WorldWideScience

Sample records for viable cells recovered

  1. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  2. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  3. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  4. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  5. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  6. Cultivation of murine bone marrow macrophages in sponges: a method that permits recovery of viable cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akporiaye, E T; Stewart, S; Stewart, C C

    1984-01-01

    Various investigators have cultured murine bone marrow or peritoneal cells in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces with the ultimate aim of retrieving adherent macrophages for morphologic and functional evaluation. The removal of these adherent macrophages by conventional techniques has been consistently accompanied by low yield and significant cell damage. The authors report here a simple technique for culturing murine bone marrow cells in gelatin sponges (Spongostan and Gelfoam) in growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 10% L-cell conditioned medium. Viable cells were retrieved from the sponges in 10 min by digestion with collagenase. The in situ growth kinetics were similar to those found for cells cultured on plastic dishes. The recovered cells were adherent, phagocytic, positive for Fc ..gamma.. receptors, and had esterase activity. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  8. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  9. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  10. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca; Naegel, Arne; Heisig, Michael; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living

  11. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  12. Tumor-selective replication herpes simplex virus-based technology significantly improves clinical detection and prognostication of viable circulating tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Li; Yang, Shaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells remains a significant challenge due to their vast physical and biological heterogeneity. We developed a cell-surface-marker-independent technology based on telomerase-specific, replication-selective oncolytic herpes-simplex-virus-1 that targets telomerase......-reverse-transcriptase-positive cancer cells and expresses green-fluorescent-protein that identifies viable CTCs from a broad spectrum of malignancies. Our method recovered 75.5-87.2% of tumor cells spiked into healthy donor blood, as validated by different methods, including single cell sequencing. CTCs were detected in 59-100% of 326...

  13. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  14. Cancer cells recovering from damage exhibit mitochondrial restructuring and increased aerobic glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akakura, Shin; Ostrakhovitch, Elena; Sanokawa-Akakura, Reiko [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tabibzadeh, Siamak, E-mail: fbs@bioscience.org [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Dept of Oncologic Radiology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • Some cancer cells recover from severe damage that causes cell death in majority of cells. • Damage-Recovered (DR) cancer cells show reduced mitochondria, mDNA and mitochondrial enzymes. • DR cells show increased aerobic glycolysis, ATP, cell proliferation, and resistance to damage. • DR cells recovered from in vivo damage also show increased glycolysis and proliferation rate. - Abstract: Instead of relying on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells rely heavily on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed as “the Warburg effect”. We considered that this effect is a direct consequence of damage which persists in cancer cells that recover from damage. To this end, we studied glycolysis and rate of cell proliferation in cancer cells that recovered from severe damage. We show that in vitro Damage-Recovered (DR) cells exhibit mitochondrial structural remodeling, display Warburg effect, and show increased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and tolerance to damage. To test whether cancer cells derived from tumor microenvironment can show similar properties, we isolated Damage-Recovered (T{sup DR}) cells from tumors. We demonstrate that T{sup DR} cells also show increased aerobic glycolysis and a high proliferation rate. These findings show that Warburg effect and its consequences are induced in cancer cells that survive severe damage.

  15. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga A. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Anderson, Robin L. [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Russell, Prudence A. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, St. Vincent Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC (Australia); Ashley Cox, R. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ivashkevich, Alesia [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Laboratory of DNA Repair and Genomics, Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Disease, Monash Institute for Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P. [Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Jacobs, Daphne H.M. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Smith, Jai [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ball, David L. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using γ-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated γ-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed γ-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  16. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Olga A.; Anderson, Robin L.; Russell, Prudence A.; Ashley Cox, R.; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P.; Jacobs, Daphne H.M.; Smith, Jai; Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E.; Ball, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using γ-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated γ-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed γ-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies

  17. Clinically viable magnetic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles for MRI-based cell tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Dorit; Nkansah, Michael K.; Bennewitz, Margaret F.; Tang, Kevin S.; Markakis, Eleni A.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design, fabricate, characterize and in vivo assay clinically viable magnetic particles for MRI-based cell tracking. Methods PLGA encapsulated magnetic nano- and microparticles were fabricated. Multiple biologically relevant experiments were performed to assess cell viability, cellular performance and stem cell differentiation. In vivo MRI experiments were performed to separately test cell transplantation and cell migration paradigms, as well as in vivo biodegradation. Results Highly magnetic nano- (~100 nm) and microparticles (~1–2 μm) were fabricated. Magnetic cell labeling in culture occurred rapidly achieving 3–50 pg Fe/cell at 3 hrs for different particles types, and >100 pg Fe/cell after 10 hours, without the requirement of a transfection agent, and with no effect on cell viability. The capability of magnetically labeled mesenchymal or neural stem cells to differentiate down multiple lineages, or for magnetically labeled immune cells to release cytokines following stimulation, was uncompromised. An in vivo biodegradation study revealed that NPs degraded ~80% over the course of 12 weeks. MRI detected as few as 10 magnetically labeled cells, transplanted into the brains of rats. Also, these particles enabled the in vivo monitoring of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration in rat brains over 2 weeks. Conclusion The robust MRI properties and benign safety profile of these particles make them promising candidates for clinical translation for MRI-based cell tracking. PMID:23568825

  18. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca

    2017-12-07

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living) epidermis. For this region, previous works suggested a diffusion model and an approximation of the cells by hexagonal prisms. The work at hand extends this in three ways. First, the extracellular space is treated with full spatial resolution. This induces a decrease of permeability by about 10%. Second, cells of tetrakaidecahedral shape are considered, in addition to the original hexagonal prisms. For both cell types, the resulting membrane permeabilities are compared. Third, for the first time, the influence of cell stacking in the vertical direction is considered. This is particularly important for the stratum granulosum, where tight junctions are present.

  19. The radiation response of cells recovering after chronic hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, T.T.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the influence of hypoxic pretreatment on the radiation response of A431 human squamous carcinoma cells. Reaeration for 10 min after chronic hypoxia (greater than 2 h) was found to enhance the radiosensitivity of A431 cells, and the maximal effect was seen for those cells reaerated after 12 h of hypoxia. The radiosensitivity enhancement for reaerated cells after 12 h of hypoxia was maximized by 5 min after the return to aerobic conditions and reached the control level by 12 h of reaeration. This enhanced radiosensitive state was characterized by a reduced shoulder region and increased slope of the radiation dose-response curve for cells in both the exponential and plateau phases of growth. There was a slight increase in the number of G1 and decrease in the number of S and G2 + M cells for both exponential- and plateau-phase cultures following 12 h hypoxic treatment. Although growth inhibition induced by 12 h of hypoxia was seen for cells in the exponential phase, there was no cell number change in the plateau-phase culture after hypoxia. Plating efficiency (PE) of cells in both growth phases was reduced by 30% after hypoxia. Furthermore, in the exponential-phase culture, the extent of reduction in PE after hypoxia was similar among cells in different phases of the cell cycle. Although S-phase cells in exponentially growing cultures were relatively more resistant to radiation than G1 and G2 + M cells, the cell age-response pattern was the same whether the cells had been aerobic or hypoxic before reaeration and irradiation. Furthermore, the enhancement ratio associated with reaeration after 12 h of hypoxia for these three subpopulations of cells was 1.3. Our results indicate that the increase in radiosensitivity due to reaeration after chronic hypoxia is unlikely to be related to the changes of cell cycle stage and growth phase during hypoxic treatment

  20. Recover vigorous cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 by capillary magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Ge, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokui; Chen, Guanjun; Pan, Yongxin

    2010-07-01

    Cultivable magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in laboratory can provide sufficient samples for molecular microbiological and magnetic studies. However, a cold-stored MTB strain, such as Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, often loses its ability to synthesize magnetosomes and consequently fails to sense the external magnetic field. It is therefore important to quickly recover vigorous bacteria cells that highly capable of magnetosome producing. In this study, a modified capillary magnetic separation system was designed to recover a deteriorating strain of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 that long-term cold-stored in a refrigerator. The results show that all cells obtained after a 3-cycle treatment were vigorous and had the ability to produce magnetosomes. Moreover, the 3rd-cycle recovered cells were able to form more magnetosome crystals. Compared with the colony formation method, this new method is time-saving, easily operated, and more efficient for recovering vigorous MTB cells.

  1. Strategies for improving production performance of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici viable cell by overcoming lactic acid inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Wasoh, Helmi; Kapri, Mohd Rizal; Halim, Murni

    2017-11-27

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Fermentation conditions such as concentration of initial glucose in the culture, concentration of lactic acid accumulated in the culture, types of pH control strategy, types of aeration mode and different agitation speed had influenced the cultivation performance of batch fermentation of Pediococcus acidilactici. The maximum viable cell concentration obtained in constant fed-batch fermentation at a feeding rate of 0.015 L/h was 6.1 times higher with 1.6 times reduction in lactic acid accumulation compared to batch fermentation. Anion exchange resin, IRA 67 was found to have the highest selectivity towards lactic acid compared to other components studied. Fed-batch fermentation of P. acidilactici coupled with lactic acid removal system using IRA 67 resin showed 55.5 and 9.1 times of improvement in maximum viable cell concentration compared to fermentation without resin for batch and fed-batch mode respectively. The improvement of the P. acidilactici growth in the constant fed-batch fermentation indicated the use of minimal and simple process control equipment is an effective approach for reducing by-product inhibition. Further improvement in the cultivation performance of P. acidilactici in fed-bath fermentation with in situ addition of anion-exchange resin significantly helped to enhance the growth of P. acidilactici by reducing the inhibitory effect of lactic acid and thus increasing probiotic production.

  2. Dendritic cells take up and present antigens from viable and apoptotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfaro

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8, for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4°C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1 and CD4 (OT-2 TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2(d mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2(d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2(b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2(d are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2(b. In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC.

  3. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  4. Impact of endoscopic stent insertion on detection of viable circulating tumor cells from obstructive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinya; Tanemura, Masahiro; Sawada, Genta; Moon, Jeongho; Shimizu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Toshiki; Kuwai, Toshio; Urata, Yasuo; Kuraoka, Kazuya; Hatanaka, Nobutaka; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Taniyama, Kiyomi

    2018-01-01

    The placement of a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in obstructive colorectal cancer (OCRC) is acknowledged to be a safe and effective procedure for the relief of obstruction. However, there is concern that shear forces acting on the tumor during stent expansion may release cancer cells into the circulation, resulting in a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether colonic stent insertion increases viable circulating tumor cells (v-CTCs). A telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus-expressing GFP (TelomeScanF35) detection system was used to detect v-CTCs in 8 OCRC patients with a SEMS before and after stent insertion and after surgical resection. In 7 patients, a SEMS was inserted as a bridge to surgery (BTS), and in one patient, a SEMS was inserted for palliation. Surgical resection (R0) was performed in 7 patients. Four patients had no v-CTCs before SEMS placement, two of four measurable patients had an increased number of v-CTCs after SEMS placement (1-3 v-CTCs), and one of two patients with increased v-CTCs developed distant lymphatic metastasis despite curative resection. Four patients had v-CTCs (1-19 cells) before SEMS placement, and two of these four patients had an increase in the number of v-CTCs (20-21 cells) after SEMS placement, while one of the four patients died early with distant metastasis. The present study demonstrated that endoscopic stent insertion for OCRC may result in tumor cell dissemination into the peripheral circulation and may induce distant metastases.

  5. Cellular bone matrices: viable stem cell-containing bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K; Iatridis, James C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. Areview of literature. A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs' survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery

  6. A reliable protocol for the isolation of viable, chondrogenically differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells from high-density pellet cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mujib; Hamouda, Houda; Stich, Stefan; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Administration of chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is discussed as a promising approach for the regenerative treatment of injured or diseased cartilage. The high-density pellet culture is the standard culture for chondrogenic differentiation, but cells in pellets secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) that they become entrapped in. Protocols for cell isolation from pellets often result in cell damage and dedifferentiation towards less differentiated MSC. Therefore, our aim was to develop a reliable protocol for the isolation of viable, chondrogenically differentiated MSC from high-density pellet cultures. Human bone marrow MSC were chondrogenically stimulated with transforming growth factor-β3, and the cartilaginous structure of the pellets was verified by alcian blue staining of cartilage proteoglycans, antibody staining of cartilage collagen type II, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of the marker genes COL2A1 and SOX9. Trypsin and collagenases II and P were tested alone or in combination, and for different concentrations and times, to find a protocol for optimized pellet digestion. Whereas trypsin was not able to release viable cells, 90-min digestion with 300 U of collagenase II, 20 U of collagenase P, and 2 mM CaCl2 worked quite well and resulted in about 2.5×10(5) cells/pellet. The protocol was further optimized for the separation of released cells and ECM from each other. Cells were alcian blue and collagen type II positive and expressed COL2A1 and SOX9, verifying a chondrogenic character. However, they had different morphological shapes. The ECM was also uniformly alcian blue and collagen type II positive but showed different organizational and structural forms. To conclude, our protocol allows the reliable isolation of a defined number of viable, chondrogenically differentiated MSC from high-density pellet cultures. Such cells, as well as the ECM components, are of interest as

  7. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  8. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cornforth

    2012-03-26

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. Specific aims apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. The project includes research complementary to NASA/HRP space radiation project.

  9. Wavelet-SVM classification and automatic recognition of unstained viable cells in phase-contrast microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Rakowski, W.; Cherubini, R.; Gerardi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation of individual cultured mammalian cells with a pre-selected number of ions down to one ion per single cell is a useful experimental approach to investigating the low-dose ionising radiation exposure effects and thus contributing to a more realistic human cancer risk assessment. One of the crucial tasks of all the microbeam apparatuses is the visualisation, recognition and positioning of every individual cell of the cell culture to be irradiated. Before irradiations, mammalian cells (specifically, Chinese hamster V79 cells) are seeded and grown as a monolayer on a mylar surface used as the bottom of a specially designed holder. Manual recognition of unstained cells in a bright-field microscope is a time-consuming procedure; therefore, a parallel algorithm has been conceived and developed in order to speed up this irradiation protocol step. Many technical problems have been faced to overcome the complexity of the images to be analysed: cell discrimination in an inhomogeneous background, among many disturbing bodies mainly due to the mylar surface roughness and culture medium bodies; cell shapes, depending on how they attach to the surface, which phase of the cell cycle they are in and on cell density. Preliminary results of the recognition and classification based on a method of wavelet kernels for the support vector machine classifier will be presented. (authors)

  10. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Kunasundari

    Full Text Available Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.

  11. A Transient Cell-shielding Method for Viable MSC Delivery Within Hydrophobic Scaffolds Polymerized in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Transport phenomena. New York: Wiley; 1960. [52] Caplan AI, Dennis JE. Mesenchymal stem cells as trophic mediators. J Cell Biochem 2006;98:1076e84. [53... Caplan AI. Why are MSCs therapeutic? New data: new insight. J Pathol 2009;217:318e24. [54] Dennis JE, Cohen N, Goldberg VM, Caplan AI. Targeted delivery

  12. Three methods for isolating viable anthozoan endoderm cells with their intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. D.; Muscatine, L.

    1992-09-01

    Three maceration methods are described for the isolation of single endoderm cells from marine cnidarians. Two are enzymatic treatments suitable for fleshy anthozoans such as sea anemones and zoanthids. The third employs calcium free sea water and is suitable for stony corals. The viability and morphology of the endoderm cells is described using fluorogenic dyes and scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  14. Development of image analysis software for quantification of viable cells in microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Maximilian; Fernández-Cabada, Tamara; Bourguignon, Natalia; Karp, Paola; Peñaherrera, Ana B; Helguera, Gustavo; Lerner, Betiana; Pérez, Maximiliano S; Mertelsmann, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few years, image analysis has emerged as a powerful tool for analyzing various cell biology parameters in an unprecedented and highly specific manner. The amount of data that is generated requires automated methods for the processing and analysis of all the resulting information. The software available so far are suitable for the processing of fluorescence and phase contrast images, but often do not provide good results from transmission light microscopy images, due to the intrinsic variation of the acquisition of images technique itself (adjustment of brightness / contrast, for instance) and the variability between image acquisition introduced by operators / equipment. In this contribution, it has been presented an image processing software, Python based image analysis for cell growth (PIACG), that is able to calculate the total area of the well occupied by cells with fusiform and rounded morphology in response to different concentrations of fetal bovine serum in microfluidic chips, from microscopy images in transmission light, in a highly efficient way.

  15. Promoting resuscitation of viable but nonculturable cells of Vibrio harveyi by a resuscitation-promoting factor-like protein YeaZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Chen, J; Zhao, M; Yang, Z; Yue, L; Zhang, X

    2017-02-01

    To demonstrate the resuscitation-promoting activities of recombinant YeaZ from Vibrio harveyi SF-1. The gene of resuscitation-promoting factor YeaZ was cloned from genomic DNA of V. harveyi SF-1. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed protein was purified by Ni 2+ -affinity chromatography. A yeaZ mutant was constructed by using the suicide plasmid pNQ705 with homologous recombination. Disruption of yeaZ did not affect cell growth significantly in 2216 E broth at 28°C. The wild-type and mutant viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells could be resuscitated by temperature upshift method. In addition, the recombinant YeaZ increased the culturable counts from 1·27 × 10 4  CFU per ml and 1·99 × 10 4 CFU per ml to 2·88 × 10 5  CFU per ml and 4·59 × 10 5 CFU per ml, respectively. After the VBNC cells of wild-type and mutant cells were maintained at 4°C for 120 days, no resuscitation was obtained by temperature upshift method, but addition of the recombinant YeaZ promoted the resuscitation of the wild-type and mutant cells, with the culturable cell counts of 1·13 × 10 3 and 1·44 × 10 3 CFU per ml, respectively. Disruption of yeaZ decreased the virulence of V. harveyi in zebrafish. The lethal dose 50% of the yeaZ null mutant was more than 10-fold higher than that of the wild-type cells. The recombinant YeaZ could efficiently promote resuscitation of the wild-type and mutant cells of V. harveyi from VBNC to culturable state. The protein also promoted resuscitation of the VBNC wild-type and mutant cells, which were maintained at 4°C for 120 days and not recovered by temperature upshift method. Disruption of yeaZ decreased the virulence of V. harveyi in zebrafish. Here, we show clear evidence of a resuscitation-promoting factor YeaZ of V. harveyi and the roles in resuscitation of the VBNC cells and its pathogenicity. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Supercooling as a viable non-freezing cell preservation method of rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Berk Usta

    Full Text Available Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4(oC on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics to that of static cold storage (CS at +4(oC and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS and b University of Wisconsin solution (UW and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 (oC. We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4(oC for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture. With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%; moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells performed in cryovials.

  17. Progress in emerging techniques for characterization of immobilized viable whole-cell biocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bučko, M.; Vikartovská, A.; Schenkmayerová, A.; Tkáč, J.; Filip, J.; Chorvát Jr., D.; Neděla, Vilém; Ansorge-Schumacher, M.B.; Gemeiner, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 11 (2017), s. 2309-2324 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : bioelectrocatalysis * imaging techniques * immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst * multienzyme cascade reactions * online kinetics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Bioprocessing technologies (industrial processes relying on biological agents to drive the process) biocatalysis, fermentation Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  18. Progress in biocatalysis with immobilized viable whole cells: systems development, reaction engineering and applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polakovič, M.; Švitel, J.; Bučko, M.; Filip, J.; Neděla, Vilém; Ansorge-Schumacher, M.B.; Gemeiner, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2017), s. 667-683 ISSN 0141-5492 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : biocatalysis * immobilization methods * immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst * multienzyme cascade reactions * process economics * reaction engineering Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Bioprocessing technologies (industrial processes relying on biological agents to drive the process) biocatalysis, fermentation Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2016

  19. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Jay S; Koch, Eileen; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2012-10-01

    Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r(2) = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥ 0.5/feet(3) (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥ 32 000 particles (≥ 0.5 µ)/feet(3), with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet(3) triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement.

  20. Aromatase inhibitors - a viable option for recurrent granulosa cell tumour of ovary: overview and case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munem, A.A.; Bahrani, B.A.; Mehdi, I.

    2012-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumour of the ovary in adults is a rare tumour of low malignant potential affecting middle aged peri or post menopausal patients. These tumours are often diagnosed at an early stage, due to their hormonally active nature. They, however, have unique distinguishing histologic features and behaviour of frequent and late local or systemic relapses. The diagnosis can be challenging with unusual presentations. There is high association of endometrial carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of management in early low risk disease, while radiotherapy and systemic platinum based chemotherapy are employed in higher stage with poor prognostic indices. Survival is good in early stage disease. Recurrent, progressive, and treatment refractory disease is not infrequent and poses management challenge. Endocrine manipulation and hormone treatment are employed in few cases with equivocal results, as reported in literature. We present a case of recurrent and treatment refractory GCT in a postmenopausal patient, managed by aromatase inhibitor Anastrozole with reasonable efficacy. (author)

  1. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornforth, Michael N. [The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  2. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornforth, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'

  3. A Viable Electrode Material for Use in Microbial Fuel Cells for Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Offei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were present on the electrode surface for substrate oxidation and the formation of nanowires.

  4. Viable calves produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using meiotic-blocked oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bem, Tiago H C; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Rochetti, Raquel; Bressan, Fabiana F; Sangalli, Juliano R; Miranda, Moysés S; Pires, Pedro R L; Schwartz, Kátia R L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Pimentel, José R V; Perecin, Felipe; Smith, Lawrence C; Meirelles, Flávio V; Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V

    2011-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has had an enormous impact on our understanding of biology and remains a unique tool for multiplying valuable laboratory and domestic animals. However, the complexity of the procedure and its poor efficiency are factors that limit a wider application of SCNT. In this context, oocyte meiotic arrest is an important option to make SCNT more flexible and increase the number of cloned embryos produced. Herein, we show that the use of butyrolactone I in association with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to arrest the meiotic division for 24 h prior to in vitro maturation provides bovine (Bos indicus) oocytes capable of supporting development of blastocysts and full-term cloned calves at least as efficiently as nonarrested oocytes. Furthermore, the procedure resulted in cloned blastocysts with an 1.5- and twofold increase of POU5F1 and IFNT2 expression, respectively, which are well-known markers of embryonic viability. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was diminished by prematuration in immature oocytes (718,585±34,775 vs. 595,579±31,922, respectively, control and treated groups) but was unchanged in mature oocytes (522,179±45,617 vs. 498,771±33,231) and blastocysts (816,627±40,235 vs. 765,332±51,104). To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned offspring born to prematured oocytes, indicating that meiotic arrest could have significant implications for laboratories working with SCNT and in vitro embryo production.

  5. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Novel Application for Low Frequency Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as an Online Process Monitoring Tool for Viable Cell Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available New approaches in process monitoring during industrial fermentations are not only limited to classical pH, dO2 and offgas analysis, but use different in situ and online sensors based on different physical principles to determine biomass, product quality, lysis and far more. One of the very important approaches is the in situ accessibility of viable cell concentration (VCC. This knowledge provides increased efficiency in monitoring and controlling strategies during cultivations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy—EIS—is used to monitor biomass in a fermentation of E. coli BL21(DE3, producing a recombinant protein using a fed batch-based approach. Increases in the double layer capacitance (Cdl, determined at frequencies below 1 kHz, are proportional to the increase of biomass in the batch and fed batch phase, monitored in offline and online modes for different cultivations. A good correlation of Cdl with cell density is found and in order to get an appropriate verification of this method, different state-of-the-art biomass measurements are performed and compared. Since measurements in this frequency range are largely determined by the double layer region between the electrode and media, rather minor interferences with process parameters (aeration, stirring are to be expected. It is shown that impedance spectroscopy at low frequencies is a powerful tool for cultivation monitoring.

  7. Clinical validation of an ultra high-throughput spiral microfluidics for the detection and enrichment of viable circulating tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Luan Khoo

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are cancer cells that can be isolated via liquid biopsy from blood and can be phenotypically and genetically characterized to provide critical information for guiding cancer treatment. Current analysis of CTCs is hindered by the throughput, selectivity and specificity of devices or assays used in CTC detection and isolation.Here, we enriched and characterized putative CTCs from blood samples of patients with both advanced stage metastatic breast and lung cancers using a novel multiplexed spiral microfluidic chip. This system detected putative CTCs under high sensitivity (100%, n = 56 (Breast cancer samples: 12-1275 CTCs/ml; Lung cancer samples: 10-1535 CTCs/ml rapidly from clinically relevant blood volumes (7.5 ml under 5 min. Blood samples were completely separated into plasma, CTCs and PBMCs components and each fraction were characterized with immunophenotyping (Pan-cytokeratin/CD45, CD44/CD24, EpCAM, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH (EML4-ALK or targeted somatic mutation analysis. We used an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometry based system to highlight the presence of an EGFR-activating mutation in both isolated CTCs and plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA, and demonstrate concordance with the original tumor-biopsy samples.We have clinically validated our multiplexed microfluidic chip for the ultra high-throughput, low-cost and label-free enrichment of CTCs. Retrieved cells were unlabeled and viable, enabling potential propagation and real-time downstream analysis using next generation sequencing (NGS or proteomic analysis.

  8. Analysis of DNA evidence recovered from epithelial cells in penile swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Katja

    2003-06-01

    In the rape case presented here, no semen, hair, or other biological evidence were left by the perpetuator at the crime scene or on the victim. The alleged assailant was arrested soon after the crime. A classical stain recovery technique using cotton swab moistened with sterile water was taken for recovering potential female epithelial cells and leukocytes deposited on the alleged assailant's penis during sexual assault. The organic method used for DNA extraction was quantified according to the slot-blot procedure and amplified at 9 and 15 polymorphic loci. Penile swab revealed a DNA profile of mixed origin. In addition to the suspect's DNA profile, DNA contribution from the victim was identified as a minor component in the mixture. Frequency of the profile resulted in a value of 5 x 10(-14) for the multiplex systems AmpFlSTR Plus and 2.5 x 10(-18) for the multiplex system PowerPlex 16, taking into account only non-overlapping alleles between the suspect and the victim from the minor component in the DNA mixture. Moreover, three additional alleles were observed at D21S11 locus by use of PowerPlex and STR SGM plus primers, which could not belong to the suspect. The victim's DNA profile showed the same three-banded genotype at this locus. The same pattern was detected when the victim's saliva or blood were used as reference samples. Our laboratory finding was consistent with the police report that the victim was a person with Down syndrome, a human genetic disease mainly resulting from trisomy (triplication) of the 21 chromosome.

  9. Role of chromosome stability and telomere length in the production of viable cell lines for somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betts Dean H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT provides an appealing alternative for the preservation of genetic material in non-domestic and endangered species. An important prerequisite for successful SCNT is the availability of good quality donor cells, as normal embryo development is dependent upon proper reprogramming of the donor genome so that embryonic genes can be appropriately expressed. The characteristics of donor cell lines and their ability to produce embryos by SCNT were evaluated by testing the effects of tissue sample collection (DART biopsy, PUNCH biopsy, post-mortem EAR sample and culture initiation (explant, collagenase digestion techniques. Results Differences in initial sample size based on sample collection technique had an effect on the amount of time necessary for achieving primary confluence and the number of population doublings (PDL produced. Thus, DART and PUNCH biopsies resulted in cultures with decreased lifespans (50 PDL and chromosomally stable (>70% normal cells at 20 PDL cultures produced by post-mortem EAR samples. Chromosome stability was influenced by sample collection technique and was dependent upon the culture's initial telomere length and its rate of shortening over cell passages. Following SCNT, short-lived cultures resulted in significantly lower blastocyst development (≤ 0.9% compared to highly proliferative cultures (11.8%. Chromosome stability and sample collection technique were significant factors in determining blastocyst development outcome. Conclusion These data demonstrate the influence of culture establishment techniques on cell culture characteristics, including the viability, longevity and normality of cells. The identification of a quantifiable marker associated with SCNT embryo developmental potential, chromosome stability, provides a means by which cell culture conditions can be monitored and improved.

  10. Long-term persistence of robust antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses in recovered patients infected with SARS coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisheng Li

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the individuals infected with SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV spontaneously recovered without clinical intervention. However, the immunological correlates associated with patients' recovery are currently unknown. In this report, we have sequentially monitored 30 recovered patients over a two-year period to characterize temporal changes in SARS-CoV-specific antibody responses as well as cytotoxic T cell (CTL responses. We have found persistence of robust antibody and CTL responses in all of the study subjects throughout the study period, with a moderate decline one year after the onset of symptoms. We have also identified two potential major CTL epitopes in N proteins based on ELISPOT analysis of pooled peptides. However, despite the potent immune responses and clinical recovery, peripheral lymphocyte counts in the recovered patients have not yet been restored to normal levels. In summary, our study has, for the first time, characterized the temporal and dynamic changes of humoral and CTL responses in the natural history of SARS-recovered individuals, and strongly supports the notion that high and sustainable levels of immune responses correlate strongly with the disease outcome. Our findings have direct implications for future design and development of effective therapeutic agents and vaccines against SARS-CoV infection.

  11. Differential inhibitory and activating NK cell receptor levels and NK/NKT-like cell functionality in chronic and recovered stages of chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapati, Subrat; Ganu, Mohini A; Tripathy, Anuradha S

    2017-01-01

    The role of natural killer (NK; CD3-CD56+)/NKT (CD3+CD56+)-like cells in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) disease progression/recovery remains unclear. Here, we investigated the expression profiles and function of NK and NKT-like cells from 35 chronic chikungunya patients, 30 recovered individuals, and 69 controls. Percentage of NKT-like cells was low in chronic chikungunya patients. NKp30+, CD244+, DNAM-1+, and NKG2D+ NK cell percentages were also lower (MFI and/or percentage), while those of CD94+ and NKG2A+ NKT-like cells were higher (MFI and/or percentage) in chronic patients than in recovered subjects. IFN-γ and TNF-α expression on NKT-like cells was high in the chronic patients, while only IFN-γ expression on NK cells was high in the recovered individuals. Furthermore, percentage of perforin+NK cells was low in the chronic patients. Lower cytotoxic activity was observed in the chronic patients than in the controls. CD107a expression on NK and NKT-like cells post anti-CD94/anti-NKG2A blocking was comparable among the patients and controls. Upregulated inhibitory and downregulated activating NK receptor expressions on NK/NKT-like cells, lower perforin+ and CD107a+NK cells are likely responsible for inhibiting the NK and NKT-like cell function in the chronic stage of chikungunya. Therefore, deregulation of NKR expression might underlie CHIKV-induced chronicity.

