Sample records for viable analytical models

  1. Cosmological implications of a viable non-analytical f(R) model (United States)

    Capozziello, S.; Carlevaro, N.; De Laurentis, M.; Lattanzi, M.; Montani, G.


    Power-law corrections (having the exponent strictly between 2 and 3) to the Einstein-Hilbert action yield an extended theory of gravity which is consistent with Solar-System tests and properly reproduces the main phases of the Universe thermal history. We find two distinct constraints for the characteristic length scale of the model: a lower bound from the Solar-System test and an upper bound by requiring the existence of the matter-dominated era. We also show how the extended framework can accommodate the existence of an early de Sitter phase. Within the allowed range of characteristic length scales, the relation between the expansion rate and the energy scale of inflation is modified, yielding a value of the rate several orders of magnitude smaller than in the standard picture. The observational implication of this fact is that a tiny value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio is expected in the extended framework. The suppression of primordial tensor modes also implies that the inflationary scale can be made arbitrarily close to the Planck one according to the current limits. Finally, an analysis of the propagation of gravitational waves on a Robertson-Walker background is addressed.

  2. A viable dark fluid model (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Esraa


    We consider a cosmological model based on a generalization of the equation of state proposed by Nojiri and Odintsov (2004) and Štefančić (2005, 2006). We argue that this model works as a dark fluid model which can interpolate between dust equation of state and the dark energy equation of state. We show how the asymptotic behavior of the equation of state constrained the parameters of the model. The causality condition for the model is also studied to constrain the parameters and the fixed points are tested to determine different solution classes. Observations of Hubble diagram of SNe Ia supernovae are used to further constrain the model. We present an exact solution of the model and calculate the luminosity distance and the energy density evolution. We also calculate the deceleration parameter to test the state of the universe expansion.

  3. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy


    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  4. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)


    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615models, a natural coupling between inflation and a scalar boson is generated through the minimal coupling between gravity and matter fields and a reheating temperature less that 10{sup 9} GeV is obtained.

  5. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy


    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  6. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson


    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  7. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon


    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  8. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.


    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  9. Analytic Modeling of Insurgencies (United States)


    literature , e.g., [9], [24]. Modeling public behavior takes into account the difference between the attitude of an individual (his “heart”) and his...vol. 10, pp. 818- 827, 1962. [4] G. McCormick, "The Shining Path and Peruvian terrorism," RAND, P-7297, Santa Monica, CA, 1987. [5] B. Connable, W

  10. Viable business models for public utilities; Zukunftsfaehige Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Claudia [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    Small suppliers are faced with mounting pressures from an increasingly complex regulatory regime and a market that rewards size. Many have been able to adapt to the new framework conditions by successively optimizing existing activities. However, when change takes hold of all stages of the value chain it is no longer enough to merely modify one's previous strategies. It rather becomes necessary to review one's business model for its sustainability, take stock of the company's competencies and set priorities along the value chain. This is where a network-oriented focussing strategy can assist in ensuring efficient delivery of services in core areas while enabling the company to present itself on the market with a full range of services.

  11. Analytic Model for Tangential YORP (United States)

    Golubov, Oleksiy


    The tangential YORP effect (TYORP) plays a significant role in the dynamical evolution of asteroids, and up to now has only been studied numerically. This paper describes the first analytic model of the TYORP effect. Although the model rests on numerous physical and mathematical simplifications, the final analytic expression for TYORP is found to be in agreement with the results of rigorous numeric simulations to the accuracy of several tens of percent. The analytic expression obtained is used to estimate the TYORP produced by the non-flat surface of regolith—a contribution to TYORP that has never been considered. It is found that the contribution to TYORP arising from regolith can be comparable to the conventional TYORP produced by boulders. Then, the analytic expression is fitted with a log-normal function and used to integrate TYORP over all boulder sizes. The general trend of TYORP for multiple boulders appears qualitatively similar to the trend of one boulder, and it also demonstrates a maximal TYORP at some particular rotation rate. The expression obtained for integrated TYORP may be instrumental for simulations of the evolution of asteroids subject to TYORP. The physical origin of TYORP is discussed in light of the constructed analytic model.

  12. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction]. (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi


    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  13. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut


    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  14. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez


    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  15. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.


    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  16. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries. (United States)

    Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H


    Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P  0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P = 0.0022, r = 0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu


    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  18. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca


    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living) epidermis. For this region, previous works suggested a diffusion model and an approximation of the cells by hexagonal prisms. The work at hand extends this in three ways. First, the extracellular space is treated with full spatial resolution. This induces a decrease of permeability by about 10%. Second, cells of tetrakaidecahedral shape are considered, in addition to the original hexagonal prisms. For both cell types, the resulting membrane permeabilities are compared. Third, for the first time, the influence of cell stacking in the vertical direction is considered. This is particularly important for the stratum granulosum, where tight junctions are present.

  19. Analytic modeling of breast elastography. (United States)

    Liu, H T; Sun, L Z; Wang, G; Vannier, M W


    The elastic moduli of tumors change during their pathological evolution. Elastographic imaging has potential for detecting and characterizing cancers by mapping the stiffness distribution in tissues. In this paper a micromechanics-based analytical method was developed to detect the location, size, and elastic modulus of a tumor mass embedded in a symmetric two-dimensional breast tissue. A closed-form solution for the strain elastograms (forward problem) was derived. A computational algorithm for the inverse problem was developed for the detection, localization, and characterization of a heterogeneous mass embedded in a breast tissue. Numerical examples were presented to evaluate the proposed method's performance. The detectability of a tumor mass was estimated with respect to lesion location, size, and modulus contrast ratio. It was shown that the micromechanics theory provides a powerful tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  20. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heading occur frequently in soccer games and studies have shown that repetitive heading of the soccer ball could result in degeneration of brain cells and lead to mild traumatic brain injury. This study proposes a two degree-of-freedom linear mathematical model to study the impact of the soccer ball on the brain. The model ...

  1. Modeling of the Global Water Cycle - Analytical Models (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Roni Avissar


    Both numerical and analytical models of coupled atmosphere and its underlying ground components (land, ocean, ice) are useful tools for modeling the global and regional water cycle. Unlike complex three-dimensional climate models, which need very large computing resources and involve a large number of complicated interactions often difficult to interpret, analytical...

  2. Why Construct Analytical Models Of Laser Welding? (United States)

    Dowden, John


    Much attention is given these days to the computational mathematical modelling of industrial processes in materials science. It is usually referred to, perhaps ambiguously, as mathematical modelling. Its value is obvious—once the initial outlay in terms of the effort of writing or purchasing a flexible, accurate and appropriate computer programme has been made, it is possible to simulate complex experiments whose outlay in terms of man-hours and equipment cost would be many times that of a computer run. Similarly, such a model can be used to find suitable parameters for the setting up of a new commercial process, rather than relying on costly trial and error with the equipment itself. This computational approach has almost entirely replaced the kind of analytical investigation that was adopted thirty or more years ago, at least for development purposes. The reasons are obvious. Analytical modelling is generally incapable of finding solutions of problems in anything but very simple geometries, and the model often has to be approximated drastically to obtain any kind of solution at all. It has little apparent value for the kind of purposes to which much computational modelling is put today. It is often overlooked, however, that analytical modelling has a very valuable role to play in a number of ways. One such is as a check on a computer algorithm. If an analytical solution to a model problem can be found that is in principle soluble computationally by a specific computer program, it can be used to check that the program does in fact give the right answer (to within a specifiable accuracy)—something that is in general very hard to establish by numerical analysis alone. Another use to which analytical models can be put is to investigate the underlying physical theory; nearly all models necessarily use approximations of one sort or another, and it is often simpler to test approximations to the theory, or to test the need to insert finer detail to the model than had

  3. Beer's viable system model and Luhmann's communication theory: ‘organizations’ from the perspective of meta-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, M.W.; Leydesdorff, L.


    Beyond the descriptions of ‘viability’ provided by Beer's Viable System Model, Maturana's autopoietic theory or Luhmann's communication theory, questions remain as to what ‘viability’ means across different contexts. How is ‘viability’ affected by the Internet and the changing information

  4. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain. (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

  5. An analytical model of flagellate hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders Peter


    Flagellates are unicellular microswimmers that propel themselves using one or several beating flagella. We consider a hydrodynamic model of flagellates and explore the effect of flagellar arrangement and beat pattern on swimming kinematics and near-cell flow. The model is based on the analytical......–right symmetric flagellar arrangements we determine the swimming velocity, and we show that transversal forces due to the periodic movements of the flagella can promote swimming. For a model flagellate with both a longitudinal and a transversal flagellum we determine radius and pitch of the helical swimming...

  6. An analytical model of memristors in plants. (United States)

    Markin, Vladislav S; Volkov, Alexander G; Chua, Leon


    The memristor, a resistor with memory, was postulated by Chua in 1971 and the first solid-state memristor was built in 2008. Recently, we found memristors in vivo in plants. Here we propose a simple analytical model of 2 types of memristors that can be found within plants. The electrostimulation of plants by bipolar periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica with fingerprints of memristors. Memristive properties of the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica are linked to the properties of voltage gated K(+) ion channels. The potassium channel blocker TEACl transform plant memristors to conventional resistors. The analytical model of a memristor with a capacitor connected in parallel exhibits different characteristic behavior at low and high frequency of applied voltage, which is the same as experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in vivo.

  7. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman


    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  8. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics


    Robert L. Grossman; Kevin P. Siegel


    In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  9. Analytical halo model of galactic conformity (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Paranjape, Aseem


    We present a fully analytical halo model of colour-dependent clustering that incorporates the effects of galactic conformity in a halo occupation distribution framework. The model, based on our previous numerical work, describes conformity through a correlation between the colour of a galaxy and the concentration of its parent halo, leading to a correlation between central and satellite galaxy colours at fixed halo mass. The strength of the correlation is set by a tunable 'group quenching efficiency', and the model can separately describe group-level correlations between galaxy colour (1-halo conformity) and large-scale correlations induced by assembly bias (2-halo conformity). We validate our analytical results using clustering measurements in mock galaxy catalogues, finding that the model is accurate at the 10-20 per cent level for a wide range of luminosities and length-scales. We apply the formalism to interpret the colour-dependent clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find good overall agreement between the data and a model that has 1-halo conformity at a level consistent with previous results based on an SDSS group catalogue, although the clustering data require satellites to be redder than suggested by the group catalogue. Within our modelling uncertainties, however, we do not find strong evidence of 2-halo conformity driven by assembly bias in SDSS clustering.

  10. Analytical performance modeling for computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, Y C


    This book is an introduction to analytical performance modeling for computer systems, i.e., writing equations to describe their performance behavior. It is accessible to readers who have taken college-level courses in calculus and probability, networking and operating systems. This is not a training manual for becoming an expert performance analyst. Rather, the objective is to help the reader construct simple models for analyzing and understanding the systems that they are interested in.Describing a complicated system abstractly with mathematical equations requires a careful choice of assumpti

  11. An analytical model of prominence dynamics (United States)

    Routh, Swati; Saha, Snehanshu; Bhat, Atul; Sundar, M. N.


    Solar prominences are magnetic structures incarcerating cool and dense gas in an otherwise hot solar corona. Prominences can be categorized as quiescent and active. Their origin and the presence of cool gas (∼104 K) within the hot (∼106K) solar corona remains poorly understood. The structure and dynamics of solar prominences was investigated in a large number of observational and theoretical (both analytical and numerical) studies. In this paper, an analytic model of quiescent solar prominence is developed and used to demonstrate that the prominence velocity increases exponentially, which means that some gas falls downward towards the solar surface, and that Alfvén waves are naturally present in the solar prominences. These theoretical predictions are consistent with the current observational data of solar quiescent prominences.

  12. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope. (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz


    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  13. Analytical models for complex swirling flows (United States)

    Borissov, A.; Hussain, V.


    We develops a new class of analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for swirling flows, and suggests ways to predict and control such flows occurring in various technological applications. We view momentum accumulation on the axis as a key feature of swirling flows and consider vortex-sink flows on curved axisymmetric surfaces with an axial flow. We show that these solutions model swirling flows in a cylindrical can, whirlpools, tornadoes, and cosmic swirling jets. The singularity of these solutions on the flow axis is removed by matching them with near-axis Schlichting and Long's swirling jets. The matched solutions model flows with very complex patterns, consisting of up to seven separation regions with recirculatory 'bubbles' and vortex rings. We apply the matched solutions for computing flows in the Ranque-Hilsch tube, in the meniscus of electrosprays, in vortex breakdown, and in an industrial vortex burner. The simple analytical solutions allow a clear understanding of how different control parameters affect the flow and guide selection of optimal parameter values for desired flow features. These solutions permit extension to other problems (such as heat transfer and chemical reaction) and have the potential of being significantly useful for further detailed investigation by direct or large-eddy numerical simulations as well as laboratory experimentation.

  14. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.


    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  15. Teacher training in South Africa: The integrated model as viable option

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article contributes to the debate regarding the preferred model for teacher education to provide for teacher shortages. The models commonly referred to are the consecutive model, the integrated model and the concurrent model for teacher training. The aim of this article is to determine if the integrated model for teacher ...

  16. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.


    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  17. Approximate analytical modeling of leptospirosis infection (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Atikah; Azmi, Amirah; Yusof, Fauzi Mohamed; Ismail, Ahmad Izani


    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease carried by rodents which can cause death in humans. The disease spreads directly through contact with feces, urine or through bites of infected rodents and indirectly via water contaminated with urine and droppings from them. Significant increase in the number of leptospirosis cases in Malaysia caused by the recent severe floods were recorded during heavy rainfall season. Therefore, to understand the dynamics of leptospirosis infection, a mathematical model based on fractional differential equations have been developed and analyzed. In this paper an approximate analytical method, the multi-step Laplace Adomian decomposition method, has been used to conduct numerical simulations so as to gain insight on the spread of leptospirosis infection.

  18. Simple Analytic Models of Gravitational Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.


    Most general relativity textbooks devote considerable space to the simplest example of a black hole containing a singularity, the Schwarzschild geometry. However only a few discuss the dynamical process of gravitational collapse, by which black holes and singularities form. We present here two types of analytic models for this process, which we believe are the simplest available; the first involves collapsing spherical shells of light, analyzed mainly in Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates; the second involves collapsing spheres filled with a perfect fluid, analyzed mainly in Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. Our main goal is pedagogical simplicity and algebraic completeness, but we also present some results that we believe are new, such as the collapse of a light shell in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.

  19. An Analytical Model of Iceberg Drift (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Dell, Rebecca W.; Eisenman, Ian


    Iceberg drift and decay and the associated freshwater release are increasingly seen as important processes in Earth's climate system, yet a detailed understanding of their dynamics has remained elusive. Here, an idealized model of iceberg drift is presented. The model is designed to include the most salient physical processes that determine iceberg motion while remaining sufficiently simple to facilitate physical insight into iceberg drift dynamics. We derive an analytical solution of the model, which helps build understanding and also enables the rapid computation of large numbers of iceberg trajectories. The long-standing empirical rule of thumb that icebergs drift at 2% of the wind velocity, relative to the ocean current, is derived here from physical first principles, and it is shown that this relation only holds in the limit of strong winds or small icebergs, which approximately applies for typical icebergs in the Arctic. It is demonstrated that the opposite limit of weak winds or large icebergs approximately applies for typical Antarctic tabular icebergs, and that in this case the icebergs simply move with the ocean surface current. It is furthermore found that when winds are strong, wind drag drives icebergs in the direction the wind blows, whereas weak winds drive icebergs at a 90 degree angle to the wind direction.

  20. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  1. Polarization modes of gravitational wave for viable f(R) models (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Siddiqa, Aisha


    In this paper, we study the gravitational wave polarization modes for some particular f(R) models using Newman-Penrose formalism. We find two extra scalar modes of gravitational wave (longitudinal and transversal modes) in addition to two tensor modes of general relativity. We conclude that gravitational waves correspond to class II6 under the Lorentz-invariant E(2) classification of plane null waves for these f(R) models.

  2. Tribimaximal mixing in a viable family symmetry unified model with an extended seesaw mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazzocchi, F.; Varzielas, I.D.


    We present a grand unified model based on SO(10) with a Δ(27) family symmetry. Fermion masses and mixings are fitted and agree well with experimental values. An extended seesaw mechanism plays a key role in the generation of the leptonic mixing, which is approximately tribimaximal. © 2009 The

  3. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.


    The dual-wall, Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum shock wave strength generated by the threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of room that is available for expansion. Ensuring the shock wave strength is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the shock wave strength achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. An analytic model is developed here, to describe the influence of these three key factors. In addition this paper develops a description of a fourth key parameter related to fragmentation and its role in establishing the onset of projectile expansion.

  4. Concierge Medicine: A Viable Business Model for (Some) Physicians of the Future? (United States)

    Paul, David P; Skiba, Michaeline

    Concierge medicine is a medical management structure that has been in existence since the 1990s. Essentially, a typical concierge medical practice limits its number of patients and provides highly personalized attention that includes comprehensive annual physicals, same-day appointments, preventive and wellness care, and fast, 24/7 response time. Concierge medicine has become popular among both physicians and patients/consumers who are frustrated by the limitations imposed by managed care organizations. From many physicians' perspectives, concierge medicine offers greater autonomy, the opportunity to return to a more manageable patient load, and the chance to improve their incomes that have declined because of increasingly lowered reimbursements for their services. From many patients'/consumers' perspectives, concierge medicine provides more immediate, convenient, and caring access to their primary care physicians and, regardless of their physician's annual retainer fee, the elimination of third-party insurance coverage costs and hassles. The major criticisms of the concierge medicine model come from some health care policy makers and experts, who believe that concierge medicine is elitist and its widespread implementation will increase the shortage of primary care physicians, which is already projected to become worse because of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate, which requires everyone to have health insurance.Utilizing these topics as its framework, this article explains why concierge medicine's form of medical management is gaining ground, cites its advantages and disadvantages for stakeholders, and examines some of the issues that will affect its growth.

  5. Progression of Behavioral and CNS Deficits in a Viable Murine Model of Chronic Neuronopathic Gaucher Disease. (United States)

    Dai, Mei; Liou, Benjamin; Swope, Brittany; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Wujuan; Inskeep, Venette; Grabowski, Gregory A; Sun, Ying; Pan, Dao


    To study the neuronal deficits in neuronopathic Gaucher Disease (nGD), the chronological behavioral profiles and the age of onset of brain abnormalities were characterized in a chronic nGD mouse model (9V/null). Progressive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) and glucosylsphingosine (GS) in the brain of 9V/null mice were observed at as early as 6 and 3 months of age for GC and GS, respectively. Abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein was present in the 9V/null brain as detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. In a repeated open-field test, the 9V/null mice (9 months and older) displayed significantly less environmental habituation and spent more time exploring the open-field than age-matched WT group, indicating the onset of short-term spatial memory deficits. In the marble burying test, the 9V/null group had a shorter latency to initiate burying activity at 3 months of age, whereas the latency increased significantly at ≥12 months of age; 9V/null females buried significantly more marbles to completion than the WT group, suggesting an abnormal response to the instinctive behavior and an abnormal activity in non-associative anxiety-like behavior. In the conditional fear test, only the 9V/null males exhibited a significant decrease in response to contextual fear, but both genders showed less response to auditory-cued fear compared to age- and gender-matched WT at 12 months of age. These results indicate hippocampus-related emotional memory defects. Abnormal gait emerged in 9V/null mice with wider front-paw and hind-paw widths, as well as longer stride in a gender-dependent manner with different ages of onset. Significantly higher liver- and spleen-to-body weight ratios were detected in 9V/null mice with different ages of onsets. These data provide temporal evaluation of neurobehavioral dysfunctions and brain pathology in 9V/null mice that can be used for experimental designs to evaluate novel therapies for nGD.

  6. Progression of Behavioral and CNS Deficits in a Viable Murine Model of Chronic Neuronopathic Gaucher Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Dai

    Full Text Available To study the neuronal deficits in neuronopathic Gaucher Disease (nGD, the chronological behavioral profiles and the age of onset of brain abnormalities were characterized in a chronic nGD mouse model (9V/null. Progressive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC and glucosylsphingosine (GS in the brain of 9V/null mice were observed at as early as 6 and 3 months of age for GC and GS, respectively. Abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein was present in the 9V/null brain as detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. In a repeated open-field test, the 9V/null mice (9 months and older displayed significantly less environmental habituation and spent more time exploring the open-field than age-matched WT group, indicating the onset of short-term spatial memory deficits. In the marble burying test, the 9V/null group had a shorter latency to initiate burying activity at 3 months of age, whereas the latency increased significantly at ≥12 months of age; 9V/null females buried significantly more marbles to completion than the WT group, suggesting an abnormal response to the instinctive behavior and an abnormal activity in non-associative anxiety-like behavior. In the conditional fear test, only the 9V/null males exhibited a significant decrease in response to contextual fear, but both genders showed less response to auditory-cued fear compared to age- and gender-matched WT at 12 months of age. These results indicate hippocampus-related emotional memory defects. Abnormal gait emerged in 9V/null mice with wider front-paw and hind-paw widths, as well as longer stride in a gender-dependent manner with different ages of onset. Significantly higher liver- and spleen-to-body weight ratios were detected in 9V/null mice with different ages of onsets. These data provide temporal evaluation of neurobehavioral dysfunctions and brain pathology in 9V/null mice that can be used for experimental designs to evaluate novel therapies for nGD.

  7. Holistic approach to production systems from the perspective of lean manufacturing and viable systems model; Aproximacion holistica a los sistemas de produccion desde la perspectiva Lean Manufacturing y Modelos de Sistemas Viables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puche Regaliza, J. C.; Costas Gual, J.


