved in photosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses placed the environmental rhodopsins within disparate eukaryotic lineages, including dinoflagellates, stramenopiles, haptophytes and cryptophytes. Sequence comparison indicated the presence of several functional types, including xanthorhodopsins and a eukaryotic clade of proteorhodopsin. Transcripts belonging to the proteorhodopsin clade were also abundant in published metatranscriptomes from other oceanic regions, suggesting a global distribution. The diversity and abundance of rhodopsins show that these light-driven proton pumps play an important role in Arctic microbial eukaryotes. Understanding this role is imperative to predicting the future of the Arctic marine ecosystem faced by a changing light climate due to diminishing sea-ice. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Functional capacity of Shiga-toxin promoter sequences in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentancor, Leticia V; Bilen, Marcos F; Mejías, María P; Fernández-Brando, Romina J; Panek, Cecilia A; Ramos, Maria V; Fernández, Gabriela C; Isturiz, Martín; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Palermo, Marina S

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are the main virulence factors in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections, causing diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The genes encoding for Shiga toxin-2 (Stx2) are located in a bacteriophage. The toxin is formed by a single A subunit and five B subunits, each of which has its own promoter sequence. We have previously reported the expression of the B subunit within the eukaryotic environment, probably driven by their own promoter. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the eukaryotic machinery to recognize stx2 sequences as eukaryotic-like promoters. Vero cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding Stx2 under its own promoter. The cytotoxic effect on these cells was similar to that observed upon incubation with purified Stx2. In addition, we showed that Stx2 expression in Stx2-insensitive BHK eukaryotic cells induced drastic morphological and cytoskeletal changes. In order to directly evaluate the capacity of the wild promoter sequences of the A and B subunits to drive protein expression in mammalian cells, GFP was cloned under eukaryotic-like putative promoter sequences. GFP expression was observed in 293T cells transfected with these constructions. These results show a novel and alternative way to synthesize Stx2 that could contribute to the global understanding of EHEC infections with immediate impact on the development of treatments or vaccines against HUS.

  9. Efficient method to optimize antibodies using avian leukosis virus display and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changming; Pike, Gennett M; Rinkoski, Tommy A; Correia, Cristina; Kaufmann, Scott H; Federspiel, Mark J

    2015-08-11

    Antibody-based therapeutics have now had success in the clinic. The affinity and specificity of the antibody for the target ligand determines the specificity of therapeutic delivery and off-target side effects. The discovery and optimization of high-affinity antibodies to important therapeutic targets could be significantly improved by the availability of a robust, eukaryotic display technology comparable to phage display that would overcome the protein translation limitations of microorganisms. The use of eukaryotic cells would improve the diversity of the displayed antibodies that can be screened and optimized as well as more seamlessly transition into a large-scale mammalian expression system for clinical production. In this study, we demonstrate that the replication and polypeptide display characteristics of a eukaryotic retrovirus, avian leukosis virus (ALV), offers a robust, eukaryotic version of bacteriophage display. The binding affinity of a model single-chain Fv antibody was optimized by using ALV display, improving affinity >2,000-fold, from micromolar to picomolar levels. We believe ALV display provides an extension to antibody display on microorganisms and offers virus and cell display platforms in a eukaryotic expression system. ALV display should enable an improvement in the diversity of properly processed and functional antibody variants that can be screened and affinity-optimized to improve promising antibody candidates.

  10. Production of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems: higher activity of R2 produced by eukaryotic cells related to higher iron-binding capacity.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, N; Matton, G; Massie, B; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; Dumas, F; Gaudreau, P; Langelier, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2 was overproduced with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant R2 purified by a two-step procedure exhibited a 3-fold higher activity when produced in eukaryotic cells. Precise quantification of the R2 concentration at each step of the purification indicated that the activity was not altered during the purification procedure. Moreover, we have observed that the level of R2 expression, in eukaryot...

  11. Host-Pathogen Coupled Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    describe bacterial proliferation in the host (and the host’s immune response), and molecular-level models describing the subversion of the molecular...the pathogen is endocytosed by host immune cells, and in the course of infection can escape back into the tissue or bloodstream of the host. During...host’s overall ( immune ) response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mathematical model, signaling pathways, bacterial infection, macrophage, immune system 16. SECURITY

  12. Marine Microscale Interactions: Exploring the Ecological Relationships Between a Cosmopolitan Eukaryotic Diatom Thalassiosira rotula and its Associated Heterotrophic Bacterial Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, O. M.; Williams, T.; Whittaker, K. A.; Hunt, D.; Rynearson, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    Interspecies microscale interactions between eukaryotic marine diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria play a role in global oceanic biogeochemical cycling by influencing nutrient and carbon cycling, rates of primary production, and phytoplankton community structure. Studies have shown that marine diatoms carry a specific bacterial assemblage in their phycosphere, but little research has been done to identify these bacterial species and to characterize their ecological relationships despite their strong potential to regulate diatom growth and production. In order to further explore ecological interactions between bacteria and diatoms, we are characterizing the taxonomic composition of phycosphere communities from isolates of the cosmopolitan marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula collected from around the globe and identifying whether environmental factors, different host T. rotula strains, space or season correlate with different phycosphere communities. For our initial analyses, we amplified and sequenced the 16S rDNA v34 region of the phycosphere assemblage of 53 T. rotula isolates from eight locations around the globe and obtained > 420,000 paired-end sequences. We identified > 250 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Although many OTUs were shared across populations which identified to members of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, we identified distinct bacterial assemblages associated with different locations. The presence of distinct phycosphere bacterial communities may regulate diatom growth which potentially affects rates of primary production, nutrient bioavailablity, and, ultimately, energy transfer to higher trophic levels.

  13. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...

  14. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  15. A superfamily of archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic proteins homologous to animal transglutaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, K S; Aravind, L; Koonin, E V

    1999-08-01

    Computer analysis using profiles generated by the PSI-BLAST program identified a superfamily of proteins homologous to eukaryotic transglutaminases. The members of the new protein superfamily are found in all archaea, show a sporadic distribution among bacteria, and were detected also in eukaryotes, such as two yeast species and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Sequence conservation in this superfamily primarily involves three motifs that center around conserved cysteine, histidine, and aspartate residues that form the catalytic triad in the structurally characterized transglutaminase, the human blood clotting factor XIIIa'. On the basis of the experimentally demonstrated activity of the Methanobacterium phage pseudomurein endoisopeptidase, it is proposed that many, if not all, microbial homologs of the transglutaminases are proteases and that the eukaryotic transglutaminases have evolved from an ancestral protease.

  16. Faster growth of the major prokaryotic versus eukaryotic CO2 fixers in the oligotrophic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2014-04-29

    Because maintenance of non-scalable cellular components--membranes and chromosomes--requires an increasing fraction of energy as cell size decreases, miniaturization comes at a considerable energetic cost for a phytoplanktonic cell. Consequently, if eukaryotes can use their superior energetic resources to acquire nutrients with more or even similar efficiency compared with prokaryotes, larger unicellular eukaryotes should be able to achieve higher growth rates than smaller cyanobacteria. Here, to test this hypothesis, we directly compare the intrinsic growth rates of phototrophic prokaryotes and eukaryotes from the equatorial to temperate South Atlantic using an original flow cytometric (14)CO2-tracer approach. At the ocean basin scale, cyanobacteria double their biomass twice as frequently as the picoeukaryotes indicating that the prokaryotes are faster growing CO2 fixers, better adapted to phototrophic living in the oligotrophic open ocean-the most extensive biome on Earth.

  17. Genome-wide Purification of Extrachromosomal Circular DNA from Eukaryotic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik D.; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Tachibana, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are common genetic elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and are reported in other eukaryotes as well. EccDNAs contribute to genetic variation among somatic cells in multicellular organisms and to evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. Sensitive methods...... for detecting eccDNA are needed to clarify how these elements affect genome stability and how environmental and biological factors induce their formation in eukaryotic cells. This video presents a sensitive eccDNA-purification method called Circle-Seq. The method encompasses column purification of circular DNA...... DNA. Validation of the Circle-Seq method on three S. cerevisiae CEN.PK populations of 10(10) cells detected hundreds of eccDNA profiles in sizes larger than 1 kilobase. Repeated findings of ASP3-1, COS111, CUP1, RSC30, HXT6, HXT7 genes on circular DNA in both S288c and CEN.PK suggests that DNA...

  18. The Evolution of Organellar Coat Complexes and Organization of the Eukaryotic Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Michael P; Field, Mark C

    2017-06-20

    Eukaryotic cells possess a remarkably diverse range of organelles that provide compartmentalization for distinct cellular functions and are likely responsible for the remarkable success of these organisms. The origins and subsequent elaboration of these compartments represent a key aspect in the transition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular forms. The protein machinery required to build, maintain, and define many membrane-bound compartments is encoded by several paralog families, including small GTPases, coiled-bundle proteins, and proteins with β-propeller and α-solenoid secondary structures. Together these proteins provide the membrane coats and control systems to structure and coordinate the endomembrane system. Mechanistically and evolutionarily, they unite not only secretory and endocytic organelles but also the flagellum and nucleus. The ancient origins for these families have been revealed by recent findings, providing new perspectives on the deep evolutionary processes and relationships that underlie eukaryotic cell structure.

  19. Large-scale analysis of phosphorylation site occupancy in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    in proteins is currently lacking. We have therefore analyzed the occurrence and occupancy of phosphorylated sites (~ 100,281) in a large set of eukaryotic proteins (~ 22,995). Phosphorylation probability was found to be much higher in both the  termini of protein sequences and this is much pronounced...... maximum randomness. An analysis of phosphorylation motifs indicated that just 40 motifs and a much lower number of associated kinases might account for nearly 50% of the known phosphorylations in eukaryotic proteins. Our results provide a broad picture of the phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins.......Many recent high throughput technologies have enabled large-scale discoveries of new phosphorylation sites and phosphoproteins. Although they have provided a number of insights into protein phosphorylation and the related processes, an inclusive analysis on the nature of phosphorylated sites...