  12. A monetary comparison of energy recovered from microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells fed winery or domestic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusick, Roland D.; Kiely, Patrick D.; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, H2E Center, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Microbial fuel (MFCs) and electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to recover energy directly as electricity or hydrogen from organic matter. Organic removal efficiencies and values of the different energy products were compared for MFCs and MECs fed winery or domestic wastewater. TCOD removal (%) and energy recoveries (kWh/kg-COD) were higher for MFCs than MECs with both wastewaters. At a cost of 4.51/kg-H{sub 2} for winery wastewater and 3.01/kg-H{sub 2} for domestic wastewater, the hydrogen produced using MECs cost less than the estimated merchant value of hydrogen (6/kg-H{sub 2}). 16S rRNA clone libraries indicated the predominance of Geobacter species in anodic microbial communities in MECs for both wastewaters, suggesting low current densities were the result of substrate limitations. The results of this study show that energy recovery and organic removal from wastewater are more effective with MFCs than MECs, but that hydrogen production from wastewater fed MECs can be cost effective. (author)

  13. Construction of a system using a deep learning algorithm to count cell numbers in nanoliter wells for viable single-cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatani, Takashi; Fukunaga, Koichi; Miyata, Kaede; Shirasaki, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Junji; Baba, Rie; Matsusaka, Masako; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Moro, Kazuyo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Uemura, Sotaro

    2017-12-04

    For single-cell experiments, it is important to accurately count the number of viable cells in a nanoliter well. We used a deep learning-based convolutional neural network (CNN) on a large amount of digital data obtained as microscopic images. The training set consisted of 103 019 samples, each representing a microscopic grayscale image. After extensive training, the CNN was able to classify the samples into four categories, i.e., 0, 1, 2, and more than 2 cells per well, with an accuracy of 98.3% when compared to determination by two trained technicians. By analyzing the samples for which judgments were discordant, we found that the judgment by technicians was relatively correct although cell counting was often difficult by the images of discordant samples. Based on the results, the system was further enhanced by introducing a new algorithm in which the highest outputs from CNN were used, increasing the accuracy to higher than 99%. Our system was able to classify the data even from wells with a different shape. No other tested machine learning algorithm showed a performance higher than that of our system. The presented CNN system is expected to be useful for various single-cell experiments, and for high-throughput and high-content screening.

  14. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing forward osmosis water recovery from landfill leachate by desalinating brine and recovering ammonia in a microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a microbial desalination cell (MDC) was employed to desalinate the FO treated leachate for reduction of both salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The FO recovered 51.5% water from a raw leachate and the recovery increased to 83.5% from the concentrated leachate after desalination in the MDC fed with either acetate or another leachate as an electron source and at a different hydraulic retention time (HRT). Easily-degraded substrate like acetate and a long HRT resulted in a low conductivity desalinated effluent. Ammonia was also recovered in the MDC cathode with a recovery efficiency varying from 11 to 64%, affected by current generation and HRT. Significant COD reduction, as high as 65.4%, was observed in the desalination chamber and attributed to the decrease of both organic and inorganic compounds via diffusion and electricity-driven movement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Viable Cancer Cells in the Remnant Stomach are a Potential Source of Peritoneal Metastasis after Curative Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Kodama, Hirokazu; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Miyake, Toru; Tani, Tohru; Kushima, Ryoji; Tani, Masaji

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying peritoneal metastasis (PM) after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) are not well elucidated. This study assessed whether viable cancer cells, including cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), were present in the remnant stomach immediately before gastrointestinal (GI) tract reconstruction because these could be a source of PM after gastrectomy. Saline fluid used for remnant stomach lumen irrigation before GI reconstruction was prospectively collected from 142 consecutive patients undergoing distal gastrectomy for GC and cytologically examined. Proliferative activity (Ki67 staining) and stemness (expression of the CSC surface markers CD44s or CD44v6) were evaluated in detected cancer cells. Viable cancer cells were detected in 33 (23.2 %) of the 142 remnant stomachs. These cells formed clusters and stained positively for Ki67, indicating proliferation. Cancer cells in remnant stomachs and surface cancer cells in primary GCs from 10 (30.3 %) of these 33 cases also stained positively for CD44s or CD44v6. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, advanced cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.65; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.32-16.4; P = 0.017), tumor size of 40 mm or larger (OR, 3.78; 95 % CI, 1.12-12.8; P = 0.033), and histologic differentiation (OR, 3.10; 95 % CI, 1.30-7.40; P = 0.011) were associated independently with the presence of cancer cells in the remnant stomach. Viable, proliferative, and clustered cancer cells, including CSCs, were found in remnant gastric lumens immediately before GI reconstruction, indicating a possible cellular source of PM after curative gastrectomy for GC. Dissemination of gastric contents into the peritoneal cavity should be avoided during GI reconstruction.

  17. Designing primers and evaluation of the efficiency of propidium monoazide - Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for counting the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chieh-Hsien; Wu, Sih-Rong; Pang, Jen-Chieh; Ramireddy, Latha; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Ku; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of using propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to count the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius in probiotic products. Based on the internal transcription spacer and 23S rRNA genes, two primer sets specific for these two Lactobacillus species were designed. For a probiotic product, the total deMan Rogosa Sharpe plate count was 8.65±0.69 log CFU/g, while for qPCR, the cell counts of L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 8.39±0.14 log CFU/g and 8.57±0.24 log CFU/g, respectively. Under the same conditions, for its heat-killed product, qPCR counts for L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 6.70±0.16 log cells/g and 7.67±0.20 log cells/g, while PMA-qPCR counts were 5.33±0.18 log cells/g and 5.05±0.23 log cells/g, respectively. For cell dilutions with a viable cell count of 8.5 log CFU/mL for L. gasseri and L. salivarius, after heat killing, the PMA-qPCR count for both Lactobacillus species was near 5.5 log cells/mL. When the PMA-qPCR counts of these cell dilutions were compared before and after heat killing, although some DNA might be lost during the heat killing, significant qPCR signals from dead cells, i.e., about 4-5 log cells/mL, could not be reduced by PMA treatment. Increasing PMA concentrations from 100 μM to 200 μM or light exposure time from 5 minutes to 15 minutes had no or, if any, only minor effect on the reduction of qPCR signals from their dead cells. Thus, to differentiate viable lactic acid bacterial cells from dead cells using the PMA-qPCR method, the efficiency of PMA to reduce the qPCR signals from dead cells should be notable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Designing primers and evaluation of the efficiency of propidium monoazide – Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for counting the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hsien Lai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of using propidium monoazide (PMA real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR to count the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius in probiotic products. Based on the internal transcription spacer and 23S rRNA genes, two primer sets specific for these two Lactobacillus species were designed. For a probiotic product, the total deMan Rogosa Sharpe plate count was 8.65±0.69 log CFU/g, while for qPCR, the cell counts of L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 8.39±0.14 log CFU/g and 8.57±0.24 log CFU/g, respectively. Under the same conditions, for its heat-killed product, qPCR counts for L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 6.70±0.16 log cells/g and 7.67±0.20 log cells/g, while PMA-qPCR counts were 5.33±0.18 log cells/g and 5.05±0.23 log cells/g, respectively. For cell dilutions with a viable cell count of 8.5 log CFU/mL for L. gasseri and L. salivarius, after heat killing, the PMA-qPCR count for both Lactobacillus species was near 5.5 log cells/mL. When the PMA-qPCR counts of these cell dilutions were compared before and after heat killing, although some DNA might be lost during the heat killing, significant qPCR signals from dead cells, i.e., about 4–5 log cells/mL, could not be reduced by PMA treatment. Increasing PMA concentrations from 100 μM to 200 μM or light exposure time from 5 minutes to 15 minutes had no or, if any, only minor effect on the reduction of qPCR signals from their dead cells. Thus, to differentiate viable lactic acid bacterial cells from dead cells using the PMA-qPCR method, the efficiency of PMA to reduce the qPCR signals from dead cells should be notable.

  19. Increased cell proliferation and mucocyte density in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida recovering from bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fransolet

    Full Text Available Recovery of coral after bleaching episodes is a critical period for the health of the reef ecosystem. While events such as symbiont (genus Symbiodinium shifting/shuffling or tissue apoptosis have been demonstrated to occur following bleaching, little is known concerning tissue recovery or cell proliferation. Here, we studied the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exposed to a transient elevation of water temperature combined with high illumination (33°C and 1900 µmol photons x m(-2 x s(-1 for 30 h. Following such treatment bleached anemones showed a significant reduction of their Symbiodinium density. Cell proliferation in the ectodermis and gastrodermis was determined by assessing the densities of cells labeled with a thymidine analogue (EdU. Cell proliferation significantly increased during the first day following stress in both tissue types. This increased cell proliferation returned to pre-stress values after one week. Although cell proliferation was higher in the ectodermis in absence of stress, it was relatively more pronounced in the gastrodermis of stressed anemones. In addition, the ratio of ectodermal mucocytes significantly increased three weeks after induced stress. These results suggest that thermal/photic stress coupled with the loss of the symbionts is able to enhance cell proliferation in both gastrodermis and ectodermis of cnidarians. While new cells formed in the gastrodermis are likely to host new Symbiodinium, the fate of new cells in the ectodermis was only partially revealed. Some new ectodermal cells may, in part, contribute to the increased number of mucocytes which could eventually help strengthen the heterotrophic state until restoration of the symbiosis.

  20. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patheja, Pooja; Sahu, Khageswar

    2017-01-01

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MφCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MφCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation.

  1. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patheja, Pooja, E-mail: pooja.patheja8@gmail.com [Laser Biomedical Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); Sahu, Khageswar [Laser Biomedical Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2017-06-15

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MφCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MφCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation.

  2. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  3. Stem cell recovering effect of copper-free GHK in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Ryung; Kang, Youn-A; Ryoo, Sun-Jong; Shin, Jung-Won; Na, Jung-Im; Huh, Chang-Hun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2012-11-01

    The peptide Gly-His-Lys (GHK) is a naturally occurring copper(II)-chelating motifs in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In industry, GHK (with or without copper) is used to make hair and skin care products. Copper-GHK plays a physiological role in the process of wound healing and tissue repair by stimulating collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. We also reported that copper-GHK promotes the survival of basal stem cells in the skin. However, the effects of copper-free GHK (GHK) have not been investigated well. In this study, the effects of GHK were studied using cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalent (SE) models. In monolayer cultured keratinocytes, GHK increased the proliferation of keratinocytes. When GHK was added during the culture of SE models, the basal cells became more cuboidal than control model. In addition, there was linear and intense staining of α6 and β1 integrin along the basement membrane. The number of p63 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells was also significantly increased in GHK-treated SEs than in control SEs. Western blot and slide culture experiment showed that GHK increased the expression of integrin by keratinocytes. All these results showed that GHK increased the stemness and proliferative potential of epidermal basal cells, which is associated with increased expression of integrin. In conclusion, copper-free GHK showed similar effects with copper-GHK. Thus, it can be said that copper-free GHK can be used in industry to obtain the effects of copper-GHK in vivo. Further study is necessary to explore the relationship between copper-free GHK and copper-GHK. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. CheckM: assessing the quality of microbial genomes recovered from isolates, single cells, and metagenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Donovan H.; Imelfort, Michael; Skennerton, Connor T.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale recovery of genomes from isolates, single cells, and metagenomic data has been made possible by advances in computational methods and substantial reductions in sequencing costs. Although this increasing breadth of draft genomes is providing key information regarding the evolutionary and functional diversity of microbial life, it has become impractical to finish all available reference genomes. Making robust biological inferences from draft genomes requires accurate estimates of their completeness and contamination. Current methods for assessing genome quality are ad hoc and generally make use of a limited number of “marker” genes conserved across all bacterial or archaeal genomes. Here we introduce CheckM, an automated method for assessing the quality of a genome using a broader set of marker genes specific to the position of a genome within a reference genome tree and information about the collocation of these genes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CheckM using synthetic data and a wide range of isolate-, single-cell-, and metagenome-derived genomes. CheckM is shown to provide accurate estimates of genome completeness and contamination and to outperform existing approaches. Using CheckM, we identify a diverse range of errors currently impacting publicly available isolate genomes and demonstrate that genomes obtained from single cells and metagenomic data vary substantially in quality. In order to facilitate the use of draft genomes, we propose an objective measure of genome quality that can be used to select genomes suitable for specific gene- and genome-centric analyses of microbial communities. PMID:25977477

  5. Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads by Novel Two-Step Process for Improved Performance of Viable Whole-Cell Baeyer-Villiger Monoxygenase by Immobilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajčovič, T.; Bučko, M.; Vikartovská, A.; Lacík, I.; Uhelská, L.; Chorvát, D.; Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Gericke, M.; Heinze, T.; Gemeiner, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), s. 353-364 ISSN 2073-4344 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : polyelectrolyte complex beads * environmental scanning electron microscopy * confocal laser scanning microscopy * Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation * cyclohexanone monoxygenase * immobilization * viable whole-cell biocatalyst Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Bioprocessing technologies (industrial processes relying on biological agents to drive the process) biocatalysis, fermentation Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/7/11/353

  6. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patheja, Pooja; Sahu, Khageswar

    2017-06-15

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MɸCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MɸCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilization of Cell-Transfer Technique for Molecular Testing on Hematoxylin-Eosin-Stained Sections: A Viable Option for Small Biopsies That Lack Tumor Tissues in Paraffin Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Howard H; Jovonovich, Stephen M; Randolph, Melissa; Post, Kristin M; Sen, Joyashree D; Curless, Kendra; Cheng, Liang

    2016-12-01

    - In some instances the standard method of doing molecular testing from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block is not possible because of limited tissue. Tumor cell-enriched cell-transfer technique has been proven useful for performing immunocytochemistry and molecular testing on cytologic smears. - To establish the cell-transfer technique as a viable option for isolating tumor cells from hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained slides. - Molecular testing was performed by using the cell-transfer technique on 97 archived H&E-stained slides from a variety of different tumors. Results were compared to the conventional method of molecular testing. - Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular testing via the cell-transfer technique was successfully performed on 82 of 97 samples (85%). This included 39 of 47 cases for EGFR, 10 of 11 cases for BRAF, and 33 of 39 cases for KRAS mutations. Eighty-one of 82 cell-transfer technique samples (99%) showed agreement with previous standard method results, including 4 mutations and 35 wild-type alleles for EGFR, 4 mutations and 6 wild-type alleles for BRAF, and 11 mutations and 21 wild-type alleles for KRAS. There was only 1 discrepancy: a cell-transfer technique with a false-negative >KRAS result (wild type versus G12C). - Molecular testing performed on H&E-stained sections via cell-transfer technique is useful when tissue from cell blocks and small surgical biopsy samples is exhausted and the only available material for testing is on H&E-stained slides.

  8. Critical review of the molecular design progress in non-fullerene electron acceptors towards commercially viable organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Moser, Maximilian; Marks, Adam; Little, Mark S.; Gasparini, Nicola; Brabec, Christoph J.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2018-01-01

    Fullerenes have formed an integral part of high performance organic solar cells over the last 20 years, however their inherent limitations in terms of synthetic flexibility, cost and stability have acted as a motivation to develop replacements; the so-called non-fullerene electron acceptors. A rapid evolution of such materials has taken place over the last few years, yielding a number of promising candidates that can exceed the device performance of fullerenes and provide opportunities to improve upon the stability and processability of organic solar cells. In this review we explore the structure-property relationships of a library of non-fullerene acceptors, highlighting the important chemical modifications that have led to progress in the field and provide an outlook for future innovations in electron acceptors for use in organic photovoltaics.

  9. Critical review of the molecular design progress in non-fullerene electron acceptors towards commercially viable organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2018-04-26

    Fullerenes have formed an integral part of high performance organic solar cells over the last 20 years, however their inherent limitations in terms of synthetic flexibility, cost and stability have acted as a motivation to develop replacements; the so-called non-fullerene electron acceptors. A rapid evolution of such materials has taken place over the last few years, yielding a number of promising candidates that can exceed the device performance of fullerenes and provide opportunities to improve upon the stability and processability of organic solar cells. In this review we explore the structure-property relationships of a library of non-fullerene acceptors, highlighting the important chemical modifications that have led to progress in the field and provide an outlook for future innovations in electron acceptors for use in organic photovoltaics.

  10. Advances toward regenerative medicine in the central nervous system: challenges in making stem cell therapy a viable clinical strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in the prospects of stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of nervous system disorders. The eagerness of scientists, clinicians, and spin-out companies to develop new therapies led to premature clinical trials in human patients, and now the initial excitement has largely turned to skepticism. Rather than embracing a defeatist attitude or pressing blindly ahead, I argue it is time to evaluate the challenges encountered by regenerative medicine in the central nervous system and the progress that is being made to solve these problems. In the twenty years since the adult brain was discovered to have an endogenous regenerative capacity, much basic research has been done to elucidate mechanisms controlling proliferation and cellular identity; how stem cells may be directed into neuronal lineages; genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral interventions that modulate neurogenic activity; and the exact nature of limitations to regeneration in the adult, aged, diseased and injured CNS. These findings should prove valuable in designing realistic clinical strategies to improve the prospects of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, I discuss how basic research continues to play a critical role in identifying both barriers and potential routes to regenerative therapy in the CNS.

  11. Induction of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella in Exponentially Grown Cells by Exposure to a Low-Humidity Environment and Their Resuscitation by Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Yuta; Koike, Atsushi; Tamura-Ueyama, Ai; Amano, Fumio

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease that sometimes occurs in massive outbreaks around the world. This pathogen is tolerant of low-humidity conditions. We previously described a method for induction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and subsequent resuscitation with 0.3 mM sodium pyruvate. Here, we report a new method for the induction of the VBNC state in Salmonella Enteritidis cells, one involving dehydration. Exposure of Salmonella Enteritidis cells to dehydration stress under poor nutritional conditions (0.9% [wt/vol] NaCl) and 10 to 20% relative humidity at room temperature decreased the presence of culturable population to 0.0067%, but respiratory and glucose uptake active populations were maintained at 0.46 and 1.12%, respectively, meaning that approximately 1% may have entered the VBNC state. Furthermore, these VBNC cells could be resuscitated to acquire culturability by incubation with catalase in M9 minimal medium without glucose in a manner dependent on the dose of catalase but not sodium pyruvate. These results suggest that a low-humidity environment could cause Salmonella Enteritidis cells to enter the VBNC state and the cells could then be resuscitated for growth by treatment with catalase, suggesting a potential risk of Salmonella Enteritidis to survive in low water activity foods in the VBNC state and to start regrowth for foodborne illness.

  12. The first demonstration of a microbial fuel cell as a viable power supply: Powering a meteorological buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tender, Leonard M.; Gray, Sam A.; Groveman, Ethan; Lowy, Daniel A.; Kauffman, Peter; Melhado, Julio; Tyce, Robert C.; Flynn, Darren; Petrecca, Rose; Dobarro, Joe

    2008-05-01

    Here we describe the first demonstration of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a practical alternative to batteries for a low-power consuming application. The specific application reported is a meteorological buoy (ca. 18-mW average consumption) that measures air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and water temperature, and that is configured for real-time line-of-sight RF telemetry of data. The specific type of MFC utilized in this demonstration is the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC). The BMFC operates on the bottom of marine environments, where it oxidizes organic matter residing in oxygen depleted sediment with oxygen in overlying water. It is maintenance free, does not deplete (i.e., will run indefinitely), and is sufficiently powerful to operate a wide range of low-power marine-deployed scientific instruments normally powered by batteries. Two prototype BMFCs used to power the buoy are described. The first was deployed in the Potomac River in Washington, DC, USA. It had a mass of 230 kg, a volume of 1.3 m3, and sustained 24 mW (energy equivalent of ca. 16 alkaline D-cells per year at 25 °C). Although not practical due to high cost and extensive in-water manipulation required to deploy, it established the precedence that a fully functional scientific instrument could derive all of its power from a BMFC. It also provided valuable lessons for developing a second, more practical BMFC that was subsequently used to power the buoy in a salt marsh near Tuckerton, NJ, USA. The second version BMFC has a mass of 16 kg, a volume of 0.03 m3, sustains ca. 36 mW (energy equivalent of ca. 26 alkaline D-cells per year at 25 °C), and can be deployed by a single person from a small craft with minimum or no in-water manipulation. This BMFC is being further developed to reduce cost and enable greater power output by electrically connecting multiple units in parallel. Use of this BMFC powering the meteorological buoy highlights the potential impact of BMFCs to enable long

  13. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  14. Separation of viable lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to humans. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB are probiotic organisms used in the production of fermented foods, such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles. Given their widespread consumption, it is important to understand the physiological state of LAB in foods such as yogurt. However, this analysis is complicated, as it is difficult to separate the LAB from milk components such as solid curds, which prevent cell separation by dilution or centrifugation. In this study, we successfully separated viable LAB from yogurt by density gradient centrifugation. The recovery rate was >90 %, and separation was performed until the stationary phase. Recovered cells were observable by microscopy, meaning that morphological changes and cell viability could be directly detected at the single-cell level. The results indicate that viable LAB can be easily purified from fermented milk. We expect that this method will be a useful tool for the analysis of various aspects of probiotic cells, including their enzyme activity and protein expression. Keywords: Food analysis, Microbiology

  15. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  16. Dendritic cells for active immunotherapy: optimizing design and manufacture in order to develop commercially and clinically viable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolette, C A; Healey, D; Tcherepanova, I; Whelton, P; Monesmith, T; Coombs, L; Finke, L H; Whiteside, T; Miesowicz, F

    2007-09-27

    Dendritic cell (DC) active immunotherapy is potentially efficacious in a broad array of malignant disease settings. However, challenges remain in optimizing DC-based therapy for maximum clinical efficacy within manufacturing processes that permit quality control and scale-up of consistent products. In this review we discuss the critical issues that must be addressed in order to optimize DC-based product design and manufacture, and highlight the DC based platforms currently addressing these issues. Variables in DC-based product design include the type of antigenic payload used, DC maturation steps and activation processes, and functional assays. Issues to consider in development include: (a) minimizing the invasiveness of patient biological material collection; (b) minimizing handling and manipulations of tissue at the clinical site; (c) centralized product manufacturing and standardized processing and capacity for commercial-scale production; (d) rapid product release turnaround time; (e) the ability to manufacture sufficient product from limited starting material; and (f) standardized release criteria for DC phenotype and function. Improvements in the design and manufacture of DC products have resulted in a handful of promising leads currently in clinical development.

  17. Tumour T1 changes in vivo are highly predictive of response to chemotherapy and reflect the number of viable tumour cells – a preclinical MR study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidensteiner, Claudia; Allegrini, Peter R; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Romanet, Vincent; Ferretti, Stephane; McSheehy, Paul MJ

    2014-01-01

    measure of cell density but reflects the decreased number of remaining viable and proliferating tumour cells due to perhaps cell and tissue destruction releasing proteins and/or metals that cause T 1 relaxation. ΔT 1 is a highly sensitive and specific predictor of response. This MRI method provides the opportunity to stratify a patient population during tumour therapy in the clinic

  18. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  19. Failure of RNA synthesis to recover after UV irradiation: an early defect in cells from individuals with Cockayne's syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, L.V.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work has shown that in cells from the ultraviolet-sensitive genetic disorder, Cockayne's syndrome, DNA synthesis fails to recover after ultraviolet irradiation, despite the fact that these cells have no detectable defect in either excision or daughter-strand repair pathways. We now show that Cockayne cells, as well as cells from a number of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, are sensitive to the lethal effects of UV irradiation in stationary phase under conditions in which no DNA is synthesized after irradiation. Furthermore, in normal and defective human fibroblasts, RNA synthesis is depressed after UV irradiation. In normal (dividing) cells, RNA synthesis recovers very rapidly, but this recovery does not occur in Cockayne cells, and it is reduced or absent in xeroderma pigmentosum cells from different complementation groups. Qualitatively, similar results are obtained with cells in stationary phase. The recovery of RNA synthesis in the various defective cell strains is not correlated with the overall extent of excision repair, but there is some correlation between recovery of RNA synthesis and cell survival after ultraviolet irradiation. These results implicate recovery of RNA synthesis as an important early response to ultraviolet irradiation

  20. Primordial Germ Cell-Mediated Chimera Technology Produces Viable Pure-Line Houbara Bustard Offspring: Potential for Repopulating an Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; Liu, Chunhai; Baskar, Vijay; Guerineche, Zhor; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Jörg; Wernery, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Background The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation

  1. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wernery

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring.Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16 gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster.This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian

  2. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Camila ML; Boetcher-Luiz, Fátima; Verinaud, Liana; Ikemori, Rafael Y; Zorzeto, Tatiana Q; Nogueira, Ana CMA; Barbosa, Suse DS; Savino, Wilson; Schenka, André A; Vassallo, José; Heinrich, Juliana K

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60 th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results showed that NG97(ht) had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht) revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells with stromal murine cells in the xenotransplant. In

  3. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Juliana K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. Methods This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results Results showed that NG97(ht had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells

  4. Cultured bovine granulosa cells rapidly lose important features of their identity and functionality but partially recover under long-term culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4. FOXL2, a marker for granulosa cell identity, was also rapidly down-regulated after plating but completely recovered towards the end of culture. In contrast, expression of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 and the lesion/inflammation marker PTGS2 increased during the first 2 days after plating but gradually decreased later on. We conclude that only long-term culture conditions (>4 days) allow the cells to recover from plating stress and to re-acquire characteristic granulosa cell features.

  5. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days from patients of varying ages (26–62 years. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved 2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages.

  6. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level...... by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) over time by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. pHi values were initially 7 to 7.5 and decreased in both attached and planktonic L. monocytogenes cells during exposure to sublethal and lethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES. The response of the bacterial population...... was homogenous; hence, subpopulations were not detected. However, pregrowth with NaCl protected the planktonic bacterial cells during disinfection with Incimaxx (0.0015%) since pHi was higher (6 to 6.5) for the bacterial population pregrown with NaCl than for cells grown without NaCl (pHi 5 to 5.5) (P

  7. Flexible Nanosomes (SECosomes) Enable Efficient siRNA Delivery in Cultured Primary Skin Cells and in the Viable Epidermis of Ex Vivo Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, Barbara; Van Gele, Mireille; Braat, Sien; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington; Roberts, Michael S.; Sanders, Niek N.; Lambert, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which nanoscale-engineered systems cross intact human skin and can exert pharmacological effects in viable epidermis is controversial. This research seeks to develop a new lipid-based nanosome that enables the effective delivery of siRNA into human skin. The major finding is that an

  8. Pedigree analyses of yeast cells recovering from DNA damage allow assignment of lethal events to individual post-treatment generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, F.; Karwan, A.; Wintersberger, U.

    1990-01-01

    Haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with different DNA damaging agents at various doses. A study of the progeny of individual such cells allowed the assignment of lethal events to distinct post treatment generations. By microscopically inspecting those cells which were not able to form visible colonies the authors could discriminate between cells dying from immediately effective lethal hits and those generating microcolonies probably as a consequence of lethal mutation(s). The experimentally obtained numbers of lethal events were mathematically transformed into mean probabilities of lethal fixations at taking place in cells of certain post treatment generations. Such analyses give detailed insight into the kinetics of lethality as a consequence of different kinds of DNA damage. For example, X-irradiated cells lost viability mainly by lethal hits, only at a higher dose also lethal mutations fixed in the cells that were in direct contact with the mutagen, but not in later generations, occurred. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated cells were hit by 00-fixations in a dose dependent manner. The distribution of all sorts of lethal fixations taken together, which occurred in the EMS-damaged cell families, was not random. For comparison analyses of cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and nitrous acid are also reported

  9. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  10. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cells recovered from vitreous fluid of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, E. J.; Klaren, V. N.; Wierenga, E. A.; Verjans, G. M.; Kijlstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in reactivations of latent ocular Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) infections in immunocompetent patients are poorly understood. In view of the possible role of T cells in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, ocular infiltrating T cells obtained from patients with recurrent ocular

  11. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation.

  12. Leishmania donovani-reactive Th1- and Th2-like T-cell clones from individuals who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A; Bendtzen, K

    1993-01-01

    analyzed in a panel of L. donovani-reactive CD4+ human T-cell clones generated from individuals who had recovered from VL after antimonial treatment. Two of the T-cell clones produced large amounts of IL-4 without production of IFN-gamma, seven clones produced both IFN-gamma and IL-4, and eight produced...... by interleukin-4 (IL-4)-producing Th2 cells, or cure may result by Th1 cells secreting gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The present study examined the potential of human T cells to generate Th1 or Th2 responses to L. donovani. The profiles of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and lymphotoxin secretion after antigen stimulation were...... only IFN-gamma. This is the first report of a Th1- and Th2-type response in human leishmaniasis. These results suggest that in analogy with murine models, there is a dichotomy in the human T-cell response to L. donovani infections. Preferential activation of IL-4-producing Th2-like cells may...

  13. Investigation of mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediments recovered from the Eastern Nankai Trough using transparent acrylic cell triaxial testing system (TACTT-system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate-bearing pressure core sediments have been sheared in compression using a newly developed Transparent Acrylic Cell Triaxial Testing (TACTT) system to investigate the geophysical and geomechanical behavior of sediments recovered from the deep seabed in the Eastern Nankai Trough, the first Japanese offshore production test region. The sediments were recovered by hybrid pressure core system (hybrid PCS) and pressure cores were cut by pressure core analysis tools (PCATs) on board. These pressure cores were transferred to the AIST Hokkaido centre and trimmed by pressure core non-destructive analysis tools (PNATs) for TACTT system which maintained the pressure and temperature conditions within the hydrate stability boundary, through the entire process of core handling from drilling to the end of laboratory testing. An image processing technique was used to capture the motion of sediment in a transparent acrylic cell, and digital photographs were obtained at every 0.1% of vertical strain during the test. Analysis of the optical images showed that sediments with 63% hydrate saturation exhibited brittle failure, although nonhydrate-bearing sediments exhibited ductile failure. In addition, the increase in shear strength with hydrate saturation increase of natural gas hydrate is in agreement with previous data from synthetic gas hydrate. This research was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  15. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells: Viable therapy for type III.C. a diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition from acute pancreatitis to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is a rare manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma because of impaired glucose tolerance and suppresses insulin secretion. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with pancreatic diabetes caused by parathyroid adenoma induced chronic pancreatitis. He had serum C-peptide 0.12 ng/ml, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody 5.0 IU/ml, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C 8.9%, and required 72 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin injection for uncontrolled hyperglycemia. We treated him with his own adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem-cells (IS-ADMSC along with his bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSC. Autologous IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC were infused into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation without any conditioning. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the patient is maintaining fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels of 132 and 165 mg/dl, respectively, with HbA1C 6.8% and requiring 36 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin. Co-infusion of IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC offers a safe and viable therapy for type III.C.a Diabetes Mellitus.