    The reductionism approach usually adopted by many organizations provokes too often a problem of sustain ability in the market over time in these organizations. To increase this sustain ability, we propose a structural and a behavioral change, in a way that the reductionism is replaced by an holistic approach appropriate to address the dynamic complexity inherent in any organization. With regard to structural change, we propose the use of Organizational Cybernetics and particularly the Viable System Model. With respect to behavior change, we propose the use of Lean Manufacturing paradigm. (Author)

  8. A Structural Comparison of Analytical Models for University Planning. (United States)

    Weathersby, George B.; Weinstein, Milton C.

    This paper provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of analytical planning models designed for application in institutions of higher education. In an attempt to address the most important and difficult decisions facing managers of higher education, the majority of the analytical models that have been recently developed have focused upon…

  9. Clinical Informatics Fellowship Programs: In Search of a Viable Financial Model: An open letter to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (United States)

    Lehmann, C U; Longhurst, C A; Hersh, W; Mohan, V; Levy, B P; Embi, P J; Finnell, J T; Turner, A M; Martin, R; Williamson, J; Munger, B


    In the US, the new subspecialty of Clinical Informatics focuses on systems-level improvements in care delivery through the use of health information technology (HIT), data analytics, clinical decision support, data visualization and related tools. Clinical informatics is one of the first subspecialties in medicine open to physicians trained in any primary specialty. Clinical Informatics benefits patients and payers such as Medicare and Medicaid through its potential to reduce errors, increase safety, reduce costs, and improve care coordination and efficiency. Even though Clinical Informatics benefits patients and payers, because GME funding from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has not grown at the same rate as training programs, the majority of the cost of training new Clinical Informaticians is currently paid by academic health science centers, which is unsustainable. To maintain the value of HIT investments by the government and health care organizations, we must train sufficient leaders in Clinical Informatics. In the best interest of patients, payers, and the US society, it is therefore critical to find viable financial models for Clinical Informatics fellowship programs. To support the development of adequate training programs in Clinical Informatics, we request that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issue clarifying guidance that would allow accredited ACGME institutions to bill for clinical services delivered by fellows at the fellowship program site within their primary specialty.

  10. Analytic Models of High-Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Olson, R.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Leeper, R.J.


    A unified set of high-temperature-hohlraum models has been developed. For a simple hohlraum, P{sub s} = [A{sub s}+(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4} + (4V{sigma}/c)(dT{sub R}{sup r}/dt) where P{sub S} is the total power radiated by the source, A{sub s} is the source area, A{sub W} is the area of the cavity wall excluding the source and holes in the wall, A{sub H} is the area of the holes, {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T{sub R} is the radiation brightness temperature, V is the hohlraum volume, and c is the speed of light. The wall albedo {alpha}{sub W} {triple_bond} (T{sub W}/T{sub R}){sup 4} where T{sub W} is the brightness temperature of area A{sub W}. The net power radiated by the source P{sub N} = P{sub S}-A{sub S}{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4}, which suggests that for laser-driven hohlraums the conversion efficiency {eta}{sub CE} be defined as P{sub N}/P{sub LASER}. The characteristic time required to change T{sub R}{sup 4} in response to a change in P{sub N} is 4V/C[(l{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]. Using this model, T{sub R}, {alpha}{sub W}, and {eta}{sub CE} can be expressed in terms of quantities directly measurable in a hohlraum experiment. For a steady-state hohlraum that encloses a convex capsule, P{sub N} = {l_brace}(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}+[(1{minus}{alpha}{sub C})(A{sub S}+A{sub W}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub C}/A{sub T}]{r_brace}{sigma}T{sub RC}{sup 4} where {alpha}{sub C} is the capsule albedo, A{sub C} is the capsule area, A{sub T} {triple_bond} (A{sub S}+A{sub W}+A{sub H}), and T{sub RC} is the brightness temperature of the radiation that drives the capsule. According to this relation, the capsule-coupling efficiency of the baseline National-Ignition-Facility (NIF) hohlraum is 15% higher than predicted by previous analytic expressions. A model of a hohlraum that encloses a z pinch is also presented.

  11. Collaborative data analytics for smart buildings: opportunities and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader


    of collaborative data analytics for smart buildings, its benefits, as well as presently possible models of carrying it out. Furthermore, we present a framework for collaborative fault detection and diagnosis as a case of collaborative data analytics for smart buildings. We also provide a preliminary analysis...... of the energy efficiency benefit of such collaborative framework for smart buildings. The result shows that significant energy savings can be achieved for smart buildings using collaborative data analytics....

  12. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 4. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod ... The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived.

  13. Decision-analytical modelling in health-care economic evaluations. (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Faunce, Thomas


    Decision-analytical modelling is widely used in health-care economic evaluations, especially in situations where evaluators lack clinical trial data, and in circumstances where such evaluations factor into reimbursement pricing decisions. This paper aims to improve the understanding and use of modelling techniques in this context, with particular emphasis on Markov modelling. We provide an overview, in this paper, of the principles and methodological details of decision-analytical modelling. We propose a common route for practicing modelling that accommodates any type of decision-analytical modelling techniques. We use the treatment of chronic hepatitis B as an example to indicate the process of development, presentation and analysis of the Markov model, and discuss the strengths, weaknesses and pitfalls of different approaches. Good practice of modelling requires careful planning, conduct and analysis of the model, and needs input from modellers and users.

  14. Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica (United States)

    Wang, I.C.; Chung, W.C.; Lu, S.C.


    Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 × 558, 756 × 727, and 1,586 × 1,615 µm, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 µm and 70 µm, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks. PMID:11138316

  15. Bacteriophage treatment significantly reduces viable Clostridium difficile and prevents toxin production in an in vitro model system. (United States)

    Meader, Emma; Mayer, Melinda J; Gasson, Michael J; Steverding, Dietmar; Carding, Simon R; Narbad, Arjan


    Clostridium difficile is primarily a nosocomial pathogen, causing thousands of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in the UK each year. In this study, we used a batch fermentation model of a C. difficile colonised system to evaluate the potential of a prophylactic and a remedial bacteriophage treatment regime to control the pathogen. It is shown that the prophylaxis regime was effective at preventing the growth of C. difficile (p = <0.001) and precluded the production of detectable levels of toxins A and B. The remedial treatment regime caused a less profound and somewhat transient decrease in the number of viable C. difficile cells (p = <0.0001), but still resulted in a lower level of toxin production relative to the control. The numbers of commensal bacteria including total aerobes and anaerobes, Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp., Lactobacillus sp., total Clostridium sp., and Enterobacteriaceae were not significantly decreased by this therapy, whereas significant detrimental effects were observed with metronidazole treatment. Our study indicates that phage therapy has potential to be used for the control of C. difficile; it highlights the main benefits of this approach, and some future challenges. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combining modeling and gaming for predictive analytics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riensche, Roderick M; Whitney, Paul D


    .... In this paper we describe our approach of combining modeling and gaming disciplines to develop predictive capabilities, using formal models to inform game development, and using games to provide data for modeling...

  17. Feedbacks Between Numerical and Analytical Models in Hydrogeology (United States)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Toundykov, D.; Cohn, S.


    Hydrogeology is a relatively young discipline which combines elements of Earth science and engineering. Mature fundamental disciplines (e.g., physics, chemistry, fluid mechanics) have centuries-long history of mathematical modeling even prior to discovery of Darcy's law. Thus, in hydrogeology, relatively few classic analytical models (such those by Theis, Polubarinova-Kochina, Philip, Toth, Henry, Dagan, Neuman) were developed by the early 1970's. The advent of computers and practical demands refocused mathematical models towards numerical techniques. With more diverse but less mathematically-oriented training, most hydrogeologists shifted from analytical methods to use of standardized computational software. Spatial variability in internal properties and external boundary conditions and geometry, and the added complexity of chemical and biological processes will remain major challenges for analytical modeling. Possibly, analytical techniques will play a subordinate role to numerical approaches in many applications. On the other hand, the rise of analytical element modeling of groundwater flow is a strong alternative to numerical models when data demand and computational efficiency is considered. The hallmark of analytical models - transparency and accuracy - will remain indispensable for scientific exploration of complex phenomena and for benchmarking numerical models. Therefore, there will always be feedbacks and complementarities between numerical and analytical techniques, as well as a certain ideological schism among various views to modeling. We illustrate the idea of feedbacks by reviewing evolution of Joszef Toth's analytical model of gravity driven flow systems. Toth's (1963) approach was to reduce the flow domain to a rectangle which allowed for closed-form solution of the governing equations. Succeeding numerical finite-element models by Freeze and Witherspoon (1966-1968) explored the effects of geometry and heterogeneity on regional groundwater flow

  18. Analytical Models Development of Compact Monopole Vortex Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo V. Lukianov


    Conclusions. The article contains series of the latest analytical models that describe both laminar and turbulent dynamics of monopole vortex flows which have not been reflected in traditional publications up to the present. The further research must be directed to search of analytical models for the coherent vortical structures in flows of viscous fluids, particularly near curved surfaces, where known in hydromechanics “wall law” is disturbed and heat and mass transfer anomalies take place.

  19. Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Krenk, S.; Brincker, Rune

    An analytical model for load-displacement curves of unreinforced notched and un-notched concrete beams is presented. The load displacement-curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modelled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the mid-section of the beam. Outside...... the elastic layer the deformations are modelled by the Timoshenko beam theory. The state of stress in the elastic layer is assumed to depend bi-lineary on local elongation corresponding to a linear softening relation for the fictitious crack. For different beam size results from the analytical model...... is compared with results from a more accurate model based on numerical methods. The analytical model is shown to be in good agreement with the numerical results if the thickness of the elastic layer is taken as half the beam depth. Several general results are obtained. It is shown that the point on the load...

  20. Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Krenk, Steen; Brincker, Rune


    An analytical model for load-displacement curves of concrete beams is presented. The load-displacement curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modeled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the midsection of the beam. Outside the elastic layer the deformations...... are modeled by beam theory. The state of stress in the elastic layer is assumed to depend bilinearly on local elongation corresponding to a linear softening relation for the fictitious crack. Results from the analytical model are compared with results from a more detailed model based on numerical methods...... for different beam sizes. The analytical model is shown to be in agreement with the numerical results if the thickness of the elastic layer is taken as half the beam depth. It is shown that the point on the load-displacement curve where the fictitious crack starts to develop and the point where the real crack...

  1. Dynamical modelling versus approximate analytical formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I I Gontchar


    Jun 1, 2017 ... In the LSD model [31], the Coulomb, surface, and cur- vature terms are deformation-dependent and significant for the Brownian particle motion. In order to calculate the potential energy within the framework of this model, we developed our own computer code and compared the results with the potential ...

  2. Analytical model for orbital debris environmental management (United States)

    Talent, David L.


    A differential equation, also referred to as the PIB (particle-in-a-box) model, expressing the time rate of change of the number of objects in orbit, is developed, and its applicability is illustrated. The model can be used as a tool for the assessment of LEO environment stability, and as a starting point for the development of numerical evolutionary models. Within the context of the model, evolutionary scenarios are examined, and found to be sensitive to the growth rate. It is determined that the present environment is slightly unstable to catastrophic growth, and that the number of particles on orbit will continue to increase until approximately 2250-2350 AD, with a maximum of 2,000,000. The model is expandable to the more realistic (complex) case of multiple species in a multiple-tier system.

  3. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.


    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assume that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  4. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  5. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Adamsen, Peter


    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  6. Analytic model of heat deposition in spallation neutron target (United States)

    Findlay, D. J. S.


    A simple analytic model for estimating deposition of heat in a spallation neutron target is presented-a model that can readily be realised in an unambitious spreadsheet. The model is based on simple representations of the principal underlying physical processes, and is intended largely as a 'sanity check' on results from Monte Carlo codes such as FLUKA or MCNPX.

  7. Finite analytic method for modeling variably saturated flows. (United States)

    Zhang, Zaiyong; Wang, Wenke; Gong, Chengcheng; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wang, Zhoufeng; Wang, Yu-Li; Chen, Li


    This paper develops a finite analytic method (FAM) for solving the two-dimensional Richards' equation. The FAM incorporates the analytic solution in local elements to formulate the algebraic representation of the partial differential equation of unsaturated flow so as to effectively control both numerical oscillation and dispersion. The FAM model is then verified using four examples, in which the numerical solutions are compared with analytical solutions, solutions from VSAFT2, and observational data from a field experiment. These numerical experiments show that the method is not only accurate but also efficient, when compared with other numerical methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical model of impedance in elliptical beam pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Pesah, Arthur Chalom


    Beam instabilities are among the main limitations in building higher intensity accelerators. Having a good impedance model for every accelerators is necessary in order to build components that minimize the probability of instabilities caused by the interaction beam-environment and to understand what piece to change in case of intensity increasing. Most of accelerator components have their impedance simulated with finite elements method (using softwares like CST Studio), but simple components such as circular or flat pipes are modeled analytically, with a decreasing computation time and an increasing precision compared to their simulated model. Elliptical beam pipes, while being a simple component present in some accelerators, still misses a good analytical model working for the hole range of velocities and frequencies. In this report, we present a general framework to study the impedance of elliptical pipes analytically. We developed a model for both longitudinal and transverse impedance, first in the case of...

  9. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.


    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  10. Meta-analytic structural equation modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Jak, Suzanne


    This book explains how to employ MASEM, the combination of meta-analysis (MA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). It shows how by using MASEM, a single model can be tested to explain the relationships between a set of variables in several studies. This book gives an introduction to MASEM, with a focus on the state of the art approach: the two stage approach of Cheung and Cheung & Chan. Both, the fixed and the random approach to MASEM are illustrated with two applications to real data. All steps that have to be taken to perform the analyses are discussed extensively. All data and syntax files are available online, so that readers can imitate all analyses. By using SEM for meta-analysis, this book shows how to benefit from all available information from all available studies, even if few or none of the studies report about all relationships that feature in the full model of interest.

  11. Analytical Model of IPsec Process Throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tisovsky


    Full Text Available The paper concerns with a throughput of securing process which cannot be described neither by a constant value of bits per second nor by a constant value of packets per second over the range of packet sizes. We propose general throughput model of IPsec process based on characteristic parameters that are independent on the packet size. These parameters might be used for comprehensive definition of throughput on any security system. Further, a method for obtaining characteristic parameters is proposed. Usage of the method can significantly decrease count of throughput measurements required for modelling the system.

  12. Analytical solutions of basic models in quantum optics


    Braak, Daniel


    The recent progress in the analytical solution of models invented to describe theoretically the interaction of matter with light on an atomic scale is reviewed. The methods employ the classical theory of linear differential equations in the complex domain (Fuchsian equations). The linking concept is provided by the Bargmann Hilbert space of analytic functions, which is isomorphic to $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$, the standard Hilbert space for a single continuous degree of freedom in quantum mechanics. I...

  13. Unjamming in models with analytic pairwise potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, S.; Lerner, E.

    Canonical models for studying the unjamming scenario in systems of soft repulsive particles assume pairwise potentials with a sharp cutoff in the interaction range. The sharp cutoff renders the potential nonanalytic but makes it possible to describe many properties of the solid in terms of the

  14. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng


    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  15. Haskell financial data modeling and predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Pavel


    This book is a hands-on guide that teaches readers how to use Haskell's tools and libraries to analyze data from real-world sources in an easy-to-understand manner.This book is great for developers who are new to financial data modeling using Haskell. A basic knowledge of functional programming is not required but will be useful. An interest in high frequency finance is essential.

  16. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov


    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  17. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghasemi


    Full Text Available A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI. The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012 and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013 that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  18. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the

  19. Analytic regularization of the Yukawa model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Malbouisson, A P C; Svaiter, N F


    We analyse the one-loop fermionic contribution for the scalar effective potential in the temperature dependent Yukawa model. In order to regularize the model a mix between dimensional and analytic regularization procedures is used. We find a general expression for the fermionic contribution in arbitrary spacetime dimension. It is found that in D=3 this contribution is finite.

  20. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak


    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  1. Analytic solution of simplified Cardan's shaft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajíček M.


    Full Text Available Torsional oscillations and stability assessment of the homokinetic Cardan shaft with a small misalignment angle is described in this paper. The simplified mathematical model of this system leads to the linearized equation of the Mathieu's type. This equation with and without a stationary damping parameter is considered. The solution of the original differential equation is identical with those one of the Fredholm’s integral equation with degenerated kernel assembled by means of a periodic Green's function. The conditions of solvability of such problem enable the identification of the borders between stability and instability regions. These results are presented in the form of stability charts and they are verified using the Floquet theory. The correctness of oscillation results for the system with periodic stiffness is then validated by means of the Runge-Kutta integration method.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Lora, V. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Cantó, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-468, 04510 D. F., México (Mexico)


    We study analytically the effect of radiation pressure (associated with photoionization processes and with dust absorption) on spherical, hydrostatic H ii regions. We consider two basic equations, one for the hydrostatic balance between the radiation-pressure components and the gas pressure, and another for the balance among the recombination rate, the dust absorption, and the ionizing photon rate. Based on appropriate mathematical approximations, we find a simple analytic solution for the density stratification of the nebula, which is defined by specifying the radius of the external boundary, the cross section of dust absorption, and the luminosity of the central star. We compare the analytic solution with numerical integrations of the model equations of Draine, and find a wide range of the physical parameters for which the analytic solution is accurate.

  3. A Unified Channel Charges Expression for Analytic MOSFET Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Murray


    Full Text Available Based on a 1D Poissons equation resolution, we present an analytic model of inversion charges allowing calculation of the drain current and transconductance in the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. The drain current and transconductance are described by analytical functions including mobility corrections and short channel effects (CLM, DIBL. The comparison with the Pao-Sah integral shows excellent accuracy of the model in all inversion modes from strong to weak inversion in submicronics MOSFET. All calculations are encoded with a simple C program and give instantaneous results that provide an efficient tool for microelectronics users.

  4. Analytical Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Panels and Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bourdoucen


    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical model for PV panels and arrays based on extracted physical parameters of solar cells is developed. The proposed model has the advantage of simplifying mathematical modelling for different configurations of cells and panels without losing efficiency of PV system operation. The effects of external parameters, mainly temperature and solar irradiance have been considered in the modelling. Due to their critical effects on the operation of the panel, effects of series and shunt resistances were also studied. The developed analytical model has been easily implemented, simulated and validated using both Spice and Matlab packages for different series and parallel configurations of cells and panels. The results obtained with these two programs are in total agreement, which make the proposed model very useful for researchers and designers for quick and accurate sizing of PV panels and arrays.

  5. Experimental-analytical method of technological processes modeling in education


    Efremov German I.; Geller Julia A.


    The article considers general modeling techniques used in the study in education at different stages. The classification of different types of models and main stages of the simulation are considered. It is shown that in the course “Process of simulation” for technical areas of the Universities required the category of “Experimental-analytical simulation method”. For example, a new textbook for bachelors “Modeling of chemical-technological processes” shows that the section facilitates the comp...

  6. Analytical way to model magnetic transients and accommodation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Rd OX1 3PJ, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    The paper demonstrates the use of the model, based on hyperbolic geometry, by applying it on magnetic transient and reptation problems. By using the rules of the natural geometry inside of the major hysteresis loop, the model provides an easy analytical solution to the complex phenomena of reptation, accommodation and the general transient behaviour of hysteretic materials. It compares favourably with published examples selected from the literature and results of other models. The mathematics used is far simpler than that of other models with no need for heavy computer time and time consuming numerical approximation. On reptation the model follows the pattern set by published experimental data. The mathematics described here offers an analytical solution to the problem of accommodation instead of numerical approximation. It provides an ideal tool in experiments and theoretical work alike.

  7. A multimodality imaging model to track viable breast cancer cells from single arrest to metastasis in the mouse brain (United States)

    Parkins, Katie M.; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Makela, Ashley V.; Chen, Yuanxin; Foster, Paula J.; Ronald, John A.


    Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i.e., iron-loaded cells) on day 0 significantly correlated with BLI signal. Both BLI and MRI signals decreased from day 0 to day 8, indicating a loss of viable cells rather than a loss of iron label. Total brain MR tumour volume on day 28 also correlated with BLI signal. Overall, BLI complemented our sensitive cellular MRI technologies well, allowing us for the first time to screen animals for successful injections, and, in addition to MR measures of cell arrest and tumor burden, provided longitudinal measures of cancer cell viability in individual animals. We predict this novel multimodality molecular imaging framework will be useful for evaluating the efficacy of emerging anti-cancer drugs at different stages of the metastatic cascade.

  8. An analytical model for the assessment of airline expansion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Emboaba Moreira


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983 industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s  (1996 sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place.  A system of points and weights is developed to create a score among the 904,736 possible combinations considered. The model’s outputs are generic expansion strategies with quantitative assessments for each specific combination of elements inputted. Originality and value: The analytical model developed is original because it combines for the first time and explicitly elements of the general environment, industry environment, airline business models and the generic expansion strategy types. Besides it creates a system of scores that may be used to drive the decision process toward the choice of a specific strategic expansion path. Research implications: The analytical model may be adapted to other industries apart from the airline industry by substituting the element “airline business model” by other industries corresponding elements related to the different specific business models.

  9. An Analytic Model for DoD Divestments (United States)


    preferences translate into behaviors such as larger numbers of trades or wider stock diversification. Investors using more highly informed analytics...double counting, especially if more than one or a complex intervention is being assessed. Based on models of social investment, social entrepreneurship

  10. Challenges in the development of analytical soil compaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu


    transducers and therefore of stress measurements is not well known, despite numerous studies on stress in the soil profile below agricultural tyres. Although arable soils are characterised by distinct soil layers with different mechanical properties, analytical models rely on a one-layer approach with regard...