  20. The reduced kinome of Ostreococcus tauri: core eukaryotic signalling components in a tractable model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Matthew M; Martin, Sarah F; Noordally, Zeenat B; van Ooijen, Gerben; Barrios-Llerena, Martin E; Simpson, T Ian; Le Bihan, Thierry; Millar, Andrew J

    2014-08-02

    The current knowledge of eukaryote signalling originates from phenotypically diverse organisms. There is a pressing need to identify conserved signalling components among eukaryotes, which will lead to the transfer of knowledge across kingdoms. Two useful properties of a eukaryote model for signalling are (1) reduced signalling complexity, and (2) conservation of signalling components. The alga Ostreococcus tauri is described as the smallest free-living eukaryote. With less than 8,000 genes, it represents a highly constrained genomic palette. Our survey revealed 133 protein kinases and 34 protein phosphatases (1.7% and 0.4% of the proteome). We conducted phosphoproteomic experiments and constructed domain structures and phylogenies for the catalytic protein-kinases. For each of the major kinases families we review the completeness and divergence of O. tauri representatives in comparison to the well-studied kinomes of the laboratory models Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and of Homo sapiens. Many kinase clades in O. tauri were reduced to a single member, in preference to the loss of family diversity, whereas TKL and ABC1 clades were expanded. We also identified kinases that have been lost in A. thaliana but retained in O. tauri. For three, contrasting eukaryotic pathways - TOR, MAPK, and the circadian clock - we established the subset of conserved components and demonstrate conserved sites of substrate phosphorylation and kinase motifs. We conclude that O. tauri satisfies our two central requirements. Several of its kinases are more closely related to H. sapiens orthologs than S. cerevisiae is to H. sapiens. The greatly reduced kinome of O. tauri is therefore a suitable model for signalling in free-living eukaryotes.

  1. Engineering of ribosomal shunt-modulating eukaryotic ON riboswitches by using a cell-free translation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    A number of natural and artificial bacterial riboswitches have been reported thus far. However, they generally function only in bacteria, not in eukaryotes. This is because of the differences of expression mechanisms (transcription, translation, and so on) between these two main types of organisms. For example, the mechanism of translation initiation is quite different between bacteria and eukaryotes, especially in ribosome loading on mRNA. While the bacterial ribosome binds to a well-conserved, internal sequence some bases before the start codon to initiate translation, the eukaryotic one is loaded on the 5' terminus with the help of certain eukaryotic initiation factors. This means not only that bacterial riboswitches regulating translation initiation are not available in eukaryotic translation systems, but also that it is physically difficult to construct eukaryotic ON riboswitches that regulate the eukaryotic canonical translation initiation, because an aptamer cannot be inserted upstream of the ribosome loading site. However, the mechanism of noncanonical translation initiation via "ribosomal shunt" enables us to design translation initiation-modulating (specifically, ribosomal shunt-modulating) eukaryotic ON riboswitches. This chapter describes a facile method for engineering these ribosomal shunt-modulating eukaryotic ON riboswitches by using a cell-free translation system. Because these riboswitches do not require hybridization switching thanks to a unique shunting mechanism, they have the major advantages of a low energy requirement for upregulation and relatively straightforward design over common hybridization switch-based ON riboswitches. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arctic gypsum endoliths: a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Mykytczuk, N. C. S.; Omelon, C. R.; Johnson, H.; Whyte, L. G.; Slater, G. F.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme environmental conditions such as those found in the polar regions on Earth are thought to test the limits of life. Microorganisms living in these environments often seek protection from environmental stresses such as high UV exposure, desiccation and rapid temperature fluctuations, with one protective habitat found within rocks. Such endolithic microbial communities, which often consist of bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens, are small-scale ecosystems comprised of both producers and consumers. However, the harsh environmental conditions experienced by polar endolithic communities are thought to limit microbial diversity and therefore the rate at which they cycle carbon. In this study, we characterized the microbial community diversity, turnover rate and microbe-mineral interactions of a gypsum-based endolithic community in the polar desert of the Canadian high Arctic. 16S/18S/23S rRNA pyrotag sequencing demonstrated the presence of a diverse community of phototrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae and fungi. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the viable microbial membranes, as phospholipid fatty acids and glycolipid fatty acids, confirmed the diversity observed by molecular techniques and indicated that present-day atmospheric carbon is assimilated into the microbial community biomass. Uptake of radiocarbon from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s into microbial lipids was used as a pulse label to determine that the microbial community turns over carbon on the order of 10 yr, equivalent to 4.4 g C m-2 yr-1 gross primary productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs indicated that mechanical weathering of gypsum by freeze-thaw cycles leads to increased porosity, which ultimately increases the habitability of the rock. In addition, while bacteria were adhered to these mineral surfaces, chemical analysis by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectroscopy suggests little evidence for microbial alteration of minerals

  3. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  4. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  5. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  6. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from ΛCDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  7. Exploring the Space of Viable Configurations in a Model of Metabolism-Boundary Co-construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Eran; Gates, Alexander J; Churavy, Valentin; Beer, Randall D

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a spatial model of concentration dynamics that supports the emergence of spatiotemporal inhomogeneities that engage in metabolism-boundary co-construction. These configurations exhibit disintegration following some perturbations, and self-repair in response to others. We define robustness as a viable configuration's tendency to return to its prior configuration in response to perturbations, and plasticity as a viable configuration's tendency to change to other viable configurations. These properties are demonstrated and quantified in the model, allowing us to map a space of viable configurations and their possible transitions. Combining robustness and plasticity provides a measure of viability as the average expected survival time under ongoing perturbation, and allows us to measure how viability is affected as the configuration undergoes transitions. The framework introduced here is independent of the specific model we used, and is applicable for quantifying robustness, plasticity, and viability in any computational model of artificial life that demonstrates the conditions for viability that we promote.

  8. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fisheri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri...

  9. Comparative radiobiology of genetic loci of eukaryots as the basis of the general theory of mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems of modern molecular cellular radiobiology is to reveal general and peculiar processes of the formation of gene mutations and chromosome aberrations in each stage of their formation in the irradiated genome of the higher eukaryots. The solution of the problems depends on the development of research within the framework of comparative radiobiology of genetic loci of the higher eukaryots that makes it possible to study quantitative regularities in the formation of gene (point) mutations and chromosome aberrations in one object and in the same experiment

  10. Dynamic instability--a common denominator in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA segregation and cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuesler, John A; Li, Hsin-Jung Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic instability is an essential phenomenon in eukaryotic nuclear division and prokaryotic plasmid R1 segregation. Although the molecular machines used in both systems differ greatly in composition, strong similarities and requisite nuances in dynamics and segregation mechanisms are observed. This brief examination of the current literature provides a functional comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic dynamically unstable filaments, specifically ParM and microtubules. Additionally, this mini-review should support the notion that any dynamically unstable filament could serve as the molecular machine driving DNA segregation, but these machines possess auxiliary features to adapt to temporal and spatial disparities in either system.

  11. Use of prokaryotic transcriptional activators as metabolite biosensors in eukaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of transcriptional activators from prokaryotic organisms for use in eukaryotic cells, such as yeast as sensors of intracellular and extracellular accumulation of a ligand or metabolite specifically activating this transcriptional activator in a eukaryot......, such as yeast cell, such as a cell engineered to produce this ligand. The transcriptional activator controls a promoter upstream of one or more gene, which may include e.g. a reporter gene that may be a fluorescence marker, such as luciferase, green fluorescent protein or a gnee encoding antibiotic resistance....

  12. Once in a lifetime: strategies for preventing re-replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olaf; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    DNA replication is an extremely accurate process and cells have evolved intricate control mechanisms to ensure that each region of their genome is replicated only once during S phase. Here, we compare what is known about the processes that prevent re-replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells...... prokaryotes and eukaryotes are inactivated until the next cell cycle. Furthermore, in both systems the beta-clamp of the replicative polymerase associates with enzymatic activities that contribute to the inactivation of the helicase loaders. Finally, recent studies suggest that the control mechanism...

  13. Molecular analyses reveal high levels of eukaryotic richness associated with enigmatic deep-sea protists (Komokiacea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecroq, Beatrice; Gooday, Andrew John; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    morphological features. To examine their taxonomic position at the molecular level, we analysed the SSU rDNA sequences of two species, Normanina conferta and Septuma ocotillo, obtained either with specific foraminiferal or universal eukaryotic primers. Many different sequences resulted from this investigation...... but none of them could clearly be attributed to komokiaceans. Although our study failed to confirm univocally that Komokiacea are foraminiferans, it revealed a huge eukaryotic richness associated with these organisms, comparable with the richness in the overall surrounding sediment. These observations...

  14. Viable Model of the Enterprise – a Cybernetic Approach for Implementing the Information Technologies in Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacheva, Todorka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to present the developed methodology of viable model based enterprise management, which is needed for modern enterprises to survive and growth in the information age century. The approach is based on Beer’s viable system model and uses it as a basis of the information technology implementation and development. The enterprise is viewed as a cybernetic system which functioning is controlled from the same rules as for every living system.

  15. Enhanced Viability in Organizations: An Approach to Expanding the Requirements of the Viable System Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elezi, Fatos;Schmidt, Michael;Tommelein, Iris D.;Lindemann, U.

    2014-01-01

    The Viable System Model (VSM) is a functional model of organizational structures whose implementation results in a presumably viable system. Despite scientific arguments and successful implementations in organizations, the VSM is still not widely used in practice. A reason may be that the VSM as defined by Beer addresses only the structural domain of the control (management) system in an organization and appears to miss some prerequisites for viability. Aiming for a more comprehensive approac...

  16. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  17. Towards a palaeoecological model of the Mesoproterozoic Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania, Northwestern Africa: implications for early eukaryote evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Jérémie; Guilbaud, Romain; Poulton, Simon W.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.; Storme, Jean-Yves; Blanpied, Christian; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.