  16. Human nasal turbinates as a viable source of respiratory epithelial cells using co-culture system versus dispase-dissociation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruddin, Nur Adelina Ahmad; Saim, Aminuddin B; Chua, Kien Hui; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2007-12-01

    To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application. Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells. Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques. Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  17. Viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes on parsley leaves and absence of recovery to a culturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreux, N; Albagnac, C; Federighi, M; Carlin, F; Morris, C E; Nguyen-the, C

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the presence of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes during survival on parsley leaves under low relative humidity (RH) and to evaluate the ability of L. monocytogenes to recover from VBNC to culturable state under satured humidity. Under low RH (47-69%) on parsley leaves, the initial number of L. monocytogenes populations counted on non selective media (10(9) L. monocytogenes per leaf on TSA) was reduced by 6 log10 scales in 15 days, whereas number of viable L. monocytogenes counted under the microscope was reduced by 3-4 log10 scales, indicating the presence of VBNC cells. This was demonstrated on three L. monocytogenes strains (EGDe, Bug 1995 and LmP60). Changing from low to 100% RH permitted an increase of the culturable counts of L. monocytogenes and this growth was observed only when residual culturable cells were present. Moreover, VBNC L. monocytogenes inoculated on parsley leaves did not become culturable after incubation under 100% RH. Dry conditions induced VBNC L. monocytogenes on parsley leaves but these VBNC were likely unable to recover culturability after transfer to satured humidity. Enumeration on culture media presumably under-estimates the number of viable L. monocytogenes on fresh produce after exposure to low RH.

  18. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  19. Self-Sterilizing and Regeneratable Microchip for the Precise Capture and Recovery of Viable Circulating Tumor Cells from Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lanlan; Su, Yi; Ye, Tingting; Liu, Zhao; Tian, Qingchang; He, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Yueqi; Chen, Pu; Wang, Xiaojia; Han, Weidong; Luo, Yan; Wang, Ben

    2018-01-10

    Cancer cells metastasize and are transported in the bloodstream, easily reaching any site in the body through the blood circulation. A method designed to assess the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) should be validated as a clinical tool for predicting the response to therapy and monitoring the disease progression in patients with cancer. Although CTCs are detectable in many cases, they remain unavailable for clinic usage because of their high testing cost, tedious operation, and poor clinical relevance. Herein, we developed a regeneratable microchip for isolating CTCs, which is available for robust cell heterogeneity assays on-site without the need for a sterile environment. The ivy-like hierarchical roughened zinc oxide (ZnO) nanograss interface was synthesized and directly integrated into the microfluidic devices and enables effective CTC capture and flexible, nontoxic CTC release during incubation in a mildly acidic solution, thus enabling cellular and molecular analyses. The microchip can be regenerated and recycled to capture CTCs with the remaining ZnO without affecting the efficiency, even after countless cycles of cell release. Moreover, microbial infection is avoided during its storage, distribution, and even in the open space usage, which ideally appeals to the demands of point-of-care (POC) and home testing and meets to the requirements for blood examinations in undeveloped or resource-limited settings. Furthermore, the findings generated using this platform based on the cocktail of antiepithelial cell adhesion molecule and antivimentin antibodies indicate that CTC capture was more precise and reasonable for patients with advanced cancer.

  20. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  1. A protocol for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with a high rate of viable clone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Adachi, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Masato; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we successfully generated fully grown, cloned medaka (the Japanese rice fish, Oryzias latipes) using donor nuclei from primary culture cells of adult caudal fin tissue and nonenucleated recipient eggs that were heat shock-treated to induce diploidization of the nuclei. However, the mechanism of clone formation using this method is unknown, and the rate of adult clone formation is not high enough for studies in basic and applied sciences. To gain insight into the mechanism and increase the success rate of this method of clone formation, we tested two distinct nuclear transfer protocols. In one protocol, the timing of transfer of donor nuclei was changed, and in the other, the size of the donor cells was changed; each protocol was based on our original methodology. Ultimately, we obtained an unexpectedly high rate of adult clone formation using the protocol that differed with respect to the timing of donor nuclei transfer. Specifically, 17% of the transplants that developed to the blastula stage ultimately developed into adult clones. The success rate with this method was 13 times higher than that obtained using the original method. Analyses focusing on the reasons for this high success rate of clone formation will help to elucidate the mechanism of clone formation that occurs with this method.

  2. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  3. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell technology coupled with methane dry reforming: A viable option for high efficiency plant with reduced CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Ottaviano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the control of greenhouse gas is probably the most challenging environmental policy issue. Since CO 2 is considered the major greenhouse gas (GHG) that contributes to the global warming, enforcing technological strategies aiming to avoid or reuse CO 2 emissions becomes crucial, in order to mitigate GHG environmental impact. Currently, solutions conventionally adopted to this purpose are carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. In this context, instead, the followed strategy aims to further improvements in energetic conversion efficiency with related reduced specific CO 2 emissions (per produced kWh e ). Therefore, with particular reference to the electric power generation, this paper proposes an innovative energy conversion system, based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), characterized by higher efficiency and reduced CO 2 emission factor respect to an analogous conventional energy plant. In particular, the innovative solution consists of combining SOFC to methane dry reforming technology, while the conventional system refers to steam methane reforming-SOFC coupling. The innovative system performance up to 65% electric efficiency as cited in the paper, was validated through simulations carried out in Aspen Plus environment. - Highlights: • An innovative high efficiency plant with low CO 2 emissions is presented. • The new solution combined SOFC to methane dry reforming technology (CDR–SOFC). • A comparison between CDR–SOFC and SMR–SOFC system was carried out in Aspen Plus. • CDR–SOFC efficiency is greater of 6.4% percentage points respect to SMR–SOFC. • A CO 2 emission factor reduction of about 10% was achieved by CDR–SOFC plant

  5. Uranium oxide recovering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Teramae, Naoki; Onoue, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates containing uranium nitrate are charged in a molten salt electrolytic vessel, and a heat treatment is applied to prepare molten salts. An anode and a cathode each made of a graphite rod are disposed in the molten salts. AC voltage is applied between the anode and the cathode to conduct electrolysis of the molten salts. Uranium oxides are deposited as a recovered product of uranium, on the surface of the anode. The nitrates containing uranium nitrate are preferably a mixture of one or more nitrates selected from sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate with uranium nitrate. The nitrates may be liquid wastes of nitrates. The temperature for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably from 150 to 300degC. The voltage for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably an AC voltage of from 2 to 6V, more preferably from 4 to 6V. (I.N.)

  6. Process for recovering uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  7. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  8. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  9. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  10. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Zheng

    Full Text Available Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs, however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs. Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5 with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.

  11. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    , direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. V. harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d...

  13. Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Couzigou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast.

  14. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  15. Dichotomy of the human T cell response to Leishmania antigens. I. Th1-like response to Leishmania major promastigote antigens in individuals recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Hey, A S; Kurtzhals, J A

    1994-01-01

    of skin lesions, and in Danes without known exposure to Leishmania parasites. Proliferation and production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 in antigen-stimulated cultures was measured. Lymphocytes from individuals with a history of CL proliferated vigorously and produced IFN-gamma after...... the unexposed Danes were not activated by gp63. The cells from Danish donors produced either IFN-gamma or IL-4, but not both cytokines after incubation with the crude preparation of L. major antigens. The data show that the T cell response to Leishmania antigens in humans who have had uncomplicated CL...... stimulation with either a crude preparation of L. major antigens or the major surface protease gp63. These cultures produced no or only little IL-4. Also cells from leishmanin skin test-positive donors with no history of CL produced IFN-gamma and no IL-4 in response to L. major antigens. Cells from...

  16. Recovering probabilities for nucleotide trimming processes for T cell receptor TRA and TRG V-J junctions analyzed with IMGT tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefranc Marie-Paule

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotides are trimmed from the ends of variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J genes during immunoglobulin (IG and T cell receptor (TR rearrangements in B cells and T cells of the immune system. This trimming is followed by addition of nucleotides at random, forming the N regions (N for nucleotides of the V-J and V-D-J junctions. These processes are crucial for creating diversity in the immune response since the number of trimmed nucleotides and the number of added nucleotides vary in each B or T cell. IMGT® sequence analysis tools, IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, are able to provide detailed and accurate analysis of the final observed junction nucleotide sequences (tool "output". However, as trimmed nucleotides can potentially be replaced by identical N region nucleotides during the process, the observed "output" represents a biased estimate of the "true trimming process." Results A probabilistic approach based on an analysis of the standardized tool "output" is proposed to infer the probability distribution of the "true trimmming process" and to provide plausible biological hypotheses explaining this process. We collated a benchmark dataset of TR alpha (TRA and TR gamma (TRG V-J rearranged sequences and junctions analysed with IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, the nucleotide sequence analysis tools from IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, http://imgt.cines.fr. The standardized description of the tool output is based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts. We propose a simple first-order model that attempts to transform the observed "output" probability distribution into an estimate closer to the "true trimming process" probability distribution. We use this estimate to test the hypothesis that Poisson processes are involved in trimming. This hypothesis was not rejected at standard confidence levels for three of the four trimming processes: TRAV, TRAJ and TRGV. Conclusion By

  17. Recovering probabilities for nucleotide trimming processes for T cell receptor TRA and TRG V-J junctions analyzed with IMGT tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Kevin; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Biau, Gérard

    2008-10-02

    Nucleotides are trimmed from the ends of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) genes during immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) rearrangements in B cells and T cells of the immune system. This trimming is followed by addition of nucleotides at random, forming the N regions (N for nucleotides) of the V-J and V-D-J junctions. These processes are crucial for creating diversity in the immune response since the number of trimmed nucleotides and the number of added nucleotides vary in each B or T cell. IMGT sequence analysis tools, IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, are able to provide detailed and accurate analysis of the final observed junction nucleotide sequences (tool "output"). However, as trimmed nucleotides can potentially be replaced by identical N region nucleotides during the process, the observed "output" represents a biased estimate of the "true trimming process." A probabilistic approach based on an analysis of the standardized tool "output" is proposed to infer the probability distribution of the "true trimmming process" and to provide plausible biological hypotheses explaining this process. We collated a benchmark dataset of TR alpha (TRA) and TR gamma (TRG) V-J rearranged sequences and junctions analysed with IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, the nucleotide sequence analysis tools from IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system, http://imgt.cines.fr. The standardized description of the tool output is based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts. We propose a simple first-order model that attempts to transform the observed "output" probability distribution into an estimate closer to the "true trimming process" probability distribution. We use this estimate to test the hypothesis that Poisson processes are involved in trimming. This hypothesis was not rejected at standard confidence levels for three of the four trimming processes: TRAV, TRAJ and TRGV. By using trimming of rearranged TR genes as a benchmark, we

  18. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  20. Process of recovering bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A modification of the process covered by German Patent 389,393 for recovering bituminous materials from oil shale by extraction is disclosed consisting, in place of or besides wood spirit oil, of acetone oil, suitably of boiling point 80 to 130/sup 0/C, being used as the extraction medium.

  1. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  2. Inhibiting α-synuclein oligomerization by stable cell-penetrating β-synuclein fragments recovers phenotype of Parkinson's disease model flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Shaltiel-Karyo

    Full Text Available The intracellular oligomerization of α-synuclein is associated with Parkinson's disease and appears to be an important target for disease-modifying treatment. Yet, to date, there is no specific inhibitor for this aggregation process. Using unbiased systematic peptide array analysis, we identified molecular interaction domains within the β-synuclein polypeptide that specifically binds α-synuclein. Adding such peptide fragments to α-synuclein significantly reduced both amyloid fibrils and soluble oligomer formation in vitro. A retro-inverso analogue of the best peptide inhibitor was designed to develop the identified molecular recognition module into a drug candidate. While this peptide shows indistinguishable activity as compared to the native peptide, it is stable in mouse serum and penetrates α-synuclein over-expressing cells. The interaction interface between the D-amino acid peptide and α-synuclein was mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Finally, administering the retro-inverso peptide to a Drosophila model expressing mutant A53T α-synuclein in the nervous system, resulted in a significant recovery of the behavioral abnormalities of the treated flies and in a significant reduction in α-synuclein accumulation in the brains of the flies. The engineered retro-inverso peptide can serve as a lead for developing a novel class of therapeutic agents to treat Parkinson's disease.

  3. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli) · g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity.

  4. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  5. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  6. Ethical dilemma of recovering organs before donor death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Umair; Khalil, Sarwat

    2011-08-01

    Organ transplant has had a momentous effect in improving global health over the years. However, there exists a sizeable discrepancy between the supply and demand of organs, especially in developing countries, where lack of expertise, financial constraints, and inadequate transplant facilities have been obstacles. According to current practice, donors must be dead before unpaired vital organs can be recovered. Equal health warrants needs-based health care for everyone. Recovering viable organs from donors while they are alive, but with death inevitable, may be significant to persons on waiting lists. Future policies in organ transplantation must be made after thorough consideration of all aspects of donation and dealing with the inequalities of health care. These pose a challenge for medicolegal and ethical organizations.

  7. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  8. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: aubin.jp@gmail.com [VIMADES (Viabilité, Marchés, Automatique, Décisions) (France)

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  9. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  10. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  11. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  12. Process of recovering shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-01-17

    A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

  13. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  14. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  15. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  16. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  17. Uranium material removing and recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Shin-ichi.

    1997-01-01

    A uranium material removing and recovering device for use in removing surplus uranium heavy metal (UO 2 ) generated in a uranium handling facility comprises a uranium material removing device and a uranium material recovering device. The uranium material removing device comprises an adsorbing portion filled with a uranium adsorbent, a control portion for controlling the uranium adsorbent of the uranium adsorbing portion by a controlling agent, a uranium adsorbing device connected thereto and a jetting device for jetting the adsorbing liquid to equipments deposited with uranium. The recovering device comprises a recovering apparatus for recovering uranium materials deposited with the adsorbent liquid removed by the jetting device and a recovering tank for storing the recovered uranium materials. The device of the present invention can remove surplus uranium simply and safely, mitigate body's load upon removing and recovering operations, facilitate the processing for the exchange of the adsorbent and reduces the radioactive wastes. (T.M.)

  18. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money.

  19. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  1. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  2. Effectiveness of standard UV depuration at inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from spiked Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnotel, O; Snelling, W J; McDonough, N; Browne, L; Moore, J E; Dooley, J S G; Lowery, C J

    2007-08-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 x 10(6) oocysts liter (-1)) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis.

  3. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip

    2017-10-03

    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  4. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  5. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  6. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  7. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  8. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  9. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  10. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  11. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable......-viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...

  12. Nuclear energy: the most viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2006-01-01

    In this article various forms of electric power generation considered clean are discussed. The paper approaches the nuclear, aeolian, solar and fuel cells, and a resume of the vantage and advantage of each one are discussed, emphasizing their impact on the environment

  13. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  14. Hematologic and biochemistry values for black-faced spoonbills (Platalea minor) with and recovering from botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Jen; Shieh, Yao-Ching; Yu, Chang-You

    2008-07-01

    Type C1 botulism outbreaks in Black-faced Spoonbills (Platalea minor) occurred in Taiwan from 2002 to 2003, and hematologic and biochemistry parameters from botulism-paralyzed birds and recovered birds were compared. Values for creatinine and uric acid were higher (Pbirds with botulism than in recovered birds. Lower white blood cell counts (Pbirds. Based on these observations, we suggest that hematologic and biochemistry analyses should be performed to assess the health condition of birds recovering from botulism.

  15. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  16. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  17. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  18. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  19. Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  20. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for Poverty Alleviation in the Rural Areas of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, ...

  1. Cognitive bias in symptomatic and recovered agoraphobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, L S; McNally, R J

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic agoraphobics, recovered agoraphobics, and normal control subjects completed a series of sentence stems that had either ambiguous or unambiguous meanings, and had either a potentially threatening or a nonthreatening connotation. The written completions made by subjects to these stems were classified as indicating either a biased (i.e. threat-related) or unbiased interpretation of the meaning of the stem, and if a biased interpretation was made, whether the subject indicated efforts at adaptive coping with the perceived threat. Results indicated that symptomatic agoraphobics exhibited strong biases for interpreting information as threatening, relative to normal control subjects. Moreover, recovered agoraphobics resembled symptomatic agoraphobics more than normal control subjects, thus indicating that cognitive biases may persist following cessation of panic attacks and reductions in avoidance behavior. However, recovered agoraphobics also exhibited tendencies to cope adaptively with perceived threats whereas symptomatic agoraphobics did not.

  2. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  3. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated

  4. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  5. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  7. Effectiveness of Standard UV Depuration at Inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum Recovered from Spiked Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnotel, O.; Snelling, W. J.; McDonough, N.; Browne, L.; Moore, J. E.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Lowery, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 × 106 oocysts liter −1) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17574996

  8. Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future.

  9. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Jamieson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures

  10. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  11. Department of Defense Recovering Warrior Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    accessible and available to the Veterans Benefits Administration ( VBA ) as soon as possible381; however, because military service records include health...programs are meeting expectations ........................................... 35 Facilitating Access to Health Care...Enduring RW Mission, Facilitating RW Recovery and Transition, and Facilitating Access to Health Care. SUMMARY 2  DoD Recovering Warrior Task Force

  12. Recovering Parameters of Johnson's SB Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    A new parameter recovery model for Johnson's SB distribution is developed. This latest alternative approach permits recovery of the range and both shape parameters. Previous models recovered only the two shape parameters. Also, a simple procedure for estimating the distribution minimum from sample values is presented. The new methodology...

  13. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  14. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  15. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  16. Different strategies for recovering metals from CARON process residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, G.; Gomez, J.M.; Hernandez, I.; Coto, O.; Cantero, D.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DMS 11478 to recover the heavy metals contained in the residue obtained from the CARON process has been evaluated. Different bioreactor configurations were studied: a two-stage batch system and two semi-continuous systems (stirred-tank reactor leaching and column leaching). In the two-stage system, 46.8% Co, 36.0% Mg, 26.3% Mn and 22.3% Ni were solubilised after 6 h of contact between the residue and the bacteria-free bioacid. The results obtained with the stirred-tank reactor and the column were similar: 50% of the Mg and Co and 40% of the Mn and Ni were solubilised after thirty one days. The operation in the column reactor allowed the solid-liquid ratio to be increased and the pH to be kept at low values (<1.0). Recirculation of the leachate in the column had a positive effect on metal removal; at sixty five days (optimum time) the solubilisation levels were as follows: 86% Co, 83% Mg, 72% Mn and Ni, 62% Fe and 23% Cr. The results corroborate the feasibility of the systems studied for the leaching of metals from CARON process residue and these methodologies can be considered viable for the recovery of valuable metals.

  17. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  18. Recovering of images degraded by atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing images are seriously degraded by multiple scattering and bad weather. Through the analysis of the radiative transfer procedure in atmosphere, an image atmospheric degradation model considering the influence of atmospheric absorption multiple scattering and non-uniform distribution is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed model, a novel recovering method is presented to eliminate atmospheric degradation. Mean-shift image segmentation and block-wise deconvolution are used to reduce time cost, retaining a good result. The recovering results indicate that the proposed method can significantly remove atmospheric degradation and effectively improve contrast compared with other removal methods. The results also illustrate that our method is suitable for various degraded remote sensing, including images with large field of view (FOV), images taken in side-glance situations, image degraded by atmospheric non-uniform distribution and images with various forms of clouds.

  19. Method for recovering uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwochau, K.; Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Schmitz, J.

    1977-04-01

    In view of the augmenting uranium demand for energy supply and of the anticipated depletion of the actually assured and economic uranium resources the possibility of recovering uranium from sea water receives increasing attention. It is the purpose of the present report to give a detailed discussion of fundamental problems involved and a critical survey of hitherto proposed processes of recovery and to recommend some general directives for further work. (orig.) [de

  20. Viable Species of Flamella (Amoebozoa: Variosea) Isolated from Ancient Arctic Permafrost Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Lyubov; Bondarenko, Natalya; Smirnov, Alexey

    2016-02-01

    Six viable strains of amoebae belonging to the genus Flamella (Amoebozoa, Variosea) were isolated from permafrost sediments sampled in the Russian Arctic region. Two of them are from late Pleistocene permafrost in North-East Siberia, and four--from Holocene and late Pleistocene in North-West Siberia. Light- and electron-microscopic study and molecular phylogeny show that these isolates represent two new species belonging to the genus Flamella. Both species are cyst-forming. This is a remarkable case of high resistance of protozoan cysts, allowing them to survive and recover an amoebae population after a very long, geologically significant period of rest; a "snapshot" of evolution in time. This study directly shows for the first time that amoeba cysts can be conserved not only for years and decades but for many thousand years and then recover, contributing to the formation of an active microbial community. We propose to name the new species as Flamella pleistocenica n.sp. and Flamella beringiania n.sp. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the genus Flamella is a robust and potentially species-rich group of Variosea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  2. Survival of Lymphatic Cells after X-Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, O. [Medical Biological Laboratory, National Defense Research Organization TNO, Ruswuk, Z.H. (Netherlands)

    1967-07-15

    Lymphatic tissues are generally classified among the most radiosensitive tissues of the body. The main reason for this is that histologically extensive destruction is found within a few hours after irradiation. We tried to estimate the degree of cellular degeneration by making cell suspensions from lymph nodes and thymus of mice at different times after X-irradiation with 800 R or at 24 h after radiation with different doses. The numbers of normal viable cells we obtained were expressed as percentages of the cells recovered from unirradiated control mice.

  3. Bio-electrosprayed multicellular zebrafish embryos are viable and develop normally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Jonathan D W; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2008-01-01

    Bio-electrosprays are rapidly emerging as a viable protocol for directly engineering living cells. This communication reports the bio-electrospraying of multicellular organisms, namely zebrafish embryos. The results demonstrate that the bio-electrospray protocol fails to induce any embryological perturbations. In addition to analysing overall embryo morphology, we use transgenic embryos that express green fluorescent protein in specific brain neurons to determine that neuronal numbers and organization are completely normal. These results demonstrate that the bio-electrospraying protocol does not interfere with the complex gene regulation and cell movements required for the development of a multicellular organism. (communication)

  4. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  5. Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving smallholder and cooperative agribusiness management: A case study of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Empirical evidence from this study shows that six months after attending the workshops, ...

  6. A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Two titles in one cover. On page 56-112 there's the English version of the book: 'A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain. Does real estate still have the value that it had, or is the valuation of real estate going to change due to surprising products and services, innovative

  7. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-Jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-14

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 10 3 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds.

  8. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  9. Process and system for recovering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a system for heating a room or similar, using a 'dibare' cycle working with a less volatile fluid and a more volatile fluid and employing a coupling between a fractionated separation area working at high pressure and a fractionated mixing zone working at low pressure. The invention relates to the following uses: heating a room or building, drying any material and recovering the thermal discharge from a motive cycle, particularly the recovery of the thermal discharge of an electric nuclear power station to carry out district heating [fr

  10. Apparatus for recovering oil from Posidonien shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-04-13

    Equipment for recovering oil from shale and the like, as well as the distilling of coal is characterized in that a number of chambers provided in a known way with upper and lower air supply are arranged open to the receiver of the oil vapors through removable domes which can be attached to the usual oil-vapor carry-off. Arrangement is characterized in that the domes are movable to the side, so that they can be interchangeably attached to the different chambers.

  11. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by an aqueous conversion and precipitation reaction using a critical stoichiometric excess of a water-soluble permanganate to form solid cesium permanganate (CsMnO 4 ) free from cesium alum. The other metal salts remain in solution, providing the final pH does not cause hydroxides of aluminium or iron to form. The precipitate is separated from the residual solution to obtain CsMnO 4 of high purity

  12. Recovering an obstacle using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2009-05-01

    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.

  13. Long-term storage of recovered krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    1983-01-01

    Various storage methods for krypton-85 recovered from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant are under development in many countries. These methods include:(1) direct storage in pressurized cylinders, (2) storage of krypton adsorbed on charcoal or zeolite in pressurized cylinders and (3) immobilization (encapsulation) in zeolite. A krypton storage facility using pressurized cylinders has been constructed in the krypton recovery pilot plant in Tokaimura and other methods are now under development. These three methods are evaluated and the features of the constructed facility are also reported. (author)

  14. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  15. Evaluation of PCR and DNA hybridization protocols for detection of viable enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in irradiated beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, L.A.; Juneja, V.K.; Thayer, D.W.; Sackitey, S.

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was evaluated in irradiated cooked and raw beef samples. A membrane-based colony hybridization assay and a PCR protocol, both with specificity for the enterotoxin A gene of Clostridium perfringens, were compared with viable plate counts. The results of the colony hybridization procedure were in agreement with viable plate counts for detection and enumeration of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. The PCR procedure combined a 4 h enrichment followed by a nucleic acid extraction step and assessed the amplification of 183 and 750 base pair enterotoxin gene targets. Detection of C. perfringens by PCR did not show a reliable correlation with viable plate counts or the colony hybridization assay. C. perfringens killed by irradiation were not detected by the plate count or colony hybridization methods; however, killed cells were detected with the PCR technique. By relying on the growth of viable cells for detection and/or enumeration, the colony hybridization and plate count methods provided a direct correlation with the presence of viable bacteria

  16. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  18. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  19. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  20. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  1. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  2. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  3. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  4. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  5. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Whole-cell protein profiles are useful for distinguishing enterococcal species recovered from clinical specimens Los perfiles de proteínas totales son útiles para distinguir especies de enterococos recuperados de muestras clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell protein analysis was performed for differentiating 150 enterococcal isolates to the species level, which had previously been identified by extended phenotypic conventional tests. Whole-cell protein profile (WCPP showed a high degree of similarity within species and comparison between species revealed important differences in band profiles. All Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates were properly located into their corresponding species, regardless of their clinical source and susceptibility pattern. Moreover, WCPP allowed relocation of some isolates that had erroneously been identified by the usual conventional scheme (i.e. two atypical arginine-negative E. faecalis isolates. WCPP proved to be a simple method to ascertain the various enterococcal species, especially those other than E. faecalis, and may be a suitable tool for high-complexity or reference clinical laboratories.La comparación del perfil de proteínas totales permitió agrupar 150 aislamientos de enterococos dentro de la especie en la que habían sido ubicados por el esquema convencional de pruebas bioquímicas. Los patrones de proteínas totales, comparados visualmente, se mantuvieron con alto grado de similitud intraespecie y revelaron diferencias notorias en la comparación interespecie. Todos los aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, independientemente de los sitios de aislamiento, cuadro clínico del paciente, biotipo o antibiotipo, fueron fácilmente encuadrados en su especie. Asimismo, el estudio del perfil de proteínas totales de enterococos permitió reubicar taxonómicamente aislamientos que habían sido incorrectamente identificados por los métodos bioquímicos convencionales, como por ejemplo dos aislamientos atípicos de E. faecalis arginina negativos. Dado que la metodología empleada es económica y rápida, la comparación de perfiles de proteínas totales en SDS-PAGE podría ser considerada una herramienta

  7. Recovering heat from waste air from stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A milk cow gives off 35.7 kW h/d via its body, excreta and urine. 68.4% of this is body heat. Part of this waste heat escapes with the waste air from the cowsheds. The heat can be recovered from the waste air by an air/air heat exchanger. The air is collected and taken to a heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, fresh air is heated by the waste air, and is distributed over the cowshed by a system of ducts. The heated waste air escapes through a central chimney at the end of the heat exchanger. It is sensible to fit the heat exchanger above the cowshed roof, if there is sufficient space available and the chimney should run upwards from the cowshed. A double heat exchanger makes it possible to allocate each half of the cowshed to half of the heat exchanger.

  8. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by a two-reaction sequence in which the cesium alum is first dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution to form cesium alum hydroxide, CsAl(OH) 3 , and potassium sulfate, K 2 SO 4 . Part of the K 2 SO 4 precipitates and is separated from the supernatant solution. In the second reaction, a water-soluble permanganate, such as potassium permanganate, KMnO 4 , is added to the supernatant. This reaction forms a precipitate of cesium permanganate, CsMnO 4 . This precipitate may be separated from the residual solution to obtain cesium permanganate of high purity, which can be sold as a product or converted into other cesium compounds

  9. Process for recovering cesium from pollucite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from a cesium-bearing mineral such as pollucite by extraction with hydrochloric acid to obtain an extract of cesium chloride and other alkali metal and polyvalent metal chlorides. The iron and aluminum chlorides can be precipitated as the hydroxides and separated from the solution of the alkali metal chlorides to which is added potassium permanganate or other water-soluble permanganate to selectively precipitate cesium permanganate. The cesium precipitate is then separated from the residual solution containing the metal chlorides. The cesium permanganate, which is in a very pure form, can be converted to other cesium compounds by reaction with a reducing agent to obtain cesium carbonate and cesium delta manganese dioxide

  10. Does enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 enter the viable but nonculturable state in salted salmon roe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, S I; Kii, T; Asakura, H; Shirahata, T; Ikeda, T; Takeshi, K; Itoh, K

    2000-12-01

    An outbreak caused by salted salmon roe contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in Japan in 1998. Since about 0.75 to 1.5 viable cells were estimated to cause infection, we presumed that O157 might enter the viable but nonculturable (VNC) state in salted salmon roe and consequently that viable cell numbers might be underestimated. Although patient-originating O157 cells could not grow on agar plates after 72 h of incubation in 13% NaCl, they were resuscitated in yeast extract broth, and more than 90% of the cells were shown to be viable by fluorescent staining, suggesting that almost all of them could enter the VNC state in NaCl water. Roe-originating O157 was resistant to NaCl because it could grow on agar after 72 h of incubation in NaCl water, but about 20% of cells appeared to enter the VNC state. Therefore, germfree mice were infected with O157 to examine the resuscitation of cells in the VNC state and the retention of pathogenicity. O157 that originated in roe, but not patients, killed mice and was isolated from the intestine. However, these isolates had become sensitive to NaCl. O157 cells of roe origin incubated in normal media also killed mice and were isolated from the intestine, but they also became transiently NaCl sensitive. We therefore propose that bacterial cells might enter the VNC state under conditions of stress, such as those encountered in vivo or in high salt concentrations, and then revive when those conditions have eased. If so, the VNC state in food is potentially dangerous from a public health viewpoint and may have to be considered at the time of food inspection. Finally, the establishment of a simple recovery system for VNC cells should be established.