  11. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi


    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  12. Analytical model of micromachining of brittle materials with sharp particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moktadir, Z.; Wensink, H.; Kraft, M.


    We present an analytical model for the powder blasting of brittle materials with sharp particles. We developed a continuum equation, which describes the surface evolution during the powder blasting, into which we introduced surface energetics as the major relaxation mechanism. The experimental and

  13. Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery : Modeling and Analytical Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.


    Foam increases sweep in miscible- and immiscible-gas enhanced oil recovery by decreasing the mobility of gas enormously. This thesis is concerned with the simulations and analytical solutions for foam flow for the purpose of modeling foam EOR in a reservoir. For the ultimate goal of upscaling our

  14. Synthesis and Analytical Centrifugation of Magnetic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luigjes, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31412330X


    This thesis is a study of the preparation and thermodynamic properties of magnetic colloids. First, two types of magnetic model colloids are investigated: composite colloids and single-domain nanoparticles. Thermodynamics of magnetic colloids is studied using analytical centrifugation, including a

  15. An Analytical Model for Learning: An Applied Approach. (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter Arthur

    A mediated-learning package, geared toward non-traditional students, was developed for use in the College of Marin's cultural anthropology courses. An analytical model for learning was used in the development of the package, utilizing concepts related to learning objectives, programmed instruction, Gestalt psychology, cognitive psychology, and…

  16. Fitting Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Models with Complex Datasets (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra Jo; Polanin, Joshua R.; Lipsey, Mark W.


    A modification of the first stage of the standard procedure for two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modeling for use with large complex datasets is presented. This modification addresses two common problems that arise in such meta-analyses: (a) primary studies that provide multiple measures of the same construct and (b) the correlation…

  17. Modeling and analytical simulation of a smouldering carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling of pyrolysis and combustion in a smouldering fuel bed requires the solution of flow, heat and mass transfer through porous media. This paper presents an analytical method for describing the smouldering of a porous carbonaceous rod. We assume that no local thermal equilibrium exist between the phases. Also ...

  18. A New Analytical Model for Wind-Turbine Wakes (United States)

    Bastankhah, Majid; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    The intention of this study is to propose and validate a simple and efficient analytical model for the prediction of the wake velocity downwind of a stand-alone wind-turbine. Extensive efforts have been carried out to model the wake region analytically. One of the most popular models, proposed by Jensen, assumes a top-hat distribution of the velocity deficit at any plane perpendicular to the wake. That model has been extensively used in the literature and commercial softwares, but it has two important limitations that should be pointed out: (a) Even though this model is supposed to satisfy momentum conservation, in reality mass conservation is only used to derive it; (b) the assumption of a top-hat distribution of the velocity deficit is expected to underestimate that deficit in the center of the wake, and overestimate it near the edge of the wake. In order to overcome the above-mentioned limitations, here we propose an alternative analytical model that satisfies both mass and momentum conservation, and assumes a Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit. For this purpose, we apply momentum and mass conservation to two different control volumes which have been previously used in the context of analytical modeling of wakes. The velocity profiles obtained with our proposed model are in good agreement with large-eddy simulation data and experimental measurements. By contrast, the top hat models, as expected, clearly underestimate the velocity deficit at the center of the wake region and overestimate it near the edge of the wake.

  19. An analytical poroelastic model for ultrasound elastography imaging of tumors (United States)

    Tauhidul Islam, Md; Chaudhry, Anuj; Unnikrishnan, Ginu; Reddy, J. N.; Righetti, Raffaella


    The mechanical behavior of biological tissues has been studied using a number of mechanical models. Due to the relatively high fluid content and mobility, many biological tissues have been modeled as poroelastic materials. Diseases such as cancers are known to alter the poroelastic response of a tissue. Tissue poroelastic properties such as compressibility, interstitial permeability and fluid pressure also play a key role for the assessment of cancer treatments and for improved therapies. At the present time, however, a limited number of poroelastic models for soft tissues are retrievable in the literature, and the ones available are not directly applicable to tumors as they typically refer to uniform tissues. In this paper, we report the analytical poroelastic model for a non-uniform tissue under stress relaxation. Displacement, strain and fluid pressure fields in a cylindrical poroelastic sample containing a cylindrical inclusion during stress relaxation are computed. Finite element simulations are then used to validate the proposed theoretical model. Statistical analysis demonstrates that the proposed analytical model matches the finite element results with less than 0.5% error. The availability of the analytical model and solutions presented in this paper may be useful to estimate diagnostically relevant poroelastic parameters such as interstitial permeability and fluid pressure, and, in general, for a better interpretation of clinically-relevant ultrasound elastography results.

  20. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method. (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J


    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  1. Modelling of packet traffic with matrix analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.


    network services i.e. 800 and 900 calls and advanced mobile communication services. The Markovian Arrival Process (MAP) has been used as a versatile tool to model the packet arrival process. Applying the MAP facilitates the use of Matrix Analytic methods to obtain performance measures associated......-scales. In this study we show that 8-16 state MAPs are able to capture this very variable behaviour over several timescales. The queueing behaviour of these MAPs has been analyzed with Matrix Analytic methods. The results correspond to those obtained by trace driven simulations of measured LAN traffic. It is shown...... process. A heuristic formula for the tail behaviour of a single server queue fed by a superposition of renewal processes has been evaluated. The evaluation was performed by applying Matrix Analytic methods. The heuristic formula has applications in the Call Admission Control (CAC) procedure of the future...

  2. Analytic solution of the Starobinsky model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos [Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Valdivia (Chile); Durban University of Technology, Institute of Systems Science, Durban (South Africa)


    We prove that the field equations of the Starobinsky model for inflation in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric constitute an integrable system. The analytical solution in terms of a Painleve series for the Starobinsky model is presented for the case of zero and nonzero spatial curvature. In both cases the leading-order term describes the radiation era provided by the corresponding higher-order theory. (orig.)

  3. Analytical Expressions for the REM Model of Recognition Memory (United States)

    Montenegro, Maximiliano; Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.


    An inordinate amount of computation is required to evaluate predictions of simulation-based models. Following Myung et al (2007), we derived an analytic form expression of the REM model of recognition memory using a Fourier transform technique, which greatly reduces the time required to perform model simulations. The accuracy of the derivation is verified by showing a close correspondence between its predictions and those reported in Shiffrin and Steyvers (1997). The derivation also shows that REM’s predictions depend upon the vector length parameter, and that model parameters are not identifiable unless one of the parameters is fixed. PMID:25089060

  4. Thermal conductivity of microporous layers: Analytical modeling and experimental validation (United States)

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Mehdi; Kjeang, Erik; Bahrami, Majid


    A new compact relationship is developed for the thermal conductivity of the microporous layer (MPL) used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells as a function of pore size distribution, porosity, and compression pressure. The proposed model is successfully validated against experimental data obtained from a transient plane source thermal constants analyzer. The thermal conductivities of carbon paper samples with and without MPL were measured as a function of load (1-6 bars) and the MPL thermal conductivity was found between 0.13 and 0.17 W m-1 K-1. The proposed analytical model predicts the experimental thermal conductivities within 5%. A correlation generated from the analytical model was used in a multi objective genetic algorithm to predict the pore size distribution and porosity for an MPL with optimized thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The results suggest that an optimized MPL, in terms of heat and mass transfer coefficients, has an average pore size of 122 nm and 63% porosity.

  5. Selection Of Analytical Computational Model Of Contact Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maršálek Ondřej


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of two contact pressure calculation methods between two real rough surfaces: a calculation based on FEM (Finite Element Method using commercial software tool ANSYS and a calculation based on FDM (Finite Difference Method using analytical functions implemented in programing tool MATLAB. This comparison, lately, leads to the selection of the most appropriate analytical contact model useful for time-effective and precise contact pressure determination. Surface data for numerical simulations are obtained by optical profilometry. For the case of the modelling process of 3D FEM models of rough surfaces the description of their building is included in this article. Furthermore, this paper discusses all challenges connected with the convergence of such simulations and essential post-processing of FEM simulation results, together with their comparison, along the results obtained by user-written MATLAB functions.

  6. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, Ryan D


    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized alpha-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original Ma...

  7. Roll levelling semi-analytical model for process optimization (United States)

    Silvestre, E.; Garcia, D.; Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Mendiguren, J.


    Roll levelling is a primary manufacturing process used to remove residual stresses and imperfections of metal strips in order to make them suitable for subsequent forming operations. In the last years the importance of this process has been evidenced with the apparition of Ultra High Strength Steels with strength > 900 MPa. The optimal setting of the machine as well as a robust machine design has become critical for the correct processing of these materials. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is the widely used technique for both aspects. However, in this case, the FEM simulation times are above the admissible ones in both machine development and process optimization. In the present work, a semi-analytical model based on a discrete bending theory is presented. This model is able to calculate the critical levelling parameters i.e. force, plastification rate, residual stresses in a few seconds. First the semi-analytical model is presented. Next, some experimental industrial cases are analyzed by both the semi-analytical model and the conventional FEM model. Finally, results and computation times of both methods are compared.

  8. An Analytic Radiative-Convective Model for Planetary Atmospheres (United States)

    Robinson, T. D.; Catling, D. C.


    A fundamental aspect of planetary atmospheres is the vertical thermal structure. Simple one-dimensional (vertical) models can provide reasonable estimates of a planet's global-mean temperature profile while providing insights into the physics behind the thermal profile of an atmosphere. The best basic models are those that incorporate the minimum amount of complexity while still remaining general enough to provide intuitive understanding. Here, we present an analytic 1-D radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres [1]. We assume that thermal radiative transfer is gray, and we include two shortwave channels for absorbed solar (or stellar) light so that the model can compute realistic stratospheric temperature inversions. A convective profile is placed at the base of the portion of the atmosphere that is in radiative equilibrium, and the model ensures that both the temperature profile and the upwelling flux profile are continuous across the radiation-convection boundary. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. The utility, validity, and generality of our model are demonstrated by applying it to a disparate range of worlds, including Jupiter, Venus, and Titan. Our model can be used to explain general observed phenomena in the Solar System [2], and we explore the behaviors of variants of our model, showing its ability to provide clear insights. Given the wealth of new problems posed by exoplanets, development of an analytic model with few parameters is likely to be useful for future application to such worlds, for which only limited data will be known. Our model can be used to help interpret

  9. Using Learning Analytics to Understand Scientific Modeling in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quigley


    Full Text Available Scientific models represent ideas, processes, and phenomena by describing important components, characteristics, and interactions. Models are constructed across various scientific disciplines, such as the food web in biology, the water cycle in Earth science, or the structure of the solar system in astronomy. Models are central for scientists to understand phenomena, construct explanations, and communicate theories. Constructing and using models to explain scientific phenomena is also an essential practice in contemporary science classrooms. Our research explores new techniques for understanding scientific modeling and engagement with modeling practices. We work with students in secondary biology classrooms as they use a web-based software tool—EcoSurvey—to characterize organisms and their interrelationships found in their local ecosystem. We use learning analytics and machine learning techniques to answer the following questions: (1 How can we automatically measure the extent to which students’ scientific models support complete explanations of phenomena? (2 How does the design of student modeling tools influence the complexity and completeness of students’ models? (3 How do clickstreams reflect and differentiate student engagement with modeling practices? We analyzed EcoSurvey usage data collected from two different deployments with over 1,000 secondary students across a large urban school district. We observe large variations in the completeness and complexity of student models, and large variations in their iterative refinement processes. These differences reveal that certain key model features are highly predictive of other aspects of the model. We also observe large differences in student modeling practices across different classrooms and teachers. We can predict a student’s teacher based on the observed modeling practices with a high degree of accuracy without significant tuning of the predictive model. These results highlight

  10. Analytical model of interaction of tide and river flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairot Chatanantavet


    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic characteristics of a river resulting from interaction of tide and river flow are important since problems regarding flood, salinity intrusion, water quality and sedimentation are ubiquitous. The lower reach of the river strongly influenced by tides from the sea, when interacting with river flows, results in a complicated pattern which is simplified to its interaction with four main constituents of tides obtained from harmonic analysis. An analytical model is developed in this study for simulating the hydrodynamic processes in estuarine waters, with the emphasis being given to the interaction between tides and river flows. The perturbation method is used to derive the analytical solution, in which the estuarine flow is separated into steady and unsteady components. Thus the analytical solutions derived consist of two distinct parts; one represents the influence of river flows and the other represents the influence of tides. The application of the model to a case study, the Chao Phraya river, which requires a time series of discharges and loadings at the river mouth to model water quality in the Gulf of Thailand, shows that the model can beautifully and completely simulate the hydrodynamic features of tide and river flow interaction especially in the rainy season when the river discharge is high. Data of tidal discharges are scarce because of high cost of measurement especially in the lower reach of the river strongly influenced by tides from the sea. From this study of relation between tidal discharges and tides, the analytical model can compute tidal discharges from tides correctly. The results of tides and tidal flow can subsequently be used to calculate eddy viscosity and dispersion coefficient for describing salinity and water quality profiles.

  11. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling (United States)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David


    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  12. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu


    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; O' Brien, James


    All BWR RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) systems use Terry turbine, which is composed of the wheel with turbine buckets and several groups of fixed nozzles and reversing chambers inside the turbine casing. The inlet steam is accelerated through the turbine nozzle and impacts on the wheel buckets, generating work to drive the RCIC pump. As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia National Laboratories’ original work, has been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. RELAP-7 is a new reactor system code currently under development with the funding support from U.S. Department of Energy. The RELAP-7 code is a fully implicit code and the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method is used to solve the discretized nonlinear system. This paper presents a set of analytical models for simulating the flow through the Terry turbine nozzles when inlet fluid is pure steam. The implementation of the models into RELAP-7 will be briefly discussed. In the Sandia model, the turbine bucket inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model, which was obtained from a large number of CFD simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine bucket inlet. The models include both adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and free expansion process out of the nozzle to reach the ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input conditions for the Terry Turbine rotor model. The nozzle analytical models were validated with experimental data and

  14. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm


    The abstract has the title: “The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model” The Cycle of Warfare is an analytical model designed to illustrate the coherence between the organization, doctrine and technology of a military entity and the influence of the surrounding society as expressed...... by its economic, political and ideological characteristics. With the single assumption of economic rationality in human behaviour, Cycle of Warfare is not only coherent, it is applicable to all entities engaged in competition anywhere in the world at any point in history. The Cycle of Warfare can be used...... both retrospectively and predictively. As a tool for historians the model can help to identify decisive factors in developments and outcomes. As a tool for intelligence analysts, it can be used predictively to identify likely possible outcomes or unknown elements in analysed entities....

  15. Analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Mauricio Valencia Ferreira da [University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail:; Dular, Patrick [University of Liege (Belgium). Institut Montefiore], E-mail:


    Grounding is the art of making an electrical connection to the earth. This paper deals with the analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems. An electrokinetic formulation using a scalar potential can benefit from floating potentials to define global quantities such as electric voltages and currents. The application concerns a single vertical grounding with one, two and three-layer soil, where the superior extremity stays in the surface of the soil. This problem has been modeled using a 2D axi-symmetric electrokinetic formulation. The grounding resistance obtained by finite element method is compared with the analytical one for one-layer soil. With the results of this paper it is possible to show that finite element method is a powerful tool in the analysis of the grounding systems in low frequencies. (author)

  16. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.


    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  17. Synthesis and Analytical Centrifugation of Magnetic Model Colloids


    Luigjes, B.


    This thesis is a study of the preparation and thermodynamic properties of magnetic colloids. First, two types of magnetic model colloids are investigated: composite colloids and single-domain nanoparticles. Thermodynamics of magnetic colloids is studied using analytical centrifugation, including a specially adapted centrifuge for measuring heavy and strongly light absorbing colloids. Magnetic composite colloids can be prepared from thermodynamically stable Pickering emulsions of 3-methacrylox...

  18. Dark Sage: Semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution (United States)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; Croton, Darren J.; Mutch, Simon J.; Sinha, Manodeep


    DARK SAGE is a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation that focuses on detailing the structure and evolution of galaxies' discs. The code-base, written in C, is an extension of SAGE (ascl:1601.006) and maintains the modularity of SAGE. DARK SAGE runs on any N-body simulation with trees organized in a supported format and containing a minimum set of basic halo properties.

  19. Analytic Scattering and Refraction Models for Exoplanet Transit Spectra (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hubbard, William B.


    Observations of exoplanet transit spectra are essential to understanding the physics and chemistry of distant worlds. The effects of opacity sources and many physical processes combine to set the shape of a transit spectrum. Two such key processes—refraction and cloud and/or haze forward-scattering—have seen substantial recent study. However, models of these processes are typically complex, which prevents their incorporation into observational analyses and standard transit spectrum tools. In this work, we develop analytic expressions that allow for the efficient parameterization of forward-scattering and refraction effects in transit spectra. We derive an effective slant optical depth that includes a correction for forward-scattered light, and present an analytic form of this correction. We validate our correction against a full-physics transit spectrum model that includes scattering, and we explore the extent to which the omission of forward-scattering effects may bias models. Also, we verify a common analytic expression for the location of a refractive boundary, which we express in terms of the maximum pressure probed in a transit spectrum. This expression is designed to be easily incorporated into existing tools, and we discuss how the detection of a refractive boundary could help indicate the background atmospheric composition by constraining the bulk refractivity of the atmosphere. Finally, we show that opacity from Rayleigh scattering and collision-induced absorption will outweigh the effects of refraction for Jupiter-like atmospheres whose equilibrium temperatures are above 400-500 K.

  20. An analytical thermohydraulic model for discretely fractured geothermal reservoirs (United States)

    Fox, Don B.; Koch, Donald L.; Tester, Jefferson W.


    In discretely fractured reservoirs such as those found in Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS), knowledge of the fracture network is important in understanding the thermal hydraulics, i.e., how the fluid flows and the resulting temporal evolution of the subsurface temperature. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model of the fluid flow and heat transport in a discretely fractured network that can be used for a wide range of modeling applications and serve as an alternative analysis tool to more computationally intensive numerical codes. Given the connectivity and structure of a fracture network, the flow in the system was solved using a linear system of algebraic equations for the pressure at the nodes of the network. With the flow determined, the temperature in the fracture was solved by coupling convective heat transport in the fracture with one-dimensional heat conduction perpendicular to the fracture, employing the Green's function derived solution for a single discrete fracture. The predicted temperatures along the fracture surfaces from the analytical solution were compared to numerical simulations using the TOUGH2 reservoir code. Through two case studies, we showed the capabilities of the analytical model and explored the effect of uncertainty in the fracture apertures and network structure on thermal performance. While both sources of uncertainty independently produce large variations in production temperature, uncertainty in the network structure, whenever present, had a predominant influence on thermal performance.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)


    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

  2. Analytical models quantify the military benefit of collaborative search (United States)

    Friedman, Melvin H.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Flug, Eric A.


    Analytical Model 1 describes how long it takes the first observer to find a target when multiple observers search a field of regard using imagery provided by a single sensor. This model, developed using probability concepts, suggests considerable benefits accrue from collaborative search: when P is near one and with ten observers the mean detection time (in reduced time) is reduced by almost an order of magnitude when compared to that of a single observer. To get the instant of detection in clock time we add the delay time td to the reduced time. Empirical fits for td and are also given in the paper. Model 1 was verified/validated by computer simulation and perception experiments. Here ten observers searched sixty computer generated fields of regard (each one was 60 x 20 degrees) for a single military vehicle. Analytical Model 2 describes how the probability of target acquisition increases with the number of observers. The results of Model 2 suggest that probability of target acquisition increases considerably when multiple observers independently search a field of regard. Model 2 was verified by simulation but not by perception experiment. Models 1 and 2 are pertinent to development of search strategies with multiple observers and are expected to find use in wargaming for evaluating the efficacy of networked imaging sensors.

  3. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming


    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  4. Experimental-analytical method of technological processes modeling in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov German I.


    Full Text Available The article considers general modeling techniques used in the study in education at different stages. The classification of different types of models and main stages of the simulation are considered. It is shown that in the course “Process of simulation” for technical areas of the Universities required the category of “Experimental-analytical simulation method”. For example, a new textbook for bachelors “Modeling of chemical-technological processes” shows that the section facilitates the compilation of process models in general; gives the possibility of studying the process at different levels; describes the nonlinear properties of the simulation objects, and to obtain refined adjustment of the model according to the experiment. The use of models of high accuracy can improve the quality of education.

  5. Statistical Model Based HPLC Analytical Method Adjustment Strategy to Adapt to Different Sets of Analytes in Complicated Samples. (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Bai, Xue; Sheng, Yunjie; Li, Fanzhu


    On account of the complicated compositions of the products like traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and functional foods, it is a common practice to determine different sets of analytes in the same product for different purposes. To efficiently develop the corresponding HPLC methods, a statistical model based analytical method adjustment (SMB-AMA) strategy was proposed. In this strategy, the HPLC data acquired with design of experiments methodology were efficiently utilised to build the retention models for all the analytes and interferences shown in the chromatograms with multivariate statistical modelling methods. According to the set of analytes under research, Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted based on these retention models to estimate the probability of achieving adequate separations between all the analytes and their interferences. Then the analytical parameters were mathematically optimised to the point giving a high value of this probability to compose a robust HPLC method. Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and its TCM formula with Folium Epimedii (FE) were taken as the complicated samples for case studies. The retention models for the compounds in RAS and FE were built independently with correlation coefficients all above 0.9799. The analytical parameters were tactfully adjusted to adapt to six cases of different sets of analytes and different sample matrices. In the validation experiments using the adjusted analytical parameters, satisfactory separations were acquired. The results demonstrated that the SMB-AMA strategy was able to develop HPLC methods rationally and rapidly in the adaption of different sets of analytes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S., E-mail:; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.


    Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  7. Collisionless magnetic reconnection: analytical model and PIC simulation comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Semenov


    Full Text Available Magnetic reconnection is believed to be responsible for various explosive processes in the space plasma including magnetospheric substorms. The Hall effect is proved to play a key role in the reconnection process. An analytical model of steady-state magnetic reconnection in a collisionless incompressible plasma is developed using the electron Hall MHD approximation. It is shown that the initial complicated system of equations may split into a system of independent equations, and the solution of the problem is based on the Grad-Shafranov equation for the magnetic potential. The results of the analytical study are further compared with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of reconnection. It is shown that both methods demonstrate a close agreement in the electron current and the magnetic and electric field structures obtained. The spatial scales of the acceleration region in the simulation and the analytical study are of the same order. Such features like particles trajectories and the in-plane electric field structure appear essentially similar in both models.

  8. Assessment and Comparison of Several Analytical Models of Water Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tassin


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the accuracy of several analytical models for the prediction of the hydrodynamic force and pressure distribution acting on a body entering initially calm water. The problem of water entry is important for the analysis of slamming loads undergone by boats operating in waves, as well as of the steady behaviour of high-speed planing vessels. The considered models are briefly described and the obtained results are compared to those of numerical computations and experimental observations for a number of two-dimensional and axisymmetric cases of water impact.

  9. Analytical & Numerical Modelings of Elliptical Superconducting Filament Magnetization

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Bouillault, F; Devred, Arnaud


    This paper deals with the two-dimensional computation of magnetization in an elliptic superconducting filament by using numerical and analytical methods. The numerical results are obtained from the finite element method and by using Bean's model. This model is well adapted for Low Tc superconductor studies. We observe the effect of the axis ratio and of the field angle to the magnetic moment per unit length at saturation, and also to the cycle of magnetization. Moreover, the current density and the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in the superconducting filament are also studied.

  10. Model and Analytic Processes for Export License Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Daly, Don S.; Brothers, Alan J.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry


    This paper represents the Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Simulations, Algorithms and Modeling (SAM) Program's first effort to identify and frame analytical methods and tools to aid export control professionals in effectively predicting proliferation intent; a complex, multi-step and multi-agency process. The report focuses on analytical modeling methodologies that alone, or combined, may improve the proliferation export control license approval process. It is a follow-up to an earlier paper describing information sources and environments related to international nuclear technology transfer. This report describes the decision criteria used to evaluate modeling techniques and tools to determine which approaches will be investigated during the final 2 years of the project. The report also details the motivation for why new modeling techniques and tools are needed. The analytical modeling methodologies will enable analysts to evaluate the information environment for relevance to detecting proliferation intent, with specific focus on assessing risks associated with transferring dual-use technologies. Dual-use technologies can be used in both weapons and commercial enterprises. A decision-framework was developed to evaluate which of the different analytical modeling methodologies would be most appropriate conditional on the uniqueness of the approach, data availability, laboratory capabilities, relevance to NA-22 and Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NA-24) research needs and the impact if successful. Modeling methodologies were divided into whether they could help micro-level assessments (e.g., help improve individual license assessments) or macro-level assessment. Macro-level assessment focuses on suppliers, technology, consumers, economies, and proliferation context. Macro-level assessment technologies scored higher in the area of uniqueness because less work has been done at the macro level. An

  11. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model (United States)

    Postnikov, E. B.


    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  12. An analytical Seebeck coefficient model for disordered organic semiconductors (United States)

    Shi, Xuewen; Lu, Nianduan; Xu, Guangwei; Cao, Jinchen; Han, Zhiheng; Yang, Guanhua; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming


    An analytical Seebeck coefficient model for disordered organic semiconductors based on hopping transport and percolation theory is proposed here. This model demonstrates the relationships between Seebeck coefficient and temperature, carrier concentration as well as disorder degree of materials. As compared with experimental data, the simulated results show a convincing coincidence with experimental results. Moreover, the effect from doping is addressed. The calculation results show that the Seebeck coefficient will decrease with increasing doping ratio, after passing a minimum value then a sharp increase of Seebeck coefficient appears.

  13. Analytical threshold voltage model for strained silicon GAA-TFET (United States)

    Kang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Hui-Yong; Wang, Bin


    Tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) are promising devices for low power applications. An analytical threshold voltage model, based on the channel surface potential and electric field obtained by solving the 2D Poisson’s equation, for strained silicon gate all around TFETs is proposed. The variation of the threshold voltage with device parameters, such as the strain (Ge mole fraction x), gate oxide thickness, gate oxide permittivity, and channel length has also been investigated. The threshold voltage model is extracted using the peak transconductance method and is verified by good agreement with the results obtained from the TCAD simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61474085).

  14. Environmental Effects On Galaxy Evolution In Semi-analytic Models (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Jung, I.; Yi, S.


    We have investigated the evolution of galaxy morphology and its mixture in various halo environments by taking advantages of N-body simulations and semi-analytic approach. Dark matter halos have different growth histories depending on the long-range density (voids vs clusters). Since dynamical properties of dark matter halos decide their merger timescales and galaxy properties residing in the halos, different dark matter halo assemblies make different galaxy merger histories. Thus, it is expected that galaxies in voids and clusters may show different evolutionary histories and morphology mixtures because galaxy mergers play a pivotal role in the galaxy morphology transformation. To examine it, dark matter halo merger trees in various density regions are extracted from N-body simulations, and the evolutionary histories of galaxies are computed with our semi-analytic model code based on the N-body backbones. We present the difference of evolutionary histories and morphology mixtures of galaxies that reside in voids and dense regions.

  15. Time Fractional Diffusion Equations and Analytical Solvable Models (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Zerbetto, Francesco


    The anomalous diffusion of a particle that moves in complex environments is analytically studied by means of the time fractional diffusion equation. The influence on the dynamics of a random moving particle caused by a uniform external field is taken into account. We extract analytical solutions in terms either of the Mittag-Leffler functions or of the M- Wright function for the probability distribution, for the velocity autocorrelation function as well as for the mean and the mean square displacement. Discussion of the applicability of the model to real systems is made in order to provide new insight of the medium from the analysis of the motion of a particle embedded in it.

  16. Analytical model of reactive transport processes with spatially variable coefficients. (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J; Morrow, Liam C


    Analytical solutions of partial differential equation (PDE) models describing reactive transport phenomena in saturated porous media are often used as screening tools to provide insight into contaminant fate and transport processes. While many practical modelling scenarios involve spatially variable coefficients, such as spatially variable flow velocity, v(x), or spatially variable decay rate, k(x), most analytical models deal with constant coefficients. Here we present a framework for constructing exact solutions of PDE models of reactive transport. Our approach is relevant for advection-dominant problems, and is based on a regular perturbation technique. We present a description of the solution technique for a range of one-dimensional scenarios involving constant and variable coefficients, and we show that the solutions compare well with numerical approximations. Our general approach applies to a range of initial conditions and various forms of v(x) and k(x). Instead of simply documenting specific solutions for particular cases, we present a symbolic worksheet, as supplementary material, which enables the solution to be evaluated for different choices of the initial condition, v(x) and k(x). We also discuss how the technique generalizes to apply to models of coupled multispecies reactive transport as well as higher dimensional problems.

  17. An analytical model for enantioseparation process in capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Ranzuglia, G. A.; Manzi, S. J.; Gomez, M. R.; Belardinelli, R. E.; Pereyra, V. D.


    An analytical model to explain the mobilities of enantiomer binary mixture in capillary electrophoresis experiment is proposed. The model consists in a set of kinetic equations describing the evolution of the populations of molecules involved in the enantioseparation process in capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed. These equations take into account the asymmetric driven migration of enantiomer molecules, chiral selector and the temporary diastomeric complexes, which are the products of the reversible reaction between the enantiomers and the chiral selector. The solution of these equations gives the spatial and temporal distribution of each species in the capillary, reproducing a typical signal of the electropherogram. The mobility, μ, of each specie is obtained by the position of the maximum (main peak) of their respective distributions. Thereby, the apparent electrophoretic mobility difference, Δμ, as a function of chiral selector concentration, [ C ] , can be measured. The behaviour of Δμ versus [ C ] is compared with the phenomenological model introduced by Wren and Rowe in J. Chromatography 1992, 603, 235. To test the analytical model, a capillary electrophoresis experiment for the enantiomeric separation of the (±)-chlorpheniramine β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) system is used. These data, as well as, other obtained from literature are in closed agreement with those obtained by the model. All these results are also corroborate by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Exploring SMBH assembly with semi-analytic modelling (United States)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Natarajan, Priyamvada


    We develop a semi-analytic model to explore different prescriptions of supermassive black hole (SMBH) fuelling. This model utilizes a merger-triggered burst mode in concert with two possible implementations of a long-lived steady mode for assembling the mass of the black hole in a galactic nucleus. We improve modelling of the galaxy-halo connection in order to more realistically determine the evolution of a halo's velocity dispersion. We use four model variants to explore a suite of observables: the M•-σ relation, mass functions of both the overall and broad-line quasar population, and luminosity functions as a function of redshift. We find that `downsizing' is a natural consequence of our improved velocity dispersion mappings, and that high-mass SMBHs assemble earlier than low-mass SMBHs. The burst mode of fuelling is sufficient to explain the assembly of SMBHs to z = 2, but an additional steady mode is required to both assemble low-mass SMBHs and reproduce the low-redshift luminosity function. We discuss in detail the trade-offs in matching various observables and the interconnected modelling components that govern them. As a result, we demonstrate the utility as well as the limitations of these semi-analytic techniques.

  19. Towards an analytical model of soft biological tissues. (United States)

    Federico, Salvatore; Herzog, Walter


    In the past years, soft-tissue modelling research has seen substantial developments, a significant part of which can be ascribed to the refinement of numerical techniques, such as Finite Element analysis. A large class of physico-mechanical properties can be effectively simulated and predictions can be made for a variety of phenomena. However, there is still much that can be conceptually explored by means of fundamental theoretical analysis. In the past few years, driven by our interest in articular cartilage mechanics, we have developed theoretical microstructural models for linear elasticity and permeability that accounted for the presence and arrangement of collagen fibres in cartilage. In this paper, we investigate analytically the non-linear elasticity of soft tissues with collagen fibres arranged according to a given distribution of orientation, a problem that, aside from the case of fibres aligned in a finite number of distinct directions, has been treated exclusively numerically in the literature. We show that, for the case of a tissue with complex fibre arrangement, such as articular cartilage, the theoretical framework commonly used leads to an integral expression of the elastic strain energy potential. The present model is a first attempt in the development of a unified analytical microstructural model for non-linear elasticity and permeability of hydrated, fibre-reinforced soft tissues.

  20. Analytical modeling of PEM fuel cell i-V curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji, Shaker [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)


    The performance of a fuel cell is characterized by its i-V curve. In this study, the performance of a bench scale fuel cell stack, run on hydrogen/air, is measured experimentally for different air flow rates and temperatures. The experimental data, obtained from the 40-W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), are used in estimating the parameters of a completely analytical model that describes the i-V curve. The analytical model consists of the three fundamental losses experienced by a fuel cell, namely: activation, ohmic, and concentration losses. The current loss is also considered in the model. While the Tafel constants, ohmic resistance, and the concentration loss constant are estimated through regression, the limiting current density and the current loss are obtained through measurements. The effect of temperature on the fuel cell performance, exchange current density, and current loss is also investigated. Both the exchange current density and the current loss are plotted against temperature on an Arrhenius-like plot and the related parameters are estimated. The theoretical equations derived in the literature, which model fuel cell performance, are found to reasonably fit the obtained experimental data. (author)

  1. A workflow learning model to improve geovisual analytics utility. (United States)

    Roth, Robert E; Maceachren, Alan M; McCabe, Craig A


    INTRODUCTION: This paper describes the design and implementation of the G-EX Portal Learn Module, a web-based, geocollaborative application for organizing and distributing digital learning artifacts. G-EX falls into the broader context of geovisual analytics, a new research area with the goal of supporting visually-mediated reasoning about large, multivariate, spatiotemporal information. Because this information is unprecedented in amount and complexity, GIScientists are tasked with the development of new tools and techniques to make sense of it. Our research addresses the challenge of implementing these geovisual analytics tools and techniques in a useful manner. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to develop and implement a method for improving the utility of geovisual analytics software. The success of software is measured by its usability (i.e., how easy the software is to use?) and utility (i.e., how useful the software is). The usability and utility of software can be improved by refining the software, increasing user knowledge about the software, or both. It is difficult to achieve transparent usability (i.e., software that is immediately usable without training) of geovisual analytics software because of the inherent complexity of the included tools and techniques. In these situations, improving user knowledge about the software through the provision of learning artifacts is as important, if not more so, than iterative refinement of the software itself. Therefore, our approach to improving utility is focused on educating the user. METHODOLOGY: The research reported here was completed in two steps. First, we developed a model for learning about geovisual analytics software. Many existing digital learning models assist only with use of the software to complete a specific task and provide limited assistance with its actual application. To move beyond task-oriented learning about software use, we propose a process-oriented approach to learning based on

  2. Digital forensics: an analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM). (United States)

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut


    In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic

  3. A hybrid finite-difference and analytic element groundwater model (United States)

    Haitjema, Henk M.; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hunt, Randall J.; Gusyev, Maksym


    Regional finite-difference models tend to have large cell sizes, often on the order of 1–2 km on a side. Although the regional flow patterns in deeper formations may be adequately represented by such a model, the intricate surface water and groundwater interactions in the shallower layers are not. Several stream reaches and nearby wells may occur in a single cell, precluding any meaningful modeling of the surface water and groundwater interactions between the individual features. We propose to replace the upper MODFLOW layer or layers, in which the surface water and groundwater interactions occur, by an analytic element model (GFLOW) that does not employ a model grid; instead, it represents wells and surface waters directly by the use of point-sinks and line-sinks. For many practical cases it suffices to provide GFLOW with the vertical leakage rates calculated in the original coarse MODFLOW model in order to obtain a good representation of surface water and groundwater interactions. However, when the combined transmissivities in the deeper (MODFLOW) layers dominate, the accuracy of the GFLOW solution diminishes. For those cases, an iterative coupling procedure, whereby the leakages between the GFLOW and MODFLOW model are updated, appreciably improves the overall solution, albeit at considerable computational cost. The coupled GFLOW–MODFLOW model is applicable to relatively large areas, in many cases to the entire model domain, thus forming an attractive alternative to local grid refinement or inset models.

  4. Mutual coupling of hydrologic and hydrodynamic models - a viable approach for improved large-scale inundation estimates? (United States)

    Hoch, Jannis; Winsemius, Hessel; van Beek, Ludovicus; Haag, Arjen; Bierkens, Marc


    Due to their increasing occurrence rate and associated economic costs, fluvial floods are large-scale and cross-border phenomena that need to be well understood. Sound information about temporal and spatial variations of flood hazard is essential for adequate flood risk management and climate change adaption measures. While progress has been made in assessments of flood hazard and risk on the global scale, studies to date have made compromises between spatial resolution on the one hand and local detail that influences their temporal characteristics (rate of rise, duration) on the other. Moreover, global models cannot realistically model flood wave propagation due to a lack of detail in channel and floodplain geometry, and the representation of hydrologic processes influencing the surface water balance such as open water evaporation from inundated water and re-infiltration of water in river banks. To overcome these restrictions and to obtain a better understanding of flood propagation including its spatio-temporal variations at the large scale, yet at a sufficiently high resolution, the present study aims to develop a large-scale modeling tool by coupling the global hydrologic model PCR-GLOBWB and the recently developed hydrodynamic model DELFT3D-FM. The first computes surface water volumes which are routed by the latter, solving the full Saint-Venant equations. With DELFT3D FM being capable of representing the model domain as a flexible mesh, model accuracy is only improved at relevant locations (river and adjacent floodplain) and the computation time is not unnecessarily increased. This efficiency is very advantageous for large-scale modelling approaches. The model domain is thereby schematized by 2D floodplains, being derived from global data sets (HydroSHEDS and G3WBM, respectively). Since a previous study with 1way-coupling showed good model performance (J.M. Hoch et al., in prep.), this approach was extended to 2way-coupling to fully represent evaporation

  5. What's in a likelihood? Simple models of protein evolution and the contribution of structurally viable reconstructions to the likelihood. (United States)

    Lakner, Clemens; Holder, Mark T; Goldman, Nick; Naylor, Gavin J P


    Most phylogenetic models of protein evolution assume that sites are independent and identically distributed. Interactions between sites are ignored, and the likelihood can be conveniently calculated as the product of the individual site likelihoods. The calculation considers all possible transition paths (also called substitution histories or mappings) that are consistent with the observed states at the terminals, and the probability density of any particular reconstruction depends on the substitution model. The likelihood is the integral of the probability density of each substitution history taken over all possible histories that are consistent with the observed data. We investigated the extent to which transition paths that are incompatible with a protein's three-dimensional structure contribute to the likelihood. Several empirical amino acid models were tested for sequence pairs of different degrees of divergence. When simulating substitutional histories starting from a real sequence, the structural integrity of the simulated sequences quickly disintegrated. This result indicates that simple models are clearly unable to capture the constraints on sequence evolution. However, when we sampled transition paths between real sequences from the posterior probability distribution according to these same models, we found that the sampled histories were largely consistent with the tertiary structure. This suggests that simple empirical substitution models may be adequate for interpolating changes between observed sequences during phylogenetic inference despite the fact that the models cannot predict the effects of structural constraints from first principles. This study is significant because it provides a quantitative assessment of the biological realism of substitution models from the perspective of protein structure, and it provides insight on the prospects for improving models of protein sequence evolution.

  6. Analytical model of corn cob Pyroprobe-FTIR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jie; YuHong, Qin [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Green, Alex E.S. [Clean Combustion Technology Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6550 (United States)


    Pyrolysis of various forms of biomass could convert this primary energy source into valuable liquid or gaseous fuels or chemicals. In this study a CDS 2000 Pyroprobe, with a Bio-Rad FTS165 FTIR detector are used to measure yields of 3 products and 7 families of products from corn cobs pyrolysis at temperatures up to 900{sup o}C using a wide range of heating rates. An analytical semi-empirical model is then used to approximately represent these results using a relatively small number of parameters. The compact representation can be used in applications to conveniently extrapolate and interpolate these results to other temperatures and heating rates. (author)

  7. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.


    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  8. A temporal model for Clinical Data Analytics language. (United States)

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D


    The proposal of a special purpose language for Clinical Data Analytics (CliniDAL) is presented along with a general model for expressing temporal events in the language. The temporal dimension of clinical data needs to be addressed from at least five different points of view. Firstly, how to attach the knowledge of time based constraints to queries; secondly, how to mine temporal data in different CISs with various data models; thirdly, how to deal with both relative time and absolute time in the query language; fourthly, how to tackle internal time-event dependencies in queries, and finally, how to manage historical time events preserved in the patient's narrative. The temporal elements of the language are defined in Bachus Naur Form (BNF) along with a UML schema. Its use in a designed taxonomy of a five class hierarchy of data analytics tasks shows the solution to problems of time event dependencies in a highly complex cascade of queries needed to evaluate scientific experiments. The issues in using the model in a practical way are discussed as well.

  9. Analytic models of CMOS logic in various regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Branko


    Full Text Available In this paper, comparative analytic models of static and dynamic characteristics of CMOS digital circuits in strong, weak and mixed inversion regime have been described. Term mixed inversion is defined for the first time. The paper shows that there is an analogy in behavior and functional dependencies of parameters in all three CMOS regimes. Comparative characteristics of power consumption and speed in static regimes are given. Dependency of threshold voltage and logic delay time on temperature has been analyzed. Dynamic model with constant current is proposed. It is shown that digital circuits with dynamic threshold voltage of MOS transistor (DT-CMOS have better logic delay characteristics. The analysis is based on simplified current-voltage MOS transistor models in strong and weak inversion regimes, as well as PSPICE software using 180 nm technology parameters.

  10. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R.K.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.


    This study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a

  11. The "Surgeon on Service" Model for Timely, Economically Viable Inpatient Care of Tracheostomy Patients in Academic Pediatric Otolaryngology. (United States)

    Lavin, Jennifer M; Schroeder, James W; Thompson, Dana M


    The traditional practice model for pediatric otolaryngologists at high-volume academic centers is to simultaneously balance outpatient care responsibilities with those of the inpatient service, emergency department, and ambulatory care clinics. This model leads to challenges with care coordination, timeliness of nonemergency operative care, and consistent participation in care and consultation at the attending surgeon level. The "surgeon on service" (SOS) model-where faculty members rotate to manage the inpatient service in lieu of outpatient responsibilities-has been described as one method to address this conundrum. The operational and economic feasibility of the SOS model has been demonstrated; however, its impact on care coordination, time from consultation to surgical care, and length of stay (LOS) have not been evaluated. To determine the impact of the SOS model on the quality principles of timeliness and efficiency of tracheostomy tube placement and to determine if the SOS model is fiscally feasible in an academic pediatric otolaryngology practice. Medical record review of patients undergoing tracheostomy in a pediatric academic medical center and survey of their treating physician trainees, comparing the 6-month SOS pilot phase (postimplementation, January-June 2016) with the 6-month preimplementation period (January-June 2015). Implementation of the SOS model. Time to tracheostomy, frequency of successful coordination of tracheostomy with gastrostomy tube placement, total LOS, productivity measured in work relative value units, and responses to trainee surveys. Of the 41 patients included in the study (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age, 3 years; range, 3 months to 17 years), 15 were treated before SOS implementation, and 26 after. Also included were 21 trainees. Before SOS implementation, median time to tracheostomy was 7 days (range, 2-20 days); after SOS implementation, it was 4 days (range, 1-10 days) (difference between the medians, before to after, -3

  12. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos


    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  13. An analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species (United States)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj; Pankaj Mehta Biophysics Theory Group Team

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is to understand how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration yield observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we present an analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly and use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, diversity in competition, and stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In our PA model, we treat species as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent work on large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special (``critical'') point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. Our results suggest that the concepts of ``phases'' and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly. Pm was supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems and a Sloan Research Fellowship.