    2016-04-01

    The mid-Proterozoic rock record preserves a relatively moderate diversity of early eukaryotes, despite the early evolution of fundamental features of the eukaryotic cell. Common hypotheses involve the redox state of stratified oceans with oxic shallow waters, euxinic mid-depth waters, and anoxic and ferruginous deep waters during this time period. Mid-Proterozoic eukaryotes would have found suitable ecological niches in estuarine, fluvio-deltaic and coastal shallow marine environments near nutrient sources, while N2-fixing photoautotrophs bacteria would have been better competitors than eukaryotic algae in nutrient-poor niches. Here, we present the first palaeoecological model of the late Mesoproterozoic Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania, Northwestern Africa. Previous palaeontological studies in the basin reported stromatolites, a low diversity of microfossils - including one species of presumed eukaryotes: verrucae-bearing acritarch - and biomarkers of anoxygenic phototrophic purple and green sulfur bacteria, cyanobacteria and microaerophilic methanotrophs. However, no biomarkers diagnostic for crown group eukaryotes were reported so far. In addition to exceptionally well preserved microbial mats showing chain-like aggregates of pyrite grains, we observed a total of sixty-two morphotaxa including nine presumed prokaryotes, thirty-five possible prokaryotes or eukaryotes, fifteen unambiguous species of eukaryotes - ornamented and process-bearing acritarchs, multicellular morphotaxon, putative VSMs, large budding vesicles, and vesicles with a sophisticated excystment structure: the pylome - and three remains of structured kerogen. Here, we combined the geological context (sedimentological features and lithofacies), iron speciation (n = 156) - with the aim of reconstructing palaeoredox environmental conditions -, and microfossils quantitative analysis (n = 61). Sediments were deposited under shallow waters in pericratonic (western basin) and epicratonic (eastern basin

  18. The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    SINA M. ADL; ALASTAIR G. B. SIMPSON; MARK A. FARMER; ROBERT A. ANDERSEN; O. ROGER ANDERSON; JOHN R. BARTA; SAMUEL S. BOWSER; GUY BRUGEROLLE; ROBERT A. FENSOME; SUZANNE FREDERICQ; TIMOTHY Y. JAMES; SERGEI KARPOV; PAUL KUGRENS; JOHN KRUG; CHRISTOPHER E. LANE; LOUISE A. LEWIS; JEAN LODGE; DENIS H. LYNN; DAVID G. MANN; RICHARD M. MCCOURT; LEONEL MENDOZA; ØJVIND MOESTRUP; SHARON E. MOZLEY-STANDRIDGE; THOMAS A. NERAD; CAROL A. SHEARER; ALEXEY V. SMIRNOV; FREDERICK W. SPIEGEL; MAX F.J.R. TAYLOR

    2005-01-01

    This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular phylogenetic...

  19. Production of yeastolates for uniform stable isotope labelling in eukaryotic cell culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Pistorius, A.M.A.; Grip, W.J. de

    2009-01-01

    Preparation of stable isotope-labelled yeastolates opens up ways to establish more cost-effective stable isotope labelling of biomolecules in insect and mammalian cell lines and hence to employ higher eukaryotic cell lines for stable isotope labelling of complex recombinant proteins. Therefore, we

  20. The Ancient Gamete Fusogen HAP2 Is a Eukaryotic Class II Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédry, Juliette; Liu, Yanjie; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Pei, Jimin; Li, Wenhao; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Traincard, François; Meola, Annalisa; Bricogne, Gérard; Grishin, Nick V; Snell, William J; Rey, Félix A; Krey, Thomas

    2017-02-23

    Sexual reproduction is almost universal in eukaryotic life and involves the fusion of male and female haploid gametes into a diploid cell. The sperm-restricted single-pass transmembrane protein HAP2-GCS1 has been postulated to function in membrane merger. Its presence in the major eukaryotic taxa-animals, plants, and protists (including important human pathogens like Plasmodium)-suggests that many eukaryotic organisms share a common gamete fusion mechanism. Here, we report combined bioinformatic, biochemical, mutational, and X-ray crystallographic studies on the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HAP2 that reveal homology to class II viral membrane fusion proteins. We further show that targeting the segment corresponding to the fusion loop by mutagenesis or by antibodies blocks gamete fusion. These results demonstrate that HAP2 is the gamete fusogen and suggest a mechanism of action akin to viral fusion, indicating a way to block Plasmodium transmission and highlighting the impact of virus-cell genetic exchanges on the evolution of eukaryotic life. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eukaryotes in the gut microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra H. Mandarano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS often suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and many are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Previous studies, including from our laboratory, have demonstrated that the ME/CFS gut bacterial composition is altered and less diverse when compared to healthy individuals. Patients have increased biomarkers of inflammation and leaky gut syndrome. To further investigate dysbiosis in the ME/CFS gut microbiome, we sought to characterize the eukaryotes present in the gut of 49 individuals with ME/CFS and 39 healthy controls. Using 18S rRNA sequencing, we have identified eukaryotes in stool samples of 17 healthy individuals and 17 ME/CFS patients. Our analysis demonstrates a small, nonsignificant decrease in eukaryotic diversity in ME/CFS patients compared to healthy individuals. In addition, ME/CFS patients show a nonsignificant increase in the ratio of fungal phyla Basidiomycota to Ascomycota, which is consistent with ongoing inflammation in ME/CFS. We did not identify specific eukaryotic taxa that are associated with ME/CFS disease status.

  2. SUMO fusion technology for enhanced protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panavas, Tadas; Sanders, Carsten; Butt, Tauseef R

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the reversible attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein is a post-translational modification that has been demonstrated to play an important role in various cellular processes. Moreover, it has been found that SUMO as an N-terminal fusion partner enhances functional protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, based upon significantly improved protein stability and solubility. Following the expression and purification of the fusion protein, the SUMO-tag can be cleaved by specific (SUMO) proteases via their endopeptidase activity in vitro to generate the desired N-terminus of the released protein partner. In addition to its physiological relevance in eukaryotes, SUMO can, thus, be used as a powerful biotechnological tool for protein expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems.In this chapter, we will describe the construction of a fusion protein with the SUMO-tag, its expression in Escherichia coli, and its purification followed by the removal of the SUMO-tag by a SUMO-specific protease in vitro.

  3. Large-scale patterns in biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes from the abyssal sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckenbach, Frank; Hausmann, Klaus; Wylezich, Claudia; Weitere, Markus; Arndt, Hartmut

    2010-01-05

    Eukaryotic microbial life at abyssal depths remains "uncharted territory" in eukaryotic microbiology. No phylogenetic surveys have focused on the largest benthic environment on this planet, the abyssal plains. Moreover, knowledge of the spatial patterns of deep-sea community structure is scanty, and what little is known originates primarily from morphology-based studies of foraminiferans. Here we report on the great phylogenetic diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities of all 3 abyssal plains of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean--the Angola, Cape, and Guinea Abyssal Plains--from depths of 5,000 m. A high percentage of retrieved clones had no close representatives in genetic databases. Many clones were affiliated with parasitic species. Furthermore, differences between the communities of the Cape Abyssal Plain and the other 2 abyssal plains point to environmental gradients apparently shaping community structure at the landscape level. On a regional scale, local species diversity showed much less variation. Our study provides insight into the community composition of microbial eukaryotes on larger scales from the wide abyssal sea floor realm and marks a direction for more detailed future studies aimed at improving our understanding of deep-sea microbes at the community and ecosystem levels, as well as the ecological principles at play.

  4. Eukaryotic Ribonucleases P/MRP: the Crystal Structure of the P3 Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perederina, A.; Esakova, O; Quan, C; Khanova, E; Krasilnikov, A

    2010-01-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) P is a site-specific endoribonuclease found in all kingdoms of life. Typical RNase P consists of a catalytic RNA component and a protein moiety. In the eukaryotes, the RNase P lineage has split into two, giving rise to a closely related enzyme, RNase MRP, which has similar components but has evolved to have different specificities. The eukaryotic RNases P/MRP have acquired an essential helix-loop-helix protein-binding RNA domain P3 that has an important function in eukaryotic enzymes and distinguishes them from bacterial and archaeal RNases P. Here, we present a crystal structure of the P3 RNA domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP in a complex with RNase P/MRP proteins Pop6 and Pop7 solved to 2.7 {angstrom}. The structure suggests similar structural organization of the P3 RNA domains in RNases P/MRP and possible functions of the P3 domains and proteins bound to them in the stabilization of the holoenzymes' structures as well as in interactions with substrates. It provides the first insight into the structural organization of the eukaryotic enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family.

  5. Revealing genetic diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms in aquatic environments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Van Agterveld, M.P.; Gons, H.J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new Eucarya-specific 18S rDNA primer set was constructed and tested using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to analyze the genetic diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms in aquatic environments. All eukaryal lines of descent exhibited four or fewer nucleotide mismatches in the forward primer

  6. Studying NK cell lectin receptors and their interactions using HEK293T eukaryotic expression system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, O.; Celadová, P.; Kolenko, Petr; Dohnálek, Jan; Bezouška, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 170 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress "Life´s Molecular Interactions /34./. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : NK cell lectin receptors * HEK293T * eukaryotic expression system Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. A complex cell division machinery was present in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The midbody is a transient complex structure containing proteins involved in cytokinesis. Up to now, it has been described only in Metazoa. Other eukaryotes present a variety of structures implied in the last steps of cell division, such as the septum in fungi or the phragmoplast in plants. However, it is unclear whether these structures are homologous (derive from a common ancestral structure or analogous (have distinct evolutionary origins. Recently, the proteome of the hamster midbody has been characterized and 160 proteins identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using phylogenomic approaches, we show here that nearly all of these 160 proteins (95% are conserved across metazoan lineages. More surprisingly, we show that a large part of the mammalian midbody components (91 proteins were already present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes (LECA and were most likely involved in the construction of a complex multi-protein assemblage acting in cell division. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the midbodies of non-mammalian metazoa are likely very similar to the mammalian one and that the ancestor of Metazoa possessed a nearly modern midbody. Moreover, our analyses support the hypothesis that the midbody and the structures involved in cytokinesis in other eukaryotes derive from a large and complex structure present in LECA, likely involved in cytokinesis. This is an additional argument in favour of the idea of a complex ancestor for all contemporary eukaryotes.