  11. Stereotaxic implantation of dispersed cell suspensions into brain. A systematic appraisal of cell placement and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunkett, R.J.; Weber, R.J.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of several recent advances in cell biology, brain implantation, and cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy requires successful and reproducible placement of viable cell suspensions into brain. Stereotaxic implantation is being used to inject cytotoxic lymphocytes into gliomas and to replace dopaminergic cells in parkinsonian models. Systematic assessment of the factors that influence success in implantation of cell suspensions into solid tissues is needed. A model was developed for investigation of stereotaxic implantation using radiolabeled rat lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Anesthetized rats received microliter injections of cell suspension into the right caudate nucleus. The injection volume, cell concentration, infusion rate, and needle size were varied systematically. The animals were sacrificed 1 hour after injection; the brain was removed and sectioned, and the radioactivity was counted. Three aliquots of the suspension were injected into counting tubes for control analysis. Recovery of radioactivity was expressed as the percent of mean counts per minute (cpm) in the right frontal lobe/mean cpm in the three control tubes. To assess the viability of implanted cells, the right frontal region was mechanically dissociated in media and centrifuged, and the pellet and supernatant were counted. By using small needles and slow infusion of volumes of 10 microliters or less, 85% to 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in the caudate nucleus. At least half of the implanted cells were viable. Consistent, accurate implantation of dispersed cells into brain over a range of volumes, cell concentrations, infusion rates, and needle sizes was achieved

  12. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size – But Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderoglou, Nikoletta; Macpherson, Tara; Wright, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    The anti-cancer effect of the plant-derived cannabinoid, cannabidiol, has been widely demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. However, this body of preclinical work has not been translated into clinical use. Key issues around this failure can be related to narrow dose effects, the cell model used and incomplete efficacy. A model of acute lymphoblastic disease, the Jurkat T cell line, has been used extensively to study the cannabinoid system in the immune system and cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. Using these cells, this study sought to investigate the outcome of those remaining viable cells post-treatment with cannabidiol, both in terms of cell size and tracking any subsequent recovery. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and the downstream target ribosomal protein S6, were measured. The ability of cannabidiol to exert its effect on cell viability was also evaluated in physiological oxygen conditions. Cannabidiol reduced cell viability incompletely, and slowed the cell cycle with fewer cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Cannabidiol reduced phosphorylation of mTOR, PKB and S6 pathways related to survival and cell size. The remaining population of viable cells that were cultured in nutrient rich conditions post-treatment were able to proliferate, but did not recover to control cell numbers. However, the proportion of viable cells that were gated as small, increased in response to cannabidiol and normally sized cells decreased. This proportion of small cells persisted in the recovery period and did not return to basal levels. Finally, cells grown in 12% oxygen (physiological normoxia) were more resistant to cannabidiol. In conclusion, these results indicate that cannabidiol causes a reduction in cell size, which persists post-treatment. However, resistance to cannabidiol under physiological normoxia for these cells would imply that cannabidiol may not be useful in the clinic as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID

  14. Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size - But Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderoglou, Nikoletta; Macpherson, Tara; Wright, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    The anti-cancer effect of the plant-derived cannabinoid, cannabidiol, has been widely demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro . However, this body of preclinical work has not been translated into clinical use. Key issues around this failure can be related to narrow dose effects, the cell model used and incomplete efficacy. A model of acute lymphoblastic disease, the Jurkat T cell line, has been used extensively to study the cannabinoid system in the immune system and cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. Using these cells, this study sought to investigate the outcome of those remaining viable cells post-treatment with cannabidiol, both in terms of cell size and tracking any subsequent recovery. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and the downstream target ribosomal protein S6, were measured. The ability of cannabidiol to exert its effect on cell viability was also evaluated in physiological oxygen conditions. Cannabidiol reduced cell viability incompletely, and slowed the cell cycle with fewer cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Cannabidiol reduced phosphorylation of mTOR, PKB and S6 pathways related to survival and cell size. The remaining population of viable cells that were cultured in nutrient rich conditions post-treatment were able to proliferate, but did not recover to control cell numbers. However, the proportion of viable cells that were gated as small, increased in response to cannabidiol and normally sized cells decreased. This proportion of small cells persisted in the recovery period and did not return to basal levels. Finally, cells grown in 12% oxygen (physiological normoxia) were more resistant to cannabidiol. In conclusion, these results indicate that cannabidiol causes a reduction in cell size, which persists post-treatment. However, resistance to cannabidiol under physiological normoxia for these cells would imply that cannabidiol may not be useful in the clinic as an anti-leukemic agent.

  15. A new biotechnology for recovering heavy metal ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnall, D.W.; Gabel, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that bio-recovery systems has developed a new sorption process for removing toxic metal ions from water. This process is based upon the natural, very strong affinity for biological materials, such as the cell walls of plants and microorganisms, for heavy metal ions such as uranium, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, etc.. Biological materials, primarily algae, have been immobilized in a polymer to produce a biological ion exchange resin, AlgaSORB. The material has a remarkable affinity for heavy metal ions and is capable of concentrating these ions by a factor of may thousand-fold. Additionally, the bound metals can be stripped and recovered from the algal material in a manner similar to conventional resins

  16. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  17. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between actors. Our formalization is done using the theorem prover in the RODIN platform.

  18. Method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium from the residue of a sand chlorinator. It comprises: providing a residue from a sand chlorinator, the residue containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; digesting the residue with an acid to produce an aqueous liquid containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; feeding the metal containing liquid through a cation exchanger; eluding the cation exchanger with an acid eluant to to produce: a first eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the calcium and sodium in the feed liquid; a second eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the one or more radioactive metals in the feed liquid; a third eluate containing at least half of the yttrium in the feed liquid, and a fourth eluate containing at least half of the weight of the scandium in the feed liquid

  19. Small Sized Drone Fall Recover Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Tzu-Heng; CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIOU, Jhen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Drones uses four motors to rotate clockwise, counter-clockwise, or change in rotational speed to change its status of motion. The problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle turnover causes personal loses and harm local environment. Designs of devices that can let falling drones recover are discussed. The models attempt to change the orientation, so that the drone may be able to improve to the point where it can take off again. The design flow included looking for functional elements, using simplify model to estimate primary functional characteristics, and find the appropriate design parameters. For reducing the complexity, we adopted the simple rotate mechanism with rotating arms to change the fuselage angle and reduce the dependence on the extra-components. A rough model was built to verify structure, and then the concept drawing and prototype were constructed. We made the prototype through the integration of mechanical part and the electronic control circuit. The electronic control module that selected is Arduino-mini pro. Through the Bluetooth modules, user can start the rebound mechanism by the motor control signal. Protections frames are added around each propeller to improve the body rotate problem. Limited by current size of Arduino module, motor and rebound mechanism make the main chassis more massive than the commercial product. However, built-in sensor and circuit miniaturization will improve it in future.

  20. Detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarui; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-01-17

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with food has caused many serious public health problems in recent years. However, only viable cells of this pathogen can cause infections, and false-positive detection caused by dead cells can lead to unnecessary product recalls. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method that combines propidium monoazide (PMA) staining with real-time PCR to detect only viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMA is a DNA intercalating dye that can penetrate compromised membranes of dead cells and bind to cellular DNA, preventing its amplification via a subsequent PCR. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (505B, G5310 and C7927) at concentrations of 10(0) to 10(8)CFU/mL were used as live cells. Dead cells were obtained by heating cell suspensions at 85°C for 15 min. Suspensions were treated with PMA and the optimized assay was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef with two different fat contents (10% and 27%). DNA was extracted and amplified by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the uidA gene for detection of E. coli O157:H7. Plasmid pUC19 was added as an internal amplification control (IAC). A treatment of 25 μM PMA with a 10-min light exposure on ice was sufficient to eliminate DNA from 10(8) dead E. coli O157:H7 cells/mL. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(2) CFU/mL viable E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and 10(5) CFU/g in ground beef, in the presence of 10(6)/mL or g of dead cells. With an 8-h enrichment, 1 CFU/g viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef was detectable without interference from 10(6) dead cells/g. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR could effectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 without being compromised by dead cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  2. Formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori: viables o degenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cava

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available De los trabajos presentados acerca de las formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori se deduce una controversia mucho mayor que la resultante del mero estudio clínico de este microorganismo. Parece claro que existe una conversión tanto in vivo como in vitro de las formas espirales a las formas cocoides inducida por varios motivos, como cultivos prolongados, estrés físico y químico, y agentes antimicrobianos. En esta revisión repasamos los puntos de vista que han dividido a investigadores de esta área en dos grupos bien definidos: Los que consideran a estas formas cocoides como un producto no viable de degeneración celular y los que piensan que estas formas son estructuras viables,durmientes o de resistencia frente a condiciones ambientales adversas. Esta discrepancia conlleva a que interrogantes sobre la relación entre la transmisión de la enfermedad y estas formas cocoides permanezcan sin respuesta todavía.

  3. Rapid assessment of viable but non-culturable Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in commercial formulations using Flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Majeed, Shaheen; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Punnapuzha, Ardra; Philip, Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at physiological conditions. We show that VBNC state is induced in B. coagulans MTCC 5856by high temperature and acidic pH. The cells get resuscitated under physiological conditions and FCM was sensitive to detect the VBNC spores. Flow cytometry showed excellent ability to assess the viable spore count in commercial probiotic formulations of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. The results establish Flow cytometry as a reliable method to count viable bacteria in commercial probiotic preparations. Sporulation as well as existence as VBNC could contribute to the extreme stability of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. PMID:29474436

  4. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid assessment of viable but non-culturable Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in commercial formulations using Flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Majeed

    Full Text Available Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore® is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at physiological conditions. We show that VBNC state is induced in B. coagulans MTCC 5856by high temperature and acidic pH. The cells get resuscitated under physiological conditions and FCM was sensitive to detect the VBNC spores. Flow cytometry showed excellent ability to assess the viable spore count in commercial probiotic formulations of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. The results establish Flow cytometry as a reliable method to count viable bacteria in commercial probiotic preparations. Sporulation as well as existence as VBNC could contribute to the extreme stability of B. coagulans MTCC 5856.

  6. Rapid assessment of viable but non-culturable Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 in commercial formulations using Flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Majeed, Shaheen; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Punnapuzha, Ardra; Philip, Sheena; Mundkur, Lakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at physiological conditions. We show that VBNC state is induced in B. coagulans MTCC 5856by high temperature and acidic pH. The cells get resuscitated under physiological conditions and FCM was sensitive to detect the VBNC spores. Flow cytometry showed excellent ability to assess the viable spore count in commercial probiotic formulations of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. The results establish Flow cytometry as a reliable method to count viable bacteria in commercial probiotic preparations. Sporulation as well as existence as VBNC could contribute to the extreme stability of B. coagulans MTCC 5856.

  7. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  9. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation. Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  10. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-01-01

    After injection of 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with 125 I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle

  11. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  12. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  13. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  14. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond. (invited comment)

  15. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  16. Workers' Self-management, Recovered Companies and the Sociology of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarow, Daniel; Croucher, Richard

    2014-10-01

    We analyse how far Argentina's worker-recovered companies (WRCs) have sustained themselves and their principles of equity and workers' self-management since becoming widespread following the country's 2001-2 economic crisis. Specialist Spanish-language sources, survey data and documents are analysed through four key sociological themes. We find that the number of WRCs has increased in Argentina, and that they represent a viable production model. Further, they have generally maintained their central principles and even flourished. This occurred despite the global economic crisis, legal and financial pressures to adopt capitalist practices and management structures, the risk of market absorption and state attempts to coopt, demobilise and depoliticise the movement. We argue that today they function as a much-needed international beacon of an alternative vision for labour and that integration of their experience has potential to revitalise the field.

  17. Workers’ Self-management, Recovered Companies and the Sociology of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We analyse how far Argentina’s worker-recovered companies (WRCs) have sustained themselves and their principles of equity and workers’ self-management since becoming widespread following the country’s 2001–2 economic crisis. Specialist Spanish-language sources, survey data and documents are analysed through four key sociological themes. We find that the number of WRCs has increased in Argentina, and that they represent a viable production model. Further, they have generally maintained their central principles and even flourished. This occurred despite the global economic crisis, legal and financial pressures to adopt capitalist practices and management structures, the risk of market absorption and state attempts to coopt, demobilise and depoliticise the movement. We argue that today they function as a much-needed international beacon of an alternative vision for labour and that integration of their experience has potential to revitalise the field. PMID:25419009

  18. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except... required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as prescribed in this section...

  19. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  20. Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus isolated from 170-year-old beer recovered from a shipwreck lack the metabolic activities required to grow in modern lager beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Redekop, Anna; Juvonen, Riikka; Storgårds, Erna; Ziola, Barry

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, bottles of beer containing viable bacteria of the common beer-spoilage species Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus were recovered from a shipwreck near the Åland Islands, Finland. The 170-year quiescent state maintained by the shipwreck bacteria presented a unique opportunity to study lactic acid bacteria (LAB) evolution vis-a-vis growth and survival in the beer environment. Three shipwreck bacteria (one L. backii strain and two P. damnosus strains) and modern-day beer-spoilage isolates of the same two species were genome sequenced, characterized for hop iso-α-acid tolerance, and growth in degassed lager and wheat beer. In addition, plasmid variants of the modern-day P. damnosus strain were analyzed for the effect of plasmid-encoded genes on growth in lager beer. Coding content on two plasmids was identified as essential for LAB growth in modern lager beer. Three chromosomal regions containing genes related to sugar transport and cell wall polysaccharides were shared by pediococci able to grow in beer. Our results show that the three shipwreck bacteria lack the necessary plasmid-located genetic content to grow in modern lager beer, but carry additional genes related to acid tolerance and biofilm formation compared to their modern counterparts. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Waste derived fuels such as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) are increasingly being used in the cement industry as a means to reduce cost [1]. SRF is produced by separating the combustible fraction from industrial or municipal solid waste (MSW). The recovered fraction has a higher content of combustibl...

  2. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a policy... accordance with § 385.31, RECOVER shall conduct credible scientific assessments of hydrological, water... available science and that the results are provided for external peer review, as appropriate, and are made...

  3. Projecting recovered paper supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Ken Skog; Peter J. Ince

    2002-01-01

    The use of recovered paper has an influence on the amount of timber harvested as well as the feasibility of expanded recycling programs. During the 1990’s markets and prices for recovered materials have fluctuated widely. There are a number of factors driving these market changes including economic conditions domestically and internationally. The objective of this...

  4. On the recovering of a coupled nonlinear Schroedinger potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: ccg@hp9000a1.uam.mx

    2000-04-28

    We establish a priori conditions for a Gel'fand-Levitan (GL) integral using some results of the Fredholm theory. As consequence, we obtain a recovering formula for the potential of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The remarkable fact is that the recovering formula is given in terms of the solutions of a classical GL-integral equation. (author)

  5. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study we attempted to develop a reactor system to recover phosphorus by struvite precipitation, and which can be installed anywhere in the field without access to a laboratory. A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% of total phosphorus (total P). Turbidity and conductivity ...

  6. An economically viable alternative to coastal discharge of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Unger, C.V.; Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The discharge of produced waters to coastal estuaries has been common practice on the Texas coast for many years as these discharges are currently exempt from NPDES permitting. A study of the active produced water discharges in Nueces Bay, Texas revealed that all eight effluents were highly toxic as determined by the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays. An alternative to discharging produced water into coastal estuaries is the use of disposal wells. Inactive wells can be converted to produced water disposal wells. Production records for the Nueces Bay, Texas area reveal that 52% of the gas wells produce less than 100 mcf/d and 50% of the oil wells produce less than 10 b/d. Using conservative estimates, the cost of converting an inactive well to a disposal well was calculated to be $31,500 which could be paid out by a gas well producing as little as 100 mcf/d in 26 months using only 50% of the well's profit. Combining multiple leases to a single disposal well would reduce proportionately the cost to each operation. This study has demonstrated that economically viable disposal options could be achieved in the Nueces Bay area through the imaginative and cooperative formation of produced water disposal ventures. This same model could be applied to produced water discharges in other coastal areas

  7. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  8. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  9. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  10. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  11. Recovering method for solid waste and facility therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    When recovering solid wastes in a dry-type storage vessel, a crusher is hoisted down from a cask, and the crusher is operated to crush the solid wastes while holding them. The crushed wastes are temporarily stored at the upper portion of the crusher, and recovered as crushed wastes. In this case, the crusher is turned down, and a shielding vessel is laid the recover downwardly to temporary store the crushed wastes in the shielding vessel. Then, the crusher and the shielding vessel are turned 180deg to contain the crushed wastes into the shielding vessel. With such procedures, the stored solid wastes can be recovered reliably, the stored solid wastes can be reduced in the size, and efficiency of recovering operation can be improved. (T.M.)

  12. How to recover more value from small pine trees: Essential oils and resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Vasant M.; Geils, Brian W.; Becker, Dennis R.; Overby, Steven T.; Neary, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the young dense forests of northern Arizona have suffered extreme droughts, wildfires, and insect outbreaks. Improving forest health requires reducing forest density by cutting many small-diameter trees with the consequent production of large volumes of residual biomass. To offset the cost of handling this low-value timber, additional marketing options for current operations are urgently needed to recover more value as wood products, energy, and chemicals. Northern Arizona forests are predominantly composed of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) which, besides producing abundant timber, can also yield many useful chemicals such as essential oils and resins. We describe a case study to assess the opportunities, constraints, and information required to integrate recovery of essential oils into forest and mill operations as might be used in northern Arizona. Preliminary results support the proposition there is an available, large supply of biomass with high concentrations of essential oils. The chemistry and process engineering for recovering these essential oils by distillation are well known. The potential output and uses also appear attractive given the substantial United States market for such products. However, less is known of the capability of essential oils extracted from ponderosa pine to compete with products imported from other countries. A more detailed assessment of product uses and further analysis of viable markets and environmental benefits are justified. (author)

  13. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Barbour, Elie K.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Detection of viable but non-culturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 by PCR in combination with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junliang; Zhao, Xihong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the conventional PCR detection method combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for the detection of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef meatballs. Under low temperature, E. coli O157:H7 cells were induced into the VBNC state in ground beef meatballs at - 20 °C after 152 days. The optimal PMA concentration of 5 µg/mL was obtained in beef meatball samples, which could completely inhibit the DNA amplification on dead cells (10 6  cells/mL) but with no inhibition on viable cells. The established PMA-PCR assay revealed that the VBNC counts exceeded 10 7  CFU/mL in artificial contamination beef samples, which could be used for semi-quantitative detection of VBNC cells in beef meatball samples. This study indicated that the PMA-PCR assay might be a potential method for detection of VBNC state E . coli O157:H7 cells in food products.

  16. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: a viable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Kathleen M

    2003-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically

  17. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  18. Cellular and soluble components decrease the viable pathogen counts in milk from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiishi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Masako; Miyake, Hajime; Hisaeda, Keiichi; Isobe, Naoki

    2017-08-10

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the factors that reduce the viable pathogen count in milk collected from the udders of subclinical mastitic cows during preservation. Milk was centrifuged to divide somatic cells (cellular components, precipitates) and antimicrobial peptides (soluble components, supernatants without fat layer); each fraction was cultured with bacteria, and the number of viable bacteria was assessed prior to and after culture. In 28.8% of milk samples, we noted no viable bacteria immediately after collection; this value increased significantly after a 5-hr incubation of milk with cellular components but not with soluble components (48.1 and 28.8%, respectively). After culture with cellular components, the numbers of bacteria (excluding Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis) and yeast decreased dramatically, although the differences were not statistically significant. After cultivation with soluble components, only yeasts showed a tendency toward decreased mean viability, whereas the mean bacterial counts of S. uberis and T. pyogenes tended to increase after 5-hr preservation with soluble components. These results suggest that most pathogens in high somatic cell count (SCC) milk decreased during preservation at 15 to 25°C, due to both the cellular components and antimicrobial components in the milk. Particularly, the cellular components more potently reduced bacterial counts during preservation.

  19. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Symbiotic Role of the Viable but Nonculturable State of Vibrio fischeri in Hawaiian Coastal Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Ruby, E G

    1995-01-01

    To achieve functional bioluminescence, the developing light organ of newly hatched juveniles of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes must become colonized by luminous, symbiosis-competent Vibrio fischeri present in the ambient seawater. This benign infection occurs rapidly in animals placed in seawater from the host's natural habitat. Therefore, it was surprising that colony hybridization studies with a V. fischeri-specific luxA gene probe indicated the presence of only about 2 CFU of V. fischeri per ml of this infective seawater. To examine this paradox, we estimated the total concentration of V. fischeri cells present in seawater from the host's habitat in two additional ways. In the first approach, the total bacterial assemblage in samples of seawater was collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and used as a source of both a crude cell lysate and purified DNA. These preparations were then assayed by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization with the luxA gene probe. The results suggested the presence of between 200 and 400 cells of V. fischeri per ml of natural seawater, a concentration more than 100 times that revealed by colony hybridization. In the second approach, we amplified V. fischeri-specific luxA sequences from microliter volumes of natural seawater by PCR. Most-probable-number analyses of the frequency of positive PCR results from cell lysates in these small volumes gave an estimate of the concentration of V. fischeri luxA gene targets of between 130 and 1,680 copies per ml. From these measurements, we conclude that in their natural seawater environment, the majority of V. fischeri cells become nonculturable while remaining viable and symbiotically infective. Experimental studies indicated that V. fischeri cells suspended in natural Hawaiian seawater enter such a state within a few days.

  1. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

  2. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  3. Transuranium element recovering method for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todokoro, Akio; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Hisashi

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuels are dissolved in nitric acid, the obtained dissolution liquid is oxidized by electrolysis, and nitric acid of transuranium elements are precipitated together with nitric acid of uranium elements from the dissolution solution and recovered. Namely, the transuranium elements are oxidized to an atomic value level at which nitric acid can be precipitated by an oxidizing catalyst, and cooled to precipitate nitric acid of transuranium elements together with nitric acid of transuranium elements, accordingly, it is not necessary to use a solvent which has been used so far upon recovering transuranium elements. Since no solvent waste is generated, a recovery method taking the circumstance into consideration can be provided. Further, nitric acid of uranium elements and nitric acid of transuranium elements precipitated and recovered together are dissolved in nitric acid again, cooled and only uranium elements are precipitated selectively, and recovered by filtration. The amount of wastes can be reduced to thereby enabling to mitigate control for processing. (N.H.)

  4. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  6. Membrane Lipids as Indicators for Viable Bacterial Communities Inhabiting Petroleum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Andrea; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Horsfield, Brian; van der Kraan, Geert M; Köhler, Thomas; Janka, Christoph; Morris, Brandon E L; Wilkes, Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Microbial activity in petroleum reservoirs has been implicated in a suite of detrimental effects including deterioration of petroleum quality, increases in oil sulfur content, biofouling of steel pipelines and other infrastructures, and well plugging. Here, we present a biogeochemical approach, using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), for detecting viable bacteria in petroleum systems. Variations within the bacterial community along water flow paths (producing well, topside facilities, and injection well) can be elucidated in the field using the same technique, as shown here within oil production plants in the Molasse Basin of Upper Austria. The abundance of PLFAs is compared to total cellular numbers, as detected by qPCR of the 16S rDNA gene, to give an overall comparison between the resolutions of both methods in a true field setting. Additionally, the influence of biocide applications on lipid- and DNA-based quantification was investigated. The first oil field, Trattnach, showed significant PLFA abundances and cell numbers within the reservoir and topside facilities. In contrast, the second field (Engenfeld) showed very low PLFA levels overall, likely due to continuous treatment of the topside facilities with a glutaraldehyde-based antimicrobial. In comparison, Trattnach is dosed once per week in a batch fashion. Changes within PLFA compositions across the flow path, throughout the petroleum production plants, point to cellular adaptation within the system and may be linked to shifts in the dominance of certain bacterial types in oil reservoirs versus topside facilities. Overall, PLFA-based monitoring provides a useful tool to assess the abundance and high-level taxonomic diversity of viable microbial populations in oil production wells, topside infrastructure, pipelines, and other related facilities.

  7. Lipogenic metabolism: a viable target for prostate cancer treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells often depend on altered metabolism compared with their normal counterparts. [1],[2],[3],[4] As observed in 1924 by Otto Warburg, cancer cells show preferential glucose consumption by way of aerobic glycolysis while normal cells generally assume mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. [4] Another metabolic hallmark of carcinogenesis is altered lipid metabolism, whereby cancer cells may adopt enhanced de novo lipid production (lipogenesis. [1],[2],[3] Enhanced lipid metabolism is also observed in individuals with metabolic syndromes potentially a consequence of increasing popularity of the Standard American Diet, composed of high levels of saturated fats and carbohydrates. [5] A growing body of epidemiological data indicates a positive correlation between the occurrence of metabolic syndromes, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, type-2 diabetes and associated hyperinsulemia, with the aggressiveness of cancer. [6],[7],[8],[9] Remarkably, it is estimated that for every 1% reduction in saturated fats, replaced by polyunsaturated, there would be a 2%-3% reduction in cardiovascular disease. [10] Thus, it is conceivable that an equally remarkable attenuation in cancer progression might be achieved with such a reduction in lipid accumulation.

  8. The lifetime of hypoxic human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Ralph E.; Sham, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: For hypoxic and anoxic cells in solid tumors to be a therapeutic problem, they must live long enough to be therapeutically relevant, or else be rapidly recruited into the proliferating compartment during therapy. We have, therefore, estimated lifetime and recruitment rate of hypoxic human tumor cells in multicell spheroids in vitro, or in xenografted tumors in SCID mice. Materials and Methods: Cell turnover was followed by flow cytometry techniques, using antibodies directed at incorporated halogenated pyrimidines. The disappearance of labeled cells was quantified, and verified to be cell loss rather than label dilution. Repopulation was studied in SiHa tumor xenografts during twice-daily 2.5-Gy radiation exposures. Results: The longevity of hypoxic human tumor cells in spheroids or xenografts exceeded that of rodent cell lines, and cell turnover was slower in xenografts than under static growth as spheroids. Human tumor cells remained viable in the hypoxic regions of xenografts for 4-10 days, compared to 3-5 days in spheroids, and 1-3 days for most rodent cells in spheroids. Repopulation was observed within the first few radiation treatments for the SiHa xenografts and, with accumulated doses of more than 10 Gy, virtually all recovered cells had progressed through at least one S-phase. Conclusion: Our results suggest an important difference in the ability of human vs. rodent tumor cells to withstand hypoxia, and raise questions concerning the increased longevity seen in vivo relative to the steady-state spheroid system

  9. Examination of an indicative tool for rapidly estimating viable organism abundance in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Adams, Jennifer K.; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory discharge standards stipulating a maximum allowable number of viable organisms in ballast water have led to a need for rapid, easy and accurate compliance assessment tools and protocols. Some potential tools presume that organisms present in ballast water samples display the same characteristics of life as the native community (e.g. rates of fluorescence). This presumption may not prove true, particularly when ships' ballast tanks present a harsh environment and long transit times, negatively impacting organism health. Here, we test the accuracy of a handheld pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, the Hach BW680, for detecting photosynthetic protists at concentrations above or below the discharge standard (< 10 cells·ml- 1) in comparison to microscopic counts using fluorescein diacetate as a viability probe. Testing was conducted on serial dilutions of freshwater harbour samples in the lab and in situ untreated ballast water samples originating from marine, freshwater and brackish sources utilizing three preprocessing techniques to target organisms in the size range of ≥ 10 and < 50 μm. The BW680 numeric estimates were in agreement with microscopic counts when analyzing freshly collected harbour water at all but the lowest concentrations (< 38 cells·ml- 1). Chi-square tests determined that error is not independent of preprocessing methods: using the filtrate method or unfiltered water, in addition to refining the conversion factor of raw fluorescence to cell size, can decrease the grey area where exceedance of the discharge standard cannot be measured with certainty (at least for the studied populations). When examining in situ ballast water, the BW680 detected significantly fewer viable organisms than microscopy, possibly due to factors such as organism size or ballast water age. Assuming both the BW680 and microscopy with FDA stain were measuring fluorescence and enzymatic activity/membrane integrity correctly, the observed discrepancy

  10. Viable-but-Nonculturable Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Thompson Induced by Chlorine Stress Remain Infectious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum J. Highmore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively. The pathogens were subjected to chlorine washing following incubation on spinach leaves. Culture data revealed that total viable L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson populations became VBNC by 50 and 100 ppm chlorine, respectively, while enumeration by direct viable counting found that chlorine caused a <1-log reduction in viability. The pathogenicity of chlorine-induced VBNC L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson was assessed by using Caenorhabditis elegans. Ingestion of VBNC pathogens by C. elegans resulted in a significant life span reduction (P = 0.0064 and P < 0.0001, and no significant difference between the life span reductions caused by the VBNC and culturable L. monocytogenes treatments was observed. L. monocytogenes was visualized beyond the nematode intestinal lumen, indicating resuscitation and cell invasion. These data emphasize the risk that VBNC food-borne pathogens could pose to public health should they continue to go undetected.

  11. Articular Cartilage Repair Using Marrow Stimulation Augmented with a Viable Chondral Allograft: 9-Month Postoperative Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marrow stimulation is frequently employed to treat focal chondral defects of the knee. However, marrow stimulation typically results in fibrocartilage repair tissue rather than healthy hyaline cartilage, which, over time, predisposes the repair to failure. Recently, a cryopreserved viable chondral allograft was developed to augment marrow stimulation. The chondral allograft is comprised of native viable chondrocytes, chondrogenic growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins within the superficial, transitional, and radial zones of hyaline cartilage. Therefore, host mesenchymal stem cells that infiltrate the graft from the underlying bone marrow following marrow stimulation are provided with the optimal microenvironment to undergo chondrogenesis. The present report describes treatment of a trochlear defect with marrow stimulation augmented with this novel chondral allograft, along with nine month postoperative histological results. At nine months, the patient demonstrated complete resolution of pain and improvement in function, and the repair tissue consisted of 85% hyaline cartilage. For comparison, a biopsy obtained from a patient 8.2 months after treatment with marrow stimulation alone contained only 5% hyaline cartilage. These outcomes suggest that augmenting marrow stimulation with the viable chondral allograft can eliminate pain and improve outcomes, compared with marrow stimulation alone.

  12. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  13. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  15. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  16. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  17. A theoretical framework for understanding recovered memory experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R

    2012-01-01

    If recovered memory experiences appear counter-intuitive, this is in part due to misconceptions about trauma and memory, and to a failure to adopt a comprehensive model of memory that distinguishes personal semantic memory, autobiographical event memory, and memory appraisal. Memory performance is generally superior when events, including traumas, are central to identity. Prolonged trauma in childhood, however, can produce severe identity disturbances that may interfere with the encoding and later retrieval of personal semantic and autobiographical event information. High levels of emotion either at encoding or recall can also interfere with the creation of coherent narrative memories. For example, high levels of shock and fear when memories are recovered unexpectedly may lead to the experience of vivid flashbacks. Memory appraisals may also influence the sense that an event has been forgotten for a long time. Recovered memories, although unusual, do not contradict what we know about how memory works.

  18. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework

  19. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  20. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, S.; Carrington, F.