  14. Quantum quench dynamics in analytically solvable one-dimensional models (United States)

    Iucci, Anibal; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Giamarchi, Thierry


    In connection with experiments in cold atomic systems, we consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of some analytically solvable one-dimensional systems which undergo a quantum quench. In this quench one or several of the parameters of the Hamiltonian of an interacting quantum system are changed over a very short time scale. In particular, we concentrate on the Luttinger model and the sine-Gordon model in the Luther-Emery point. For the latter, we show that the order parameter and the two-point correlation function relax in the long time limit to the values determined by a generalized Gibbs ensemble first discussed by J. T. Jaynes [Phys. Rev. 106, 620 (1957); 108, 171 (1957)], and recently conjectured by M. Rigol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050405 (2007)] to apply to the non-equilibrium dynamics of integrable systems.

  15. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    -uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...... rotationally symmetric, and the rotor inflow fields are consistently assumed uniform. Expansion of stationary wake fields is believed to be significantly affected by meandering of wake deficits as e.g. described by the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. In the present context, this effect is approximately...... approximately linearly with the downstream distance. The link from a non-uniform wind farm wind field, consisting of linear perturbations on the ambient non-uniform mean wind field, to a fictitious uniform wake generating inflow field is established using two different averaging approaches – a linear and a non-linear...

  16. Analytical and numerical performance models of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (United States)

    Bunge, C. D.; Cavender, K. A.; Matveev, K. I.; Leachman, J. W.


    Analytical and numerical investigations of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (HVT) are performed to estimate the cooling potential with cryogenic hydrogen. The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT) is a device that tangentially injects a compressed fluid stream into a cylindrical geometry to promote enthalpy streaming and temperature separation between inner and outer flows. The HVT is the result of lining the inside of a RHVT with a hydrogen catalyst. This is the first concept to utilize the endothermic heat of para-orthohydrogen conversion to aid primary cooling. A review of 1st order vortex tube models available in the literature is presented and adapted to accommodate cryogenic hydrogen properties. These first order model predictions are compared with 2-D axisymmetric Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  17. The effects of solution chemistry on the sticking efficiencies of viable Enterococcus faecalis: An atomic force microscopy and modeling study (United States)

    Cail, Tracy L.; Hochella, Michael F.


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in combination with the interaction force boundary layer (IFBL) model have been used to empirically and theoretically calculate sticking efficiencies (α) of Enterococcus faecalis cells against a silica glass surface. Sticking efficiencies were calculated in solutions of varying pH and ionic strength and related to maximum distances of transport through a hypothetical soil block using colloid filtration theory. AFM measurements show that the repulsive and attractive forces between E. faecalis cells and a glass surface are a function of ionic strength but are less sensitive to changes in solution pH. Zeta (ζ)-potential measurements of the cells and glass surfaces correlate with these trends. Calculated DLVO energy profiles predict much greater sensitivity to changing solution chemistry. Sticking efficiencies derived from AFM measurements range from 9.6 × 10 -17 to 1 in solutions of low ionic strength (IS) and from 2.6 × 10 -33 to 1 at higher IS. Corresponding α values determined from DLVO theory are essentially zero in all tested solutions. Sticking efficiencies calculated in this study are smaller than values determined from column and field studies in similar systems; however, α derived from AFM data and the IFBL model more closely represent field data than do values calculated from DLVO energy values. A comparison with different methods of calculating α suggests that reversible adhesion may be significant in column-scale transport studies.

  18. Analytical modelling of regional radiotherapy dose response of lung (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Stroian, Gabriela; Kopek, Neil; AlBahhar, Mahmood; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam


    Knowledge of the dose-response of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is necessary for optimization of radiotherapy (RT) treatment plans involving thoracic cavity irradiation. This study models the time-dependent relationship between local radiation dose and post-treatment lung tissue damage measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Fifty-eight follow-up diagnostic CT scans from 21 non-small-cell lung cancer patients were examined. The extent of RILD was segmented on the follow-up CT images based on the increase of physical density relative to the pre-treatment CT image. The segmented RILD was locally correlated with dose distribution calculated by analytical anisotropic algorithm and the Monte Carlo method to generate the corresponding dose-response curves. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model was fit to the dose-response curves at six post-RT time periods, and temporal change in the LKB parameters was recorded. In this study, we observed significant correlation between the probability of lung tissue damage and the local dose for 96% of the follow-up studies. Dose-injury correlation at the first three months after RT was significantly different from later follow-up periods in terms of steepness and threshold dose as estimated from the LKB model. Dependence of dose response on superior-inferior tumour position was also observed. The time-dependent analytical modelling of RILD might provide better understanding of the long-term behaviour of the disease and could potentially be applied to improve inverse treatment planning optimization.

  19. Progressive Learning of Topic Modeling Parameters: A Visual Analytics Framework. (United States)

    El-Assady, Mennatallah; Sevastjanova, Rita; Sperrle, Fabian; Keim, Daniel; Collins, Christopher


    Topic modeling algorithms are widely used to analyze the thematic composition of text corpora but remain difficult to interpret and adjust. Addressing these limitations, we present a modular visual analytics framework, tackling the understandability and adaptability of topic models through a user-driven reinforcement learning process which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying topic modeling algorithms. Given a document corpus, our approach initializes two algorithm configurations based on a parameter space analysis that enhances document separability. We abstract the model complexity in an interactive visual workspace for exploring the automatic matching results of two models, investigating topic summaries, analyzing parameter distributions, and reviewing documents. The main contribution of our work is an iterative decision-making technique in which users provide a document-based relevance feedback that allows the framework to converge to a user-endorsed topic distribution. We also report feedback from a two-stage study which shows that our technique results in topic model quality improvements on two independent measures.

  20. Analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species. (United States)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles K; Mehta, Pankaj


    A fundamental problem in community ecology is understanding how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration give rise to observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we analyze a recently introduced, analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly, and we use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, the amount of diversity, and demographic and environmental stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In the PA model, species are treated as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Building upon previous work, we show that, despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent studies of large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special ("critical") point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. These results suggest that the concepts of ecological "phases" and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology, and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly.

  1. A hidden analytic structure of the Rabi model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroz, Alexander, E-mail:


    The Rabi model describes the simplest interaction between a cavity mode with a frequency ω{sub c} and a two-level system with a resonance frequency ω{sub 0}. It is shown here that the spectrum of the Rabi model coincides with the support of the discrete Stieltjes integral measure in the orthogonality relations of recently introduced orthogonal polynomials. The exactly solvable limit of the Rabi model corresponding to Δ=ω{sub 0}/(2ω{sub c})=0, which describes a displaced harmonic oscillator, is characterized by the discrete Charlier polynomials in normalized energy ϵ, which are orthogonal on an equidistant lattice. A non-zero value of Δ leads to non-classical discrete orthogonal polynomials ϕ{sub k}(ϵ) and induces a deformation of the underlying equidistant lattice. The results provide a basis for a novel analytic method of solving the Rabi model. The number of ca. 1350 calculable energy levels per parity subspace obtained in double precision (cca 16 digits) by an elementary stepping algorithm is up to two orders of magnitude higher than is possible to obtain by Braak’s solution. Any first n eigenvalues of the Rabi model arranged in increasing order can be determined as zeros of ϕ{sub N}(ϵ) of at least the degree N=n+n{sub t}. The value of n{sub t}>0, which is slowly increasing with n, depends on the required precision. For instance, n{sub t}≃26 for n=1000 and dimensionless interaction constant κ=0.2, if double precision is required. Given that the sequence of the lth zeros x{sub nl}’s of ϕ{sub n}(ϵ)’s defines a monotonically decreasing discrete flow with increasing n, the Rabi model is indistinguishable from an algebraically solvable model in any finite precision. Although we can rigorously prove our results only for dimensionless interaction constant κ<1, numerics and exactly solvable example suggest that the main conclusions remain to be valid also for κ≥1. -- Highlights: •A significantly simplified analytic solution of the Rabi model

  2. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios (United States)

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R. K.; van Dam, J. C.; Feddes, R. A.


    SummaryThis study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km 2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a distributed manner generating the required hydrological and biophysical variables to evaluate alternative water management scenarios at different spatial and temporal scales. Simulation results for the period 1991-2001 show that the water and salt limited crop production is 1.2-2.0 times higher than the actual recorded crop production. Improved crop husbandry in terms of improved crop varieties, timely sowing, better nutrient supply and more effective weed, pest and disease control, will increase crop yields and water productivity in Sirsa district. The scenario results further showed that reduction of seepage losses to 25-30% of the total canal inflow and reallocation of 15% canal water inflow from the northern to the central canal commands will improve significantly the long term water productivity, halt the rising and declining groundwater levels, and decrease the salinization in Sirsa district.

  3. Viable dark matter via radiative symmetry breaking in a scalar singlet Higgs portal extension of the standard model. (United States)

    Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Contreras, D; Mann, R B


    We consider the generation of dark matter mass via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an extension of the conformal standard model containing a singlet scalar field with a Higgs portal interaction. Generating the mass from a sequential process of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking followed by a conventional Higgs mechanism can account for less than 35% of the cosmological dark matter abundance for dark matter mass M(s)>80 GeV. However, in a dynamical approach where both Higgs and scalar singlet masses are generated via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, we obtain much higher levels of dark matter abundance. At one-loop level we find abundances of 10%-100% with 106 GeVdark matter mass. The dynamical approach also predicts a small scalar-singlet self-coupling, providing a natural explanation for the astrophysical observations that place upper bounds on dark matter self-interaction. The predictions in all three approaches are within the M(s)>80 GeV detection region of the next generation XENON experiment.

  4. Exploring Higher Education Governance: Analytical Models and Heuristic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan FINDIKLI


    Full Text Available Governance in higher education, both at institutional and systemic levels, has experienced substantial changes within recent decades because of a range of world-historical processes such as massification, growth, globalization, marketization, public sector reforms, and the emergence of knowledge economy and society. These developments have made governance arrangements and decision-making processes in higher education more complex and multidimensional more than ever and forced scholars to build new analytical and heuristic tools and strategies to grasp the intricacy and diversity of higher education governance dynamics. This article provides a systematic discussion of how and through which tools prominent scholars of higher education have analyzed governance in this sector by examining certain heuristic frameworks and analytical models. Additionally, the article shows how social scientific analysis of governance in higher education has proceeded in a cumulative way with certain revisions and syntheses rather than radical conceptual and theoretical ruptures from Burton R. Clark’s seminal work to the present, revealing conceptual and empirical junctures between them.

  5. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Sobchuk, A N [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)


    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  6. Analytic model and frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jet actuator (United States)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Song, Hui-min; Zhang, Zhi-bo; Jia, Min


    This paper reports a novel analytic model of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), considering both the heat transfer effect and the inertia of the throat gas. Both the whole cycle characteristics and the repetitive working process of PSJA can be predicted with this model. The frequency characteristics of a PSJA with 87 mm3 volume and different orifice diameters are investigated based on the analytic model combined with experiments. In the repetitive working mode, the actuator works initially in the transitional stage with 20 cycles and then in the dynamic balanced stage. During the transitional stage, major performance parameters of PSJA experience stepped growth, while during the dynamic balanced stage, these parameters are characterized by periodic variation. With a constant discharge energy of 6.9 mJ, there exists a saturated frequency of 4 kHz/6 kHz for an orifice diameter of 1 mm/1.5 mm, at which the time-averaged total pressure of the pulsed jet reaches a maximum. Between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm, a larger orifice diameter leads to a higher saturated frequency due to the reduced jet duration time. As the actuation frequency increases, both the time-averaged cavity temperature and the peak jet velocity initially increase and then remain almost unchanged at 1600 K and 280 m/s, respectively. Besides, with increasing frequency, the mechanical energy incorporated in single pulsed jet, the expelled mass per pulse, and the time-averaged density in the cavity, decline in a stair stepping way, which is caused by the intermittent decrease of refresh stage duration in one period.

  7. Analytical Modeling of Shale Hydraulic Fracturing and Gas Production (United States)

    Xu, W.


    Shale gas is abundant all over the world. Due to its extremely low permeability, extensive stimulation of a shale reservoir is always required for its economic production. Hydraulic fracturing has been the primary method of shale reservoir stimulation. Consequently the design and optimization of a hydraulic fracturing treatment plays a vital role insuring job success and economic production. Due to the many variables involved and the lack of a simple yet robust tool based on fundamental physics, horizontal well placement and fracturing job designs have to certain degree been a guessing game built on previous trial and error experience. This paper presents a method for hydraulic fracturing design and optimization in these environments. The growth of a complex hydraulic fracture network (HFN) during a fracturing job is equivalently represented by a wiremesh fracturing model (WFM) constructed on the basis of fracture mechanics and mass balance. The model also simulates proppant transport and placement during HFN growth. Results of WFM simulations can then be used as the input into a wiremesh production model (WPM) constructed based on WFM. WPM represents gas flow through the wiremesh HFN by an elliptic flow and the flow of gas in shale matrix by a novel analytical solution accounting for contributions from both free and adsorbed gases stored in the pore space. WPM simulation is validated by testing against numerical simulations using a commercially available reservoir production simulator. Due to the analytical nature of WFM and WPM, both hydraulic fracturing and gas production simulations run very fast on a regular personal computer and are suitable for hydraulic fracturing job design and optimization. A case study is presented to demonstrate how a non-optimized hydraulic fracturing job might have been optimized using WFM and WPM simulations.Fig. 1. Ellipsoidal representation of (a) stimulated reservoir and (b) hydraulic fracture network created by hydraulic

  8. Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator (United States)

    Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo


    Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.

  9. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC; Ross, Timothy J. [UNM


    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  10. Design of homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers based on analytical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa


    We present a design method of homogeneous trench-assisted multicore fibers (TA-MCFs) based on an analytical model utilizing an analytical expression for the mode coupling coefficient between two adjacent cores. The analytical model can also be used for crosstalk (XT) properties analysis, such as ...

  11. High-Performance data flows using analytical models and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Towlsey, D. [University of Massachusetts; Vardoyan, G. [University of Massachusetts; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Foster, I. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Settlemyer, Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)


    The combination of analytical models and measurements provide practical configurations and parameters to achieve high data transport rates: (a) buffer sizes and number of parallel streams for improved memory and file transfer rates, (b) Hamilton and Scalable TCP congestion control modules for memory transfers in place of default CUBIC, and (c) direct IO mode for Lustre file systems for wide-area transfers. Conventional parameter selection using full sweeps is impractical in many cases since it takes months. By exploiting the unimodality of throughput profiles, we developed the d-w method that significantly reduces the number of measurements needed for parameter identification. This heuristic method was effective in practice in reducing the measurements by about 90% for Lustre and XFS file transfers.

  12. An Analytical Model of Joule Heating in Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongdu Cho


    Full Text Available The present study investigates Joule heating in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. Joule heating and thermal deflections are a major source of noise in such sensors. This work uses analytical and numerical techniques to characterise the Joule heating in 4-layer piezoresistive microcantilevers made of silicon and silicon dioxide substrates but with the same U-shaped silicon piezoresistor. A theoretical model for predicting the temperature generated due to Joule heating is developed. The commercial finite element software ANSYS Multiphysics was used to study the effect of electrical potential on temperature and deflection produced in the cantilevers. The effect of piezoresistor width on Joule heating is also studied. Results show that Joule heating strongly depends on the applied potential and width of piezoresistor and that a silicon substrate cantilever has better thermal characteristics than a silicon dioxide cantilever.

  13. Analytical model for CO(2) laser ablation of fused quartz. (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Baker, Howard J; Hall, Denis R


    This paper reports the development of an analytical model, with supporting experimental data, which quite accurately describes the key features of CO2 laser ablation of fused silica glass. The quantitative model of nonexplosive, evaporative material removal is shown to match the experimental data very well, to the extent that it can be used as a tool for ablative measurements of absorption coefficient and vaporization energy. The experimental results indicated that a minimum of 12  MJ kg-1 is required to fully vaporize fused quartz initially held at room temperature, which is in good agreement with the prediction of the model supplied with input data available in the literature. An optimal window for the machining of fused quartz was revealed in terms of pulse duration 20-80 μs and CO2 laser wavelength optimized for maximum absorption coefficient. Material removal rates of 0.33 μm per J cm-2 allow for a high-precision depth control with modest laser stability. The model may also be used as a parameter selection guide for CO2 laser ablation of fused silica or other materials of similar thermophysical properties.

  14. A hidden analytic structure of the Rabi model (United States)

    Moroz, Alexander


    The Rabi model describes the simplest interaction between a cavity mode with a frequency ωc and a two-level system with a resonance frequency ω0. It is shown here that the spectrum of the Rabi model coincides with the support of the discrete Stieltjes integral measure in the orthogonality relations of recently introduced orthogonal polynomials. The exactly solvable limit of the Rabi model corresponding to Δ=ω0/(2ωc)=0, which describes a displaced harmonic oscillator, is characterized by the discrete Charlier polynomials in normalized energy ɛ, which are orthogonal on an equidistant lattice. A non-zero value of Δ leads to non-classical discrete orthogonal polynomials ϕk(ɛ) and induces a deformation of the underlying equidistant lattice. The results provide a basis for a novel analytic method of solving the Rabi model. The number of ca. 1350 calculable energy levels per parity subspace obtained in double precision (cca 16 digits) by an elementary stepping algorithm is up to two orders of magnitude higher than is possible to obtain by Braak's solution. Any first n eigenvalues of the Rabi model arranged in increasing order can be determined as zeros of ϕN(ɛ) of at least the degree N=n+nt. The value of nt>0, which is slowly increasing with n, depends on the required precision. For instance, nt≃26 for n=1000 and dimensionless interaction constant κ=0.2, if double precision is required. Given that the sequence of the lth zeros x's of ϕn(ɛ)'s defines a monotonically decreasing discrete flow with increasing n, the Rabi model is indistinguishable from an algebraically solvable model in any finite precision. Although we can rigorously prove our results only for dimensionless interaction constant κ<1, numerics and exactly solvable example suggest that the main conclusions remain to be valid also for κ≥1.

  15. Galactic conformity measured in semi-analytic models (United States)

    Lacerna, I.; Contreras, S.; González, R. E.; Padilla, N.; Gonzalez-Perez, V.


    We study the correlation between the specific star formation rate of central galaxies and neighbour galaxies, also known as `galactic conformity', out to 20 h^{-1} {Mpc} using three semi-analytic models (SAMs, one from L-GALAXIES and other two from GALFORM). The aim is to establish whether SAMs are able to show galactic conformity using different models and selection criteria. In all the models, when the selection of primary galaxies is based on an isolation criterion in real space, the mean fraction of quenched (Q) galaxies around Q primary galaxies is higher than that around star-forming primary galaxies of the same stellar mass. The overall signal of conformity decreases when we remove satellites selected as primary galaxies, but the effect is much stronger in GALFORM models compared with the L-GALAXIES model. We find this difference is partially explained by the fact that in GALFORM once a galaxy becomes a satellite remains as such, whereas satellites can become centrals at a later time in L-GALAXIES. The signal of conformity decreases down to 60 per cent in the L-GALAXIES model after removing central galaxies that were ejected from their host halo in the past. Galactic conformity is also influenced by primary galaxies at fixed stellar mass that reside in dark matter haloes of different masses. Finally, we explore a proxy of conformity between distinct haloes. In this case, the conformity is weak beyond ˜3 h^{-1} {Mpc} (conformity is directly related with a long-range effect.

  16. Analytical modelling for ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Rong Huang


    Full Text Available The grain refinement, gradient structure, fatigue limit, hardness, and tensile strength of metallic materials can be effectively enhanced by ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT, however, never before has SMAT been treated with rigorous analytical modelling such as the connection among the input energy and power and resultant temperature of metallic materials subjected to SMAT. Therefore, a systematic SMAT model is actually needed. In this article, we have calculated the averaged speed, duration time of a cycle, kinetic energy and kinetic energy loss of flying balls in SMAT for structural metallic materials. The connection among the quantities such as the frequency and amplitude of attrition ultrasonic vibration motor, the diameter, mass and density of balls, the sample mass, and the height of chamber have been considered and modelled in details. And we have introduced the one-dimensional heat equation with heat source within uniform-distributed depth in estimating the temperature distribution and heat energy of sample. In this approach, there exists a condition for the frequency of flying balls reaching a steady speed. With these known quantities, we can estimate the strain rate, hardness, and grain size of sample.

  17. Machine learning and cosmological simulations - I. Semi-analytical models (United States)

    Kamdar, Harshil M.; Turk, Matthew J.; Brunner, Robert J.