  8. Are maternal mitochondria the selfish entities that are masters of the cells of eukaryotic multicellular organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Peter W; Baldelli, E; Baluška, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    The Energide concept, as well as the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell organization and evolution, proposes that present-day cells of eukaryotic organisms are mosaics of specialized and cooperating units, or organelles. Some of these units were originally free-living prokaryotes, which were engulfed during evolutionary time. Mitochondria represent one of these types of previously independent organisms, the Energide, is another type. This new perspective on the organization of the cell has been further expanded to reveal the concept of a public milieu, the cytosol, in which Energides and mitochondria live, each with their own private internal milieu. The present paper discusses how the endosymbiotic theory implicates a new hypothesis about the hierarchical and communicational organization of the integrated prokaryotic components of the eukaryotic cell and provides a new angle from which to consider the theory of evolution and its bearing upon cellular complexity. Thus, it is proposed that the “selfish gene” hypothesis of Dawkins1 is not the only possible perspective for comprehending genomic and cellular evolution. Our proposal is that maternal mitochondria are the selfish “master” entities of the eukaryotic cell with respect not only to their propagation from cell-to-cell and from generation-to-generation but also to their regulation of all other cellular functions. However, it should be recognized that the concept of “master” and “servant” cell components is a metaphor; in present-day living organisms their organellar components are considered to be interdependent and inseparable. PMID:19513277

  9. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, 18F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions. PMID:24173035

  10. Eukaryotic ribonucleases P/MRP: the crystal structure of the P3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perederina, Anna; Esakova, Olga; Quan, Chao; Khanova, Elena; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2010-02-17

    Ribonuclease (RNase) P is a site-specific endoribonuclease found in all kingdoms of life. Typical RNase P consists of a catalytic RNA component and a protein moiety. In the eukaryotes, the RNase P lineage has split into two, giving rise to a closely related enzyme, RNase MRP, which has similar components but has evolved to have different specificities. The eukaryotic RNases P/MRP have acquired an essential helix-loop-helix protein-binding RNA domain P3 that has an important function in eukaryotic enzymes and distinguishes them from bacterial and archaeal RNases P. Here, we present a crystal structure of the P3 RNA domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP in a complex with RNase P/MRP proteins Pop6 and Pop7 solved to 2.7 A. The structure suggests similar structural organization of the P3 RNA domains in RNases P/MRP and possible functions of the P3 domains and proteins bound to them in the stabilization of the holoenzymes' structures as well as in interactions with substrates. It provides the first insight into the structural organization of the eukaryotic enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family.

  11. Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Speijer, D.; Lukeš, Julius; Eliáš, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 29 (2015), s. 8827-8834 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12104; GA ČR GA15-21974S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reactive oxygen species * evolution * protists * eukaryotes * sex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  12. High Genetic Diversity and Novelty in Eukaryotic Plankton Assemblages Inhabiting Saline Lakes in the Qaidam Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wang, Fang; Chu, Limin; Wang, Hao; Zhong, Zhiping; Liu, Zhipei; Gao, Jianyong; Duan, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes) in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%), whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50%) and Xiaochaidan (1.15%). Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper) saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution. PMID:25401703

  13. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  14. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of viable bacteria in urine samples of febrile patients at the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavenier, Anne H; de Boer, Foppie J; Moshaver, Bijan; van der Leur, Sjef J C M; Stegeman, Coen A; Groeneveld, Paul H P

    2017-08-16

    Fast and reliable diagnostics are important in febrile patients admitted to the emergency department. Current urine diagnostics are fast but moderately reliable or reliable but time consuming. Flow cytometry (FC) is a new promising technique in the diagnostics of complicated urinary tract infections by counting bacteria in urine samples. The aim of this study is to improve the FC method by counting only viable bacteria. Urine was obtained from 135 consecutive febrile patients at the emergency department. According to protocol regular diagnostic urine tests were performed. In addition, FC counting of viable and non-viable bacteria was executed after staining with thiazole orange and propidium iodide. All test results were compared to the results of urine culture (≥ 10 5 colony forming units/mL). At a cut-off value of 2.01 × 10 5 viable bacteria/mL the sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 78.4% (AUC-value 0.955 on ROC-curve). Spearman correlation test exhibited a higher correlation for flow cytometric counting of only viable bacteria than counting of all bacteria (0.59 vs. 0.37). Using ROC-curves, the AUC-values for FC counting of all bacteria, only viable bacteria and Gram staining were respectively 0.935, 0.955, and 0.968 (P > 0.05). FC counting of only viable bacteria can predict quickly and reliably positive and negative urine cultures in febrile patients admitted to the emergency department. It can help to improve the speed and accuracy of the diagnostic procedure at the emergency department. © 2017 Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Legionella pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengue, Luce; Régnacq, Matthieu; Aucher, Willy; Portier, Emilie; Héchard, Yann; Samba-Louaka, Ascel

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous, pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Like many other amoeba-resistant microorganisms, L. pneumophila resists host clearance and multiplies inside the cell. Through its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, the bacterium injects more than three hundred effectors that modulate host cell physiology in order to promote its own intracellular replication. Here we report that L. pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infected amoebae could not undergo DNA replication and no cell division was observed. The Dot/Icm secretion system was necessary for L. pneumophila to prevent the eukaryotic proliferation. The absence of proliferation was associated with altered amoebal morphology and with a decrease of mRNA transcript levels of CDC2b, a putative regulator of the A. castellanii cell cycle. Complementation of CDC28-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the CDC2b cDNA was sufficient to restore proliferation of CDC28-deficient S. cerevisiae and suggests for the first time that CDC2b from A. castellanii could be functional and a bona fide cyclin-dependent kinase. Hence, our results reveal that L. pneumophila impairs proliferation of A. castellanii and this effect could involve the cell cycle protein CDC2b. PMID:27805070

  17. Evolutionary Origins of the Eukaryotic Shikimate Pathway: Gene Fusions, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Endosymbiotic Replacements†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A.; Dacks, Joel B.; Campbell, Samantha A.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L.; Foster, Peter G.; McLeod, Rima; Roberts, Craig W.

    2006-01-01

    Currently the shikimate pathway is reported as a metabolic feature of prokaryotes, ascomycete fungi, apicomplexans, and plants. The plant shikimate pathway enzymes have similarities to prokaryote homologues and are largely active in chloroplasts, suggesting ancestry from the plastid progenitor genome. Toxoplasma gondii, which also possesses an alga-derived plastid organelle, encodes a shikimate pathway with similarities to ascomycete genes, including a five-enzyme pentafunctional arom. These data suggests that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom either had an ancient origin in the eukaryotes or was conveyed by eukaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We expand sampling and analyses of the shikimate pathway genes to include the oomycetes, ciliates, diatoms, basidiomycetes, zygomycetes, and the green and red algae. Sequencing of cDNA from Tetrahymena thermophila confirmed the presence of a pentafused arom, as in fungi and T. gondii. Phylogenies and taxon distribution suggest that the arom gene fusion event may be an ancient eukaryotic innovation. Conversely, the Plantae lineage (represented here by both Viridaeplantae and the red algae) acquired different prokaryotic genes for all seven steps of the shikimate pathway. Two of the phylogenies suggest a derivation of the Plantae genes from the cyanobacterial plastid progenitor genome, but if the full Plantae pathway was originally of cyanobacterial origin, then the five other shikimate pathway genes were obtained from a minimum of two other eubacterial genomes. Thus, the phylogenies demonstrate both separate HGTs and shared derived HGTs within the Plantae clade either by primary HGT transfer or secondarily via the plastid progenitor genome. The shared derived characters support the holophyly of the Plantae lineage and a single ancestral primary plastid endosymbiosis. Our analyses also pinpoints a minimum of 50 gene/domain loss events, demonstrating that loss and replacement events have been

  18. A tree of life based on ninety-eight expressed genes conserved across diverse eukaryotic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jayaswal

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed. The 98 genes conserved across diverse eukaryotes mostly exhibited binding and catalytic activities and shared common sequence motifs; and hence appeared to have a common origin. The 98 conserved genes belonged to 22 functional gene families including 26S protease, actin, ADP-ribosylation factor, ATP synthase, casein kinase, DEAD-box protein, DnaK, elongation factor 2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphatase 2A, ras-related protein, Ser/Thr protein phosphatase family protein, tubulin, ubiquitin and others. The consensus Bayesian eukaryotic tree of life developed in this study demonstrated widely separated clades of plants, fungi, and animals. Musa acuminata provided an evolutionary link between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, and Salpingoeca rosetta provided an evolutionary link between fungi and animals, which indicating that protozoan species are close relatives of fungi and animals. The divergence times for 1176 species pairs were estimated accurately by integrating fossil information with synonymous substitution rates in the comprehensive set of 98 genes. The present study provides valuable insight into the evolution of eukaryotes.

  19. Ion Channels Activated by Mechanical Forces in Bacterial and Eukaryotic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokabe, Masahiro; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Since the first discovery of mechanosensitive ion channel (MSC) in non-sensory cells in 1984, a variety of MSCs has been identified both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. One of the central issues concerning MSCs is to understand the molecular and biophysical mechanisms of how mechanical forces activate/open MSCs. It has been well established that prokaryotic (mostly bacterial) MSCs are activated exclusively by membrane tension. Thus the problem to be solved with prokaryotic MSCs is the mechanisms how the MSC proteins receive tensile forces from the lipid bilayer and utilize them for channel opening. On the other hand, the activation of many eukaryotic MSCs crucially depends on tension in the actin cytoskeleton. By using the actin cytoskeleton as a force sensing antenna, eukaryotic MSCs have obtained sophisticated functions such as remote force sensing and force-direction sensing, which bacterial MSCs do not have. Actin cytoskeletons also give eukaryotic MSCs an interesting and important function called "active touch sensing", by which cells can sense rigidity of their substrates. The contractile actin cytoskeleton stress fiber (SF) anchors its each end to a focal adhesion (FA) and pulls the substrate to generate substrate-rigidity-dependent stresses in the FA. It has been found that those stresses are sensed by some Ca2+-permeable MSCs existing in the vicinity of FAs, thus the MSCs work as a substrate rigidity sensor that can transduce the rigidity into intracellular Ca2+ levels. This short review, roughly constituting of two parts, deals with molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the MSC activation process mostly based on our recent studies; (1) structure-function in bacterial MSCs activation at the atomic level, and (2) roles of actin cytoskeletons in the activation of eukaryotic MSCs.