    1982-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid solutions uses an acidified alkali metal carbonate solution for the second-stage strip of uranyl uranium from the ion-exchange solution. The stripped solution is then recycled to the ion-exchange circuit. In the first stripping stage the ion-exchange solution containing the recovered uranyl uranium and an inert organic diluent is stripped with ammonium carbonate, producing a slurry of ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. The second strip, with a solution of 50-200 grams per litre of sodium carbonate eliminates the problems of inadequate removal of phosphorus, iron and vanadium impurities, solids accumulation, and phase separation in the strip circuit

  1. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  2. Detection and Quantification of Viable and Nonviable Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites by a Propidium Monoazide Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Alcover, M. Magdalena; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Riera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Molecular techniques based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) allow the detection and quantification of DNA but are unable to distinguish between signals from dead or live cells. Because of the lack of simple techniques to differentiate between viable and nonviable cells, the aim of this study was to optimize and evaluate a straightforward test based on propidium monoazide (PMA) dye action combined with a qPCR assay (PMA-qPCR) for the selective quantification of viable/nonviable epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMA has the ability to penetrate the plasma membrane of dead cells and covalently cross-link to the DNA during exposure to bright visible light, thereby inhibiting PCR amplification. Different concentrations of PMA (50–200 μM) and epimastigotes of the Maracay strain of T. cruzi (1 × 105–10 parasites/mL) were assayed; viable and nonviable parasites were tested and quantified by qPCR with a TaqMan probe specific for T. cruzi. In the PMA-qPCR assay optimized at 100 μM PMA, a significant qPCR signal reduction was observed in the nonviable versus viable epimastigotes treated with PMA, with a mean signal reduction of 2.5 logarithm units and a percentage of signal reduction > 98%, in all concentrations of parasites assayed. This signal reduction was also observed when PMA-qPCR was applied to a mixture of live/dead parasites, which allowed the detection of live cells, except when the concentration of live parasites was low (10 parasites/mL). The PMA-qPCR developed allows differentiation between viable and nonviable epimastigotes of T. cruzi and could thus be a potential method of parasite viability assessment and quantification. PMID:27139452

  3. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowling Wallace A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C, warm (25°C/15°C, cool (18°C/13°C and cold (10°C/5°C treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29% at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%. In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5% was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%. Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid

  4. Differential Effect of Viable Versus Necrotic Neutrophils on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Cytokine Induction in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Lowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis-lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96 h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells (p < 0.001. Augmentation of blood with viable granulocytes significantly improved control of mycobacteria by 96 h (p = 0.001, but augmentation with necrotic granulocytes had the opposite effect (p = 0.01. Both augmentations decreased supernatant concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL-12 p40/p70, but necrotic granulocyte augmentation also increased concentrations of IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2. Necrotic neutrophil augmentation reduced phagocytosis of FITC-labeled M. bovis BCG by all phagocytes, whereas viable neutrophil augmentation specifically reduced early uptake by CD14+ cells. The immunosuppressive effect of dead neutrophils required necrotic debris rather than supernatant. We conclude that viable neutrophils enhance control of M. tuberculosis in blood, but necrotic neutrophils have the opposite effect—the latter associated with induction of IL-10, growth factors, and chemoattractants. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which necrotic neutrophils may exert detrimental effects on the host response in active tuberculosis.

  5. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  6. A probabilistic model to recover individual genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dröge (Johannes); A. Schönhuth (Alexander); A.C. McHardy (Alice)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractShotgun metagenomics of microbial communities reveal information about strains of relevance for applications in medicine, biotechnology and ecology. Recovering their genomes is a crucial but very challenging step due to the complexity of the underlying biological system and technical

  7. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...

  8. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  9. Method for recovering or recirculating stable nitroxide radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, Andre; Van Doren, Hendrik Arend; Bleeker, Ido Pieter; Gotlieb, Kornelis Fester.

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates fo a method for recovering stable nitroxide radicals, wherein at least a part of a reaction mixt. consisting of a soln. or suspension, or a filtrate or supernatant of a suspension, in which stable nitroxide radicals are present in non-solid form, is subjected to an azeotropic

  10. Genomovirus Genomes Recovered from Echinothrips americanus Sampled in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraberger, Simona; Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, Heather M.; Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Fontenele, Rafaela S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), and Gemykibivirus (n = 1) genera. This is the first record, to our knowledge, of genomoviruses associated with a phytophagous insect. PMID:28546499

  11. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits by reason of the basis determined under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, that it would be... recovered it has an unadjusted basis of $100. After $70 depreciation has been allowed on A, an allocation is sought which would give A an unadjusted basis of $60. Since this is less than the depreciation which is...

  12. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% ..... uncertainty. This technique will work best when the concentration of ... Ken Jack at the School of Chemical Engineering to help build the reactor ...

  13. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  14. Detection of viable Helicobacter pylori inside free-living amoebae in wastewater and drinking water samples from Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Moreno, Yolanda; Alonso, José Luis; Ferrús, M Antonia

    2017-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most concerning emerging waterborne pathogens. It has been suggested that it could survive in water inside free-living amoebae (FLA), but nobody has studied this relationship in the environment yet. Thus, we aimed to detect viable H. pylori cells from inside FLA in water samples. Sixty-nine wastewater and 31 drinking water samples were collected. FLA were purified and identified by PCR and sequencing. For exclusively detecting H. pylori inside FLA, samples were exposed to sodium hypochlorite and assayed by specific PMA-qPCR, DVC-FISH and culture. FLA were detected in 38.7% of drinking water and 79.7% of wastewater samples, even after disinfection. In wastewater, Acanthamoeba spp. and members of the family Vahlkampfiidae were identified. In drinking water, Acanthamoeba spp. and Echinamoeba and/or Vermamoeba were present. In 39 (58.2%) FLA-positive samples, H. pylori was detected by PMA-qPCR. After DVC-FISH, 21 (31.3%) samples harboured viable H. pylori internalized cells. H. pylori was cultured from 10 wastewater samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates that H. pylori can survive inside FLA in drinking water and wastewater, strongly supporting the hypothesis that FLA could play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisabr, Yousef, E-mail: y-bisabr@srttu.ed [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-18

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from LAMBDACDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  16. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker

  17. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from ΛCDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  18. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  19. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  20. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples.

  1. Recovering and recycling uranium used for production of molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; May, Iain; Copping, Roy; Dale, Gregory Edward

    2017-12-12

    A processes for recycling uranium that has been used for the production of molybdenum-99 involves irradiating a solution of uranium suitable for forming fission products including molybdenum-99, conditioning the irradiated solution to one suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina. Another process involves irradiation of a solid target comprising uranium, forming an acidic solution from the irradiated target suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina.

  2. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Steele, Ryan D; Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study adopted a developmental perspective on recovery from conflict in romantic relationships. Participants were 73 young adults (target participants), studied since birth, and their romantic partners. A novel observational coding scheme was used to evaluate each participant's degree of conflict recovery, operationalized as the extent to which the participant disengaged from conflict during a 4-min "cool-down" task immediately following a 10-min conflict discussion. Conflict recovery was systematically associated with developmental and dyadic processes. Targets who were rated as securely attached more times in infancy recovered from conflict better, as did their romantic partners. Concurrently, having a romantic partner who displayed better recovery predicted more positive relationship emotions and greater relationship satisfaction. Prospectively, target participants' early attachment security and their partners' degree of conflict recovery interacted to predict relationship stability 2 years later, such that having a partner who recovered from conflict better buffered targets with insecure histories.

  3. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  4. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  5. Development of a propidium monoazide-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of viable Lactobacillus brevis in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanlin; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Liu, Junyan; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Hua; Yu, Junhong; Chang, Zongming; Wang, Dongfeng

    The spoilage of beer by bacteria is of great concern to the brewer as this can lead to turbidity and abnormal flavors. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of beer-spoilage bacteria is highly specific and provides results much faster than traditional microbiology techniques. However, one of the drawbacks is the inability to differentiate between live and dead cells. In this paper, the combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment and conventional PCR had been described. The established PMA-PCR identified beer spoilage Lactobacillus brevis based not on their identity, but on the presence of horA gene which we show to be highly correlated with the ability of beer spoilage LAB to grow in beer. The results suggested that the use of 30μg/mL or less of PMA did not inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from viable L. brevis cells. The minimum amount of PMA to completely inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from dead L. brevis cells was 2.0μg/mL. The detection limit of PMA-PCR assay described here was found to be 10 colony forming units (CFU)/reaction for the horA gene. Moreover, the horA-specific PMA-PCR assays were subjected to 18 reference isolates, representing 100% specificity with no false positive amplification observed. Overall the use of horA-specific PMA-PCR allows for a substantial reduction in the time required for detection of potential beer spoilage L. brevis and efficiently differentiates between viable and nonviable cells. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  7. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10 3  CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 10 0  CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  9. Process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1918-08-23

    A process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous minerals in rotary retorts heated from outside and flushed with water vapor or other oxygen-free gases is characterized by the fact that all kinds of minerals are carbonized, and that during the carbonization process the temperature of the superheated steam or gases is about 50/sup 0/ C higher than the temperature of the carbonized mineral.

  10. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  12. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo study of the HC-TN strain of hepatitis C virus recovered from a patient with fulminant hepatitis: RNA transcripts of a molecular clone (pHC-TN) are infectious in chimpanzees but not in Huh7.5 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Akito; Takikawa, Shingo; Thimme, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Both viral and host factors are thought to influence the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We studied strain HC-TN (genotype 1a), which caused fulminant hepatic failure in a patient and, subsequently, severe hepatitis in a chimpanzee (CH1422), to analyze the relationship between...... persistently infected. CH1579 and CH1581, despite their differing outcomes, both developed significant intrahepatic cellular immune responses, but not antibodies to the envelope glycoproteins or neutralizing antibodies, during the acute infection. We analyzed the polyprotein sequences of virus recovered...

  14. Assessments of Total and Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Field and Laboratory Grown Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyne, Anne-Laure; Harris, Linda J.; Marco, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Leafy green produce has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. While the amounts of culturable E. coli O157:H7 rapidly decline after introduction onto lettuce in the field, it remains to be determined whether the reduction in cell numbers is due to losses in cell viability, cell injury and a subsequent inability to be detected by standard laboratory culturing methods, or a lack of adherence and hence rapid removal of the organism from the plants during application. To assess which of these options is most relevant for E. coli O157:H7 on leafy green produce, we developed and applied a propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time PCR assay to quantify viable (with PMA) and total (without PMA) E. coli O157:H7 cells on growth chamber and field-grown lettuce. E. coli O157:H7, suspended in 0.1% peptone, was inoculated onto 4-week-old lettuce plants at a level of approximately 106 CFU/plant. In the growth chamber at low relative humidity (30%), culturable amounts of the nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728 and the virulent strain EC4045 declined 100 to 1000-fold in 24 h. Fewer E. coli O157:H7 cells survived when applied onto plants in droplets with a pipette compared with a fine spray inoculation. Total cells for both strains were equivalent to inoculum levels for 7 days after application, and viable cell quantities determined by PMA real-time PCR were approximately 104 greater than found by colony enumeration. Within 2 h after application onto plants in the field, the number of culturable E. coli ATCC 700728 was reduced by up to 1000-fold, whereas PCR-based assessments showed that total cell amounts were equivalent to inoculum levels. These findings show that shortly after inoculation onto plants, the majority of E. coli O157:H7 cells either die or are no longer culturable. PMID:23936235

  15. Neutron activation analysis of maltenes recovered from EUROBITUM simulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N

    2006-01-01

    According to the present Belgian reference scenario, Eurobitum bituminised radioactive waste has to be disposed off in a deep underground repository in a stable geological formation such as Boom Clay. This waste originated mainly from mixtures of nuclear fuel decladding slurries and waste concentrates from the nuclear fuel cycle. Even though safety assessment studies up till present do not show that this waste is unacceptable for deep underground disposal, a final decision about the disposal of the bituminised waste has not been taken so far, and alternative solutions are still conceivable. To support the decision-making we investigate methods to recondition this bituminised waste. We continued studying a room temperature re-treatment method for Eurobitum. The aim of the method is the stabilisation and minimisation of final waste, and the free release of recovered materials. The method comprises the recovery of maltenes and water soluble salts. The recovery of maltenes is performed by dissolving the complete bitumen matrix with a 'solvent', followed by the precipitation of the asphaltenes by addition of a so-called 'nonsolvent'. The 'solvent' is a 50 percent aromatic blend of Shellsol A150 and Shellsol H, whereas the 'nonsolvent' is aliphatic Shellsol T. The recovered maltenes represent 40 % wt of the waste, as shown in the inner pie chart. Part of the maltenes could not be recovered and remain in the asphaltene matrix, as can be seen from the difference between the inner and outer pie chart, representing the real composition and the weight fractions after separation, respectively. A second step of the room temperature re-treatment method covers the complete removal of the water soluble (nitrate) salts, and is described in the main reference and references therein. Application of the room temperature re-treatment method results in a final waste that consists of water insoluble salts embedded in an asphaltene matrix which is less sensitive towards radiolysis than

  16. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    expression differs between viable and non-viable embryos in both human and non-humans, suggesting transcriptome analysis of trophectoderm (TE) as a novel method of improving embryo selection. Potential candidate marker genes have been identified with array studies on animal blastocysts. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  17. A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric; Lanoil, Brian; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Graham, Andrew; Skidmore, Mark; Han, Suk-Kyun; Rust, Terri; Popp, Brian

    2004-09-01

    We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grímsvötn volcanic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water before and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from a nearby subaerial geothermal lake for comparative analyses. Lake water is at the freezing point and fresh (total dissolved solids = 260 mg L-1). Detectable numbers of cells were found in samples of the lake water column and tephra sediments: 2 × 104 ml-1 and 4 × 107 g-1, respectively. Plate counts document abundant cold-adapted cultivable organisms in the lake water, but not in the borehole (before penetration) or glacial ice. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from genomic DNA extracted from Gr??msv??tn samples indicates that the lake community is distinct from the assemblages of organisms in borehole water (before penetration) and the overlying ice and snow. Sequencing of selected DGGE bands revealed that many sequences are highly similar to known psychrophilic organisms or cloned DNA from other cold environments. Significant uptake of 14C-labeled bicarbonate occurred in dark, low-temperature incubations of lake water samples, indicating the presence of autotrophs. Acetylene reduction assays under similar incubation conditions showed no significant nitrogen fixation potential by lake water samples. This may be a consequence of the inhibition of diazotrophy by nitrogen in the lake.

  18. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  19. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter contaminated poultry focus on post-slaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach for enumeration...... method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter, but recognises the infectious potential of the VBNC state, and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies, and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment....

  20. First study on the formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable state and beer spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri during the induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. L. lindneri strain was identified by sequencing the PCR product (amplifying 16S rRNA gene) using ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer. During the VBNC state induction by low temperature storage and beer adaption, total, culturable, and viable cells were assessed by acridine orange direct counting, plate counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids and diacetyl concentration were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and head dpace gas chromatography, respectively. VBNC state of L. lindneri was successfully induced by both beer adaption and low temperature storage, and glycerol frozen stock was the optimal way to maintain the VBNC state. Addition of catalase was found to be an effective method for the resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri cells. Furthermore, spoilage capability remained similar during the induction and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri. This is the first report of induction by low temperature storage and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri strain, as well as the first identification of spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated L. lindneri cells. This study indicated that the potential colonization of L. lindneri strain in brewery environment, formation and resuscitation of VBNC state, as well as maintenance in beer spoilage capability, may be an important risk factor for brewery environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glioma spheroids obtained via ultrasonic aspiration are viable and express stem cell markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Andersen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic aspirators allow safe, rapid, and accurate removal of brain tumors. However, the tissue fragments removed are used surprisingly little in research.......Ultrasonic aspirators allow safe, rapid, and accurate removal of brain tumors. However, the tissue fragments removed are used surprisingly little in research....

  2. A viable electrode material for use in microbial fuel cells for tropical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offei, Felix; Thygesen, Anders; Mensah, Moses

    2016-01-01

    of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load) using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material...... was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were...

  3. Investigation of Removal Capacities of Biofilters for Airborne Viable Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Rémi; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Malhautier, Luc; Geiger, Philippe; Bayle, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp. The REvp of biofilters reached near 80% and highlighted both the stability of that removal and the statistical equivalence between two identical biofilters. Pollutant deprivation periods of 12 h, 48 h and 30 days were shown to have no influence on the biofilters’ removal capacity, demonstrating the robustness and adaptation capacities of the flora. In contrast, a 90-day famine period turned the biofilters into emitters of viable particles. Finally, the humidification of the effluent was shown to negatively influence the removal capacity for viable particles, as drying off the air was shown to increase the REvp from 60 to 85%. PMID:29562709

  4. Recovering gold from thiosulfate leach pulps via ion exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Michael J.; O'Malley, Glen

    2002-10-01

    Increasing environmental and occupational safety concerns about the use of cyanide in gold processing has increased interest in more acceptable alternative lixiviants, the most promising of which is thiosulfate. However, the thiosulfate process lacks a proven inpulp method of recovering the dissolved gold because activated carbon is not effective for the absorption of the gold-thiosulfate complex. This paper describes work aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of commercially available anion exchange resins for the recovery of gold from thiosulfate leach liquors and pulps.

  5. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium is conventionally recovered from wet-process phosphoric acid by two liquid ion exchange steps using a mixture of mono- and disubstituted phenyl esters of orthophosphoric acid (OPPA). Efficiency of the process drops as the mono-OPPA is lost preferentially to the aqueous phase. This invention provides a process for the removal of the uranium process organics (OPPA and organic solvents) from the raffinate of the first liquid ion exchange step and their return to the circuit. The process organics are removed by a combination flotation and absorption step, which results in the recovery of the organics on beads of a hydrophobic styrene polymer

  6. A computer-implemented method of recovering a visual event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a synchronization marker at least for a first occurrence of a temporal section classified as a smooth pursuit eye movement; wherein the synchronization marker comprises a link to or impression information of the contents of the viewport at the point in time when the first occurrence of a smooth pursuit eye movement...... occurred; via the synchronization marker, recovering the impression information or the contents of the viewport that was displayed at the point in time when the first occurrence of the smooth pursuit occurred....

  7. Preliminary fee methodology for recovering GTCC-LLW management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning a fee to recover costs of managing Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste (GTCC-LLW). A cash flow basis will be used for fee calculations to ensure recovery of all applicable program costs. Positive cash flows are revenues received from waste generators. Negative cash flows are program expenses for storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of the wastes and for program development, evaluation, and administration. Program balances are the net result of positive and negative cash flows each year. The methodology calculates fees that will recovery all program expenses taking into account cost inflation. 3 refs., 1 tab

  8. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Filho, D.; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Baba, S.; Miranda, L.E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author)

  9. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...... can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1year...

  10. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  11. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of viable Mycobacterium leprae with Type 1 reaction in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Mrudula Prakash; Dighe, Anju Rajaram; Natrajan, Mohan; Shetty, Vanaja Prabhakaran

    2016-03-01

    The working hypothesis is that, viable Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) play a crucial role in the precipitation of Type 1 reaction (T1R) in leprosy. A total of 165 new multibacillary patients were studied. To demonstrate presence of viable M. leprae in reactional lesion (T1R+), three tests were used concurrently viz. growth in the mouse foot pad (MFP), immunohistochemical detection of M. leprae secretory protein Ag85, and 16s rRNA--using in situ RT-PCR. Mirror biopsies and non reactional lesions served as controls (T1R-). A significantly higher proportion of lesion biopsy homogenates obtained at onset, from T1R(+) cases have shown unequivocal growth in MFP, proving the presence of viable bacteria, as compared to T1R(-) (P leprae is a component/prerequisite and the secretory protein Ag 85, might be the trigger for precipitation of T1R.

  13. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: correlation of 3H-DNA release from labeled bacteria and changes in numbers of viable organisms by mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods of assessing antibacterial activities of macrophages by viable counting are limited by the precision of the statistics and are difficult to interpret quantitatively because of unrestrained extracellular growth of bacteria. An alternative technique based on the release of radioactive DNA from labeled bacteria has been offered as overcoming these drawbacks. To assess it for use with macrophages I have made a correlation with the conventional viable counting method using a mathematical model. Opsonized Listeria monocytogenes labeled with 3 H-thymidine were exposed to rat macrophages for periods up to 4 hr. Numbers of viable bacteria determined after sonication increased exponentially in the absence of live cells and this growth rate was progressively inhibited by increasing numbers of macrophages. After a lag period of 30-60 min soluble 3 H appeared in the supernatant, the amount increasing with time and numbers of macrophages. To correlate these data I developed a mathematical model that considered that changes in numbers of viable organisms were due to the difference between rates of 1) growth of extracellular bacteria and 2) killing within the macrophage. On the basis of this model curves of best fit to the viable counts data were used to predict the release of radioactivity, assuming that death of a bacterium led to the total release of its label. These predictions and the experimental data agreed well, the lag period of 30-60 min between death of the bacterium and release of radioactivity being consistent with intracellular digestion. Release of soluble radioactivity appears to be an accurate reflection of the number of bacteria killed within the macrophage

  14. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  15. Optimization of Culture Medium Enhances Viable Biomass Production and Biocontrol Efficacy of the Antagonistic Yeast, Candida diversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viable biomass production is a key determinant of suitability of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents. This study investigated the effects of three metal ions (magnesium, ferrous, and zinc on biomass production and viability of the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa. Using response surface methodology to optimize medium components, a maximum biomass was obtained, when the collective Mg2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ concentrations were adjusted in a minimal mineral (MM medium. Compared with the unmodified MM, and three ion-deficient MM media, yeast cells cultured in the three ion-modified MM medium exhibited a lower level of cellular oxidative damage, and a higher level of antioxidant enzyme activity. A biocontrol assay indicated that C. diversa grown in the ion-modified MM exhibited the greatest level of control of gray mold on apple fruit. These results provide new information on culture medium optimization to grow yeast antagonists in order to improve biomass production and biocontrol efficacy.

  16. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  17. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  18. Recovering Nimbus era Observations at the NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Esfandiari, A. E.; Zamkoff, E. B.; Al-Jazrawi, A. F.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Alcott, G. T.

    2017-12-01

    Between 1964 and 1978, NASA launched a series of seven Nimbus meteorological satellites which provided Earth observations for 30 years. These satellites, carrying a total of 33 instruments to observe the Earth at visible, infrared, ultraviolet, and microwave wavelengths, revolutionized weather forecasting, provided early observations of ocean color and atmospheric ozone, and prototyped location-based search and rescue capabilities. The Nimbus series paved the way for a number of currently operational systems such as the EOS Terra, Aqua and Aura platforms.The original data archive included both magnetic tapes and film media. These media are well past their expected end of life, placing at risk valuable data that are critical to extending the history of Earth observations back in time. GES DISC has been incorporating these data into a modern online archive by recovering the digital data files from the tapes, and scanning images of the data from film strips. The original data products were written on obsolete hardware systems in outdated file formats, and in the absence of metadata standards at that time, were often written in proprietary file structures. Through a tedious and laborious process, oft-corrupted data are recovered, and incomplete metadata and documentation are reconstructed.

  19. Process for recovering xenon from radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Tsuneo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To recover pure xenon economically and efficiently by amply removing radioactive krypton mixed in xenon without changing the rectifying capacity of an xenon rectifying system itself. Method: Xe containing radioactive Kr(Kr-85) is rectified to reduce the concentration of radioactive Kr. Thereafter, non-radioactive Kr or Ar is added to Xe and further the rectification is carried out. The raw material Xe from the Xe adsorption system of, for example, a radioactive gaseous waste disposal system is cooled to about 100 0 C by a heat-exchanger and thereafter supplied to a rectifying tower to carry out normal rectification of Xe thereby to reduce the concentration of Kr contained in Xe at the tower bottom to the rectification limit concentration. Then, non-radioactive Kr is supplied via a precooler to the tower bottom to continue the rectification, thus the Xe fractions at the tower bottom, in which the concentration of radioactive Kr is reduced, being compressed and recovered. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Recovering missing mesothelioma deaths in death certificates using hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vilma S; Algranti, Eduardo; Campos, Felipe; Cavalcante, Franciana; Salvi, Leonardo; Santos, Simone A; Inamine, Rosemeire N; Souza, William; Consonni, Dario

    2018-04-02

    In Brazil, underreporting of mesothelioma and cancer of the pleura (MCP) is suspected to be high. Records from death certificates (SIM) and hospital registers (SIH-SUS) can be combined to recover missing data but only anonymous databases are available. This study shows how common data can be used for linkage and as an assessment of accuracy. Mesothelioma (all sites, ICD-10 codes C45.0-C45.9) and cancer of the pleura (C38.4) were retrieved from both information systems and combined using a linkage algorithm. Accuracy was examined with non-anonymous databases, limited to the state of São Paulo. We found 775 cases in death certificates and 283 in hospital registers. The linkage matched 57 cases, all accurately paired. Three cases, 0.4% in SIM and 1.3% in SIH-SUS, could not be matched because of data inconsistencies. A computer linkage can recover MCP cases from hospital records not found in death certificates in Brazil. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  2. The immunomodulatory properties of viable Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Belén; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Perán, Laura; Camuesco, Desirée; Comalada, Mònica; Bailón, Elvira; Olivares, Mónica; Xaus, Jordi; Kruidenier, Laurens; Sanderson, Ian R; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to better characterise the biological effects of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713, a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties. Live or dead probiotic was assayed in the TNBS model of rat colitis to determine whether viability was a requisite to exert the beneficial effects. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 cells to evaluate its effects on epithelial cell recovery and IL-8 production. Finally, the probiotic was assayed in the LPS model of septic shock in mice to establish its effects when there is an altered systemic immune response. The viability of the probiotic was required for its anti-inflammatory activity. The probiotic inhibited IL-8 production in stimulated Caco-2 cells and facilitated the recovery of damaged intestinal epithelium. In LPS-treated mice, the probiotic inhibited the production of TNFα in plasma and lungs and increased the hepatic glutathione content. These effects were associated with an improvement in the altered production of the T-cell cytokines in splenocytes, by reducing IL-2 and IL-5 and by increasing IL-10. Finally, it reduced the increased plasma IgG production in LPS-treated mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of viable L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, John E.; Apel, William A.; Lee, Brady D.; Peyton, Brent M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: →At. caldus sorbs lead, zinc, and copper across a range of pH and temperature. →At. caldus shows a relatively high sorption capacity for zinc and copper at low pH. → Lead, zinc, and copper sorption decreases in tertiary mixtures. → Copper appears to sorb via a different mechanism(s) than lead or zinc. - Abstract: This study describes the effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13 with a Langmuir model. Copper exhibited the highest loading capacity, 4.76 ± 0.28 mmol g -1 , to viable cells at pH 5.5. The highest k L (binding-site affinity) observed was 61.2 ± 3.0 L mmol -1 to dehydrated cells at pH 4.0. The pHs that maximized loading capacities and binding-site affinities were generally between 4.0 and 5.5, where the sum of free-proton and complexed-metal concentrations was near a minimum. Of additional importance, lead, zinc, and copper sorbed to viable cells at pH values as low as 1.5. Previous studies with other acidithiobacilli did not measure viable-cell sorption below pH 4.0. In separate experiments, desorption studies showed that far less copper was recovered from viable cells than any other metal or cell condition, suggesting that uptake may play an important role in copper sorption by At. caldus strain BC13. To reflect an applied system, the sorption of metal mixtures was also studied. In these experiments, lead, zinc, and copper sorption from a tertiary mixture were 40.2 ± 4.3%, 28.7 ± 3.8%, and 91.3 ± 3.0%, respectively, of that sorbed in single-metal systems.

  4. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  5. In search of viable business models for development: sustainable energy in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Although the crucial role of business, and of business-based approaches, in development is increasingly emphasised by academics and practitioners, insight is lacking into the "whether and how" of viable business models, in environmental, social and economical terms. This article analyses

  6. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation... production is a Bacillus thuringiensis strain which does not produce β-exotoxin under standard manufacturing...

  8. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  9. The ghost of extinction: Preservation values and minimum viable population in wildlife models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of a minimum viable population in bioeconomic modeling creates at least two complications that are not resolved by using a modified logistic growth function. The first complication can be dealt with by choosing a different depensational growth function. The second complication relates

  10. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  11. Mapping In Vivo Tumor Oxygenation within Viable Tumor by 19F-MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying oxygenation in viable tumor remains a major obstacle toward a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and improving treatment strategies. Current techniques are often complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Herein, a novel in vivo approach that combines 19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F-MRIR1 mapping with diffusionbased multispectral (MS analysis is introduced. This approach restricts the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 measurements to viable tumor, the tissue of therapeutic interest. The technique exhibited sufficient sensitivity to detect a breathing gas challenge in a xenograft tumor model, and the hypoxic region measured by MS 19F-MRI was strongly correlated with histologic estimates of hypoxia. This approach was then applied to address the effects of antivascular agents on tumor oxygenation, which is a research question that is still under debate. The technique was used to monitor longitudinal pO2 changes in response to an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (B20.4.1.1 and a selective dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (GDC-0980. GDC-0980 reduced viable tumor pO2 during a 3-day treatment period, and a significant reduction was also produced by B20.4.1.1. Overall, this method provides an unprecedented view of viable tumor pO2 and contributes to a greater understanding of the effects of antivascular therapies on the tumor's microenvironment.

  12. Recovering phosphorus and uranium values from phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, M.C.Y.; Long, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Phosphate rock is acidulated with aqueous nitric acid to produce an aqueous solution containing phosphate values, calcium and uranium values. The aqueous solution is contacted with an extraction solvent for the uranium values: the extraction solvent comprising a water immiscible organic diluent, a dialkyl phosphoric acid having at least 10 carbon atoms, and an organic phosphorus compound having the formula R 1 R 2 R 3 P = O where R 1 , R 2 and R 3 are each either alkyl or alkoxy, the organic phosphorus compound having at least 10 carbon atoms. The uranium values are then recovered from the extraction solvent. In an example the extraction solvent is HDEHP and TOPO in kerosene. (author)

  13. Method of recovering neptunium from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboya, T.; N.

    1976-01-01

    An improved Purex wet recovery process including the step of extracting and separating uranium and plutonium simultaneously from the fission products in the presence of nitric acid and nitrous acid by using a multistage extractor unit having an extracting section and a washing section is provided for separating and recovering neptunium simultaneously with uranium and plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel. The improved method comprises the steps of maintaining the nitrous acid concentration in said extracting section at a level suited for effecting oxidation of neptunium from (V) to (VI) valence, while lowering the nitrous acid concentration in said washing section so as to suppress reduction of neptunium from (VI) to (V) valence, and maintaining the nitric acid concentration in said washing section at a high level

  14. Recovering phosphorus and uranium values from phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, M C.Y.; Long, R H

    1981-02-11

    Phosphate rock is acidulated with aqueous nitric acid to produce an aqueous solution containing phosphate values, calcium and uranium values. The aqueous solution is contacted with an extraction solvent for the uranium values: the extraction solvent comprising a water immiscible organic diluent, a dialkyl phosphoric acid having at least 10 carbon atoms, and an organic phosphorus compound having the formula R/sub 1/ R/sub 2/ R/sub 3/ P = O where R/sub 1/, R/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ are each either alkyl or alkoxy, the organic phosphorus compound having at least 10 carbon atoms. The uranium values are then recovered from the extraction solvent. In an example the extraction solvent is HDEHP and TOPO in kerosene.

  15. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  16. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  17. Vulnerable GPU Memory Management: Towards Recovering Raw Data from GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to previous reports, information could be leaked from GPU memory; however, the security implications of such a threat were mostly over-looked, because only limited information could be indirectly extracted through side-channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for recovering raw data directly from the GPU memory residues of many popular applications such as Google Chrome and Adobe PDF reader. Our algorithm enables harvesting highly sensitive information including credit card numbers and email contents from GPU memory residues. Evaluation results also indicate that nearly all GPU-accelerated applications are vulnerable to such attacks, and adversaries can launch attacks without requiring any special privileges both on traditional multi-user operating systems, and emerging cloud computing scenarios.