    We present a new exploratory framework to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical Universe by using machine learning (ML). Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively analysing the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on galaxies in the backdrop of semi-analytical models (SAMs). We use the influential Millennium Simulation and the corresponding Munich SAM to train and test various sophisticated ML algorithms (k-Nearest Neighbors, decision trees, random forests, and extremely randomized trees). By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties for haloes of M > 1012 M⊙ and a partial merger tree, our model predicts the hot gas mass, cold gas mass, bulge mass, total stellar mass, black hole mass and cooling radius at z = 0 for each central galaxy in a dark matter halo for the Millennium run. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon SAMs and demonstrably place ML as a promising and a computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation.

  18. Analytical modelling for ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Tsai, W. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Hu, Chin-Kun


    The grain refinement, gradient structure, fatigue limit, hardness, and tensile strength of metallic materials can be effectively enhanced by ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), however, never before has SMAT been treated with rigorous analytical modelling such as the connection among the input energy and power and resultant temperature of metallic materials subjected to SMAT. Therefore, a systematic SMAT model is actually needed. In this article, we have calculated the averaged speed, duration time of a cycle, kinetic energy and kinetic energy loss of flying balls in SMAT for structural metallic materials. The connection among the quantities such as the frequency and amplitude of attrition ultrasonic vibration motor, the diameter, mass and density of balls, the sample mass, and the height of chamber have been considered and modelled in details. And we have introduced the one-dimensional heat equation with heat source within uniform-distributed depth in estimating the temperature distribution and heat energy of sample. In this approach, there exists a condition for the frequency of flying balls reaching a steady speed. With these known quantities, we can estimate the strain rate, hardness, and grain size of sample.

  19. Flood risk assessment model using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kerkez


    Full Text Available Sustainable development and natural disasters are closely interlinked. The impact of catastrophic events on the environment is still very difficult to determine, and such losses are generally underestimated. Development is never neutral in relation to catastrophes: it creates, enhances or reduces the risk of their occurrence. Selection of appropriate methods and mathematical models for risk assessment in relation to the specific features and characteristics of the considered system and available information and resources, is a key parameter of reliability assessment. Numerous authors applied AHP methods with flood risk assessment, but very limited literature is avaliable on the use of fuzzy multiobjective analysis in flood studies. In the recent years, the fuzzy approach for flood risk assessments has gained greater importance. In this paper, we present the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP model for flood risk assessments. Two flood hazard indexes were defined, one based on natural factors and one based on anthropogenic factors. FAHP is applied to data sets to illustrate a model.

  20. Applying fuzzy analytic network process in quality function deployment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Afsharkazemi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an empirical study of QFD implementation when fuzzy numbers are used to handle the uncertainty associated with different components of the proposed model. We implement fuzzy analytical network to find the relative importance of various criteria and using fuzzy numbers we calculate the relative importance of these factors. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy matrix and house of quality to study the products development in QFD and also the second phase i.e. part deployment. In most researches, the primary objective is only on CRs to implement the quality function deployment and some other criteria such as production costs, manufacturing costs etc were disregarded. The results of using fuzzy analysis network process based on the QFD model in Daroupat packaging company to develop PVDC show that the most important indexes are being waterproof, resistant pill packages, and production cost. In addition, the PVDC coating is the most important index in terms of company experts’ point of view.

  1. Enabling analytical and Modeling Tools for Enhanced Disease Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn K. Manley


    Early detection, identification, and warning are essential to minimize casualties from a biological attack. For covert attacks, sick people are likely to provide the first indication of an attack. An enhanced medical surveillance system that synthesizes distributed health indicator information and rapidly analyzes the information can dramatically increase the number of lives saved. Current surveillance methods to detect both biological attacks and natural outbreaks are hindered by factors such as distributed ownership of information, incompatible data storage and analysis programs, and patient privacy concerns. Moreover, because data are not widely shared, few data mining algorithms have been tested on and applied to diverse health indicator data. This project addressed both integration of multiple data sources and development and integration of analytical tools for rapid detection of disease outbreaks. As a first prototype, we developed an application to query and display distributed patient records. This application incorporated need-to-know access control and incorporated data from standard commercial databases. We developed and tested two different algorithms for outbreak recognition. The first is a pattern recognition technique that searches for space-time data clusters that may signal a disease outbreak. The second is a genetic algorithm to design and train neural networks (GANN) that we applied toward disease forecasting. We tested these algorithms against influenza, respiratory illness, and Dengue Fever data. Through this LDRD in combination with other internal funding, we delivered a distributed simulation capability to synthesize disparate information and models for earlier recognition and improved decision-making in the event of a biological attack. The architecture incorporates user feedback and control so that a user's decision inputs can impact the scenario outcome as well as integrated security and role-based access-control for communicating

  2. Computational and analytical modeling of eye refractive surgery (United States)

    Cabrera, Delia

    As the number of corneal refractive procedures increases annually, concerns about their long-term stability and predictability have become the center of attention in the ophthalmic community. This thesis focuses on developing quantitative biomechanical models of the cornea that will overcome shortcomings of previous models and incorporate new observations of corneal elastic properties. Our intent is to provide a more accurate model of the corneal structure to guide current and future developments. The second chapter shows that neural networks could rapidly prototype practical solutions to obtain a better estimate of the average corneal power using the contrast and image size parameters provided by the topographic systems. After establishing improved measurements of the corneal shape the thesis focuses on the development of various corneal models. The analytical model proposed shows that geometric optics, corneal structural properties and surgical nomograms could be used to gain a better understanding of corneal response to surgical interventions. The predictions of this model are closer to the values provided by the published nomograms and clinical data than that obtained by the traditional geometric model. Three surgical procedures (Ultrafast Laser-Automated Lamellar Keratomileusis, Corneal Transplant and Intrastromal Refractive Keratectomy) were simulated using the finite element method. A new formulation was developed that simulates the changes on corneal curvature after refractive surgery when the stiffness inhomogeneities across the corneal thickness are considered. It has been shown that the predictability of the surgical outcome is improved when the stiffness inhomogeneities and nonlinearities of the deformations are included in the finite element simulations. Moreover, a finite element formulation has been developed first time to characterize the intrastromal refractive keratectomy procedure. An inhomogeneous (small displacements) model was identified as an

  3. Analytic Modeling of Neural Tissue: I. A Spherical Bidomain. (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin L; Chauhan, Munish; Sadleir, Rosalind J


    Presented here is a model of neural tissue in a conductive medium stimulated by externally injected currents. The tissue is described as a conductively isotropic bidomain, i.e. comprised of intra and extracellular regions that occupy the same space, as well as the membrane that divides them, and the injection currents are described as a pair of source and sink points. The problem is solved in three spatial dimensions and defined in spherical coordinates [Formula: see text]. The system of coupled partial differential equations is solved by recasting the problem to be in terms of the membrane and a monodomain, interpreted as a weighted average of the intra and extracellular domains. The membrane and monodomain are defined by the scalar Helmholtz and Laplace equations, respectively, which are both separable in spherical coordinates. Product solutions are thus assumed and given through certain transcendental functions. From these electrical potentials, analytic expressions for current density are derived and from those fields the magnetic flux density is calculated. Numerical examples are considered wherein the interstitial conductivity is varied, as well as the limiting case of the problem simplifying to two dimensions due to azimuthal independence. Finally, future modeling work is discussed.

  4. Galaxy protoclusters in semi-analytic and hydrodynamic models (United States)

    Lovell, Christopher; Thomas, Peter; Wilkins, Stephen


    We present an analysis of galaxy protoclusters in the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model and C-Eagle hydrodynamic simulations. Searching for protoclusters on a scale of ~ 10 cMpc gives an excellent compromise between the completeness and purity of their galaxy populations, leads to high distinction from the field in overdensity space, and allows accurate determination of the descendant cluster mass. This scale is valid over a range of redshifts and selection criteria. We present a procedure for estimating, given a measured galaxy overdensity, the protocluster probability and its descendant cluster mass for a range of modelling assumptions, particularly taking into account the shape of the measurement aperture. This procedure produces lower protocluster probabilities compared to previous estimates using fixed size apertures. The relationship between AGN and protoclusters is also investigated, and shows significant evolution with redshift; at $z \\sim 2$ the fraction of protoclusters traced by AGN is high, but the fraction of all AGN in protoclusters is low, whereas at $z \\geqslant 5$ the fraction of protoclusters containing AGN is low, but most AGN are in protoclusters.We also find evidence for the emergence of a passive sequence in protoclusters at $z \\sim 2$.

  5. Analytical model of neutral gas shielding for hydrogen pellet ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteev, Boris V.; Tsendin, Lev D. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    A kinetic gasdynamic scaling for hydrogen pellet ablation is obtained in terms of a neural gas shielding model using both numerical and analytical approaches. The scaling on plasma and pellet parameters proposed in the monoenergy approximation by Milora and Foster dR{sub pe}/dt{approx}S{sub n}{sup 2/3}R{sub p}{sup -2/3}q{sub eo}{sup 1/3}m{sub i}{sup -1/3} is confirmed. Here R{sub p} is the pellet radius, S{sub n} is the optical thickness of a cloud, q{sub eo} is the electron energy flux density and m{sub i} is the molecular mass. Only the numeral factor is approximately two times less than that for the monoenergy approach. Due to this effect, the pellet ablation rates, which were obtained by Kuteev on the basis of the Milora scaling, should be reduced by a factor of 1.7. Such a modification provides a reasonable agreement (even at high plasma parameters) between the two-dimensional kinetic model and the one-dimensional monoenergy approximation validated in contemporary tokamak experiments. As the could (in the kinetic approximation) is significantly thicker than that for the monoenergy case as well as the velocities of the gas flow are much slower, the relative effect of plasma and magnetic shielding on the ablation rate is strongly reduced. (author)

  6. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail:; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail:


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Modeling and Analytical Simulation of Anterior Polymerization in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    We solve the systems of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing polymerization in the presence of an inert material analytically. We decouple the equations using parameter-expanding method and solve the resulting equations using Eigen functions expansion technique. Analytical solutions of equations ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Osaulenko


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of regional project portfolio management in context of interaction of the regional development’s motive forces interaction. The features of innovation development on the regional level and their influence on the portfolio forming process considered. An existing approaches for portfolio modelling and formal criterion of the projects selection analyzed. At the same time the organization of key subjects of regional development interaction described. The aim of the article is investigation of informational aspects of project selection in process of the main development’s motive forces interaction and analytic model of portfolio filling validation. At that an inclination of stakeholders to reach a consensus taking into account. The Triple Helix conception using for concrete definition of the functions of the regional development’s motive forces. Asserted, that any component of innovation triad «science–business–government» can be an initiator of regional project, but it need to support two another components. Non-power interaction theory using for investigation of subjects interrelations in process of joint activity proposed. One of the key concept of the theory is information distance. It characterizes inclination of the parties to reach a consensus based on statistics. Projections of information distance onto directions of development axes using for more accurate definition of mutual positions in the all lines of development proposed. Another important parameter of the model which has an influence on the project support is awareness of stakeholders about it. Formalized description of project in the form of fast set of parameters proposes to use for determination of the awareness. The weighting coefficients for each parameter by expert way. Simultaneously the precision of the each parameter setting for all presented projects determines. On the base of appointed values of information distances and

  10. Analytical model for force prediction when machining metal matrix composites (United States)

    Sikder, Snahungshu

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) offer several thermo-mechanical advantages over standard materials and alloys which make them better candidates in different applications. Their light weight, high stiffness, and strength have attracted several industries such as automotive, aerospace, and defence for their wide range of products. However, the wide spread application of Meal Matrix Composites is still a challenge for industry. The hard and abrasive nature of the reinforcement particles is responsible for rapid tool wear and high machining costs. Fracture and debonding of the abrasive reinforcement particles are the considerable damage modes that directly influence the tool performance. It is very important to find highly effective way to machine MMCs. So, it is important to predict forces when machining Metal Matrix Composites because this will help to choose perfect tools for machining and ultimately save both money and time. This research presents an analytical force model for predicting the forces generated during machining of Metal Matrix Composites. In estimating the generated forces, several aspects of cutting mechanics were considered including: shearing force, ploughing force, and particle fracture force. Chip formation force was obtained by classical orthogonal metal cutting mechanics and the Johnson-Cook Equation. The ploughing force was formulated while the fracture force was calculated from the slip line field theory and the Griffith theory of failure. The predicted results were compared with previously measured data. The results showed very good agreement between the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured cutting forces.

  11. Analytical model of mechanically excited piezoelectric unimorph beams. (United States)

    Pillai, Minu A; Ebenezer, D D; Deenadayalan, Ezhilarasi


    A model is presented of a composite beam with one elastic and one piezoelectric layer. A reduced set of piezoelectric equations of state that has only the longitudinal components of stress and strain and the transverse components of electric field and charge density is consistently used to include the effect of piezoelectric coupling in all the equations. The equi-potential boundary conditions on the electrodes, the open-circuit condition, and the Gauss condition are satisfied. The position of the neutral axis and the dynamic equilibrium equation are derived after including the effect of piezoelectric coupling. All equations are combined to derive an equation of motion that contains only the displacement and the mechanical excitation. The solution to the equation is expressed in terms of a complete set of functions and an auxiliary function that contains the electric potential. The latter is needed to satisfy piezoelectric boundary conditions at the ends of the beam. The electric potential varies along the length of the beam and has a quadratic variation between the electrodes. Analytical expressions for displacement and potential, and numerical results at low frequencies and in the neighborhood of resonance, are presented for certain sets of boundary conditions.

  12. Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.


    MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.

  13. Methodological challenges and analytic opportunities for modeling and interpreting Big Healthcare Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivo D Dinov


    .... In this article, we outline various big data challenges, opportunities, modeling methods and software techniques for blending complex healthcare data, advanced analytic tools, and distributed scientific computing...

  14. Analytical Business Model for Sustainable Distributed Retail Enterprises in a Competitive Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courage Matobobo; Isaac O Osunmakinde


    .... Although some enterprises have implemented classical business models to address these challenging issues, they still lack analytics-based marketing programs to gain a competitive advantage to deal...

  15. Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

  16. A genetic algorithm-based job scheduling model for big data analytics. (United States)

    Lu, Qinghua; Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Weishan; Zhang, Lei

    Big data analytics (BDA) applications are a new category of software applications that process large amounts of data using scalable parallel processing infrastructure to obtain hidden value. Hadoop is the most mature open-source big data analytics framework, which implements the MapReduce programming model to process big data with MapReduce jobs. Big data analytics jobs are often continuous and not mutually separated. The existing work mainly focuses on executing jobs in sequence, which are often inefficient and consume high energy. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm-based job scheduling model for big data analytics applications to improve the efficiency of big data analytics. To implement the job scheduling model, we leverage an estimation module to predict the performance of clusters when executing analytics jobs. We have evaluated the proposed job scheduling model in terms of feasibility and accuracy.

  17. Ship Impact Study: Analytical Approaches and Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Woelke


    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a ship impact study conducted using various analytical approaches available in the literature with the results obtained from detailed finite element analysis. Considering a typical container vessel impacting a rigid wall with an initial speed of 10 knots, the study investigates the forces imparted on the struck obstacle, the energy dissipated through inelastic deformation, penetration, local deformation patterns, and local failure of the ship elements. The main objective of the paper is to study the accuracy and generality of the predictions of the vessel collision forces, obtained by means of analytical closed-form solutions, in reference to detailed finite element analyses. The results show that significant discrepancies between simplified analytical approaches and detailed finite element analyses can occur, depending on the specific impact scenarios under consideration.

  18. Numerical modeling and analytical modeling of cryogenic carbon capture in a de-sublimating heat exchanger (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Miller, Franklin; Pfotenhauer, John M.


    Both a numerical and analytical model of the heat and mass transfer processes in a CO2, N2 mixture gas de-sublimating cross-flow finned duct heat exchanger system is developed to predict the heat transferred from a mixture gas to liquid nitrogen and the de-sublimating rate of CO2 in the mixture gas. The mixture gas outlet temperature, liquid nitrogen outlet temperature, CO2 mole fraction, temperature distribution and de-sublimating rate of CO2 through the whole heat exchanger was computed using both the numerical and analytic model. The numerical model is built using EES [1] (engineering equation solver). According to the simulation, a cross-flow finned duct heat exchanger can be designed and fabricated to validate the models. The performance of the heat exchanger is evaluated as functions of dimensionless variables, such as the ratio of the mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen to the mass flow rate of inlet flue gas.

  19. Analytical prediction for electromagnetic performance of interior permanent magnet machines based on subdomain model (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Hun; Park, Hyung-II; Cho, Han-Wook; Choi, Jang-Young


    This paper presents an analytical model for the computation of the electromagnetic performance in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines that accounts for the stator and the complex rotor structure. Using the subdomain method, we propose a simplified analytical model that considers the magnetic properties of the IPM machine. The analytical solutions are derived by solving the field-governing equations in each simple and regular subdomain, i.e., magnet, barrier, air gap, slot opening, and slot, and then applying the boundary conditions to the interfaces between these subdomains. The analytical model accurately accounts for the influence of the interaction between the slots, the relative recoil permeability of the magnets, and the boundary conditions. The magnetic field and electromagnetic performance obtained using the analytical method are compared with those obtained using finite element analysis. Finally, the analytical predictions are compared with the measured data in order to confirm the validity of the methods proposed in this paper.

  20. A new gas cooling model for semi-analytic galaxy formation models (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Frenk, Carlos S.


    Semi-analytic galaxy formation models are widely used to gain insight into the astrophysics of galaxy formation and in model testing, parameter space searching and mock catalogue building. In this work, we present a new model for gas cooling in haloes in semi-analytic models, which improves over previous cooling models in several ways. Our new treatment explicitly includes the evolution of the density profile of the hot gas driven by the growth of the dark matter halo and by the dynamical adjustment of the gaseous corona as gas cools down. The effect of the past cooling history on the current mass cooling rate is calculated more accurately, by doing an integral over the past history. The evolution of the hot gas angular momentum profile is explicitly followed, leading to a self-consistent and more detailed calculation of the angular momentum of the cooled down gas. This model predicts higher cooled down masses than the cooling models previously used in GALFORM, closer to the predictions of the cooling models in L-GALAXIES and MORGANA, even though those models are formulated differently. It also predicts cooled down angular momenta that are higher than in previous GALFORM cooling models, but generally lower than the predictions of L-GALAXIES and MORGANA. When used in a full galaxy formation model, this cooling model improves the predictions for early-type galaxy sizes in GALFORM.

  1. Modeling and analytical simulation of high-temperature gas filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperature filtration in combustion and gasification processes is a highly interdisciplinary field. Thus, particle technology in general has to be supported by elements of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer processes. Presented in this paper is the analytical method for describing ...

  2. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived. The results are compared with other works and good agreements are found. The effects of increasing the edge cooling and face cooling are studied.

  3. Modelling a flows in supply chain with analytical models: Case of a chemical industry (United States)

    Benhida, Khalid; Azougagh, Yassine; Elfezazi, Said


    This study is interested on the modelling of the logistics flows in a supply chain composed on a production sites and a logistics platform. The contribution of this research is to develop an analytical model (integrated linear programming model), based on a case study of a real company operating in the phosphate field, considering a various constraints in this supply chain to resolve the planning problems for a better decision-making. The objectives of this model is to determine and define the optimal quantities of different products to route, to and from the various entities in the supply chain studied.

  4. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design (United States)

    Gugerty, Leo


    Recently, a large number of human-computer interface (HCI) researchers have investigated building analytical models of the user, which are often implemented as computer models. These models simulate the cognitive processes and task knowledge of the user in ways that allow a researcher or designer to estimate various aspects of an interface's usability, such as when user errors are likely to occur. This information can lead to design improvements. Analytical models can supplement design guidelines by providing designers rigorous ways of analyzing the information-processing requirements of specific tasks (i.e., task analysis). These models offer the potential of improving early designs and replacing some of the early phases of usability testing, thus reducing the cost of interface design. This paper describes some of the many analytical models that are currently being developed and evaluates the usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design. This paper will focus on computational, analytical models, such as the GOMS model, rather than less formal, verbal models, because the more exact predictions and task descriptions of computational models may be useful to designers. The paper also discusses some of the practical requirements for using analytical models in complex design organizations such as NASA.

  5. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process (United States)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.


    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  6. An Analytical Hierarchy Process Model for the Evaluation of College Experimental Teaching Quality (United States)

    Yin, Qingli


    Taking into account the characteristics of college experimental teaching, through investigaton and analysis, evaluation indices and an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytical hierarchy process method, and the evaluation indices have been given reasonable weights. An…

  7. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)


    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  8. Analytical solution of a stochastic content-based network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, Muhittin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek Istanbul (Turkey); Guersey Institute, PO Box 6, Cengelkoey, 34680 Istanbul (Turkey); Kabakoglu, Alkan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Koc University, 34450 Sariyer Istanbul (Turkey); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Balcan, Duygu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Erzan, Ayse [Guersey Institute, PO Box 6, Cengelkoey, 34680 Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)


    We define and completely solve a content-based directed network whose nodes consist of random words and an adjacency rule involving perfect or approximate matches for an alphabet with an arbitrary number of letters. The analytic expression for the out-degree distribution shows a crossover from a leading power law behaviour to a log-periodic regime bounded by a different power law decay. The leading exponents in the two regions have a weak dependence on the mean word length, and an even weaker dependence on the alphabet size. The in-degree distribution, on the other hand, is much narrower and does not show any scaling behaviour.