  20. Exploring two plant hosts for expression of diterpenoid pathway genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner

    to generate viable P. patens lines with disrupted PpCPS/KS unctionality. These kaurenoid free Ppcps/ks lines were utilized to express the bifunctional diTPS PaLAS from Norway spruce, for the first time in planta (Paper 2). By direct comparison to assays with PaLAS expressed in microbial systems it could...... be shown that P. patens provided conditions that resulted in unique in planta PaLAS products, confirming that the product profile of a diTPS can be influenced by the expression host and assay conditions. Thus, the P. patens based expression platform, developed during this study, represents a molecular tool......), but have been shared with a number of labs around the globe already. The content of this thesis will enable esearchers to explore the benefits of these plant expression hosts for characterization of terpenoid genes and contribute to a better understanding of terpenoid biosynthesis in planta....

  1. Host and viral translational mechanisms during cricket paralysis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrey, Julianne L; Lee, Yun-Young; Au, Hilda H T; Bushell, Martin; Jan, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The dicistrovirus is a positive-strand single-stranded RNA virus that possesses two internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) that direct translation of distinct open reading frames encoding the viral structural and nonstructural proteins. Through an unusual mechanism, the intergenic region (IGR) IRES responsible for viral structural protein expression mimics a tRNA to directly recruit the ribosome and set the ribosome into translational elongation. In this study, we explored the mechanism of host translational shutoff in Drosophila S2 cells infected by the dicistrovirus, cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). CrPV infection of S2 cells results in host translational shutoff concomitant with an increase in viral protein synthesis. CrPV infection resulted in the dissociation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and eIF4E early in infection and the induction of deIF2alpha phosphorylation at 3 h postinfection, which lags after the initial inhibition of host translation. Forced dephosphorylation of deIF2alpha by overexpression of dGADD34, which activates protein phosphatase I, did not prevent translational shutoff nor alter virus production, demonstrating that deIF2alpha phosphorylation is dispensable for host translational shutoff. However, premature induction of deIF2alpha phosphorylation by thapsigargin treatment early in infection reduced viral protein synthesis and replication. Finally, translation mediated by the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and the IGR IRES were resistant to impairment of eIF4F or eIF2 in translation extracts. These results support a model by which the alteration of the deIF4F complex contribute to the shutoff of host translation during CrPV infection, thereby promoting viral protein synthesis via the CrPV 5'UTR and IGR IRES.

  2. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bernaudat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals, functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments. The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein.

  3. Investigation of Removal Capacities of Biofilters for Airborne Viable Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Rémi; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Malhautier, Luc; Geiger, Philippe; Bayle, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp. The REvp of biofilters reached near 80% and highlighted both the stability of that removal and the statistical equivalence between two identical biofilters. Pollutant deprivation periods of 12 h, 48 h and 30 days were shown to have no influence on the biofilters’ removal capacity, demonstrating the robustness and adaptation capacities of the flora. In contrast, a 90-day famine period turned the biofilters into emitters of viable particles. Finally, the humidification of the effluent was shown to negatively influence the removal capacity for viable particles, as drying off the air was shown to increase the REvp from 60 to 85%. PMID:29562709

  4. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  5. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  6. Host genetics affect microbial ecosystems via host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself. Moreover, microbes play important roles in the development of host immunity. Here we review associations between specific host genes and variance in microbiota composition and compare with interactions between microbes and host immunity. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that symbiosis between host and microbiota is the exquisite result of genetic coevolution. Moreover, a subset of microbes from human and mouse microbiota have been identified to interact with humoral and cellular immunity. Interestingly, microbes associated with both host genetics and host immunity are taxonomically related. Most involved are Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia, which are dually associated with both host immunity and host genetics. We conclude that future therapeutics targeting microbiota in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases need to consider both immune and genetic host features associated with microbiota homeostasis.

  7. Taking control: reorganization of the host cytoskeleton by Chlamydia [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Wesolowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss the machinery used by Chlamydia to coordinate the reorganization of actin and microtubules.

  8. Use of Viable Cryopreserved Placental Membrane as an Adjunct to Facial Keloid Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi J. Gupta, DDS, MD, MBA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Keloids are the physical manifestation of an exaggerated inflammatory response resulting in excess collagen deposition. The resulting fibroproliferative mass can be distressing for patients due to appearance, pruritus, and/or pain. Despite extensive research into the pathophysiology of keloid formation and the development of numerous treatments, keloids remain a challenge to treat. Even when the initial treatment is successful, a risk of recurrence remains. Basic science research into viable cryopreserved placental membranes and viable cryopreserved umbilical tissue has demonstrated their anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, which may decrease keloid recurrence after excision. In this article, we present the first-reported case of viable cryopreserved placental membrane, with living mesenchymal stem cells, to treat a painful preauricular keloid in conjunction with surgical resection.

  9. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  10. SAMD9 is an innate antiviral host factor with stress response properties that can be antagonized by poxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant

    2015-02-01

    We show that SAMD9 is an innate host antiviral stress response element that participates in the formation of antiviral granules. Poxviruses, myxoma virus and vaccinia virus specifically, utilize a virus-encoded host range factor(s), such as a member of the C7L superfamily, to antagonize SAMD9 to prevent granule formation in a eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-independent manner. When SAMD9 is stimulated due to failure of the viral antagonism during infection, the resulting antiviral granules exhibit properties different from those of the canonical stress granules. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Generic feature of future crossing of phantom divide in viable f(R) gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    We study the equation of state for dark energy and explicitly demonstrate that the future crossings of the phantom divide line w DE = −1 are the generic feature in the existing viable f(R) gravity models. We also explore the future evolution of the cosmological horizon entropy and illustrate that the cosmological horizon entropy oscillates with time due to the oscillatory behavior of the Hubble parameter. The important cosmological consequence is that in the future, the sign of the time derivative of the Hubble parameter changes from negative to positive in these viable f(R) gravity models

  13. Shedding light on the expansion and diversification of the Cdc48 protein family during the rise of the eukaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Nickias; Kloepper, Tobias H; Fasshauer, Dirk

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of various distinct membrane-bound compartments with different metabolic roles. Material exchange between most compartments occurs via a sophisticated vesicle trafficking system. This intricate cellular architecture of eukaryotes appears to have emerged suddenly, about 2 billion years ago, from much less complex ancestors. How the eukaryotic cell acquired its internal complexity is poorly understood, partly because no prokaryotic precursors have been found for many key factors involved in compartmentalization. One exception is the Cdc48 protein family, which consists of several distinct classical ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) proteins with two consecutive AAA domains. Here, we have classified the Cdc48 family through iterative use of hidden Markov models and tree building. We found only one type, Cdc48, in prokaryotes, although a set of eight diverged members that function at distinct subcellular compartments were retrieved from eukaryotes and were probably present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Pronounced changes in sequence and domain structure during the radiation into the LECA set are delineated. Moreover, our analysis brings to light lineage-specific losses and duplications that often reflect important biological changes. Remarkably, we also found evidence for internal duplications within the LECA set that probably occurred during the rise of the eukaryotic cell. Our analysis corroborates the idea that the diversification of the Cdc48 family is closely intertwined with the development of the compartments of the eukaryotic cell.

  14. Fitness Impact of Obligate Intranuclear Bacterial Symbionts Depends on Host Growth Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Chiara; Koehler, Lars; Grosser, Katrin; Berendonk, Thomas U; Petroni, Giulio; Schrallhammer, Martina

    2016-01-01

    According to text book definition, parasites reduce the fitness of their hosts whereas mutualists provide benefits. But biotic and abiotic factors influence symbiotic interactions, thus under certain circumstances parasites can provide benefits and mutualists can harm their host. Here we addressed the question which intrinsic biotic factors shape a symbiosis and are crucial for the outcome of the interaction between the obligate intranuclear bacterium Holospora caryophila ( Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales ) and its unicellular eukaryotic host Paramecium biaurelia (Alveolata; Ciliophora). The virulence of H. caryophila , i.e., the negative fitness effect on host division and cell number, was determined by growth assays of several P. biaurelia strains. The performances of genetically identical lines either infected with H. caryophila or symbiont-free were compared. Following factors were considered as potentially influencing the outcome of the interaction: (1) host strain, (2) parasite strain, and (3) growth phases of the host. All three factors revealed a strong effect on the symbiosis. In presence of H. caryophila , the Paramecium density in the stationary growth phase decreased. Conversely, a positive effect of the bacteria during the exponential phase was observed for several host × parasite combinations resulting in an increased growth rate of infected P. biaurelia . Furthermore, the fitness impact of the tested endosymbionts on different P. biaurelia lines was not only dependent on one of the two involved strains but distinct for the specific combination. Depending on the current host growth phase, the presence of H. caryophila can be harmful or advantageous for P. biaurelia . Thus, under the tested experimental conditions, the symbionts can switch from the provision of benefits to the exploitation of host resources within the same host population and a time-span of less than 6 days.

  15. Once in a lifetime: strategies for preventing re-replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Olaf; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2008-02-01

    DNA replication is an extremely accurate process and cells have evolved intricate control mechanisms to ensure that each region of their genome is replicated only once during S phase. Here, we compare what is known about the processes that prevent re-replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by using the model organisms Escherichia coli and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as examples. Although the underlying molecular details are different, the logic behind the control mechanisms is similar. For example, after initiation, crucial molecules required for the loading of replicative helicases in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are inactivated until the next cell cycle. Furthermore, in both systems the beta-clamp of the replicative polymerase associates with enzymatic activities that contribute to the inactivation of the helicase loaders. Finally, recent studies suggest that the control mechanism that prevents re-replication in both systems also increases the synthesis of DNA building blocks.