  18. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  19. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Brown, J; Verma, S K; Cerqueira-Cézar, C K; Banfield, J; Kwok, O C H; Ying, Y; Murata, F H A; Pradhan, A K; Su, C

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69.7%) had MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 28, 1:100 in 34, and 1:200 or higher in 140. Thus most (44.1%) elk had relatively high titers. Seroprevalence was slightly higher in males (76.9%) than females (67.5%, not statistically significant, Chi-square tests, P<0.0001) and was higher in adults (76.5%) than yearlings (46.4%, Odds ratio 3.82; 95% CL 1.72-8.47; P=0.001) or calves (21.7%, Odds ratio 12.58; 95% CL 4.51-35.10; P<0.0001). Annual seroprevalence was relatively stable throughout the period tested and ranged from 66.6% to 72.2%. Of the 101 elk harvested in 2016, hearts were bioassayed from 20 elk and tongues were bioassayed from 56; all tongue samples were negative. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of two female elk, one of these was a seronegative adult and the other was a calf with no serum available for testing. Both T. gondii isolates were cultivated in cell culture and DNA derived from tachyzoites was characterized using the PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'- 3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. One isolate belongs to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 and the other is genotype #5. Both genotypes are frequently identified in animals in North America. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  1. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  2. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Janke, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  3. Genetic characterization of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates recovered from vineyard environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Pereira, Leonor; Alves, Hugo; Cambon, Brigitte; Dequin, Sylvie; Casal, Margarida

    2007-08-01

    One hundred isolates of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Zymaflore VL1 were recovered from spontaneous fermentations carried out with grapes collected from vineyards located close to wineries in the Vinho Verde wine region of Portugal. Isolates were differentiated based on their mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns and the evaluation of genetic polymorphisms was carried out by microsatellite analysis, interdelta sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic patterns were compared to those obtained for 30 isolates of the original commercialized Zymaflore VL1 strain. Among the 100 recovered isolates we found a high percentage of chromosomal size variations, most evident for the smaller chromosomes III and VI. Complete loss of heterozygosity was observed for two isolates that had also lost chromosomal heteromorphism; their growth and fermentative capacity in a synthetic must medium was also affected. A considerably higher number of variant patterns for interdelta sequence amplifications was obtained for grape-derived strains compared to the original VL1 isolates. Our data show that the long-term presence of strain VL1 in natural grapevine environments induced genetic changes that can be detected using different fingerprinting methods. The observed genetic changes may reflect adaptive mechanisms to changed environmental conditions that yeast cells encounter during their existence in nature. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Synthesis of red fluorescent graphene quantum dot-europium complex composites as a viable bio imaging platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanting; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Shixin; Fan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared graphene quantum dot-europium(III) complex composites by noncovalently connecting chelating ligands dibenzoylmethane (DBM) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) first, followed by coordination to Eu(III). The resulting composites are well water-soluble and display red fluorescence of high color purity. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Aqueous solutions of the composites under 365 nm excitation display fluorescence with a peak at 613 nm and a quantum yield as high as 15.5 %. The good water solubility and stable photoluminescence make the composites very different from other Eu(III)-based coordination complexes. The composites are cell viable and can be used to label both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells. They are also shown to act as bioprobes for in-vivo localization of tumorous tissue. In our perception, such composites are expected to possess wide scope because of the many functionalizations that are possible with GQDs. (author)

  5. Comparison of viable plate count, turbidity measurement and real-time PCR for quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clais, S; Boulet, G; Van Kerckhoven, M; Lanckacker, E; Delputte, P; Maes, L; Cos, P

    2015-01-01

    The viable plate count (VPC) is considered as the reference method for bacterial enumeration in periodontal microbiology but shows some important limitations for anaerobic bacteria. As anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis are difficult to culture, VPC becomes time-consuming and less sensitive. Hence, efficient normalization of experimental data to bacterial cell count requires alternative rapid and reliable quantification methods. This study compared the performance of VPC with that of turbidity measurement and real-time PCR (qPCR) in an experimental context using highly concentrated bacterial suspensions. Our TaqMan-based qPCR assay for P. gingivalis 16S rRNA proved to be sensitive and specific. Turbidity measurements offer a fast method to assess P. gingivalis growth, but suffer from high variability and a limited dynamic range. VPC was very time-consuming and less repeatable than qPCR. Our study concludes that qPCR provides the most rapid and precise approach for P. gingivalis quantification. Although our data were gathered in a specific research context, we believe that our conclusions on the inferior performance of VPC and turbidity measurements in comparison to qPCR can be extended to other research and clinical settings and even to other difficult-to-culture micro-organisms. Various clinical and research settings require fast and reliable quantification of bacterial suspensions. The viable plate count method (VPC) is generally seen as 'the gold standard' for bacterial enumeration. However, VPC-based quantification of anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is time-consuming due to their stringent growth requirements and shows poor repeatability. Comparison of VPC, turbidity measurement and TaqMan-based qPCR demonstrated that qPCR possesses important advantages regarding speed, accuracy and repeatability. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.A.; Weterings, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid by adding a flocculant to the phosphoric acid, separating out the resultant precipitate and then recovering yttrium and lanthanides from the precipitate. Uranium is recovered from the remaining phosphoric acid.

  7. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  8. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  9. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  10. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Results Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. Conclusions These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  11. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christopher J

    2012-07-04

    Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  12. Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Noriea, Nicholas F; Johnson, Crystal N; Grimes, D Jay

    2011-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. It can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. Currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect V. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which leads to an underestimation of the population density. In this study, we used a novel fluorescence visualization technique, called recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (RING-FISH), which targets chromosomal DNA for enumeration. A polynucleotide probe labeled with Cyanine 3 (Cy3) was created corresponding to the ubiquitous V. parahaemolyticus gene that codes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh). When coupled with the Kogure method to distinguish viable from dead cells, RING-FISH probes reliably enumerated total, viable V. parahaemolyticus. The probe was tested for sensitivity and specificity against a pure culture of tlh(+), tdh(-), trh(-)V. parahaemolyticus, pure cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri, and a mixed environmental sample. This research will provide additional tools for a better understanding of the risk these environmental organisms pose to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  14. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: statistical analysis of histology features in viable and ischemic bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlicott, Shaun A C; Guggisberg, Kelly A; DesCôteaux, Jean-Gaston; Beck, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare cause of segmental ischemic enterocolitis. This artery-sparing transmural vasculitis is classically a circumferential phlebitis with perivenular lymphocyte cuffing and thrombi in the absence of systemic manifestations. Myointimal hyperplasia may represent a chronic phase of enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis. Subclinical or early stage enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is not well delineated. We analyzed 600 submucosal and subserosal veins from both ischemic and intact bowel segments to discern if vascular morphology varied between sites. Crescentic and circumferential lymphocytic phlebitis is more common in viable bowel than in the ischemic segment. A nonsignificant trend was found for increased crescentic morphology between intact bowel remote from the ischemic focus compared with that adjacent to the ischemic focus. Hallmarks of ischemic bowel are necrotizing phlebitis and thrombi formation. Thrombophlebitis morphology is distinctly different in viable and ischemic bowel, changing from the classic lymphocytic to necrotizing lesions respectively.

  15. NOx generation method from recovered nitric acid by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujiso, M.; Shibuya, M.; Iwamoto, F.; Outou, Y.; Ochi, E.; Tsuyuki, T.

    1998-01-01

    An R and D has been conducted on an electrolytic NO x generation process utilizing recovered nitric acid from a PUREX reprocessing plant. The purpose of the study is to drastically reduce the amount of low-level-liquid waste(LLW). The research program phase-1, constituting mainly of electrochemical reaction mechanism study, material balance evaluation and process design study, finished in 1995. The results were presented in the previous papers). The research program phase-2 has started in 1995. The schedule is as follows: FY 1991-1994: Research program phase-1 Basic study using electrolysis equipment with 100-700 cm 2 electrodes FY 1995-1999: Research program phase-2 Process performance test by larger scale electrolysis equipment with 3.6 m 2 electrodes - pilot plant design (FY 1995) - pilot plant construction (FY 1996) - engineering data acquisition (FY 1997-1999). The process consists of many unit operations such as electrolysis, oxidation, nitric acid concentration, NO x compression and storage, NO x recovery, off-gas treatment and acid supplier. This paper outlines the pilot test plant. (author)

  16. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  17. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín T. Limonero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  18. A new putative deltapartitivirus recovered from Dianthus amurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongliu; Tan, Guanlin; Xiong, Guihong; Li, Meirong; Fang, Shouguo; Islam, Saif Ul; Zhang, Songbai; Li, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Two double stranded RNAs (dsRNA), likely representing the genome of a novel deltapartitivirus, provisionally named carnation cryptic virus 3 (CCV3), were recovered from Dianthus amurensis. The two dsRNAs were 1,573 (dsRNA1) and 1,561 (dsRNA2) bp in size, each containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 475- and 411-aa protein, respectively. The 475-aa protein contains a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain which shows significant homology to RdRps of established or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Deltapartitivirus. However, it shares an amino acid identity of 75% with its closest relative, the RdRp of the deltapartitivirus beet cryptic virus 2 (BCV2), and is <62% identical to the RdRps of other partitiviruses. In a phylogenetic tree constructed with RdRps of selected partitiviruses, CCV3 clustered with BCV2 and formed a well-supported monophyletic clade with known or putative deltapartitiviruses.

  19. Emerging Politics of Authorship: Recovering Collectivity, Negotiating the Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pisac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines authorship as a socially embedded process by challenging Western notions of the autonomous creative genius. It considers social interactions between various agents in the field of literary production which in turn recovers the collective nature of modern authorship. Far from leaving it unexamined, it further contextualises authorial collectivity and its role in the emerging model of authorship. Questions and arguments raised in this article are informed by the ethnographic data collected during my doctoral research focusing on the reception of post-1990s ex-Yugoslav literature on the UK book market. Such ethnographic approach to literary translations – i.e. the micro-level analysis of social interactions that ‘create’ literature – demonstrated how the author is ‘created’ in the communication of two literary systems through linguistic translation as well as re-translations of symbolic and social capitals. My research was concerned with analysing the ‘backstage’ of the publishing industry – informal networks and international literary geopolitics – which all contributed to debunking the myth of the autonomous creative genius. However, instead of retracing my steps, this article outlines new avenues and questions that such analysis has opened up. One such question is how new technologies are (reconstructing and (repositioning the role of the author.

  20. Bone density of women who have recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D; Crisp, A; Rooney, B; Rackow, C; Atkinson, R; Patel, S

    2000-07-01

    To examine bone density in 19 women who had previously experienced classical anorexia nervosa from which they had been fully recovered for a mean of 21 years (current characteristics: median age 40.2 years; Eating Attitudes Test [EAT] score 2; body mass index [BMI] 21.1; average 1.8 offspring). Probands were compared, blindly, in respect of bone density, with 13 control subjects matched for age and sex and with no history of eating disorders. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the head of the femur. Femur BMD was still significantly less among ex-anorectic sufferers. Two subjects had experienced pathological fractures while anorectic, both having been strenuous exercisers. None appeared to have suffered post illness fractures. BMD at follow-up did not relate to the severity or chronicity of previous anorexia nervosa. Full clinical recovery from anorexia nervosa does not quite confer full establishment of normal bone density. However, pathological fractures are not a feature thereafter, within middle life. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Tatra's forests will recover from catastrophe for decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    Windy tornado in Tatra's national park (TANAP, High Tatras, Slovakia) at the end of 2004 caused extensive ecological catastrophe and economic losses. Wind has totally damaged the trees in more than one fourth of forest area, which is administrated by state forests of TANAP. Next fourth of forest area has impaired structure. Mostly coniferous forests have fallen down not only in High Tatras, but also in Horehronie, Kysuce, Orava and Spis. According to estimates around 2.5 million cubic meters of wood have lain on the ground in High Tatras. This wood must be precipitately processed. In another regions totally from 800 to 900 thousands cubic meters are overcame by wind. Ecological catastrophe has come in High Tatras. Totally damaged large forests areas need to be recovered for long decades. 90 per cent of annual Slovakian wood cutting represents totally 2.5 million cubic meters. The state will invest in forest recovery from sale of calamity stuff. Reforestation of one hectare of forest costs from 80 to 90 thousands Slovak crowns (∼2666-3000 USD). Another remedies at the age to five years represent from 40 to 50 thousands Slovak crowns (1333-16666 USD). Around 1.6 billion Slovak crown (∼53.333 million USD) will be needed for reforestation of 12 thousands hectares of TANAP

  2. Hydrogen isotope recovering and reutilizing method and its device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Takahiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and convenient recovery and reutilization of gaseous tritium and other hydrogen isotopes. Constitution: Two kinds of metal hydrides different from each other in the dissociation pressure at an identical temperature are combined, in which a metal hydride of higher dissociation pressure is used for recovery and reutilization for most portion of gaseous hydrogen isotope gases, while the metal hydride of lower dissociation pressure is used for the recovery and reutilization of the remaining gaseous hydrogen isotopes. This enables to extremely lower the concentration of the remaining gaseous hydrogen isotopes, that is, the concentration of tritium in the recoverying system. In addition, since the heating temperature required for releasing the gaseous hydrogen isotopes absorbed in both of the metal hydrides is within such a range as causing no problem for the permeation of the gaseous hydrogen isotopes, there is no requirement for the countermeasure to tritium permeation or the facility for recovering permeated tritium and there is no problem for the material degradation due to the heating at high temperature. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. A second chance: Recovering language with aphasia (†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Waks, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Dr Christopher Green is a well-known paediatrician and parenting author, who appeared frequently on Australian radio and television and lectured in Australia and many countries around the world. In 1999, Dr Green had a stroke which left him with aphasia and ended his career. After the death of his wife in 2004, Dr Green used exercise and the goal of writing again to lift himself out of his grief. With the help of a gifted editor, he wrote a new edition of his best-selling book Toddler Taming (Green, 2006 ), and in the process recovered much of his language. Dr Green is the Patron of the Australian Aphasia Association, and has in recent years returned to public speaking. In this address, he shares his message that the language gains made with aphasia may occur over decades, not merely one or two years. This article is an edited version of the keynote speech Dr Green presented at the Speech Pathology Australia annual conference in 2007.

  4. Challenges in recovering resources from acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Bowell, Robert J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2017-01-01

    Metal recovery from mine waters and effluents is not a new approach but one that has occurred largely opportunistically over the last four millennia. Due to the need for low-cost resources and increasingly stringent environmental conditions, mine waters are being considered in a fresh light with a designed, deliberate approach to resource recovery often as part of a larger water treatment evaluation. Mine water chemistry is highly dependent on many factors including geology, ore deposit composition and mineralogy, mining methods, climate, site hydrology, and others. Mine waters are typically Ca-Mg-SO4±Al±Fe with a broad range in pH and metal content. The main issue in recovering components of these waters having potential economic value, such as base metals or rare earth elements, is the separation of these from more reactive metals such as Fe and Al. Broad categories of methods for separating and extracting substances from acidic mine drainage are chemical and biological. Chemical methods include solution, physicochemical, and electrochemical technologies. Advances in membrane techniques such as reverse osmosis have been substantial and the technique is both physical and chemical. Biological methods may be further divided into microbiological and macrobiological, but only the former is considered here as a recovery method, as the latter is typically used as a passive form of water treatment.

  5. Process to recover tritium from fusion fuel cycle impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Glugla, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this work, a process that includes a hopcalite and a ceramic-supported nickel catalyst together with a uranium getter bed and a palladium silver membrane has been developed. Hopcalite is operated at room temperature for the specific conversion of reactive CO into chemically inert CO 2 . At the same time, some oxygen is removed from the process gas. In the next step, water is decomposed on a uranium bed kept at only 250 0 C with formation of molecular hydrogen and UO 2 . At this stage, additional residual oxygen is also gettered. Since hopcalite will not oxidize hydrogen at room temperature, no getter consumption for reversing this reaction takes place. With the developed three-step process, tritium permeation losses are reduced substantially, because no temperature exceeds 450 0 C. The total amount of solid waste produced is comparatively small. The catalyst is not expected to become appreciably radioactive in view of the fact that the solubility of hydrogen in nickel is very low. Recovered hydrogen is of high purity. At the same time, a decontamination of the offgas down to a very low tritium level is possible

  6. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, Reid B.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year contract, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364 ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs,'' was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering January 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002 that covers the second and third fiscal quarters of the project's first year. Paper SPE 75178, ''Cost Reduction and Injectivity Improvements for CO 2 Foams for Mobility Control,'' has been presented and included in the proceedings of the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. During these two quarters of the project we have been working in several areas: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, producer survey on injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried and reservoir core

  7. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B.; Gravitz, Zoe R.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among participants is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory, (2) executive functions, (3) emotion and psychosocial skills, (4) visuospatial cognition, and (5) psychomotor abilities. The brain systems that are most vulnerable to alcoholism are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576

  9. The use of non-living biomass to recover heavy metals from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnall, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The use of microorganisms in the treatment of hazardous wastes containing both inorganic and organic pollutants is becoming more and more attractive. There have been two approaches to the use of microorganisms in waste treatment. One involves the use of living organisms and the other involves the use of non-viable biomass derived from microorganisms. While the use of living organisms is often successful in the treatment of toxic organic contaminants, living organisms have not been found to be useful in the treatment of solutions containing heavy metal ions. This is because once the metal ion concentration becomes too high or sufficient metal ions are adsorbed by the microorganism, metabolism is disrupted causing the organism to die. This disadvantage is not encountered if non-living organisms or biological materials derived from microorganisms are used to adsorb metal ions from solution. Instead the biomass is treated as another reagent, a surrogate ion exchange resin. The binding, or biosorption, of metal ions by the biomass results from coordination of the metal ions to various functional groups in or on the cell. These chelating groups, contributed by the cell biopolymers, include carboxyl, imidazole, sulfhydryl, amino, phosphate, sulfate, thioether, phenol, carbonyl, amide, and hydroxyl moieties (Darnall et al.)

  10. Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-culturable State in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xihong; Zhong, Junliang; Wei, Caijiao; Lin, Chii-Wann; Ding, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a unique state in which a number of bacteria respond to adverse circumstances, was first discovered in 1982. Unfortunately, it has been reported that many foodborne pathogens can be induced to enter the VBNC state by the limiting environmental conditions during food processing and preservation, such as extreme temperatures, drying, irradiation, pulsed electric field, and high pressure stress, as well as the addition of preservatives and disinfectant...

  11. Existence of both culturable and viable but non culturable (VNC) E. coli populations with distinct settling velocities in karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Massei, N.; Lafite, R.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2012-12-01

    associated to "non settleable" particles, decreased from the sinkhole to the spring. In contrast in dry period while the turbidity and the contamination by culturable E. coli is low, the three populations of viable, culturable and VNC E. coli are introduced in the karst. Within the population of culturable E. coli, persistent strains mainly belonging to B1 phylogroup and growing at 7°C were introduced in karst aquifer. At the spring, whatever the class of particles up to 96% of viable cells were in VNC state suggesting that a physiological change occurred within aquifer, independently of the association of E. coli with particles. At the well, the pumping of the water induced an input of resident VNC E. coli consecutively to a resuspension of particles previously settled within the karstic network, during a past turbid event.

  12. Preliminary applied study of assessment ischemic/viable myocardium by 99Tcm-HL91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Wu Hua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the representation of 99 Tc m -HL91 in the ischemic myocardium, evaluate the diagnosis value of 99 Tc m -HL91 on hypoxic but viable myocardium. Methods: Six patients with cardiac infarction all underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT and 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT. Average radioactivity of ischemic area and normal area were respectively obtained by ROI (2 x 2 pixels) on heart minor axis of images, And the radioactivity ratios of target (ischemic area)-to-non target(normal area)were calculated. Results: In image of 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT, two patients who's radioactivity coloboma of 99 Tc m -MIBI image could be filled with 99 Tc m -HL91, four patients were not caught sight of obvious filling up. Conclusion 99 Tc m -HL91 can be selectively uptaken by ischemic and hypoxic but viable myocardium. it combination of 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT may be good for accurate diagnosis and differentiation of viable myocardium. (authors)

  13. Corporate strategy and viable future land use: Planning for closure from the outset of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhurst, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the environmental impact of mining on viable future land use and underlines the imperative of improved environmental management and closure planning. It argues that pollution prevention, through planning for closure, can lead to cost-effective strategies for sustainable minerals development and viable future land use. This seems to be most true for greenfield sites since, generally, the earlier closure planning and pollution prevention is built into a project, the more cost-effective and environmentally benign closure will be. Further, for greenfield sites, pollution prevention techniques can be employed from the outset, at the stages of exploration and mine development, and then monitored and improved through the operation stage to closure, and can be kept in place to manage future land use. The paper discusses how global changes in the industry, following the liberalisation of investment regimes, and mergers and strategic alliances between key firms, has, by virtue of the diffusion of new technology, led to further opportunities to prevent pollution and optimise future land use through planning for closure from the outset. The objectives and components of closure plans are also reviewed as the paper draws on case studies to highlight some of the possible constraints and challenges to pollution prevention that may be faced at the level of both public policy and corporate strategy. The article concludes by suggesting a forward-looking approach to integrated environmental management and viable future land-use planning based on a dynamic model for environmental management. (author)

  14. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  15. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A

    2010-03-01

    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.).

  16. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2004-01-01

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'', was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The project has received a one-year, no-cost extension to September 27, 2005. During this extra time additional deliverables will be (1) the version of MASTER that has been debugged and a foam option added for CO 2 mobility control and (2) adsorption/desorption data on pure component minerals common in reservoir rock that will be used to improve predictions of chemical loss to adsorption in reservoirs. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004 that comprises the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's third year. During this period of the project several areas have advanced: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. Presentations and papers included: a papers covered in a previous report was presented at the fall SPE ATCE in Denver in October 2003, a presentation at the Southwest ACS meeting in Oklahoma City, presentation on CO 2 flood basic behavior at the Midland Annual CO 2 Conference December 2003; two papers prepared for the biannual SPE/DOE Symposium on IOR, Tulsa, April 2004; one paper accepted for the fall 2004 SPE ATCE in Houston; and a paper submitted to an international journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science which is being revised after peer review

  17. Electrochemical performance studies of MnO2 nanoflowers recovered from spent battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Gomaa A.M.; Tan, Ling Ling; Jose, Rajan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Chong, Kwok Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MnO 2 is recovered from spent zinc–carbon batteries as nanoflowers structure. • Recovered MnO 2 nanoflowers show high specific capacitance. • Recovered MnO 2 nanoflowers show stable electrochemical cycling up to 900 cycles. • Recovered MnO 2 nanoflowers show low resistance in EIS data. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of MnO 2 nanoflowers recovered from spent household zinc–carbon battery is studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO 2 nanoflowers are recovered from spent zinc–carbon battery by combination of solution leaching and electrowinning techniques. In an effort to utilize recovered MnO 2 nanoflowers as energy storage supercapacitor, it is crucial to understand their structure and electrochemical performance. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the recovery of MnO 2 in birnessite phase, while electron microscopy analysis shows the MnO 2 is recovered as 3D nanostructure with nanoflower morphology. The recovered MnO 2 nanoflowers exhibit high specific capacitance (294 F g −1 at 10 mV s −1 ; 208.5 F g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 ) in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte, with stable electrochemical cycling. Electrochemical data analysis reveal the great potential of MnO 2 nanoflowers recovered from spent zinc–carbon battery in the development of high performance energy storage supercapacitor system

  18. Life history characteristics of a recovering lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis stock in the Detroit River, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Boase, James; McFee, James; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit River is part of a channel connecting Lakes Huron and Erie and was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river to spawn where they were harvested by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. Prior to our study, the last lake whitefish was landed from the Detroit River in 1925. Loss of spawning habitat during shipping channel construction and over-fishing, likely reduced lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie, and spawning in the western basin, we suspected they may also be spawning in the Detroit River. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in October–December 2005–07 and for larvae during March–May 2006–08. A total of 15 spawning-ready lake whitefish from 4 to 18 years old, were collected. Viable eggs were collected during mid-November 2006–07; highest egg densities were found mid-river. Sac-fry whitefish larvae were collected in the river and near the river mouth. No whitefish larvae were retained in the river. Because high numbers of larvae were collected from mid- and downstream river sites, reproduction of lake whitefish in the Detroit River could contribute substantially to the Lake Erie lake whitefish metapopulation.

  19. Characterization of Glomerella strains recovered from anthracnose lesions on common bean plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Quélen L; Pinto, Joyce M A; Vaillancourt, Lisa J; Souza, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is an important disease of common bean, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. Genetic diversity of the C. lindemuthianum population contributes to its ability to adapt rapidly to new sources of host resistance. The origin of this diversity is unknown, but sexual recombination, via the Glomerella teleomorph, is one possibility. This study tested the hypothesis that Glomerella strains that are frequently recovered from bean anthracnose lesions represent the teleomorph of C. lindemuthianum. A large collection of Glomerella isolates could be separated into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis, morphology, and pathogenicity to beans. Both groups were unrelated to C. lindemuthianum. One group clustered with the C. gloeosporioides species complex and produced mild symptoms on bean tissues. The other group, which belonged to a clade that included the cucurbit anthracnose pathogen C. magna, caused no symptoms. Individual ascospores recovered from Glomerella perithecia gave rise to either fertile (perithecial) or infertile (conidial) colonies. Some pairings of perithecial and conidial strains resulted in induced homothallism in the conidial partner, while others led to apparent heterothallic matings. Pairings involving two perithecial, or two conidial, colonies produced neither outcome. Conidia efficiently formed conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), but ascospores never formed CATs. The Glomerella strains formed appressoria and hyphae on the plant surface, but did not penetrate or form infection structures within the tissues. Their behavior was similar whether the beans were susceptible or resistant to anthracnose. These same Glomerella strains produced thick intracellular hyphae, and eventually acervuli, if host cell death was induced. When Glomerella was co-inoculated with C. lindemuthianum, it readily invaded anthracnose lesions. Thus, the hypothesis was not supported: Glomerella strains from anthracnose

  20. cAMP-CRP acts as a key regulator for the viable but non-culturable state in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosho, Kazuki; Fukushima, Hiroko; Asai, Takehiro; Nishio, Masahiro; Takamaru, Reiko; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, Koseki Joseph; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2018-03-01

    A variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are known to enter the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under various stress conditions. During this state, cells lose colony-forming activities on conventional agar plates while retaining signs of viability. Diverse environmental stresses including starvation induce the VBNC state. However, little is known about the genetic mechanism inducing this state. Here, we aimed to reveal the genetic determinants of the VBNC state of E. coli. We hypothesized that the VBNC state is a process wherein specific gene products important for colony formation are depleted during the extended period of stress conditions. If so, higher expression of these genes would maintain colony-forming activities, thereby restraining cells from entering the VBNC state. From an E. coli plasmid-encoded ORF library, we identified genes that were responsible for maintaining high colony-forming activities after exposure to starvation condition. Among these, cpdA encoding cAMP phosphodiesterase exhibited higher performance in the maintenance of colony-forming activities. As cpdA overexpression decreases intracellular cAMP, cAMP or its complex with cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) may negatively regulate colony-forming activities under stress conditions. We confirmed this using deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase or CRP. These mutants fully maintained colony-forming activities even after a long period of starvation, while wild-type cells lost most of this activity. Thus, we concluded that the lack of cAMP-CRP effectively retains high colony-forming activities, indicating that cAMP-CRP acts as a positive regulator necessary for the induction of the VBNC state in E. coli.

  1. Persistence and potential Viable but Non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Maynaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7-20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days. In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown.The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during

  2. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  3. Resource recovery and reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recovering nutrients, water and energy from domestic waste streams, including wastewater and faecal sludge, is slowly gaining momentum in low-income countries. Resource recovery and reuse (RRR offers value beyond environmental benefits through cost recovery. An expected game changer in sanitation service provision is a business model where benefits accrued via RRR can support upstream sanitation services despite the multitude of private and public stakeholders involved from waste collection to treatment. This paper shows options of how resource recovery and reuse can be an incentive for the sustainable sanitation service chain, by recovering costs where revenue can feed back internally or using generated revenues from reuse to fill financial gaps across the service chain to complement other supporting mechanisms for making waste management more attractive.

  4. Finding viable models in SUSY parameter spaces with signal specific discovery potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Thomas; Lindroos, Jan Øye; Lipniacka, Anna; Sandaker, Heidi

    2013-08-01

    Recent results from ATLAS giving a Higgs mass of 125.5 GeV, further constrain already highly constrained supersymmetric models such as pMSSM or CMSSM/mSUGRA. As a consequence, finding potentially discoverable and non-excluded regions of model parameter space is becoming increasingly difficult. Several groups have invested large effort in studying the consequences of Higgs mass bounds, upper limits on rare B-meson decays, and limits on relic dark matter density on constrained models, aiming at predicting superpartner masses, and establishing likelihood of SUSY models compared to that of the Standard Model vis-á-vis experimental data. In this paper a framework for efficient search for discoverable, non-excluded regions of different SUSY spaces giving specific experimental signature of interest is presented. The method employs an improved Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme exploiting an iteratively updated likelihood function to guide search for viable models. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds as well as the LHC discovery potential are taken into account. This includes recent bounds on relic dark matter density, the Higgs sector and rare B-mesons decays. A clustering algorithm is applied to classify selected models according to expected phenomenology enabling automated choice of experimental benchmarks and regions to be used for optimizing searches. The aim is to provide experimentalist with a viable tool helping to target experimental signatures to search for, once a class of models of interest is established. As an example a search for viable CMSSM models with τ-lepton signatures observable with the 2012 LHC data set is presented. In the search 105209 unique models were probed. From these, ten reference benchmark points covering different ranges of phenomenological observables at the LHC were selected.

  5. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  6. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin; Akbari, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order for researchers and students to identify these journals.

  7. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  8. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  9. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  10. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  11. SALMONELLA SPECIE AND TOTAL VIABLE BACTERIAL LOAD IN ROASTED CHICKENS SOLD IN JOS-NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Okoli; Okonji M.C; Ugoh S.C; Okolo S.N; Okoli A.C; Alu A.J

    2007-01-01

    The study was to investigate for the presence of Salmonella specie and total viable aerobic bacterial load in roasted chickens sold in Jos. The study was carried out on twenty five chicken samples. No salmonella specie was isolated from the samples. However, other bacterial organisms were isolates, viz: 9(36%) of the samples yielded E.coli; 5(20%) yielded Citobacter species; 3(12%) yielded Proteus species and 6(24%) yielded Klebsiella species while 2(8%) showed no growth. An average total via...