  9. Predictive analytics technology review: Similarity-based modeling and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, James; Doan, Don; Gandhi, Devang; Nieman, Bill


    Over 11 years ago, SmartSignal introduced Predictive Analytics for eliminating equipment failures, using its patented SBM technology. SmartSignal continues to lead and dominate the market and, in 2010, went one step further and introduced Predictive Diagnostics. Now, SmartSignal is combining Predictive Diagnostics with RCM methodology and industry expertise. FMEA logic reengineers maintenance work management, eliminates unneeded inspections, and focuses efforts on the real issues. This integrated solution significantly lowers maintenance costs, protects against critical asset failures, and improves commercial availability, and reduces work orders 20-40%. Learn how.

  10. Improvement of the Analytical Model of a Laminated Core Parametric Motor (United States)

    Tajima, Katsubumi; Sato, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Yoshinori

    A laminated core parametric induction motor has desirable features and the planer structure to make it possible to reduce the production cost of the motor by mass production. In the past work, we showed the validity to apply the two-dimensional reluctance network analytical model to the dynamic analysis of the motor while the rotor is driving. In this paper, we investigate the improvement the accuracy of the analytical method of the motor by using new reluctance network analytical model of the motor. In this model, the magnetic circuits of the stator and the rotor are connected by the variable reluctances that are expressed as the function of the rotating angle.

  11. Design Evaluation of Wind Turbine Spline Couplings Using an Analytical Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Wallen, R.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.; Lambert, S.


    Articulated splines are commonly used in the planetary stage of wind turbine gearboxes for transmitting the driving torque and improving load sharing. Direct measurement of spline loads and performance is extremely challenging because of limited accessibility. This paper presents an analytical model for the analysis of articulated spline coupling designs. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, this analytical model quickly yields insights into relationships between the spline design parameters and resulting loads; bending, contact, and shear stresses; and safety factors considering various heat treatment methods. Comparisons of this analytical model against previously published computational approaches are also presented.

  12. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John (Jack P. Riegel III


    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  13. A one-dimensional analytical model for airborne contaminant transport in airliner cabins. (United States)

    Mazumdar, S; Chen, Q


    Quick information on airborne infectious disease transmission in airliner cabins is essential to reduce the risk of infection of passengers and crew members. This investigation proposed a one-dimensional analytical model that can predict the longitudinal transmission of airborne contaminants or disease viruses inside an airliner cabin. The model considered both diffusive and convective transport of contaminants in the longitudinal direction of the cabin but assumed complete mixing of contaminants in the cabin cross-section. The effect of recirculation of the cabin air and efficiency of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters is also considered in the model. The analytical solution for the one-dimensional contaminant transport model is obtained by using the principle of superposition and the method of separation of variables. The analytical solutions agree well with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results. The coupling of a CFD model with the one-dimensional analytical model could capture the impact of local airflow on contaminant transport. This analytical model has been used for analyzing contaminant transport in a 30-row all-economy-class airliner cabin with minimal computing effort. The paper presents a new one-dimensional analytical model that can provide quick information on global airborne contaminant transmissions in airliner cabins for effective response plans. The model can be used to study the effects of air exchange rates, recirculation, efficiency of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and longitudinal airflow on airborne contaminant transport in airliner cabins with minimal computing effort.

  14. Evaluation of Analytical Modeling Functions for the Phonation Onset Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petermann


    Full Text Available The human voice originates from oscillations of the vocal folds in the larynx. The duration of the voice onset (VO, called the voice onset time (VOT, is currently under investigation as a clinical indicator for correct laryngeal functionality. Different analytical approaches for computing the VOT based on endoscopic imaging were compared to determine the most reliable method to quantify automatically the transient vocal fold oscillations during VO. Transnasal endoscopic imaging in combination with a high-speed camera (8000 fps was applied to visualize the phonation onset process. Two different definitions of VO interval were investigated. Six analytical functions were tested that approximate the envelope of the filtered or unfiltered glottal area waveform (GAW during phonation onset. A total of 126 recordings from nine healthy males and 210 recordings from 15 healthy females were evaluated. Three criteria were analyzed to determine the most appropriate computation approach: (1 reliability of the fit function for a correct approximation of VO; (2 consistency represented by the standard deviation of VOT; and (3 accuracy of the approximation of VO. The results suggest the computation of VOT by a fourth-order polynomial approximation in the interval between 32.2 and 67.8% of the saturation amplitude of the filtered GAW.

  15. Multidisciplinary Engineering Models: Methodology and Case Study in Spreadsheet Analytics


    Birch, D.; Liang, H.; Ko, J.; Kelly, P; Field, A.; Mullineux, G; Simondetti, A


    This paper demonstrates a methodology to help practitioners maximise the utility of complex multidisciplinary engineering models implemented as spreadsheets, an area presenting unique challenges. As motivation we investigate the expanding use of Integrated Resource Management(IRM) models which assess the sustainability of urban masterplan designs. IRM models reflect the inherent complexity of multidisciplinary sustainability analysis by integrating models from many disciplines. This complexit...

  16. Analytical model for the dynamics of semiflexible dendritic polymers (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Florian; Dolgushev, Maxim; Blumen, Alexander


    We study the dynamics of semiflexible dendritic polymers following the method of Dolgushev and Blumen [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044905 (2009), 10.1063/1.3184797]. The scheme allows to formulate in analytical form the corresponding Langevin equations. We determine the eigenvalues by first block-diagonalizing the problem, which allows to treat even very large dendritic objects. A basic ingredient of the procedure is the observation that a set of eigenmodes in the semiflexible case is similar to that chosen by Cai and Chen [Macromolecules 30, 5104 (1997), 10.1021/ma970059z] for fully flexible dendritic structures. Varying the flexibility of the macromolecules allows us to better understand their mechanical loss moduli G″(ω) based on their eigenvalue spectra. We present the G″(ω) for a series of stiffness parameters and for different functionalities of the branching points.

  17. Railroads and the Environment : Estimation of Fuel Consumption in Rail Transportation : Volume 1. Analytical Model (United States)


    The report describes an analytical approach to estimation of fuel consumption in rail transportation, and provides sample computer calculations suggesting the sensitivity of fuel usage to various parameters. The model used is based upon careful delin...

  18. Semi-Analytic Solution of HIV and TB Co-Infection Model BOLARIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    . +. −. + +. +. +. +. − + +. +. −. +. +. −. +. (66). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In this section, we use maple software to plot the graph of semi-analytic solution of our model equations. Since, most of the parameters were not readily available ...

  19. Analytical Model-based Fault Detection and Isolation in Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukic, Z.; Ozbolt, H.; Blanke, M.


    The paper gives an introduction and an overview of the field of fault detection and isolation for control systems. The summary of analytical (quantitative model-based) methodds and their implementation are presented. The focus is given to mthe analytical model-based fault-detection and fault...... diagnosis methods, often viewed as the classical or deterministic ones. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms suitable for ship automation, unmanned underwater vehicles, and other systems of automatic control....

  20. Operational risk modeled analytically II: the consequences of classification invariance


    Vivien Brunel


    Most of the banks' operational risk internal models are based on loss pooling in risk and business line categories. The parameters and outputs of operational risk models are sensitive to the pooling of the data and the choice of the risk classification. In a simple model, we establish the link between the number of risk cells and the model parameters by requiring invariance of the bank's loss distribution upon a change in classification. We provide details on the impact of this requirement on...



    Okan SARIGÖZ


    The Flipped Classroom Model is a student-centeredlearning model in which students effectively assimilate subjects in theclassroom, where they often perform their learning out of school with materialssuch as narrative, film, presentation, or video. The purpose of this study isto examine the effect of the Flipped Classroom Model on the academic success ofprospective teachers.   Experimentalpattern model with pretest-posttest control group was used in the study. Oneexperimental and the other con...

  2. Analytical Model of Planar Double Split Ring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor


    This paper focuses on accurate modelling of microstrip double split ring resonators. The impedance matrix representation for coupled lines is applied for the first time to model the SRR, resulting in excellent model accuracy over a wide frequency range. Phase compensation is implemented to take...

  3. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Felix Reinhart


    Full Text Available Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant’s intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms.

  4. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control. (United States)

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob


    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant's intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms.

  5. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control † (United States)

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob


    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant’s intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms. PMID:28208697

  6. Semi-Numerical Simulation of Reionization with Semi-Analytical Modeling of Galaxy Formation


    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Qi; Liu, Gaochao; Yue, Bin; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei


    In a semi-numerical model of reionization, the evolution of ionization fraction is simulated approximately by the ionizing photon to baryon ratio criterion. In this paper we incorporate a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation based on the Millennium II N-body simulation into the semi-numerical modeling of reionization. The semi-analytical model is used to predict the production of ionizing photons, then we use the semi-numerical method to model the reionization process. Such an approach a...

  7. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective. (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamzeh; Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward


    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children's Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto.

  8. An Analytical Model for University Identity and Reputation Strategy Work (United States)

    Steiner, Lars; Sundstrom, Agneta C.; Sammalisto, Kaisu


    Universities face increasing global competition, pressuring them to restructure and find new identities. A multidimensional model: identity, image and reputation of strategic university identity and reputation work is developed. The model includes: organizational identity; employee and student attitudes; symbolic identity; influence from…

  9. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models (United States)

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  10. Formal analytical modeling of blog content as personal narrative (United States)

    Coombs, Michael J.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.


    This paper contrasts two techniques for analyzing blog content and making use of this information to model blog content. One method uses classical text content and analysis presented for human interpretation. The second method relies on a data mined list of descriptive words characterizing the blogs. We examine the use of different data mining tools, Kryltech's "Subject Search Summarizer", Leximancer, and QUEST, to provide orthogonal and independently generated key word lists. These lists are then converted into Data Models, enabling mathematical modeling of blog content.

  11. A simple analytical model for brightness modulations caused by submarine sand waves in radar imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, M.W.A. van der; Vogelzang, J.; Calkoen, C.J.


    Presented here is a simple analytical model based on established physics of the magnitude of the hydrodynamic modulations caused by sand waves. The model describes the modulations of the radar backscatter when first-order Bragg scattering is assumed. The major difference between this model and

  12. Analytical model of the statistical properties of contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Vsekhsvyatskaya, I. S.; Evstratova, E. A.; Kalinin, Yu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.


    A new analytical model is proposed for the distribution of variations of the relative electron-density contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. The model is characterized by other-than-zero skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that the model is applicable in the interval of horizontal dimensions of inhomogeneities from hundreds to thousands of kilometers.

  13. A hybrid analytical model for open-circuit field calculation of multilayer interior permanent magnet machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xia, Changliang [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Engineering Center of Electric Machine System Design and Control, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yan, Yan, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Geng, Qiang [Tianjin Engineering Center of Electric Machine System Design and Control, Tianjin 300387 (China); Shi, Tingna [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    Highlights: • A hybrid analytical model is developed for field calculation of multilayer IPM machines. • The rotor magnetic field is calculated by the magnetic equivalent circuit method. • The field in the stator and air-gap is calculated by subdomain technique. • The magnetic scalar potential on rotor surface is modeled as trapezoidal distribution. - Abstract: Due to the complicated rotor structure and nonlinear saturation of rotor bridges, it is difficult to build a fast and accurate analytical field calculation model for multilayer interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model suitable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines is proposed by coupling the magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method and the subdomain technique. In the proposed analytical model, the rotor magnetic field is calculated by the MEC method based on the Kirchhoff’s law, while the field in the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap is calculated by subdomain technique based on the Maxwell’s equation. To solve the whole field distribution of the multilayer IPM machines, the coupled boundary conditions on the rotor surface are deduced for the coupling of the rotor MEC and the analytical field distribution of the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap. The hybrid analytical model can be used to calculate the open-circuit air-gap field distribution, back electromotive force (EMF) and cogging torque of multilayer IPM machines. Compared with finite element analysis (FEA), it has the advantages of faster modeling, less computation source occupying and shorter time consuming, and meanwhile achieves the approximate accuracy. The analytical model is helpful and applicable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines with any size and pole/slot number combination.

  14. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter


    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  15. An analytical model of pneumatic suspensions based on an experimental characterization (United States)

    Nieto, A. J.; Morales, A. L.; González, A.; Chicharro, J. M.; Pintado, P.


    We present an analytical model of air spring suspensions that is based on an experimental characterization. The suspension consists of three principal parts: the air spring, an auxiliary tank, and a pipe connecting the two. An analytical nonlinear fluid dynamics model is first analyzed, modeling the suspension stiffness, damping factor, and transmissibility. The model is then linearized and this linear version is studied in depth, finding that the behavior of the suspension as reflected in the aforementioned three characteristics is strongly dependent on the size of the three suspension parts. The analysis allows us to propose a practical strategy for the operation of the suspension.

  16. Analytical and experimental study of control effort associated with model reference adaptive control (United States)

    Messer, R. S.; Haftka, R. T.; Cudney, H. H.


    Numerical simulation results presently obtained for the performance of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) are experimentally verified, with a view to accounting for differences between the plant and the reference model after the control function has been brought to bear. MRAC is both experimentally and analytically applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system, as well as analytically to a MIMO system having controlled differences between the reference model and the plant. The control effort is noted to be sensitive to differences between the plant and the reference model.

  17. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  18. An analytical model for hydraulic fracturing in shallow bedrock formations. (United States)

    dos Santos, José Sérgio; Ballestero, Thomas Paul; Pitombeira, Ernesto da Silva


    A theoretical method is proposed to estimate post-fracturing fracture size and transmissivity, and as a test of the methodology, data collected from two wells were used for verification. This method can be employed before hydrofracturing in order to obtain estimates of the potential hydraulic benefits of hydraulic fracturing. Five different pumping test analysis methods were used to evaluate the well hydraulic data. The most effective methods were the Papadopulos-Cooper model (1967), which includes wellbore storage effects, and the Gringarten-Ramey model (1974), known as the single horizontal fracture model. The hydraulic parameters resulting from fitting these models to the field data revealed that as a result of hydraulic fracturing, the transmissivity increased more than 46 times in one well and increased 285 times in the other well. The model developed by dos Santos (2008), which considers horizontal radial fracture propagation from the hydraulically fractured well, was used to estimate potential fracture geometry after hydrofracturing. For the two studied wells, their fractures could have propagated to distances of almost 175 m or more and developed maximum apertures of about 2.20 mm and hydraulic apertures close to 0.30 mm. Fracturing at this site appears to have expanded and propagated existing fractures and not created new fractures. Hydraulic apertures calculated from pumping test analyses closely matched the results obtained from the hydraulic fracturing model. As a result of this model, post-fracturing geometry and resulting post-fracturing well yield can be estimated before the actual hydrofracturing. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Semi-numerical simulation of reionization with semi-analytical modeling of galaxy formation (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Qi; Liu, Gao-Chao; Yue, Bin; Xu, Yi-Dong; Chen, Xue-Lei


    In a semi-numerical model of reionization, the evolution of ionization fraction is approximately simulated by the criterion of ionizing photon to baryon ratio. We incorporate a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation based on the Millennium II N-body simulation into the semi-numerical modeling of reionization. The semi-analytical model is used to predict the production of ionizing photons, then we use the semi-numerical method to model the reionization process. Such an approach allows more detailed modeling of the reionization, and also connects observations of galaxies at low and high redshifts to the reionization history. The galaxy formation model we use was designed to match the low-z observations, and it also fits the high redshift luminosity function reasonably well, but its prediction about star formation falls below the observed value, and we find that it also underpredicts the stellar ionizing photon production rate, hence the reionization cannot be completed at z ~ 6. We also consider simple modifications of the model with more top heavy initial mass functions, which can allow the reionization to occur at earlier epochs. The incorporation of the semi-analytical model may also affect the topology of the HI regions during the epoch of reionization, and the neutral regions produced by our simulations with the semi-analytical model, which appeared less poriferous than the simple halo-based models.

  20. An Analytical Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Fracture Mechanics and Crack Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsø, Jan Behrend; Agerskov, Henning


    test specimens are compared with fatigue life predictions using a fracture mechanics approach. In the calculation of the fatigue life, the influence of the welding residual stresses and crack closure on the fatigue crack growth is considered. A description of the crack closure model for analytical...... determination of the fatigue life is included. Furthermore, the results obtained in studies of the various parameters that have an influence on the fatigue life, are given. A very good agreement between experimental and analytical results is obtained, when the crack closure model is used in determination...... of the analytical fatigue lives. Both the analytical and experimental results obtained show that the Miner rule may give quite unconservative predictions of the fatigue life for the types of stochastic loading studied....

  1. Analytical models for parallel-processing systems. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, H.; Huang, Y.F.; Liu, R.


    This report proposes to use generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN) in reliability, maintainability, and availability studies. The novelty of this modeling approach results from the following distinctive reasons: (1) the GSPN offers a precise description of system activities and conditions while involving less complexity, comparing to other modeling techniques; specifically, it is an inherently effective bookkeeping for conditions and activities; (2) it provides a clairvoyant insight of the key parameters that effect RMA analysis; causes and results of events can be easily tracked by executing the GSPN; and (3) it takes the advantage of the existence of concurrency and timing of events, thus describes accurately the sequence of events.

  2. Analytical model of massive Pulsar J0348+0432 (United States)

    Kayum Jafry, M. Abdul; Molla, Sajahan; Islam, Rabiul; Kalam, Mehedi


    In this article we propose a model for the Pulsar J0348+0432 (Antoniadis et al. in Science 340:1233232, 2013) in a compact relativistic binary. Here we investigate the physical properties of the Pulsar J0348+0432 by using the Finch and Skea (Class. Quantum Gravity 4:467, 1989) metric. Using our model, we evaluate central density (ρ0), surface density (ρb), central pressure (p 0), surface redshift (Z s) and probable radius of the above mentioned compact object, which is very much consistent with reported data. We also obtain a possible equation of state (EoS) of the pulsar which is physically acceptable.

  3. Modelling of fission chambers in current mode—Analytical approach (United States)

    Chabod, Sébastien; Fioni, Gabriele; Letourneau, Alain; Marie, Frédéric


    A comprehensive theoretical model is proposed to explain the functioning of fission chambers operated in current mode, even in very high neutron fluxes. The calibration curves are calculated as a function of basic physical parameters as fission rate, gas pressure and geometry of the chambers. The output current at saturation is precisely calculated, as well as the maximum voltage to be applied in order to avoid avalanche phenomena. The electric field distortion due to the space charge phenomena is also estimated. Within this model, the characteristic responses of fission chambers are correctly reproduced, in agreement with the experience feedback obtained at the ILL/Grenoble High-Flux Reactor.

  4. Methods and Techniques for Clinical Text Modeling and Analytics (United States)

    Ling, Yuan


    This study focuses on developing and applying methods/techniques in different aspects of the system for clinical text understanding, at both corpus and document level. We deal with two major research questions: First, we explore the question of "How to model the underlying relationships from clinical notes at corpus level?" Documents…

  5. Analytical model of transient temperature and thermal stress in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The result of this work is compared with a ... Keywords. Integral transform method; double end-pumped; laser rod; thermal stress. .... 2.2 Stress analysis. Although different methods have been used to predict failure stress, the maximum tensile hoop stress is proved to model the fracture in laser rod very well [9]. The hotter ...

  6. Decision-analytic modeling studies: An overview for clinicians using multiple myeloma as an example. (United States)

    Rochau, U; Jahn, B; Qerimi, V; Burger, E A; Kurzthaler, C; Kluibenschaedl, M; Willenbacher, E; Gastl, G; Willenbacher, W; Siebert, U


    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinician-friendly overview of decision-analytic models evaluating different treatment strategies for multiple myeloma (MM). We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies evaluating MM treatment strategies using mathematical decision-analytic models. We included studies that were published as full-text articles in English, and assessed relevant clinical endpoints, and summarized methodological characteristics (e.g., modeling approaches, simulation techniques, health outcomes, perspectives). Eleven decision-analytic modeling studies met our inclusion criteria. Five different modeling approaches were adopted: decision-tree modeling, Markov state-transition modeling, discrete event simulation, partitioned-survival analysis and area-under-the-curve modeling. Health outcomes included survival, number-needed-to-treat, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life years. Evaluated treatment strategies included novel agent-based combination therapies, stem cell transplantation and supportive measures. Overall, our review provides a comprehensive summary of modeling studies assessing treatment of MM and highlights decision-analytic modeling as an important tool for health policy decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Force 2025 and Beyond Strategic Force Design Analytic Model (United States)


    type has characteristics that give it capabilities for completing different tasks, as described in our unit type task list, which is initially derived... initial work in using this type of methodology to construct force design models using a mission-focused, task-based, capability architecture. We... DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response

  8. An Analytic Model Of Thermal Drift In Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, A; Elhadj, S; Sirbuly, D J; McCall, S K; Hart, B R; Ratto, T V


    A closed form semi-empirical model has been developed to understand the physical origins of thermal drift in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. The two-component model describes both the effects of temperature-related bending and heat dissipation on the piezoresistance. The temperature-related bending component is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory of elastic deformation applied to a multilayer cantilever. The heat dissipation component is based on energy conservation per unit time for a piezoresistive cantilever in a Wheatstone bridge circuit, representing a balance between electrical power input and heat dissipation into the environment. Conduction and convection are found to be the primary mechanisms of heat transfer, and the dependence of these effects on the thermal conductivity, temperature, and flow rate of the gaseous environment is described. The thermal boundary layer value which defines the length scale of the heat dissipation phenomenon is treated as an empirical fitting parameter. Using the model, it is found that the cantilever heat dissipation is unaffected by the presence of a thin polymer coating, therefore the residual thermal drift in the differential response of a coated and uncoated cantilever is the result of non-identical temperature-related bending. Differential response data shows that residual drift is eliminated under isothermal laboratory conditions but not the unregulated and variable conditions that exist in the outdoor environment (i.e., the field). The two-component model is then validated by simulating the thermal drifts of an uncoated and a coated piezoresistive cantilever under field conditions over a 24 hour period using only meteorological data as input.