  16. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-11-01

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches.

  17. EVpedia: A community web resource for prokaryotic and eukaryotic extracellular vesicles research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Kyum; Lee, Jaewook; Simpson, Richard J; Lötvall, Jan; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    For cell-to-cell communication, all living cells including archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes secrete nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular space. These extracellular vesicles harbor specific subsets of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, lipids, and metabolites that represent their cellular status. These vesicle-specific cargos are considered as novel diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets. With the advancement in high-throughput technologies on multiomics studies and improvements in bioinformatics approaches, a huge number of vesicular proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, lipids, and metabolites have been identified, and our understanding of these complex extracellular organelles has considerably increased during these past years. In this review, we highlight EVpedia (http://evpedia.info), a community web portal for systematic analyses of prokaryotic and eukaryotic extracellular vesicles research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of isotopically labeled heterologous proteins in non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of stable isotope-labeled proteins is necessary for the application of a wide variety of NMR methods, to study the structures and dynamics of proteins and protein complexes. The E. coli expression system is generally used for the production of isotope-labeled proteins, because of the advantages of ease of handling, rapid growth, high-level protein production, and low cost for isotope-labeling. However, many eukaryotic proteins are not functionally expressed in E. coli, due to problems related to disulfide bond formation, post-translational modifications, and folding. In such cases, other expression systems are required for producing proteins for biomolecular NMR analyses. In this paper, we review the recent advances in expression systems for isotopically labeled heterologous proteins, utilizing non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  19. Origins of robustness in translational control via eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Farhan; Spurgeon, Sarah; von der Haar, Tobias

    2018-05-14

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is one of the best studied and most widely used means for regulating protein synthesis activity in eukaryotic cells. This pathway regulates protein synthesis in response to stresses, viral infections, and nutrient depletion, among others. We present analyses of an ordinary differential equation-based model of this pathway, which aim to identify its principal robustness-conferring features. Our analyses indicate that robustness is a distributed property, rather than arising from the properties of any one individual pathway species. However, robustness-conferring properties are unevenly distributed between the different species, and we identify a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) complex as a species that likely contributes strongly to the robustness of the pathway. Our analyses make further predictions on the dynamic response to different types of kinases that impinge on eIF2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms: computer-based resources, "The Handbook of Protoctista" and its "Glossary"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Olendzenski, L.; Dolan, M.; MacIntyre, F.

    1996-01-01

    The kingdom Protoctista comprises some 30 phyla, including the eukaryotic anaerobes that permanently lack mitochondria, the Phylum Archaeprotista, with its three classes: (i) Archamoebae, e.g., Pelomyxa, Mastigina, (ii) Metamonada, e.g., Giardia, Pyrsonympha, and (iii) Parabasalia, e.g., Trichomonas, Calonympha, and the Phylum Microspora (Microsporidia), e.g., Vairimorpha. These and all algae, protozoa, labyrinthulids, "water molds" (oomycota, plasmodiophorans, hyphochytrids, chytrids, etc.) and other eukaryotes excluded from plants, animals and fungi are detailed in the Handbook of Protoctista. The Illustrated Glossary of Protoctista contains descriptions of the morphology and taxonomy of these microorganisms, including the many equivalent and homologous structures with different names. The Glossary has also been made into a Macintosh-compatible CD-ROM disk.

  1. On eukaryotic intelligence: signaling system's guidance in the evolution of multicellular organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuán, Pedro C; del Moral, Raquel; Navarro, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Communication with the environment is an essential characteristic of the living cell, even more when considering the origins and evolution of multicellularity. A number of changes and tinkering inventions were necessary in the evolutionary transition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, which finally made possible the appearance of genuine multicellular organisms. In the study of this process, however, the transformations experimented by signaling systems themselves have been rarely object of analysis, obscured by other more conspicuous biological traits: incorporation of mitochondria, segregated nucleus, introns/exons, flagellum, membrane systems, etc. Herein a discussion of the main avenues of change from prokaryotic to eukaryotic signaling systems and a review of the signaling resources and strategies underlying multicellularity will be attempted. In the expansion of prokaryotic signaling systems, four main systemic resources were incorporated: molecular tools for detection of solutes, molecular tools for detection of solvent (Donnan effect), the apparatuses of cell-cycle control, and the combined system endocytosis/cytoskeleton. The multiple kinds of enlarged, mixed pathways that emerged made possible the eukaryotic revolution in morphological and physiological complexity. The massive incorporation of processing resources of electro-molecular nature, derived from the osmotic tools counteracting the Donnan effect, made also possible the organization of a computational tissue with huge information processing capabilities: the nervous system. In the central nervous systems of vertebrates, and particularly in humans, neurons have achieved both the highest level of molecular-signaling complexity and the highest degree of information-processing adaptability. Theoretically, it can be argued that there has been an accelerated pace of evolutionary change in eukaryotic signaling systems, beyond the other general novelties introduced by eukaryotic cells in their

  2. Modeling cytokinesis of eukaryotic cells driven by the actomyosin contractile ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Wang, Qi

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model for cytokinesis of eukaryotic cells is developed, in which we model dynamics of actomyosins in the cell cortex, in particular, along the cytokinetic ring formed in the cortex and in the neighborhood of the cell's division plane explicitly. Specifically, the active force actuated by the actomyosin's activity along the cytokinetic ring is modeled by a surface force whose strength is proportional to the actomyosin concentration while the cell morphology is tracked by a phase field model. The model is then solved in 3D space and time using a finite difference method on graphic processing units. Dynamical morphological patterns of eukaryotic cells during cytokinesis are numerically simulated with the model. These simulated morphological patterns agree quantitatively with experimental observations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Role for RNA:DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Ruth; García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Aguilera, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-05-05

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) that prime replication in the ribosomal DNA locus. Our results suggest that eukaryotic genomes have developed tools to prevent R-loop-mediated replication events that potentially contribute to copy number variation, particularly relevant to carcinogenesis.

  4. DNA structural features of eukaryotic TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yella, Venkata Rajesh; Bansal, Manju

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotic genes can be broadly classified as TATA-containing and TATA-less based on the presence of TATA box in their promoters. Experiments on both classes of genes have revealed a disparity in the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions between the two classes. In this study, we report characteristic differences in promoter sequences and associated structural properties of the two categories of genes in six different eukaryotes. We have analyzed three structural features, DNA duplex stability, bendability, and curvature along with the distribution of A-tracts, G-quadruplex motifs, and CpG islands. The structural feature analyses reveal that while the two classes of gene promoters are distinctly different from each other, the properties are also distinguishable across the six organisms.

  5. Sequence analysis of RNase MRP RNA reveals its origination from eukaryotic RNase P RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanglong; Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S.; Li, Yong

    2006-01-01

    RNase MRP is a eukaryote-specific endoribonuclease that generates RNA primers for mitochondrial DNA replication and processes precursor rRNA. RNase P is a ubiquitous endoribonuclease that cleaves precursor tRNA transcripts to produce their mature 5′ termini. We found extensive sequence homology of catalytic domains and specificity domains between their RNA subunits in many organisms. In Candida glabrata, the internal loop of helix P3 is 100% conserved between MRP and P RNAs. The helix P8 of MRP RNA from microsporidia Encephalitozoon cuniculi is identical to that of P RNA. Sequence homology can be widely spread over the whole molecule of MRP RNA and P RNA, such as those from Dictyostelium discoideum. These conserved nucleotides between the MRP and P RNAs strongly support the hypothesis that the MRP RNA is derived from the P RNA molecule in early eukaryote evolution. PMID:16540690

  6. Production of isotopically labeled heterologous proteins in non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of stable isotope-labeled proteins is necessary for the application of a wide variety of NMR methods, to study the structures and dynamics of proteins and protein complexes. The E. coli expression system is generally used for the production of isotope-labeled proteins, because of the advantages of ease of handling, rapid growth, high-level protein production, and low cost for isotope-labeling. However, many eukaryotic proteins are not functionally expressed in E. coli, due to problems related to disulfide bond formation, post-translational modifications, and folding. In such cases, other expression systems are required for producing proteins for biomolecular NMR analyses. In this paper, we review the recent advances in expression systems for isotopically labeled heterologous proteins, utilizing non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  7. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  8. Eukaryotic diversity in late Pleistocene marine sediments around a shallow methane hydrate deposit in the Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouduka, M; Tanabe, A S; Yamamoto, S; Yanagawa, K; Nakamura, Y; Akiba, F; Tomaru, H; Toju, H; Suzuki, Y

    2017-09-01

    Marine sediments contain eukaryotic DNA deposited from overlying water columns. However, a large proportion of deposited eukaryotic DNA is aerobically biodegraded in shallow marine sediments. Cold seep sediments are often anaerobic near the sediment-water interface, so eukaryotic DNA in such sediments is expected to be preserved. We investigated deeply buried marine sediments in the Japan Sea, where a methane hydrate deposit is associated with cold seeps. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA in marine sediments at depths up to 31.0 m in the vicinity of the methane hydrate deposit. In contrast, the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA was limited to a shallow depth (8.3 m) in marine sediments not adjacent to the methane hydrate deposit in the same area. Pyrosequencing of an 18S rRNA gene variable region generated 1,276-3,307 reads per sample, which was sufficient to cover the biodiversity based on rarefaction curves. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the eukaryotic DNA originated from radiolarian genera of the class Chaunacanthida, which have SrSO 4 skeletons, the sea grass genus Zostera, and the seaweed genus Sargassum. Eukaryotic DNA originating from other planktonic fauna and land plants was also detected. Diatom sequences closely related to Thalassiosira spp., indicative of cold climates, were obtained from sediments deposited during the last glacial period (MIS-2). Plant sequences of the genera Alnus, Micromonas, and Ulmus were found in sediments deposited during the warm interstadial period (MIS-3). These results suggest the long-term persistence of eukaryotic DNA from terrestrial and aquatic sources in marine sediments associated with cold seeps, and that the genetic information from eukaryotic DNA from deeply buried marine sediments associated with cold seeps can be used to reconstruct environments and ecosystems from the past. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Morphology of the Proterozoic eukaryotic microfossils as a reflection of their intracellular complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Heda; Moczydłowska, Małgorzata; Yin, Leiming

    2014-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic is a time of increasing diversity of microscopic life and appearance of intricate new cell morphologies. First eukaryotes may have evolved around 2.4 Ga, but the first microbiota with intricate sculpture and ornamentation are found in the younger, 1.8.-1.6 Ga successions worldwide. Such microfossils were uncovered from the Ruyang Formation in Shanxi, China and Roper Group, Northern Territories, Australia, dating back to 1.6-1.0 Ga ago. Some of these unicellular organic-walled ...