  12. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  13. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  14. Isolation of Viable but Non-culturable Bacteria from Printing and Dyeing Wastewater Bioreactor Based on Resuscitation Promoting Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gan, Guojuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Na; Hu, Jiadan; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin; Hong, Huachang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Liang, Yan; Ding, Linxian; Pan, Yonglong

    2017-07-01

    Printing and dyeing wastewater with high content of organic matters, high colority, and poor biochemical performance is hard to be degraded. In this study, we isolated viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria from printing and dyeing wastewater with the culture media contained resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) protein secreted by Micrococcus luteus, counted the culturable cells number with the most probable number, sequenced 16S rRNA genes, and performed polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It is obviously that the addition of Rpf in the enrichment culture could promote growth and resuscitation of bacteria in VBNC state to obtain more fastidious bacteria significantly. The identified bacteria were assigned to nine genera in the treatment group, while the two strains of Ochrobactrum anthropi and Microbacterium sp. could not be isolated from the control group. The function of isolated strains was explored and these strains could degrade the dye of Congo red. This study provides a new sight into the further study including the present state, composition, formation mechanism, and recovery mechanism about VBNC bacteria in printing and dyeing wastewater, which would promote to understand bacterial community in printing and dyeing wastewater, and to obtain VBNC bacteria from ecological environment.

  15. Changes in the relative population size of selected ruminal bacteria following an induced episode of acidosis in beef heifers receiving viable and non-viable active dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Vyas, D; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28-day periods. Treatments were: (i) control (CTRL; no yeast); (ii) ADY (4 g day -1 providing 10 10  CFU per g; AB Vista, UK); and (iii) KDY (4 g day -1 autoclaved ADY). The acidosis challenge was induced on day 22 and rumen samples were collected on day 15 (baseline; BASE), day 22 (challenge day; CHAL), and on day 29 (168th hour post acid challenge or recovery, REC) of each period. Over the study, duration of pH Yeast supplementation, irrespective of its viability, showed beneficial effects on ruminal pH variables in animals more susceptible to acidosis. Rumen microbial population was altered with the induction of severe acidosis. Most of the changes reverted back to baseline values during the recovery phase. Yeast supplementation reduced subacute rumen acidosis in the most susceptible cattle, but failed to attenuate severe acidosis induced by a grain challenge. The study provided valuable insight into the mechanism by which acidosis affects cattle performance. Individual animal variation in ruminal fermentation partly explained the variability in response to yeast supplementation in the study. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. On the trace-free Einstein equations as a viable alternative to general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, George F R; Van Elst, Henk; Murugan, Jeff; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The quantum field theoretical prediction for the vacuum energy density leads to a value for the effective cosmological constant that is incorrect by between 60 and 120 orders of magnitude. We review an old proposal of replacing Einstein's field equations by their trace-free part (the trace-free Einstein equations), together with an independent assumption of energy-momentum conservation by matter fields. While this does not solve the fundamental issue of why the cosmological constant has the value that is observed cosmologically, it is indeed a viable theory that resolves the problem of the discrepancy between the vacuum energy density and the observed value of the cosmological constant. However, one has to check that, as well as preserving the standard cosmological equations, this does not destroy other predictions, such as the junction conditions that underlie the use of standard stellar models. We confirm that no problems arise here: hence, the trace-free Einstein equations are indeed viable for cosmological and astrophysical applications. (papers)

  17. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  18. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  19. Sustainability and the Viable Systems Approach: Opportunities and Issues for the Governance of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for representing the territory as a dynamic system of intersubjective relationships that is able to guarantee not only the efficiency of the processes within organizations, but also effective results in the general context and a sustainable impact on the broader environment. This contribution is developed on the basis of the viable systems approach (vSa, which is intended as a theoretical framework for the analysis of social phenomena as well as for orienting government processes. Using this theoretical framework, the proposed approach leads to the representation of the territory as a viable system that is capable of surviving in its own context by creating value for the other entities of the context (public groups of governments, communities, investors, natural environment, future generations, non-human species, thus defining the essential conditions for a sustainable equilibrium. The consideration that social phenomena have to be analyzed by taking into account the different relations and interactions that orient the behavior of individuals and, as a consequence, their main collective manifestations, i.e., organizations, underlines the importance of shifting from a traditional reductionist approach to a systemic approach. In what follows, taking a cue from the definition of sustainability that implies a wider sharing, we provide some initial critical positions, and finally shape the useful elements that can be preparatory to the introduction of a working hypothesis that is capable of delineating a possible itinerary for the development of the territory.

  20. The reconstruction of f(ϕ)R and mimetic gravity from viable slow-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we extend the bottom-up reconstruction framework of F (R) gravity to other modified gravities, and in particular for f (ϕ) R and mimetic F (R) gravities. We investigate which are the important conditions in order for the method to work, and we study several viable cosmological evolutions, focusing on the inflationary era. Particularly, for the f (ϕ) R theory case, we specify the functional form of the Hubble rate and of the scalar-to-tensor ratio as a function of the e-foldings number and accordingly, the rest of the physical quantities and also the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices can be calculated. The same method is applied in the mimetic F (R) gravity case, and in both cases we thoroughly analyze the resulting free parameter space, in order to show that the viability of the models presented is guaranteed and secondly that there is a wide range of values of the free parameters for which the viability of the models occurs. In addition, the reconstruction method is also studied in the context of mimetic F (R) = R gravity. As we demonstrate, the resulting theory is viable, and also in this case, only the scalar-to-tensor ratio needs to be specified, since the rest follow from this condition. Finally, we discuss in brief how the reconstruction method could function for other modified gravities.

  1. Advanced light water reactors: an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to safety and reliability, a common mission for the international nuclear industry in the 21. century will be ensure affordable electricity. At the Westinghouse Electric Corporation believe our advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design gives us the opportunity to provide the safest, most reliable, lowest cost, most competitive generation method possible for use by nations and utilities worldwide. While the safety and reliability aspects of the ALWR can be proven tangibly and are well-documented, questions have been raised about the technology's ability to work within the world's selling price range for electricity generation. For our industry's financial stability, and especially for the stability of the world's future power needs, Westinghouse has done extensive work on this issue and we are convinced we can meet the competitive challenge. We believe the ALWR can be an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix. This paper will define the competitive challenge that is being addressed by the industry and then analyze three specific areas: capital costs, operating costs, and financing costs. The hidden advantage of nuclear power in responding to these challenges will be explored, and a strong case will be made asserting that the advanced light water reactor will be able to compete in international markets with viable production costs. (authors)

  2. The reconstruction of f(ϕR and mimetic gravity from viable slow-roll inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Odintsov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we extend the bottom-up reconstruction framework of F(R gravity to other modified gravities, and in particular for f(ϕR and mimetic F(R gravities. We investigate which are the important conditions in order for the method to work, and we study several viable cosmological evolutions, focusing on the inflationary era. Particularly, for the f(ϕR theory case, we specify the functional form of the Hubble rate and of the scalar-to-tensor ratio as a function of the e-foldings number and accordingly, the rest of the physical quantities and also the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices can be calculated. The same method is applied in the mimetic F(R gravity case, and in both cases we thoroughly analyze the resulting free parameter space, in order to show that the viability of the models presented is guaranteed and secondly that there is a wide range of values of the free parameters for which the viability of the models occurs. In addition, the reconstruction method is also studied in the context of mimetic F(R=R gravity. As we demonstrate, the resulting theory is viable, and also in this case, only the scalar-to-tensor ratio needs to be specified, since the rest follow from this condition. Finally, we discuss in brief how the reconstruction method could function for other modified gravities.

  3. Endocochlear potential generation is associated with intercellular communication in the stria vascularis: structural analysis in the viable dominant spotting mouse mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, L; Steel, K; Forge, A

    1990-11-01

    Deafness in the viable dominant spotting mouse mutant is due to a primary defect of the stria vascularis which results in absence of the positive endocochlear potential in scala media. Endocochlear potentials were measured and the structure of stria vascularis of mutants with potentials close to zero was compared with that in normal littermate controls by use of morphometric methods. The stria vascularis was significantly thinner in mutants. Marginal cells were not significantly different from controls in terms of volume density or intramembrane particle density but the network density of tight junctions was significantly reduced in the mutants. A virtual absence of gap junctions between basal cells and marginal or intermediate cells was observed, but intramembrane particle density and junctional complexes between adjacent basal cells were not different from controls. The volume density of basal cells was significantly greater in mutants. Intermediate cells accounted for a significantly smaller volume density of the stria vascularis in mutants and had a lower density of intramembrane particles than controls. Melanocytes were not identified in the stria vascularis of mutants. These results suggest that communication between marginal, intermediate and basal cells might be important to the normal function of the stria vascularis.

  4. Culture of somatic cells isolated from frozen-thawed equine semen using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom-de-Luna, Joao Gatto; Canesin, Heloísa Siqueira; Wright, Gus; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear transfer using somatic cells from frozen semen (FzSC) would allow cloning of animals for which no other genetic material is available. Horses are one of the few species for which cloning is commercially feasible; despite this, there is no information available on the culture of equine FzSC. After preliminary trials on equine FzSC, recovered by density-gradient centrifugation, resulted in no growth, we hypothesized that sperm in the culture system negatively affected cell proliferation. Therefore, we evaluated culture of FzSC isolated using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. In Exp. 1, sperm were labeled using antibodies to a sperm-specific antigen, SP17, and unlabeled cells were collected. This resulted in high sperm contamination. In Exp. 2, FzSC were labeled using an anti-MHC class I antibody. This resulted in an essentially pure population of FzSC, 13-25% of which were nucleated. Culture yielded no proliferation in any of nine replicates. In Exp. 3, 5 × 10 3 viable fresh, cultured horse fibroblasts were added to the frozen-thawed, washed semen, then this suspension was labeled and sorted as for Exp. 2. The enriched population had a mean of five sperm per recovered somatic cell; culture yielded formation of monolayers. In conclusion, an essentially pure population of equine FzSC could be obtained using sorting for presence of MHC class I antigens. No equine FzSC grew in culture; however, the proliferation of fibroblasts subjected to the same processing demonstrated that the labeling and sorting methods, and the presence of few sperm in culture, were compatible with cell viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 57, 1303-1304.

  6. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  7. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  8. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  9. Recovering uranium and/or aluminium from refractory silico-aluminous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey-Goldblatt, E.; Nagy, I.F.; Tunley, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium and/or aluminium from a refractory silico-aluminous material comprises leaching the material in one or more stages, obtaining a pregnant solution which contains little or no acid and recovering the desired metal from the solution

  10. False Attribution of Suggestibility To Explain Recovered Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Following Extended Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank

    1997-01-01

    Suggestibility was measured in 44 adult patients who recovered memories and in 31 comparison patients. Results suggest that patients who recovered memories were significantly less suggestible than average. Control patients with no history of sexual abuse were more at risk for altering memory to suggestive prompts. (Author/PB)

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING THE INCINERATION OF RECOVERED CFC-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICS) during "recovered" trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) incineration. Tests involved burning the recovered CFC-11 in a propane gas flame. combustion gas samples were taken and an...

  12. 15 CFR 990.65 - Opening an account for recovered damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION... an account for recovered damages. (a) General. Sums recovered by trustees in satisfaction of a... be used to implement the Final Restoration Plan or all or an appropriate component of a Regional...

  13. Virulence of thermolable haemolysi tlh, gastroenteritis related pathogenicity tdh and trh of the pathogens Vibrio Parahemolyticus in Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huamin; Zhong, Yukui; Deng, Qiulian; Zhou, Zhenwen; Guan, Xiaoshan; Yan, Muxia; Hu, Tingting; Luo, Mingyong

    2017-10-01

    In the Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) state, microorganisms may survive under severe external environment. In this study, the specificity and sensitivity of PMA-LAMP assay on the detection of Vibrio Parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) has been developed and evaluated, with further application on a number of food-borne V. parahemolyticus strains. Six primers were designed for recognizing 8 distinct targeting on tlh, tdh and trh gene. Through specific penetration through the damaged cell membrane of dead cells and intercalating into DNA, PMA could prevent DNA amplification of dead bacteria from LAMP, which enabled the differentiation of bacteria between VBNC state and dead state. The established PMA-LAMP showed significant advantage in rapidity, sensitivity and specificity, compared with regular PCR assay. The applicability had also been verified, demonstrating the PMA-LAMP was capable of detection on V. parahaemolyticus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Arginase treatment prevents the recovery of canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma cells resistant to the toxic effects of prolonged arginine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James W; Evans, Christopher H; Scott, Milcah C; Rütgen, Barbara C; O'Brien, Timothy D; Modiano, Jaime F; Cvetkovic, Goran; Tepic, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly growing tumor cells require a nutrient-rich environment in order to thrive, therefore, restricting access to certain key amino acids, such as arginine, often results in the death of malignant cells, which frequently display defective cell cycle check-point control. Healthy cells, by contrast, become quiescent and remain viable under arginine restriction, displaying full recovery upon return to arginine-rich conditions. The use of arginase therapy to restrict available arginine for selectively targeting malignant cells is currently under investigation in human clinical trials. However, the suitability of this approach for veterinary uses is unexplored. As a prelude to in vivo studies in canine malignancies, we examined the in vitro effects of arginine-deprivation on canine lymphoid and osteosarcoma cell lines. Two lymphoid and 2 osteosarcoma cell lines were unable to recover following 6 days of arginine deprivation, but all remaining cell lines displayed full recovery upon return to arginine-rich culture conditions. These remaining cell lines all proved susceptible to cell death following the addition of arginase to the cultures. The lymphoid lines were particularly sensitive to arginase, becoming unrecoverable after just 3 days of treatment. Two of the osteosarcoma lines were also susceptible over this time-frame; however the other 3 lines required 6-8 days of arginase treatment to prevent recovery. In contrast, adult progenitor cells from the bone marrow of a healthy dog were able to recover fully following 9 days of culture in arginase. Over 3 days in culture, arginase was more effective than asparaginase in inducing the death of lymphoid lines. These results strongly suggest that short-term arginase treatment warrants further investigation as a therapy for lymphoid malignancies and osteosarcomas in dogs.

  15. Arginase treatment prevents the recovery of canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma cells resistant to the toxic effects of prolonged arginine deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wells

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing tumor cells require a nutrient-rich environment in order to thrive, therefore, restricting access to certain key amino acids, such as arginine, often results in the death of malignant cells, which frequently display defective cell cycle check-point control. Healthy cells, by contrast, become quiescent and remain viable under arginine restriction, displaying full recovery upon return to arginine-rich conditions. The use of arginase therapy to restrict available arginine for selectively targeting malignant cells is currently under investigation in human clinical trials. However, the suitability of this approach for veterinary uses is unexplored. As a prelude to in vivo studies in canine malignancies, we examined the in vitro effects of arginine-deprivation on canine lymphoid and osteosarcoma cell lines. Two lymphoid and 2 osteosarcoma cell lines were unable to recover following 6 days of arginine deprivation, but all remaining cell lines displayed full recovery upon return to arginine-rich culture conditions. These remaining cell lines all proved susceptible to cell death following the addition of arginase to the cultures. The lymphoid lines were particularly sensitive to arginase, becoming unrecoverable after just 3 days of treatment. Two of the osteosarcoma lines were also susceptible over this time-frame; however the other 3 lines required 6-8 days of arginase treatment to prevent recovery. In contrast, adult progenitor cells from the bone marrow of a healthy dog were able to recover fully following 9 days of culture in arginase. Over 3 days in culture, arginase was more effective than asparaginase in inducing the death of lymphoid lines. These results strongly suggest that short-term arginase treatment warrants further investigation as a therapy for lymphoid malignancies and osteosarcomas in dogs.

  16. Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-culturable State in Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Zhong, Junliang; Wei, Caijiao; Lin, Chii-Wann; Ding, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a unique state in which a number of bacteria respond to adverse circumstances, was first discovered in 1982. Unfortunately, it has been reported that many foodborne pathogens can be induced to enter the VBNC state by the limiting environmental conditions during food processing and preservation, such as extreme temperatures, drying, irradiation, pulsed electric field, and high pressure stress, as well as the addition of preservatives and disinfectants. After entering the VBNC state, foodborne pathogens will introduce a serious crisis to food safety and public health because they cannot be detected using conventional plate counting techniques. This review provides an overview of the various features of the VBNC state, including the biological characteristics, induction and resuscitation factors, formation and resuscitation mechanisms, detection methods, and relationship to food safety.

  17. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

    2013-10-07

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics.

  18. Retinal Electrophysiology Is a Viable Preclinical Biomarker for Drug Penetrance into the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Charng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether retinal electrophysiology is a useful surrogate marker of drug penetrance into the central nervous system (CNS. Materials and Methods. Brain and retinal electrophysiology were assessed with full-field visually evoked potentials and electroretinograms in conscious and anaesthetised rats following systemic or local administrations of centrally penetrant (muscimol or nonpenetrant (isoguvacine compounds. Results. Local injections into the eye/brain bypassed the blood neural barriers and produced changes in retinal/brain responses for both drugs. In conscious animals, systemic administration of muscimol resulted in retinal and brain biopotential changes, whereas systemic delivery of isoguvacine did not. General anaesthesia confounded these outcomes. Conclusions. Retinal electrophysiology, when recorded in conscious animals, shows promise as a viable biomarker of drug penetration into the CNS. In contrast, when conducted under anaesthetised conditions confounds can be induced in both cortical and retinal electrophysiological recordings.

  19. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  20. Viable suspensions of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen with exogenous DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broglia, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    A viable suspension of maize pollen in aqueous medium containing exogenous DNA would be a suitable tool in attempting maize genetic transformation via pollen grains by different techniques. In this work the effects of addition of DNA to hypertonic aqueous media able to preserve maize pollen viability were investigated. An almost total loss of viability was found when pollen was incubated with native DNA in water or sucrose medium due to the immediate sticking of DNA on the pollen wall. Calcium in the incubation medium avoided DNA sticking preserving pollen fertilization ability. Pre-washing of pollen in hypertonic sucrose solution was proved to remove DNA binding components from the pollen wall. PEG 20%, that is known to inhibit pollen, and silk nucleases, was also used instead of sucrose, without any reduction in the seed-set yields.

  1. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  2. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  3. Heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity, and multiculturalism What is a viable framework for Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thung Ju Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a plural society that consists of several hundred ethnic and sub-ethnic groups. One of its generic characteristics is heterogeneity. In the last ten years after the implementation of regional autonomy, we have witnessed the emergence of strong ethnic and religiously flavoured local identity politics in various places in Indonesia that created open and vicious conflicts. This periodical violence exploded especially during the election of district and provincial heads. The intimate relation multiculturalism, with the actual political praxis of everyday life as an alternative to the existing paradigm of the “homogenization” of nationhood, has not been discussed. I believe it is time to discuss the strategic junctures between heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity (and religion and multiculturalism as well as their possible realization at the local and national levels in order to find a viable framework for a future Indonesia.

  4. CONCEIVING AND GENERATING A VIABLE COMPLEXITY MODEL FOR PERSONAL AND/OR ENTREPRENEURIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  5. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with 11C-palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of 11 C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min -1 (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of 11 C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of 11 C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p 11 C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min -1 ) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min -1 , p 11 C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid

  6. Exploring continuous and integrated strategies for the up- and downstream processing of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Aguiar, Tiago; Silva, Marta M; Silva, Ricardo J S; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Pineda, Earl; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2015-11-10

    The integration of up- and downstream unit operations can result in the elimination of hold steps, thus decreasing the footprint, and ultimately can create robust closed system operations. This type of design is desirable for the bioprocess of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), where high numbers of pure cells, at low volumes, need to be delivered for therapy applications. This study reports a proof of concept of the integration of a continuous perfusion culture in bioreactors with a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system for the concentration and washing of hMSC. Moreover, we have also explored a continuous alternative for concentrating hMSC. Results show that expanding cells in a continuous perfusion operation mode provided a higher expansion ratio, and led to a shift in cells' metabolism. TFF operated either in continuous or discontinuous allowed to concentrate cells, with high cell recovery (>80%) and viability (>95%); furthermore, continuous TFF permitted to operate longer with higher cell concentrations. Continuous diafiltration led to higher protein clearance (98%) with lower cell death, when comparing to discontinuous diafiltration. Overall, an integrated process allowed for a shorter process time, recovering 70% of viable hMSC (>95%), with no changes in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative real-time PCR combined with propidium monoazide for the selective quantification of viable periodontal pathogens in an in vitro subgingival biofilm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Marín, M J; Figuero, E; Llama-Palacios, A; León, R; Blanc, V; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of live and dead cells is an important challenge when using molecular diagnosis for microbial identification. This is particularly relevant when bacteria have been exposed to antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to test a method using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA), developed for the selective quantification of viable P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and total bacteria in an in vitro biofilm model after antimicrobial treatment. PMA-qPCR method was tested in an in vitro biofilm model, using isopropyl alcohol as the antimicrobial agent. Matured biofilms were exposed for 1, 5, 10 and 30 min to isopropyl alcohol by immersion. Biofilms were disrupted and PMA added (final concentration of 100 μm). After DNA isolation, qPCR was carried out using specific primers and probes for the target bacteria. The differentiation of live and dead cells was tested by analysis of variance. When PMA was used in the presence of viable target bacterial cells, no statistically significant inhibition of qPCR amplification was detected (p > 0.05 in all cases). Conversely, after immersion in isopropyl alcohol of the biofilm, PMA resulted in a significant total reduction of qPCR amplification of about 4 log10 . P. gingivalis showed a vitality reduction in the biofilm of 3 log10 , while A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum showed a 2 log10 reduction. These results demonstrate the efficiency of PMA for differentiating viable and dead P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum cells, as well as total bacteria, in an in vitro biofilm model, after being exposed to an antimicrobial agent. Hence, this PMA-qPCR method may be useful for studying the effect of antimicrobial agents aimed at oral biofilms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of long term storage technique for recovered Kr-85, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Eiichi; Motoyama, Shigeji; Tsunoda, Naomi; Yamamoto, Keizo; Hirano, Seiji.

    1979-01-01

    The adsorption storage method of radioactive krypton Kr-85 using a double cylinder packed with activated charcoal is expected to be put into practical use as an intermediate storing method until the immobilization technique for long term storage is established. In this paper, the conceptual design of an intermediate, remote-controlled Kr-85 storage facility is presented. The features of this system are double containment, low pressure storage, and remote control. Kr-85 is at first filled into a double cylinder by the adsorbing effect of activated charcoal at low temperature (-196 deg C) by cooling with liquid nitrogen. Then, the unwelded portion of the outer cylinder containing the inner cylinder is welded and inspected to make double containment. The double cylinders are cooled by ventilation to remove the decay heat of Kr-85, and krypton leakage is always monitored. If any leakage is detected, the double cylinder is transferred to the cutting cell for the re-encapsulation of Kr-85 in a safe double cylinder. All operations are performed by remote control because of a high radiation field. The expected amount and composition of Kr-85 to be recovered from the reprocessing plant are also given as the design conditions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Methotrexate encephalopathy: Two cases in adult cancer patients, who recovered with pathophysiologically based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shodeinde A Coker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Neurotoxicity is a serious and sometimes fatal adverse effect that can occur following methotrexate treatment. We describe two adult patients with hematological malignancies with methotrexate encephalopathy who recovered with dextromethorphan therapy. Results: Case 1: A 24-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed the acute onset of bilateral facial weakness and slurred speech after his first treatment with high-dose intravenous methotrexate. The clinical scenario and a head magnetic resonance imaging supported a diagnosis of methotrexate encephalopathy. Treatment with dextromethorphan was coincident with recovery. Case 2: A 65-year-old female with recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was treated with high-dose intravenous methotrexate. Two weeks after a cycle, she developed hypoactive delirium, marked lethargy, ocular ataxia, and a right-sided facial weakness. Within 2 days of starting dextromethorphan, there was improvement with clinical recovery. Conclusions: These two cases suggest that N-methyl d-aspartate receptor activation by homocysteine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of methotrexate neurotoxicity.

  10. Distinctive cellular immunity in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice recovered from Leishmania major infection or after subcutaneous immunization with killed parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, F.Y.; Dhaliwal, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Genetically susceptible BALB/c mice are refractory to further infection after recovery from Leishmania major infection after a sublethal dose of gamma-irradiation. In contrast, mice immunized with killed promastigotes s.c. develop exacerbated lesions after infection. Both groups of mice produce only a low level of specific antibody and no detectable cytotoxic T cells, but do have a strong antigen-specific DTH, which is adoptively transferable with Lyt-1+2-, L3T4+ T cells. Kinetic and histological studies revealed that mice immunized s.c. developed Jones-Mote hypersensitivity, peaking at 15 hr. with little mononuclear cell infiltration at the site of antigen administration; whereas mice that had recovered from infection developed tuberculin-type of reactivity, peaking at 24 to 48 hr, with intense mononuclear cell infiltration. Splenic T cells from recovered mice, when injected into the footpads of normal recipients together with live promastigotes, were able to retard lesion development; whereas T cells from s.c. immunized mice, when similarly transferred, accelerated disease progression. Antigen-specific culture supernatant of spleen cells from recovered mice also activated normal resident peritoneal macrophages to kill intracellular L. major amastigotes and tumor cells. Culture supernatants of spleen cells from s.c. immunized or normal mice were devoid of such activities. Part of the macrophage-activating potential can be inhibited by antibody specific for IFN-gamma. These results therefore demonstrate that whereas the Jones-Mote reaction is correlated with disease exacerbation, the tuberculin-type of DTH may be protective. Furthermore, in vivo immunity is directly related to the capacity of T cells to produce macrophage-activating factor

  11. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  12. FEASIBILITY OF THE AEROSOL-TO-LIQUID PARTICLE EXTRACTION SYSTEM (ALPES) FOR COLLECTION OF VIABLE FRANCISELLA SP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitkamp, M

    2006-08-07

    the final trial runs with F. tularensis LVS to further reduce the levels of microbial background. Results from trials with F. tularensis LVS showed about a 1-log loss decrease in CFUs after 24 h, but maintained final cell concentrations in the range of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} CFU/L. These results indicate that the ALPES maintains acceptable viability of Francisella sp. in PBS buffer for up to 24 h and is a promising technology for the collection of viable airborne Francisella or Francisella-related cultures which may be observed at Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area and elsewhere.

  13. [Recovering helpers in the addiction treatment system in Hungary: an interpretative phenomenological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, Szilvia; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Rácz, József

    2015-01-01

    The work of recovering helpers who work in the addiction rehabilitation centres was studied. The aim was to investigate the process of addicts becoming recovering helpers, and to study what peer help means to them. According to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) design, subjects were selected, data were collected and analysed. 6 (5 males, 1 female), working as recovering helpers at least one year at addiction rehabilitation centres. Semi-structured life interviews were carried out and analysed according to IPA. Emerging themes from the interviews were identified and summarized, then interpreted as central themes: important periods and turning points of the life story interviews: the experience of psychoactive drugs use, the development of the addiction (which became " Turning Point No 1") then the "rock bottom" experience ("Turning Point No 2"). Then the experience of the helping process was examined: here four major themes were identified: the development of the recovering self and the helping self, the wounded helper and the skilled helper, the experience of the helping process. IPA was found to be a useful method for idiographic exploration of the development and the work of the recovering helpers. The work of the recovering helpers can be described as mentoring of the addict clients. Our experiences might be used for the training programs for recovering helpers as well as to adopt their professional role in addiction services.

  14. Rapid quantification of viable Legionella in nuclear cooling tower waters using filter cultivation, fluorescent in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudart, J; Guillaume, C; Mercier, A; Lebaron, P; Binet, M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive method to quantify viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples. A rapid, culture-based method capable of quantifying as few as 600 Legionella microcolonies per litre within 2 days in industrial waters was developed. The method combines a short cultivation step of microcolonies on GVPC agar plate, specific detection of Legionella cells by a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, and a sensitive enumeration using a solid-phase cytometer. Following optimization of the cultivation conditions, the qualitative and quantitative performance of the method was assessed and the method was applied to 262 nuclear power plant cooling water samples. The performance of this method was in accordance with the culture method (NF-T 90-431) for Legionella enumeration. The rapid detection of viable Legionella in water is a major concern to the effective monitoring of this pathogenic bacterium in the main water sources involved in the transmission of legionellosis infection (Legionnaires' disease). The new method proposed here appears to be a robust, efficient and innovative means for rapidly quantifying cultivable Legionella in cooling tower water samples within 48 h. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Viviana M; Fittipaldi, Simona; Marocco, Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Fornari, Rachele; Guidetti, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Nicolai, Emanuele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Greco, Emanuela A; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to

  16. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  17. On-Farm, Almond Orchard Flooding as a Viable Aquifer Recharge Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, C.; Nico, P. S.; Wu, Y.; Newman, G. A.; Conrad, M. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, California legislators passed the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), which requires groundwater sustainability agencies (areas) to identify/prioritize water basins, develop current and projected water use/needs, develop a groundwater management plan, develop fees, etc. One of the challenges for implementing SGMA is the lack of data that can support alternative groundwater recharge methods such as on-farm flooding. Prior to anthropogenic river control, river floodplains captured excess water during overbank flow in the rainy season in the CA central valley. Today levees and canals strategically route rainy season high flows to the delta/ocean when irrigation water is not needed. Utilizing farmland once again as infiltration basins for groundwater banking and aquifer recharge could be a viable answer to California's depleted central valley aquifers. Prior to 2017, U.C. Davis had partnered with the Almond Board of California (ABC) and local growers to study the efficacy of agricultural flooding and the effects on annual almond crops (. LBNL joined this team to help understand the conveyance of recharge water, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), into the subsurface (i.e. localized fast paths, depth of infiltration, etc.) during flooding events. The fate of the recharge water is what is significant to understanding the viability of on-farm flooding as an aquifer recharge option. In this study two orchards (in Delhi and Modesto, CA), each approximately 2 acres, were flooded during the almond tree dormant period (January), to recharge 2 acre/ft of water into the local aquifers. ERT was used to characterize (soil structure) and monitor water infiltration over a single flooding event to investigate the fate of applied water. Data were collected every hour prior to flooding (baseline), during, and after all flood water had infiltrated (about 5 days total). Our time-lapse ERT results show a heterogeneous soil structure that leads to non

  18. Susceptibility testing of sequential isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from treated patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Tortorano, A.M.; Symoens, F.; Nolard, N.; Viviani, M.A.; Piens, M.A.; Lebeau, B.; Verweij, P.E.; Grillot, R.

    2004-01-01

    Two-hundred sequential Aspergillus fumigatus isolates recovered from 26 immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis or bronchial colonization were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and amphotericin B. Twenty-one patients were

  19. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davies, R. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holbery, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities.

  20. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    ATP content, oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were tested for the ability to express the amount of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge. The relationship between biomass and these activity parameters was established in growth cultures made...... with biomass, while FDA hydrolysis in the sludge failed to show any such correlation. Conversion factors of 3 mg ATP/g dw, 300 mg O2/h g dw and 0.4 A/h (mg dw/ml) for ATP, OUR and FDA methods, respectively, were calculated. When the methods were applied for in situ determinations in four different wastewater...... plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable biomass...