  10. Expression of the lysostaphin gene of Staphylococcus simulans in a eukaryotic system.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, C M; Bramley, A J; Lax, A J

    1994-01-01

    The lysostaphin gene of Staphylococcus simulans was cloned into Escherichia coli. The 5' end of the gene was modified to include a eukaryotic start codon, the Kozak expression start site consensus sequence, and an enzyme site to facilitate manipulation of the gene. Transcription of the modified gene in vitro yielded an RNA transcript which, when added to a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system, directed the synthesis of several products. The largest product, migrating at approximat...

  11. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K Brödel

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established

  12. This Déjà vu feeling--analysis of multidomain protein evolution in eukaryotic genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Zmasek

    Full Text Available Evolutionary innovation in eukaryotes and especially animals is at least partially driven by genome rearrangements and the resulting emergence of proteins with new domain combinations, and thus potentially novel functionality. Given the random nature of such rearrangements, one could expect that proteins with particularly useful multidomain combinations may have been rediscovered multiple times by parallel evolution. However, existing reports suggest a minimal role of this phenomenon in the overall evolution of eukaryotic proteomes. We assembled a collection of 172 complete eukaryotic genomes that is not only the largest, but also the most phylogenetically complete set of genomes analyzed so far. By employing a maximum parsimony approach to compare repertoires of Pfam domains and their combinations, we show that independent evolution of domain combinations is significantly more prevalent than previously thought. Our results indicate that about 25% of all currently observed domain combinations have evolved multiple times. Interestingly, this percentage is even higher for sets of domain combinations in individual species, with, for instance, 70% of the domain combinations found in the human genome having evolved independently at least once in other species. We also show that previous, much lower estimates of this rate are most likely due to the small number and biased phylogenetic distribution of the genomes analyzed. The process of independent emergence of identical domain combination is widespread, not limited to domains with specific functional categories. Besides data from large-scale analyses, we also present individual examples of independent domain combination evolution. The surprisingly large contribution of parallel evolution to the development of the domain combination repertoire in extant genomes has profound consequences for our understanding of the evolution of pathways and cellular processes in eukaryotes and for comparative

  13. New insights into the structural organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cytoskeletons using cryo-electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerner, Julia; Medalia, Ohad; Linaroudis, Alexandros A.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging imaging technology that combines the potential of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging at molecular resolution (<5 nm) with a close-to-life preservation of the specimen. In conjunction with pattern recognition techniques, it enables us to map the molecular landscape inside cells. The application of cryo-ET to intact cells provides novel insights into the structure and the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

  14. Once in a lifetime: strategies for preventing re-replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Olaf; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb DNA replication is an extremely accurate process and cells have evolved intricate control mechanisms to ensure that each region of their genome is replicated only once during S phase. Here, we compare what is known about the processes that prevent re-replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by using the model organisms Escherichia coli and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as examples. Although the underlying molecular details are different, the logic behind the con...

  15. Intra-plastid protein trafficking: How plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition

    OpenAIRE

    Celedon, Jose M.; Cline, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involves a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to th...

  16. IRES-Mediated Translation of Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins in Eukaryotic Cell-Free Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O.; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5′ untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems. PMID

  17. Construction of sized eukaryotic cDNA libraries using low input of total environmental metatranscriptomic RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Rajiv Kumar; Barbi, Florian; Ziller, Antoine; Luis, Patricia; Marmeisse, Roland; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Construction of high quality cDNA libraries from the usually low amounts of eukaryotic mRNA extracted from environmental samples is essential in functional metatranscriptomics for the selection of functional, full-length genes encoding proteins of interest. Many of the inserts in libraries constructed by standard methods are represented by truncated cDNAs due to premature stoppage of reverse transcriptase activity and preferential cloning of short cDNAs. Results: We report here a ...

  18. Metabolism in anoxic permeable sediments is dominated by eukaryotic dark fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourke, Michael F.; Marriott, Philip J; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2017-01-01

    Permeable sediments are common across continental shelves and are critical contributors to marine biogeochemical cycling. Organic matter in permeable sediments is dominated by microalgae, which as eukaryotes have different anaerobic metabolic pathways to prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea....... Cell counts revealed a predominance of microalgae in the sediments. H2 production was observed in dark anoxic cultures of diatoms (Fragilariopsis sp.) and a chlorophyte (Pyramimonas) isolated from the study site, substantiating the hypothesis that microalgae undertake fermentation. We conclude...

  19. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Final technical report, June 1, 1989--February 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    We have isolated and partially characterized many large, polyhedral, DNA containing, plaque forming viruses which infect certain unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green algae. These viruses have several unique features, including the fact that they code for DNA site-specific endonucleases and DNA methyltransferases. The primary objectives of this study were to identify, clone, and characterize some of the virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases and DNA restriction endonucleases in order to understand their biological function.

  20. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Meireles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species. Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols, but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols, even in large excess; (ii MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH over hydrogen peroxide; (iii MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13×108 M−1 s−1. Both Cys87 and Cys154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pKa value of the Cysp residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria. Keywords: Ohr/OsmC, Thiol-dependent peroxidases, Phylogeny

  1. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, D A; Domingos, R M; Gaiarsa, J W; Ragnoni, E G; Bannitz-Fernandes, R; da Silva Neto, J F; de Souza, R F; Netto, L E S

    2017-08-01

    Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species). Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr), the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i) the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols), but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols), even in large excess; (ii) MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH) over hydrogen peroxide; (iii) MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13)×10 8 M -1 s -1 ). Both Cys 87 and Cys 154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pK a value of the Cys p residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems.

  3. A Polycomb complex remains bound through DNA replication in the absence of other eukaryotic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Lengsfeld, Bettina M.

    2012-09-17

    Propagation of chromatin states through DNA replication is central to epigenetic regulation and can involve recruitment of chromatin proteins to replicating chromatin through interactions with replication fork components. Here we show using a fully reconstituted T7 bacteriophage system that eukaryotic proteins are not required to tether the Polycomb complex PRC1 to templates during DNA replication. Instead, DNA binding by PRC1 can withstand passage of a simple replication fork.

  4. The proteasome of the differently-diverged eukaryote Giardia lamblia and its role in remodeling of the microtubule-based cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Atrayee; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease giardiasis, against which only a limited number of drugs are currently available. Increasing reports of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to identify new cellular targets for designing the next generation of anti-giardial drugs. Towards this goal, therapeutic agents that target the parasitic cellular machinery involved in the functioning of the unique microtubule-based cytoskeleton of the Giardia trophozoites are likely to be effective as microtubule function is not only important for the survival of trophozoites within the host, but also their extensive remodeling is necessary during the transition from trophozoites to cysts. Thus, drugs that affect microtubule remodeling have the potential to not only kill the disease-causing trophozoites, but also inhibit transmission of cysts in the community. Recent studies in other model organisms have indicated that the proteasome plays an integral role in the formation and remodeling of the microtubule-based cytoskeleton. This review draws attention to the various processes by which the giardial proteasome may impact the functioning of its microtubule cytoskeleton and highlights the possible differences of the parasitic proteasome and some of other cellular machinery involved in microtubule remodeling, compared to that of the higher eukaryotic host.

  5. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  6. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section 113.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... in live vaccine. Each serial and subserial of biological product except live vaccines shall be tested...

  7. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) characteristics of healed myocardial infarction differ from viable myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, James W; Zhao, Wenguo

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether healed myocardial infarction alters dynamic contrast-enhancement (DCE) curve shapes as well as late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE). Twenty patients with chronic myocardial infarction underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T with blood and myocardial T1 measurements before and after contrast administration for forty minutes. Viable and infarcted myocardial partition coefficients were calculated using multipoint slope methods for ten different DCE sampling intervals and windows. Partition coefficients and coefficients of determination were compared with paired statistical tests to assess the linearity of DCE curve shapes over the 40 min time period. Calculated partition coefficients did not vary significantly between methods (p=0.325) for viable myocardium but did differ for infarcted myocardium (pinfarcted DCE. There was a significant difference between viable and infarcted myocardial partition coefficients estimates for all methods with the exception of methods that included measurements during the first 10 min after contrast agent administration. Myocardial partition coefficients calculated from a slope calculation vary in healed myocardial infarction based on the selection of samples due to non-linear DCE curve shapes. Partition coefficient calculations are insensitive to data sampling effects in viable myocardium due to linear DCE curve shapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  10. Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Grégory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Véronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required. PMID:16000824

  11. Evolution of an intricate J-protein network driving protein disaggregation in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B; Stank, Antonia; Malinverni, Duccio; Alberts, Niels; Szlachcic, Anna; Barducci, Alessandro; De Los Rios, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C; Bukau, Bernd

    2017-05-15

    Hsp70 participates in a broad spectrum of protein folding processes extending from nascent chain folding to protein disaggregation. This versatility in function is achieved through a diverse family of J-protein cochaperones that select substrates for Hsp70. Substrate selection is further tuned by transient complexation between different classes of J-proteins, which expands the range of protein aggregates targeted by metazoan Hsp70 for disaggregation. We assessed the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of J-protein complexation and cooperation in disaggregation. We find the emergence of a eukaryote-specific signature for interclass complexation of canonical J-proteins. Consistently, complexes exist in yeast and human cells, but not in bacteria, and correlate with cooperative action in disaggregation in vitro. Signature alterations exclude some J-proteins from networking, which ensures correct J-protein pairing, functional network integrity and J-protein specialization. This fundamental change in J-protein biology during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition allows for increased fine-tuning and broadening of Hsp70 function in eukaryotes.