  1. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  2. Digitizing specimens in a small herbarium: A viable workflow for collections working with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari M; Marsico, Travis D

    2017-04-01

    Small herbaria represent a significant portion of herbaria in the United States, but many are not digitizing their collections. At the Arkansas State University Herbarium (STAR), we have created a viable workflow to help small herbaria begin the digitization process, including suggestions for publishing data on the Internet. We calculated hourly rates of each phase of the digitization process. We also mapped accessions at the county level to determine geographic strengths in the collection. All 17,678 accessioned flowering plant specimens at STAR are imaged, databased in Specify, and available electronically on the herbarium's website. Students imaged the specimens at a mean rate of 145/h. We found differences in databasing rates between the graduate student leading the project (47/h) and undergraduate assistants (25/h). The majority of specimens at STAR were collected within the counties neighboring the institution. With this workflow, we estimate that one person can digitize a 20,000-specimen collection in less than 2.5 yr by working only 10 h/wk. Because STAR is a small herbarium with limited resources, the application of the workflow described should assist curators of similar-sized collections as they contemplate and undertake the digitization process.

  3. Digitizing specimens in a small herbarium: A viable workflow for collections working with limited resources1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari M.; Marsico, Travis D.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Small herbaria represent a significant portion of herbaria in the United States, but many are not digitizing their collections. Methods: At the Arkansas State University Herbarium (STAR), we have created a viable workflow to help small herbaria begin the digitization process, including suggestions for publishing data on the Internet. We calculated hourly rates of each phase of the digitization process. We also mapped accessions at the county level to determine geographic strengths in the collection. Results: All 17,678 accessioned flowering plant specimens at STAR are imaged, databased in Specify, and available electronically on the herbarium’s website. Students imaged the specimens at a mean rate of 145/h. We found differences in databasing rates between the graduate student leading the project (47/h) and undergraduate assistants (25/h). The majority of specimens at STAR were collected within the counties neighboring the institution. Discussion: With this workflow, we estimate that one person can digitize a 20,000-specimen collection in less than 2.5 yr by working only 10 h/wk. Because STAR is a small herbarium with limited resources, the application of the workflow described should assist curators of similar-sized collections as they contemplate and undertake the digitization process. PMID:28439474

  4. Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-02-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Passive superconductor a viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  7. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS ARE VIABLE FACTORIES OF PRE-SOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon–oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10 −3 yr −1 ) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180–540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains

  8. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E; van Deursen, A; Bouwknegt, M; Bruin, J P; de Roda Husman, A M; Schalk, J A C

    2016-09-01

    Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. Copyright © 2016 van Heijnsbergen et al.

  9. Wormholes in viable f(R) modified theories of gravity and weak energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Petar [Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Sossich, Marko [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-03-01

    In this work wormholes in viable f(R) gravity models are analyzed. We are interested in exact solutions for stress-energy tensor components depending on different shape and redshift functions. Several solutions of gravitational equations for different f(R) models are examined. The solutions found imply no need for exotic material, while this need is implied in the standard general theory of relativity. A simple expression for weak energy condition (WEC) violation near the throat is derived and analyzed. High curvature regime is also discussed, as well as the question of the highest possible values of the Ricci scalar for which the WEC is not violated near the throat, and corresponding functions are calculated for several models. The approach here differs from the one that has been common since no additional assumptions to simplify the equations have been made, and the functions in f(R) models are not considered to be arbitrary functions, but rather a feature of the theory that has to be evaluated on the basis of consistency with observations for the Solar System and cosmological evolution. Therefore in this work we show that the existence of wormholes without exotic matter is not only possible in simple arbitrary f(R) models, but also in models that are in accordance with empirical data. (orig.)

  10. The Independent Evolution Method Is Not a Viable Phylogenetic Comparative Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi H Griffin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs use data on species traits and phylogenetic relationships to shed light on evolutionary questions. Recently, Smaers and Vinicius suggested a new PCM, Independent Evolution (IE, which purportedly employs a novel model of evolution based on Felsenstein's Adaptive Peak Model. The authors found that IE improves upon previous PCMs by producing more accurate estimates of ancestral states, as well as separate estimates of evolutionary rates for each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Here, we document substantial theoretical and computational issues with IE. When data are simulated under a simple Brownian motion model of evolution, IE produces severely biased estimates of ancestral states and changes along individual branches. We show that these branch-specific changes are essentially ancestor-descendant or "directional" contrasts, and draw parallels between IE and previous PCMs such as "minimum evolution". Additionally, while comparisons of branch-specific changes between variables have been interpreted as reflecting the relative strength of selection on those traits, we demonstrate through simulations that regressing IE estimated branch-specific changes against one another gives a biased estimate of the scaling relationship between these variables, and provides no advantages or insights beyond established PCMs such as phylogenetically independent contrasts. In light of our findings, we discuss the results of previous papers that employed IE. We conclude that Independent Evolution is not a viable PCM, and should not be used in comparative analyses.

  11. Viable cold-tolerant iron-reducing microorganisms in geographically diverse subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Telling, Jon P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-03-01

    Subglacial environments are known to harbour metabolically diverse microbial communities. These microbial communities drive chemical weathering of underlying bedrock and influence the geochemistry of glacial meltwater. Despite its importance in weathering reactions, the microbial cycling of iron in subglacial environments, in particular the role of microbial iron reduction, is poorly understood. In this study we address the prevalence of viable iron-reducing microorganisms in subglacial sediments from five geographically isolated glaciers. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures were established with sediment from beneath Engabreen (Norway), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), Leverett and Russell glaciers (Greenland), and Lower Wright Glacier (Antarctica). Rates of iron reduction were higher at 4 °C compared with 15 °C in all but one duplicated second-generation enrichment culture, indicative of cold-tolerant and perhaps cold-adapted iron reducers. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicates Desulfosporosinus were the dominant iron-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature Engabreen, Finsterwalderbreen and Lower Wright Glacier enrichments, and Geobacter dominated in Russell and Leverett enrichments. Results from this study suggest microbial iron reduction is widespread in subglacial environments and may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.

  12. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; van Deursen, A.; Bouwknegt, M.; Bruin, J. P.; Schalk, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila. Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. IMPORTANCE Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. PMID:27316958

  13. Novel Approach for Enterocutaneous Fistula Treatment with the Use of Viable Cryopreserved Placental Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Nichols

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF are a difficult and costly surgical complication to manage. The standard treatment of nil per os (NPO and total paraenteral nutrition (TPN is not well tolerated by patients. TPN is also known for complications associated with long term central venous catheterization and for high cost of prolonged hospital stay. We present two low output ECF cases successfully treated with viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM placed into the fistula tracts. One patient is a 59-year-old male with a low output ECF from a jejunostomy tube site four weeks after the surgery. The second patient is an 87-year-old male with a low output ECF following a small bowel resection secondary to a strangulated inguinal hernia. He was evaluated on day 41 after surgery. NPO and TPN for several weeks did not resolute the ECF. The fistulae were closed postoperatively in both patients with zero output on the same day after one vCPM application. On day 3 postoperatively both patients were started on clear liquid diets and subsequently advanced to regular diets. The ECF have remained resolved for over 2 months. The use of vCPM is a novel promising approach for treatment of ECF.

  14. Preparation of a viable population of indium-111-labelled human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Pieters, H.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Duyvene de Wit, L.J.; Reenen, O.R. van; Retief, F.P.; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing labelling of human platelets with 111 Indium-8-hydroxyquinoline ([ 111 In]-oxine) in a physiological saline medium were investigated. The efficiency of labelling is influenced by time of incubation, concentration of oxine, and pH of the incubating medium. It was found that a viable platelet population could be labelled under the following conditions: (1) centrifugation of platelet rich plasma in polystyrene conical tubes at 800 g for 15 min; (2) resuspension of the platelet pellet in saline, pH 5.5; (3) incubating for 30 min at 22 0 C with [ 111 In]-oxine at a concentration of 6.25 mg oxine/litre platelet suspension; (4) washing once with platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP); and (5) finally suspending the platelets in PPP. The labelled platelets aggregated normally with collagen and ADP. Electron microscopy, done immediately after labelling, showed internal organelle reorganization characteristic of activated platelets. These ultrastructural features were reversible on incubationin PPP at 37 0 C for 30 min. The 111 In is not released from aggregated platelets and the label does not elute from incubated platelets for at least five hr. We conclude that human platelets thus labelled are suitable for in vivo kinetic studies. (orig.) [de

  15. Microdose follicular flare: a viable alternative for normal responding patients undergoing in vitro fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Eric D.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Kort, Jonathan D.; Materia-Hoover, Donna; Larsen, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare cycle outcomes among normal responding patients ≤30 years receiving microdose follicular flare (MDF) and long-luteal agonist (LL). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Military-based ART center. Patients First, autologous ART cycles among 499 women ≤30 years old from 01/1999 to 12/2005. Interventions Following OCP administration prior to cycle start, patients were non-randomly assigned to either LL or MDF for LH surge suppression. LL received 1 mg/d leuprolide acetate (LA) on cycle day 21, which was reduced to 0.25 mg/day 10–14 days later. MDF received LA (40 μg BID) beginning 3 days after discontinuing OCPs. Both groups received a combination of hMG and rFSH. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates; in cycle variables included peak E2, oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, and fertilization rate. Results Multivariable models controlling for confounding by treatment indication found no significant differences between groups in implantation (MDF:36%; LL:38%), clinical pregnancy (MDF:53%; LL:56%), and live birth rates (MDF:47%; LL:50%). No differences were observed in peak E2, oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, or embryos transferred. Conclusions MDF use among normal responding ART patients produced no differences in cycle outcome when compared to LL. Resultantly, MDF may be a viable alternative for normal responding patients. PMID:18249365

  16. Short communication: Recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I A; Pietralonga, P A G; Schwarz, D G G; Faria, A C S; Moreira, M A S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Some researchers have indicated a possible role of MAP in Crohn's disease. Despite extensive research and large and important advances in the past few decades, the etiology of Crohn's disease remains indefinite. The most probable transmission route of MAP from animals to humans is milk and dairy products. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis has already been detected in milk samples worldwide, and some studies have reported that MAP is resistant to pasteurization. In Brazil, MAP has been reported in raw milk samples; however, Brazilian retail pasteurized milk has not yet been tested for viable MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate MAP in pasteurized milk in the region of Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Thirty-seven samples were collected and processed for culture of MAP. One colony similar to MAP was observed and confirmed by IS900-nested PCR and sequencing. Analysis revealed 97 to 99% identity with the MAP K-10 strain. This study is the first report of the presence of MAP in retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, T.; Rana, S.A.; Rana, N.; Inayat, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

  18. Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, J; Fane, S; Mitchell, C

    2007-01-01

    Decentralised systems have the potential to provide a viable option for long term sustainable management of household wastewater. Yet, at present, such systems hold an uncertain status and are frequently omitted from consideration. Their potential can only be realised with improved approaches to their management, and improved methods to decision-making in planning of wastewater systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of a novel framework to guide the planning of decentralised systems so that asset management and risk management are explicitly considered. The framework was developed through a detailed synthesis of literature and practice in the area of asset management of centralised water and wastewater systems, and risk management in the context of decentralised systems. Key aspects of the framework are attention to socio-economic risks as well as engineering, public health and ecological risks, the central place of communication with multiple stakeholders and establishing a shared asset information system. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can guide a different approach and lead to different, more sustainable outcomes, by explicitly considering the needs and perspectives of homeowners, water authorities, relevant government agencies and society as a whole.

  19. Exploring viable vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuria, Jyotiranjan [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Chattopadhyay, Utpal [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Datta, AseshKrishna [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dey, Abhishek [Maulana Azad College, Government of West Bengal, 8 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata 700013 (India)

    2017-04-05

    We explore the vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and their stability by going beyond the simplistic paradigm that works with a tree-level neutral scalar potential and adheres to some specific flat directions in the field space. We work in the so-called phenomenological NMSSM (pNMSSM) scenario. Also, for our purpose, we adhere to a reasonably ‘natural’ setup by requiring |μ{sub eff}| not too large. Key effects are demonstrated by first studying the profiles of this potential under various circumstances of physical interest via a semi-analytical approach. The results thereof are compared to the ones obtained from a dedicated package like Vevacious which further incorporates the thermal effects to the potential. Regions of the pNMSSM parameter space that render the desired symmetry breaking (DSB) vacuum absolutely stable, long- or short-lived (in relation to the age of the Universe) under quantum/thermal tunneling are delineated. Regions that result in the appearance of color and charge breaking (CCB) minima are also presented. It is demonstrated that light singlet scalars along with a light LSP (lightest supersymmetric particle) having an appreciable singlino admixture are compatible with a viable DSB vacuum. Their implications for collider experiments are commented upon.

  20. Study of viable models with non-universal gaugino mediation with CompHEP and ISAJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Balazs, C.; Belyaev, A.; Dermisek, R.; Mafi, A.; Mustafayev, A.

    2003-01-01

    We study the recently proposed scenario for SUSY GUT models in which compactification of the extra dimension(s) leads to a breakdown of the gauge symmetry and/or supersymmetry. SUSY breaking occurs on a hidden brane, and is communicated to the visible brane via gaugino mediation. The non-universal gaugino masses are developed at the compactification scale as a consequence of a restricted gauge symmetry on the hidden brane. For gaugino masses related due to a Pati-Salam symmetry on the hidden brane, we find the limited, but significant, regions of the model parameter space where a viable spectra of SUSY matter is generated. In the more general case of three independent gaugino masses, large parameter space regions open up for large values of the U(1) gaugino mass M 1 . We also find the relic density of neutralinos for these models to be generally below the expectations from cosmological observations, thus leaving room for hidden sector states to make up the bulk of cold dark matter

  1. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  2. Prophage induction and cell division in E. coli. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.; Castellazzi, M.; Buttin, G.

    1975-01-01

    In E. coli K12, cell filamentation promoted by tif is enhanced by the lon mutation; in contrast, prophage induction and repair of UV-irradiated phage lambda, also promoted by tif, are not affected by lon. From a tif lon double mutant, 'revertants' having recovered the ability to divide at 41 0 were isolated, among which most (95%) had also lost heir Lon filamentous phenotype after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. From these 95% of revertants 94% are suppressed for the whole Tif phenotype, by additional mutations that render them deficient in DNA repair, as judged from their high UV sensitivity; some have been characterized as recA mutants. 1% have recovered a control on cell division at 41% or after UV irradiation by means of secondary mutations altering neither the other phenotypic properties of tif and lon, nor the repair and recombination ability of the cells: in particular, this class of 'revertants' remains thermoinducible upon lysogenisation; the mutations which specifically supress filamentation have been mapped at two loci, sfiA and sfiB, cotransducible respectively with pyrD and leu. In the remaining 5% of revertants that still exhibit an UV-induced filamentous growth, 3% can be tentatively classified as true tif + revertants; 2% behave as tif thermodependent revertants, showing suppression of Tif (and Lon) phenotype only at 41 0 : 2 recAts have been identified in this class. Non-lysogenic tif lon sfi and tif sfi strains remain viable during prolonged growth at 41 0 . Under these conditions, tif expresses mutator properties, which can be conveniently analyzed in this sfi background. The action of tif, lon and sfi mutations is tentatively interpreted on the basis of a negative control of cell division specifically associated with DNA repair. (orig.) [de

  3. Thermally assisted acoustofluidic separation of extracellular vesicles from cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtaheri, Elnaz; Dolatmoradi, Ata; Pimentel, Krystine; Bhansali, Shekhar; El-Zahab, Bilal

    2018-02-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been gaining increasing attention given their role in communicating information between cells. Composition-based isolation of EVs is particularly of high significance as the proteomic and lipidomic characterization of their cargo could provide valuable clues to the role of EVs in mediating the biology of various conditions. This has, however, proved to be challenging as EVs, despite their abundance, are very small and difficult to be differentiated from the other constituents of host media. In addition, currently available methods like ultracentrifugation and filtration are cumbersome and capable of achieving mostly size-based separations. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of separating submicron EV-like vesicles from cancer cells using a thermally-assisted acoustophoretic device. In a system composed of MCF-7 breast cancer cells spiked with two different types of same-size vesicles, composition-based isolation of vesicles was shown to be realizable through opposite focusing of the system's components at the node and antinodes of the overlaid ultrasonic standing wave. By proper choice of temperature in the microchannel, we were able to achieve separations with purities exceeding 93%. Furthermore, cells recovered from the channel were shown to be viable after the separation.

  4. Advanced Analysis to Distinguish between Physical Decrease and Inactivation of Viable Phages in Aerosol by Quantitating Phage-Specific Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Masaya; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Iizuka, Chiori; Okaue, Akira; Okuda, Shunji; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2018-01-01

     Recent studies have investigated the efficacy of air-cleaning products against pathogens in the air. A standard method to evaluate the reduction in airborne viruses caused by an air cleaner has been established using a safe bacteriophage instead of pathogenic viruses; the reduction in airborne viruses is determined by counting the number of viable airborne phages by culture, after operating the air cleaner. The reduction in the number of viable airborne phages could be because of "physical decrease" or "inactivation". Therefore, to understand the mechanism of reduction correctly, an analysis is required to distinguish between physical decrease and inactivation. The purpose of this study was to design an analysis to distinguish between the physical decrease and inactivation of viable phi-X174 phages in aerosols. We established a suitable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system by selecting an appropriate primer-probe set for PCR and validating the sensitivity, linearity, and specificity of the primer-probe set to robustly quantify phi-X174-specific airborne particles. Using this quantitative PCR system and culture assay, we performed a behavior analysis of the phage aerosol in a small chamber (1 m 3 ) at different levels of humidity, as humidity is known to affect the number of viable airborne phages. The results revealed that the reduction in the number of viable airborne phages was caused not only by physical decrease but also by inactivation under particular levels of humidity. Our study could provide an advanced analysis to differentiate between the physical decrease and inactivation of viable airborne phages.

  5. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  6. Development of an instrument to assess readiness to recover in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, E; Touyz, S; Schotte, D; Beumont, P; Russell, J; Clarke, S; Kohn, M; Griffiths, R

    2000-12-01

    The degree to which patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate readiness to recover from their illness has received scant theoretical or empirical attention. Investigating the prevalence and degree of amotivation for recovery in anorexia nervosa, its role in outcome, and the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance readiness to recover necessitates the existence of a reliable and valid measure of motivational issues relevant to the disorder. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate an instrument for assessing readiness to recover in anorexia nervosa, namely, the Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ), a 23-item self-report questionnaire based on Prochaska and DiClemente's stages of change model. Seventy-one inpatients with anorexia nervosa participated in the study. On several occasions during their admission, participants completed the ANSOCQ as well as questionnaires assessing readiness to recover, anorexic symptomatology, general distress, and social desirability. The ANSOCQ demonstrated good internal consistency (.90) and 1-week test-retest reliability (.89). Various aspects of validity were also supported, such as significant relationships with other instruments assessing readiness to recover and the prediction of weight gain during different periods of treatment. The results suggest that the ANSOCQ is a psychometrically sound instrument that may prove useful in investigating the role of readiness to recover in anorexia nervosa. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  8. Amygdala alterations during an emotional conflict task in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-02-28

    The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is not completely understood, but research suggests that alterations in brain circuits related to cognitive control and emotion are central. The aim of this study was to explore neural responses to an emotional conflict task in women recovered from AN. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotional conflict task in 22 women recovered from AN and 21 age-matched healthy controls. The task involved categorizing affective faces while ignoring affective words. Face and word stimuli were either congruent (non-conflict) or incongruent (conflict). Brain responses to emotional conflict did not differ between groups. However, in response to emotional non-conflict, women recovered from AN relative to healthy controls showed significantly less activation in the bilateral amygdala. Specifically, while emotional non-conflict evoked significant activations of the amygdala in healthy controls, recovered AN women did not show such activations. Similar significant group differences were also observed in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. These results suggest that women recovered from AN are characterized by alterations within emotion-related brain circuits. Recovered women's absence of amygdala and hippocampus activation during non-conflict trials possibly reflects an impaired ability to process emotional significant stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Classification of viable and non-viable spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds by single seed near infrared spectroscopy and extended canonical variates analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    ). Assigning the difference of scatter corrected absorbance spectra from aged and non-aged seeds also lead to CH2, CH3 and HC=CH structures, which are some of the functional groups in lipids. In the ECVA plot, there was a clear difference between seeds with and without a pericarp. Evaluating the spectra...... studies. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is the major crop in vegetable seed production in Denmark and two seed lots with viability percentages of 90% and 97% were chosen for examination by single seed NIR spectroscopy. Lipids play a major role in both ageing and germination. During accelerated ageing......, lipid peroxidation leads to deterioration of cell membranes and contributes in that way to reducing seed viability of the seed sample. These biochemical changes may be the reason for a clear grouping between aged and non-aged seeds when performing the extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA...

  10. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  11. Delayed uptake and washout of contrast in non-viable infarcted myocardium shown with dynamic computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udholm, Sebastian; Laugesen, Sofie; Agger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of ischemic but potentially viable myocardium plays an important role in the planning of coronary revascularization. Until now SPECT, PET, and MRI have been used to identify viable myocardium. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose coronary atherosclerosis...... descending artery, followed by removal of the balloon and reperfusion. Four pigs died due to refractory ventricular fibrillation. After 6 weeks, dynamic cardiac CT was performed assessing both wall motion and contrast attenuation. Measurements of attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU) in the infarct...

  12. Survival or revival: long-term preservation induces a reversible viable but non-culturable state in methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    Full Text Available Knowledge on long-term preservation of micro-organisms is limited and research in the field is scarce despite its importance for microbial biodiversity and biotechnological innovation. Preservation of fastidious organisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB has proven difficult. Most MOB do not survive lyophilization and only some can be cryopreserved successfully for short periods. A large-scale study was designed for a diverse set of MOB applying fifteen cryopreservation or lyophilization conditions. After three, six and twelve months of preservation, the viability (via live-dead flow cytometry and culturability (via most-probable number analysis and plating of the cells were assessed. All strains could be cryopreserved without a significant loss in culturability using 1% trehalose in 10-fold diluted TSB (TT as preservation medium and 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant. Several other cryopreservation and lyophilization conditions, all of which involved the use of TT medium, also allowed successful preservation but showed a considerable loss in culturability. We demonstrate here that most of these non-culturables survived preservation according to viability assessment indicating that preservation induces a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in a significant fraction of cells. Since this state is reversible, these findings have major implications shifting the emphasis from survival to revival of cells in a preservation protocol. We showed that MOB cells could be significantly resuscitated from the VBNC state using the TT preservation medium.

  13. Resuscitation of the viable but non-culturable state of Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg by recombinant resuscitation-promoting factor derived from Salmonella Typhimurium strain LT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panutdaporn, N; Kawamoto, K; Asakura, H; Makino, S-I

    2006-02-15

    A gene encoding the resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) from Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 was cloned and characterized. The amino acid sequence encoded by S. Typhimurium LT2 rpf gene shares 24.2% homology with Micrococcus luteus Rpf, which is secreted by growing cells, and required to resuscitate from viable but non-culturable (VNC) state. The S. Typhimurium LT2 rpf gene is 696 bp long, and shared a conserved segment with Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg (99.4%). Recombinant Rpf (rRpf) proteins of S. Typhimurium LT2 after expression in E. coli BL21 harboring the pET15-b plasmid was approximately 25 kDa. Since S. Oranienburg cells are relatively quick to enter the VNC state just after incubating in the presence of 7% NaCl at 37 degrees C for 3 days, we evaluated the biological effect of rRpf by using S. Oranienburg VNC cells. The rRpf not only promoted proliferation but also induced resuscitation of VNC cells to the culturable state in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, rRpf may be useful for detection of bacterial contaminants present in the VNC form in food samples and the environment.

  14. Advantageous direct quantification of viable closely related probiotics in petit-suisse cheeses under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions by Propidium Monoazide--qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lissete Morales Villarreal

    Full Text Available Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1 and probiotic (F2 petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05 than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and

  15. Rapid cell separation with minimal manipulation for autologous cell therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alban J.; O'Rorke, Richard D.; Kale, Akshay; Rimsa, Roberts; Tomlinson, Matthew J.; Kirkham, Jennifer; Davies, A. Giles; Wälti, Christoph; Wood, Christopher D.

    2017-02-01

    The ability to isolate specific, viable cell populations from mixed ensembles with minimal manipulation and within intra-operative time would provide significant advantages for autologous, cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Current cell-enrichment technologies are either slow, lack specificity and/or require labelling. Thus a rapid, label-free separation technology that does not affect cell functionality, viability or phenotype is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate separation of viable from non-viable human stromal cells using remote dielectrophoresis, in which an electric field is coupled into a microfluidic channel using shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves, producing an array of virtual electrodes within the channel. This allows high-throughput dielectrophoretic cell separation in high conductivity, physiological-like fluids, overcoming the limitations of conventional dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate viable/non-viable separation efficacy of >98% in pre-purified mesenchymal stromal cells, extracted from human dental pulp, with no adverse effects on cell viability, or on their subsequent osteogenic capabilities.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Cameron

    2016-09-01

    , susceptibility decreased with increasing within-herd average somatic cell count, isolates recovered in mid-lactation were more susceptible that isolates recovered in early lactation, and isolates recovered in samples collected post-clinical mastitis were more susceptible than isolates recovered from non-clinical lactating quarters. The results of this research support continued susceptibility of environmental streptococci to beta-lactam antimicrobials. A departure from the expected susceptibility to beta-lactams was the apparent reduced susceptibility of Streptococcus uberis to penicillin.

  17. Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture, a viable alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, V.; Perea, F.; Saavedra, M.; Fuentes, C.; Alcántara, C.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of vegetable protein for animal feed and the need to diversify the crop rotation in rainfed Mediterranean climates has led to study the viability as new forage crop of the Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture. Therefore, a 3-year field trial was conducted at two different and representative locations of the area to evaluate the capacity of both species to form a balanced mixture and to define its potential for high yield and forage quality. Different seeding ratios (65:35, 50:50 and 35:65) were compared with their pure stands and the standard mixture Avena sativa-Vicia sativa (65:35). Forage mixtures establishment and growth varied according to the environmental conditions with a negative influence of a dry year 1 for legumes (<300 mm) and a wet year 2 for oats (>630 mm). However, competition ratio indicated that there were not significant differences between mixed treatments, displaying intermediate ground coverage values, dry matter yield and crude protein regarding pure stands. Higher dry matter yield than control mixture in addition to similar crude protein, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and digestible dry matter values, were produced at 35:65 in dry years and 65:35 and 50:50 in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. The appropriate development of both species in the mixture at different soil and rainfall conditions, as well as a good yield often higher than control mixture and a great forage quality, confirm to the narbon bean-black oat mixture as a viable and profitable crop alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions.

  18. Bariatric surgery: a viable treatment option for patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Sarah R; Labott, Susan; Stout, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Although bariatric surgery has become a recognized treatment for obesity, its utility among patients with severe psychiatric disorders has not been extensively studied. A few studies have reported similar weight loss outcomes in these patients, but psychiatric status after bariatric surgery has been studied only minimally, and it is unknown if exacerbation of the mental illness affects weight loss. The aim of this study was to shed greater light on the issue of serious mental illness and bariatric surgery. Specifically, do patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II have poorer weight loss outcomes postbariatric surgery than the general bariatric surgery population? Also, do patients with these diagnoses experience an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery, and if so, is the exacerbation of these disorders linked to poorer weight loss results? Midwest university medical center. A medical record review of approximately 1500 bariatric patients in a Midwest university medical center was conducted to identify those patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II. Information was gathered on bariatric surgery outcomes and changes in psychiatric status postsurgery. Eighteen patients were identified as undergoing bariatric surgery and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, or bipolar II. Weight loss in this group was significant and comparable to expected outcomes of absolute weight lost, changes in body mass index, and percentage excess weight loss for patients in the typical bariatric population. Postsurgery psychiatric status was known on 10 patients. All 10 patients experienced some exacerbation of psychiatric problems yet weight loss outcomes were still as expected. Bariatric surgery is a viable obesity treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II disorders. Symptom exacerbations occurred postsurgery, although it is not clear if these were due to the surgery or

  19. Storm-generated coral fragments - A viable source of transplants for reef rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V.; Ward, G.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs throughout the world have been damaged by storms, diseases, coral predators, temperature anomalies, and human activities. During the past three decades, recovery has been limited and patchy. Although a damaged coral reef cannot be restored to its original condition, interest in reef restoration is increasing. In a pilot project in the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands), storm-produced fragments of Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, and Porites porites were collected from donor reefs and transplanted to nearby degraded reefs. Sixty coral fragments were attached to dead-coral substrate (usually A. palmata skeletons), at similar depths from which they had been collected (1-3.5 m), using nylon cable ties. Seventy-five intact colonies were designated as controls. Study colonies were assessed at 6-month intervals for 2 years (1999-2001) and annually thereafter (through 2004). One-fourth of the 135 colonies and fragments monitored were alive at the conclusion of the 5-year study. Survival of control and transplanted A. cervicornis and P. porites was very low (median survival 2.4 and 1.8 years, respectively), with no significant differences between transplant and control colonies. Site and depth did not contribute significantly to A. palmata colony survival, but colony size and transplant/control status did. Probability of survival increased with colony size. Median survival for A. palmata was 1.3 years for transplant and 4.3 years for natural colonies when not controlled for size. A. palmata was the only viable candidate for reef rehabilitation. Storm swells were the primary cause of mortality.

  20. Acanthamoeba polyphaga resuscitates viable non-culturable Legionella pneumophila after disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Teresa; Jones, Snake; Pelaz, Carmen; Millar, Richard D; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2007-05-01

    Amoebae are the natural hosts for Legionella pneumophila and play essential roles in bacterial ecology and infectivity to humans. When L. pneumophila colonizes an aquatic installation, it can persist for years despite repeated treatments with disinfectants. We hypothesized that freshwater amoebae play an important role in bacterial resistance to disinfectants, and in subsequent resuscitation of viable non-culturable (VNC) L. pneumophila that results in re-emergence of the disease-causing strain in the disinfected water source. Our work showed that in the absence of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, seven L. pneumophila strains became non-culturable after treatment by 256 p.p.m. of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In contrast, intracellular L. pneumophila within A. polyphaga was resistant to 1024 p.p.m. of NaOCl. In addition, L. pneumophila-infected A. polyphaga exhibited increased resistance to NaOCl. When chlorine-sterilized water samples were co-cultured with A. polyphaga, the non-culturable L. pneumophila were resuscitated and proliferated robustly within A. polyphaga. Upon treatment by NaOCl, uninfected amoebae differentiated into cysts within 48 h. In contrast, L. pneumophila-infected A. polyphaga failed to differentiate into cysts, and L. pneumophila was never detected in cysts of A. polyphaga. We conclude that amoebic trophozoites protect intracellular L. pneumophila from eradication by NaOCl, and play an essential role in resuscitation of VNC L. pneumophila in NaOCl-disinfected water sources. Intracellular L. pneumophila within trophozoites of A. polyphaga block encystation of the amoebae, and the resistance of both organisms to NaOCl is enhanced. To ensure long-term eradication and complete loss of the VNC state of L. pneumophila, we recommend that Legionella-protozoa co-culture should be an important tool to ensure complete loss of the VNC state of L. pneumophila.