  12. Visualizing Patterns of Marine Eukaryotic Diversity from Metabarcoding Data Using QIIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification followed by deep sequencing of homologous gene regions is increasingly used to characterize the diversity and taxonomic composition of marine eukaryotic communities. This approach may generate millions of sequences for hundreds of samples simultaneously. Therefore, tools that researchers can use to visualize complex patterns of diversity for these massive datasets are essential. Efforts by microbiologists to understand the Earth and human microbiomes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene has led to the development of several user-friendly, open-source software packages that can be similarly used to analyze eukaryotic datasets. Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) offers some of the most helpful data visualization tools. Here, we describe functionalities to import OTU tables generated with any molecular marker (e.g., 18S, COI, ITS) and associated metadata into QIIME. We then present a range of analytical tools implemented within QIIME that can be used to obtain insights about patterns of alpha and beta diversity for marine eukaryotes.

  13. Intra-plastid protein trafficking: how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Jose M; Cline, Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involve a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to the organelle to avoid aggregation in the aqueous compartments. Soluble proteins faced a different kind of problem since some had to be transported across three membranes to reach their destination. Early studies suggested that chloroplasts addressed these issues by adapting ancient-prokaryotic machineries and integrating them with novel-eukaryotic systems, a process called 'conservative sorting'. In the last decade, detailed biochemical, genetic, and structural studies have unraveled the mechanisms of protein targeting and localization in chloroplasts, suggesting a highly integrated scheme where ancient and novel systems collaborate at different stages of the process. In this review we focus on the differences and similarities between chloroplast ancestral translocases and their prokaryotic relatives to highlight known modifications that adapted them to the eukaryotic situation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Expression of interferon alpha family gene of Chinese marmot in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin-ping; Wang, Bao-ju; Huang, Hong-ping; Tian, Yong-jun; Yang, Yan; Dong, Ji-hua; Lu, Meng-ji; Yang, Dong-liang

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the function of interferon alpha (IFNalpha) in a Chinese marmot model of hepatitis B, we expressed the Chinese marmot (Marmota himalayana) IFNalpha family gene (IFNA) in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression plasmids harboring Chinese marmot interferon alpha gene with different genotypes were generated using molecular cloning technology. We detected the biological activity of all expression products by viral protection assay, and analyzed their differences and species restriction of the biological activity. The Chinese marmot functional genotype IFNalpha was expressed in the baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell line, and these products protected WH12/6 cells challenged by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The Chinese marmot IFN-alpha5 also expressed in E. Coli induced by IPTG, and purified fusion protein had antiviral biological activity. The biologic activity displayed differences among different subtype IFNalpha, and it had strict species restriction. The IFNalpha family gene of the Chinese marmot can be expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the expression products show antiviral activity in a protection assay. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that IFNalpha from the Chinese marmot has an antiviral function in vitro and can be used to improve the efficacy of current therapies for HBV infection in our Chinese marmot model.

  15. Conservation of coevolving protein interfaces bridges prokaryote–eukaryote homologies in the twilight zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Marsili, Simone; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are fundamental for the proper functioning of the cell. As a result, protein interaction surfaces are subject to strong evolutionary constraints. Recent developments have shown that residue coevolution provides accurate predictions of heterodimeric protein interfaces from sequence information. So far these approaches have been limited to the analysis of families of prokaryotic complexes for which large multiple sequence alignments of homologous sequences can be compiled. We explore the hypothesis that coevolution points to structurally conserved contacts at protein–protein interfaces, which can be reliably projected to homologous complexes with distantly related sequences. We introduce a domain-centered protocol to study the interplay between residue coevolution and structural conservation of protein–protein interfaces. We show that sequence-based coevolutionary analysis systematically identifies residue contacts at prokaryotic interfaces that are structurally conserved at the interface of their eukaryotic counterparts. In turn, this allows the prediction of conserved contacts at eukaryotic protein–protein interfaces with high confidence using solely mutational patterns extracted from prokaryotic genomes. Even in the context of high divergence in sequence (the twilight zone), where standard homology modeling of protein complexes is unreliable, our approach provides sequence-based accurate information about specific details of protein interactions at the residue level. Selected examples of the application of prokaryotic coevolutionary analysis to the prediction of eukaryotic interfaces further illustrate the potential of this approach. PMID:27965389

  16. An overabundance of phase 0 introns immediately after the start codon in eukaryotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernersson Rasmus

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A knowledge of the positions of introns in eukaryotic genes is important for understanding the evolution of introns. Despite this, there has been relatively little focus on the distribution of intron positions in genes. Results In proteins with signal peptides, there is an overabundance of phase 1 introns around the region of the signal peptide cleavage site. This has been described before. But in proteins without signal peptides, a novel phenomenon is observed: There is a sharp peak of phase 0 intron positions immediately following the start codon, i.e. between codons 1 and 2. This effect is seen in a wide range of eukaryotes: Vertebrates, arthropods, fungi, and flowering plants. Proteins carrying this start codon intron are found to comprise a special class of relatively short, lysine-rich and conserved proteins with an overrepresentation of ribosomal proteins. In addition, there is a peak of phase 0 introns at position 5 in Drosophila genes with signal peptides, predominantly representing cuticle proteins. Conclusion There is an overabundance of phase 0 introns immediately after the start codon in eukaryotic genes, which has been described before only for human ribosomal proteins. We give a detailed description of these start codon introns and the proteins that contain them.

  17. An overabundance of phase 0 introns immediately after the start codon in eukaryotic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Wernersson, Rasmus

    2006-10-11

    A knowledge of the positions of introns in eukaryotic genes is important for understanding the evolution of introns. Despite this, there has been relatively little focus on the distribution of intron positions in genes. In proteins with signal peptides, there is an overabundance of phase 1 introns around the region of the signal peptide cleavage site. This has been described before. But in proteins without signal peptides, a novel phenomenon is observed: There is a sharp peak of phase 0 intron positions immediately following the start codon, i.e. between codons 1 and 2. This effect is seen in a wide range of eukaryotes: Vertebrates, arthropods, fungi, and flowering plants. Proteins carrying this start codon intron are found to comprise a special class of relatively short, lysine-rich and conserved proteins with an overrepresentation of ribosomal proteins. In addition, there is a peak of phase 0 introns at position 5 in Drosophila genes with signal peptides, predominantly representing cuticle proteins. There is an overabundance of phase 0 introns immediately after the start codon in eukaryotic genes, which has been described before only for human ribosomal proteins. We give a detailed description of these start codon introns and the proteins that contain them.

  18. Large variability of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotic communities across the world’s oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Pernice, Massimo C.

    2015-10-09

    In this work, we study the diversity of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotes (0.8–20 μm) in the global ocean. Seawater samples from 3000 to 4000 m depth from 27 stations in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans were analyzed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal DNA. The relative abundance of the most abundant operational taxonomic units agreed with the results of a parallel metagenomic analysis, suggesting limited PCR biases in the tag approach. Although rarefaction curves for single stations were seldom saturated, the global analysis of all sequences together suggested an adequate recovery of bathypelagic diversity. Community composition presented a large variability among samples, which was poorly explained by linear geographic distance. In fact, the similarity between communities was better explained by water mass composition (26% of the variability) and the ratio in cell abundance between prokaryotes and microbial eukaryotes (21%). Deep diversity appeared dominated by four taxonomic groups (Collodaria, Chrysophytes, Basidiomycota and MALV-II) appearing in different proportions in each sample. Novel diversity amounted to 1% of the pyrotags and was lower than expected. Our study represents an essential step in the investigation of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotes, indicating dominating taxonomic groups and suggesting idiosyncratic assemblages in distinct oceanic regions.

    The ISME Journal advance online publication, 9 October 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.170

  19. Type VI secretion system MIX-effectors carry both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Schwartz, Nika; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Zhang, Junmei; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2017-11-01

    Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class. Remarkably, in addition to six predicted bactericidal effectors, the T6SS1 secretome includes three putative anti-eukaryotic effectors. One of these is a MIX-effector containing a cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 domain. We demonstrate that T6SS1 can use this MIX-effector to target phagocytic cells, resulting in morphological changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. In conclusion, the V. proteolyticus T6SS1, a system homologous to one found in pathogenic vibrios, uses a suite of polymorphic effectors that target both bacteria and eukaryotic neighbors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Diatoms dominate the eukaryotic metatranscriptome during spring in coastal 'dead zone' sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Elias; Sachpazidou, Varvara; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2017-10-11

    An important characteristic of marine sediments is the oxygen concentration that affects many central metabolic processes. There has been a widespread increase in hypoxia in coastal systems (referred to as 'dead zones') mainly caused by eutrophication. Hence, it is central to understand the metabolism and ecology of eukaryotic life in sediments during changing oxygen conditions. Therefore, we sampled coastal 'dead zone' Baltic Sea sediment during autumn and spring, and analysed the eukaryotic metatranscriptome from field samples and after incubation in the dark under oxic or anoxic conditions. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) dominated the eukaryotic metatranscriptome in spring and were also abundant during autumn. A large fraction of the diatom RNA reads was associated with the photosystems suggesting a constitutive expression in darkness. Microscope observation showed intact diatom cells and these would, if hatched, represent a significant part of the pelagic phytoplankton biomass. Oxygenation did not significantly change the relative proportion of diatoms nor resulted in any major shifts in metabolic 'signatures'. By contrast, diatoms rapidly responded when exposed to light suggesting that light is limiting diatom development in hypoxic sediments. Hence, it is suggested that diatoms in hypoxic sediments are on 'standby' to exploit the environment if they reach suitable habitats. © 2017 The Author(s).