  9. Geostationary Orbit Surveillance Using the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Analytical Orbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Roh


    Full Text Available A strategy for geostationary orbit (or geostationary earth orbit [GEO] surveillance based on optical angular observations is presented in this study. For the dynamic model, precise analytical orbit model developed by Lee et al. (1997 is used to improve computation performance and the unscented Kalman filer (UKF is applied as a real-time filtering method. The UKF is known to perform well under highly nonlinear conditions such as surveillance in this study. The strategy that combines the analytical orbit propagation model and the UKF is tested for various conditions like different level of initial error and different level of measurement noise. The dependencies on observation interval and number of ground station are also tested. The test results shows that the GEO orbit determination based on the UKF and the analytical orbit model can be applied to GEO orbit tracking and surveillance effectively.

  10. Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.


    This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

  11. Analytical modelling for predicting the sound field of planar acoustic metasurface (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Fang, Yi


    An analytical model is built to predict the acoustic fields of acoustic metasurfaces. The acoustic fields are investigated for a Gaussian sound beam incident on the acoustic metasurfaces. The Gaussian sound beam is decomposed into a set of discrete elementary plane waves. The diffraction caused by the acoustic metasurfaces can be obtained using this analytical model, which is validated with the numerical simulations for the different incident angles of the Gaussian sound beam. This model overcomes the limitation of the method based on the generalised Snell's law which can only predict the direction of a specific diffracted order. Actually, this analytical model can be also used to predict the sound fields of acoustic metasurfaces under any incident sound if its Fourier transforms exist. This conclusion is demonstrated by studying the sound field for a point sound source incident on the acoustic metasurface. The acoustic admittances of acoustic metasurfaces are required in the calculation of the analytical model. Therefore, a numerical method for obtaining the effective acoustic admittances is proposed for the structurally complex metasurfaces without the analytical expressions of material properties, such as equivalent density and sound speed.

  12. Fitting three-level meta-analytic models in R: A step-by-step tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assink, Mark


    Full Text Available Applying a multilevel approach to meta-analysis is a strong method for dealing with dependency of effect sizes. However, this method is relatively unknown among researchers and, to date, has not been widely used in meta-analytic research. Therefore, the purpose of this tutorial was to show how a three-level random effects model can be applied to meta-analytic models in R using the function of the metafor package. This application is illustrated by taking the reader through a step-by-step guide to the multilevel analyses comprising the steps of (1 organizing a data file; (2 setting up the R environment; (3 calculating an overall effect; (4 examining heterogeneity of within-study variance and between-study variance; (5 performing categorical and continuous moderator analyses; and (6 examining a multiple moderator model. By example, the authors demonstrate how the multilevel approach can be applied to meta-analytically examining the association between mental health disorders of juveniles and juvenile offender recidivism. In our opinion, the function of the metafor package provides an easy and flexible way of applying a multi-level structure to meta-analytic models in R. Further, the multilevel meta-analytic models can be easily extended so that the potential moderating influence of variables can be examined.

  13. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Eisenberg, Bob [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)


    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} for [CaCl{sub 2}] ranging from 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −2} M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  14. ERP Software Selection Model using Analytic Network Process


    Lesmana , Andre Surya; Astanti, Ririn Diar; Ai, The Jin


    During the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) in any company, one of the most important issues is the selection of ERP software that can satisfy the needs and objectives of the company. This issue is crucial since it may affect the duration of ERP implementation and the costs incurred for the ERP implementation. This research tries to construct a model of the selection of ERP software that are beneficial to the company in order to carry out the selection of the right ERP sof...

  15. Semi-analytical modelling of positive corona discharge in air (United States)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Chen, Junhong


    Semianalytical approximate solutions of the spatial distribution of electric field and electron and ion densities have been obtained by solving Poisson's equations and the continuity equations for the charged species along the Laplacian field lines. The need to iterate for the correct value of space charge on the corona electrode has been eliminated by using the corona current distribution over the grounded plane derived by Deutsch, which predicts a cos m θ law similar to Warburg's law. Based on the results of the approximated model, a parametric study of the influence of gas pressure, the corona wire radius, and the inter-electrode wire-plate separation has been carried out. Also, the approximate solutions of the electron number density has been combined with a simplified plasma chemistry model in order to compute the ozone density generated by the corona discharge in the presence of a gas flow. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.

  16. Analytical modeling and experimental characterization of chemotaxis in Serratia marcescens (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wei, Guopeng; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Edwards, Matthew R.; Marculescu, Radu; Bogdan, Paul; Sitti, Metin


    This paper presents a modeling and experimental framework to characterize the chemotaxis of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) relying on two-dimensional and three-dimensional tracking of individual bacteria. Previous studies mainly characterized bacterial chemotaxis based on population density analysis. Instead, this study focuses on single-cell tracking and measuring the chemotactic drift velocity VC from the biased tumble rate of individual bacteria on exposure to a concentration gradient of l-aspartate. The chemotactic response of S. marcescens is quantified over a range of concentration gradients (10-3 to 5 mM/mm) and average concentrations (0.5×10-3 to 2.5 mM). Through the analysis of a large number of bacterial swimming trajectories, the tumble rate is found to have a significant bias with respect to the swimming direction. We also verify the relative gradient sensing mechanism in the chemotaxis of S. marcescens by measuring the change of VC with the average concentration and the gradient. The applied full pathway model with fitted parameters matches the experimental data. Finally, we show that our measurements based on individual bacteria lead to the determination of the motility coefficient μ (7.25×10-6 cm2/s) of a population. The experimental characterization and simulation results for the chemotaxis of this bacterial species contribute towards using S. marcescens in chemically controlled biohybrid systems.

  17. Analytical modeling of structure-soil systems for lunar bases (United States)

    Macari-Pasqualino, Jose Emir


    The study of the behavior of granular materials in a reduced gravity environment and under low effective stresses became a subject of great interest in the mid 1960's when NASA's Surveyor missions to the Moon began the first extraterrestrial investigation and it was found that Lunar soils exhibited properties quite unlike those on Earth. This subject gained interest during the years of the Apollo missions and more recently due to NASA's plans for future exploration and colonization of Moon and Mars. It has since been clear that a good understanding of the mechanical properties of granular materials under reduced gravity and at low effective stress levels is of paramount importance for the design and construction of surface and buried structures on these bodies. In order to achieve such an understanding it is desirable to develop a set of constitutive equations that describes the response of such materials as they are subjected to tractions and displacements. This presentation examines issues associated with conducting experiments on highly nonlinear granular materials under high and low effective stresses. The friction and dilatancy properties which affect the behavior of granular soils with low cohesion values are assessed. In order to simulate the highly nonlinear strength and stress-strain behavior of soils at low as well as high effective stresses, a versatile isotropic, pressure sensitive, third stress invariant dependent, cone-cap elasto-plastic constitutive model was proposed. The integration of the constitutive relations is performed via a fully implicit Backward Euler technique known as the Closest Point Projection Method. The model was implemented into a finite element code in order to study nonlinear boundary value problems associated with homogeneous as well as nonhomogeneous deformations at low as well as high effective stresses. The effect of gravity (self-weight) on the stress-strain-strength response of these materials is evaluated. The calibration

  18. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor


    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  19. Explicit modeling the progressive interface damage in fibrous composite: Analytical vs. numerical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon


    Two micromechanical, representative unit cell type models of fiber reinforced composite (FRC) are applied to simulate explicitly onset and accumulation of scattered local damage in the form of interface debonding. The first model is based on the analytical, multipole expansion type solution...

  20. Analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model


    Lu, Tingrong


    In Kleinrock and Kamoun's paper, the inverse relation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model is illustrated. In this paper we give the analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model.

  1. A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, AJ


    Full Text Available . The temperature-dependent properties of permanent magnets necessitate high-detail thermal models. This paper presents a 2-D analytical model for a HS PMSM magnet. The diffusion equation is solved where three of the PM boundaries experience convection heat flow...

  2. An Assessment Model of National Grants of University Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yang


    Full Text Available How to assess kinds of grants scientifically, effectively and regularly is an important topic for the funding workers to study. According to the national grants’ basic conditions, an assessment model is established on the basis of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. And Finally an example is given to illustrate the scientificalness and operability of this model.

  3. Analytical Model of a PZT Thick-Film Triaxial Accelerometer for Optimum Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Brodersen, S. H.


    results in design equations that are useful for optimization of the sensitivity and bandwidth and for matching the sensitivity in the three orthogonal directions. A finite-element method (FEM) model is used to verify the analytical model. Equal sensitivity in all three geometrical directions is preferred...

  4. Analytic model utilizing the complex ABCD method for range dependency of a monostatic coherent lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    In this work, we present an analytic model for analyzing the range and frequency dependency of a monostatic coherent lidar measuring velocities of a diffuse target. The model of the signal power spectrum includes both the contribution from the optical system as well as the contribution from the t...

  5. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.


    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  6. An improved analytical model for carrier multiplication near breakdown in diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Heringa, Anco; Boksteen, B.K.; Dutta, Satadal; Ferrara, A.; Agarwal, Vishal Vishal; Annema, Anne J.


    The charge carrier contributions to impact ionization and avalanche multiplication are analyzed in detail. A closed-form analytical model is derived for the ionization current before the onset of breakdown induced by both injection current components. This model shows that the ratio of both

  7. Numerical and analytical modeling of polarization-dependent gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (United States)

    Leners, R.; Georges, T.


    We present a rate-equation model that accounts for polarization hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. This model yields analytical expressions for the polarization sensitivity of the amplifier for arbitrary signal polarization states. We investigate the influence of the birefringence properties of the fiber and calculate the average polarization properties of an amplifier chain. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  8. A structurally based analytic model of growth and biomass dynamics in single species stands of conifers (United States)

    Robin J. Tausch


    A theoretically based analytic model of plant growth in single species conifer communities based on the species fully occupying a site and fully using the site resources is introduced. Model derivations result in a single equation simultaneously describes changes over both, different site conditions (or resources available), and over time for each variable for each...

  9. Improved Analytical Model of a Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Bauer, P.


    In this paper, we develop a comprehensive model of a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor. An analytical model for determining instantaneous air-gap field density is developed. This instantaneous field distribution can be further used to determine the cogging torque, induced back electromotive

  10. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai


    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  11. An Analytical Model for Spectral Peak Frequency Prediction of Substrate Noise in CMOS Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.


    This paper proposes an analytical model describing the generation of switching current noise in CMOS substrates. The model eliminates the need for SPICE simulations in existing methods by conducting a transient analysis on a generic CMOS inverter and approximating the switching current waveform us...

  12. Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Ayyakkannu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drusen are common features in the ageing macula associated with exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD. They are visible in retinal images and their quantitative analysis is important in the follow up of the ARMD. However, their evaluation is fastidious and difficult to reproduce when performed manually. Methods This article proposes a methodology for Automatic Drusen Deposits Detection and quantification in Retinal Images (AD3RI by using digital image processing techniques. It includes an image pre-processing method to correct the uneven illumination and to normalize the intensity contrast with smoothing splines. The drusen detection uses a gradient based segmentation algorithm that isolates drusen and provides basic drusen characterization to the modelling stage. The detected drusen are then fitted by Modified Gaussian functions, producing a model of the image that is used to evaluate the affected area. Twenty two images were graded by eight experts, with the aid of a custom made software and compared with AD3RI. This comparison was based both on the total area and on the pixel-to-pixel analysis. The coefficient of variation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, the sensitivity, the specificity and the kappa coefficient were calculated. Results The ground truth used in this study was the experts' average grading. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology three indicators were defined: AD3RI compared to the ground truth (A2G; each expert compared to the other experts (E2E and a standard Global Threshold method compared to the ground truth (T2G. The results obtained for the three indicators, A2G, E2E and T2G, were: coefficient of variation 28.8 %, 22.5 % and 41.1 %, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92, 0.88 and 0.67, sensitivity 0.68, 0.67 and 0.74, specificity 0.96, 0.97 and 0.94, and kappa coefficient 0.58, 0.60 and 0.49, respectively. Conclusions The gradings produced by AD3RI obtained an agreement

  13. Global sensitivity analysis of analytical vibroacoustic transmission models (United States)

    Christen, Jean-Loup; Ichchou, Mohamed; Troclet, Bernard; Bareille, Olivier; Ouisse, Morvan


    Noise reduction issues arise in many engineering problems. One typical vibroacoustic problem is the transmission loss (TL) optimisation and control. The TL depends mainly on the mechanical parameters of the considered media. At early stages of the design, such parameters are not well known. Decision making tools are therefore needed to tackle this issue. In this paper, we consider the use of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) for the analysis of the impact of mechanical parameters on features of interest. FAST is implemented with several structural configurations. FAST method is used to estimate the relative influence of the model parameters while assuming some uncertainty or variability on their values. The method offers a way to synthesize the results of a multiparametric analysis with large variability. Results are presented for transmission loss of isotropic, orthotropic and sandwich plates excited by a diffuse field on one side. Qualitative trends found to agree with the physical expectation. Design rules can then be set up for vibroacoustic indicators. The case of a sandwich plate is taken as an example of the use of this method inside an optimisation process and for uncertainty quantification.

  14. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Al Handawi


    Full Text Available Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber’s modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  15. Measurement strategy and analytic model to determine firing pin force (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel


    As illustrated in literature, ballistics is a branch of theoretical mechanics, which studies the construction and working principles of firearms and ammunition, their effects, as well as the motions of projectiles and bullets1. Criminalistics identification, as part of judiciary identification represents an activity aimed at finding common traits of different objects, objectives, phenomena and beings, but more importantly, traits that differentiate each of them from similar ones2-4. In judicial ballistics, in the case of rifled firearms it is relatively simple for experts to identify the used weapon from traces left on the projectile, as the rifling of the barrel leaves imprints on the bullet, which remain approximately identical even after the respective weapon is fired 100 times with the same barrel. However, in the case of smoothbore firearms, their identification becomes much more complicated. As the firing cap suffers alterations from being hit by the firing pin, determination of the force generated during impact creates the premises for determining the type of firearm used to shoot the respective cartridge. The present paper proposes a simple impact model that can be used to evaluate the force generated by the firing pin during its impact with the firing cap. The present research clearly showed that each rifle, by the combination of the three investigated parameters (impact force maximum value, its variation diagram, and impact time) leave a unique trace. Application of such a method in ballistics can create the perspectives for formulating clear conclusions that eliminate possible judicial errors in this field.

  16. A simple analytical model for electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across a defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Antoine; Szczesniak, Dominik [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France)


    An analytical model is presented for the electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across an isolated defect. The model system consists of two semi infinite lead atomic chains with the defect atom making the junction between the two leads. The calculation is based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals in the tight-binding approximation, with a single atomic one s-like orbital chosen in the present case. The matching method is used to derive analytical expressions for the scattering cross sections for the reflection and transmission processes across the defect, in the Landauer-Buttiker representation. These analytical results verify the known limits for an infinite atomic chain with no defects. The model can be applied numerically for one dimensional atomic systems supported by appropriate templates. It is also of interest since it would help establish efficient procedures for ensemble averages over a field of impurity configurations in real physical systems.

  17. An analytically resolved model of a potato's thermal processing using Heun functions (United States)

    Vargas Toro, Agustín.


    A potato's thermal processing model is solved analytically. The model is formulated using the equation of heat diffusion in the case of a spherical potato processed in a furnace, and assuming that the potato's thermal conductivity is radially modulated. The model is solved using the method of the Laplace transform, applying Bromwich Integral and Residue Theorem. The temperatures' profile in the potato is presented as an infinite series of Heun functions. All computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numerical values of the thermal parameters of the potato and geometric and thermal parameters of the processing furnace, the time evolution of the temperatures in different regions inside the potato are presented analytically and graphically. The duration of thermal processing in order to achieve a specified effect on the potato is computed. It is expected that the obtained analytical results will be important in food engineering and cooking engineering.

  18. An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John


    The objective of this work is to establish an analytical model for heat generation by friction stir welding (FSW), based on different assumptions of the contact condition between the rotating tool surface and the weld piece. The material flow and heat generation are characterized by the contact...... is a modification of previous analytical models known from the literature and accounts for both conical surfaces and different contact conditions. Experimental results on plunge force and torque are used to determine the contact condition. The sliding condition yields a proportional relationship between the plunge...

  19. Blended Learning Analytics Model for Evaluation (BLAME). Et case-studie af universitetsunderviseres brug af Blackboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Bennedsen, Andreas Brændstrup; Hansen, Janne Saltoft


    I denne artikel vil vi præsentere en strategi til inddragelse af læringsanalytik (learning analytics) ved evaluering af universitetsunderviseres brug af et nyt LMS på Aarhus Universitet: Blackboard. Vi diskuterer en model (BLAME: Blended Learning Analytics Model of Evaluation) for, hvordan...... kategorisering af kurser og data om læringsanalytik indsamlet på Blackboard kan integreres. Endvidere belyser vi, hvilke implikationer en sådan læringsanalytik kan have for blended learning ved at analysere to forskellige uddannelses-cases/illustrationer. Dernæst diskuterer vi pædagogisk udvikling i forbindelse...

  20. Analytical and numerical results on the stability of a planetary precessional model (United States)

    Della Penna, G.


    A model for planetary precession is investigated using analytical and numerical techniques. A Hamiltonian function governing the model is derived in terms of action--angle Andoyer--Déprit variables under the assumption of equatorial symmetry. As a first approximation a simplified Hamiltonian with zero--eccentricity is considered and stability estimates are derived using KAM theory. A validation of the analytical results is performed computing Poincaré surfaces of section. We also investigate the role of the eccentricity and its connection with the appearance of resonances. Special attention is devoted to the particular case of the Earth-Moon system.

  1. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads II: Experimental validation (United States)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.


    In this paper, we verify the two optimal electric load concepts based on the zero reflection condition and on the power maximization approach for ultrasound energy receivers. We test a high loss 1-3 composite transducer, and find that the measurements agree very well with the predictions of the analytic model for plate transducers that we have developed previously. Additionally, we also confirm that the power maximization and zero reflection loads are very different when the losses in the receiver are high. Finally, we compare the optimal load predictions by the KLM and the analytic models with frequency dependent attenuation to evaluate the influence of the viscosity.

  2. On Improving Analytical Models of Cosmic Reionization for Matching Numerical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurov, Alexander A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    The methods for studying the epoch of cosmic reionization vary from full radiative transfer simulations to purely analytical models. While numerical approaches are computationally expensive and are not suitable for generating many mock catalogs, analytical methods are based on assumptions and approximations. We explore the interconnection between both methods. First, we ask how the analytical framework of excursion set formalism can be used for statistical analysis of numerical simulations and visual representation of the morphology of ionization fronts. Second, we explore the methods of training the analytical model on a given numerical simulation. We present a new code which emerged from this study. Its main application is to match the analytical model with a numerical simulation. Then, it allows one to generate mock reionization catalogs with volumes exceeding the original simulation quickly and computationally inexpensively, meanwhile reproducing large scale statistical properties. These mock catalogs are particularly useful for CMB polarization and 21cm experiments, where large volumes are required to simulate the observed signal.

  3. Transient vibration analytical modeling and suppressing for vibration absorber system under impulse excitation (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Yu, Hu; Gao, Yulong


    The impulse excitation of mechanism causes transient vibration. In order to achieve adaptive transient vibration control, a method which can exactly model the response need to be proposed. This paper presents an analytical model to obtain the response of the primary system attached with dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) under impulse excitation. The impulse excitation which can be divided into single-impulse excitation and multi-impulse excitation is simplified as sinusoidal wave to establish the analytical model. To decouple the differential governing equations, a transform matrix is applied to convert the response from the physical coordinate to model coordinate. Therefore, the analytical response in the physical coordinate can be obtained by inverse transformation. The numerical Runge-Kutta method and experimental tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of the analytical model proposed. The wavelet of the response indicates that the transient vibration consists of components with multiple frequencies, and it shows that the modeling results coincide with the experiments. The optimizing simulations based on genetic algorithm and experimental tests demonstrate that the transient vibration of the primary system can be decreased by changing the stiffness of the DVA. The results presented in this paper are the foundations for us to develop the adaptive transient vibration absorber in the future.

  4. Useful measures and models for analytical quality management in medical laboratories. (United States)

    Westgard, James O


    The 2014 Milan Conference "Defining analytical performance goals 15 years after the Stockholm Conference" initiated a new discussion of issues concerning goals for precision, trueness or bias, total analytical error (TAE), and measurement uncertainty (MU). Goal-setting models are critical for analytical quality management, along with error models, quality-assessment models, quality-planning models, as well as comprehensive models for quality management systems. There are also critical underlying issues, such as an emphasis on MU to the possible exclusion of TAE and a corresponding preference for separate precision and bias goals instead of a combined total error goal. This opinion recommends careful consideration of the differences in the concepts of accuracy and traceability and the appropriateness of different measures, particularly TAE as a measure of accuracy and MU as a measure of traceability. TAE is essential to manage quality within a medical laboratory and MU and trueness are essential to achieve comparability of results across laboratories. With this perspective, laboratory scientists can better understand the many measures and models needed for analytical quality management and assess their usefulness for practical applications in medical laboratories.

  5. Analytical coupled vibroacoustic modeling of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials: Membrane model (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai; Sun, Chin-Teh


    Membrane-type Acoustic Metamaterials (MAMs) have demonstrated unusual capacity in controlling low-frequency sound transmission/reflection. In this paper, an analytical vibroacoustic membrane model is developed to study sound transmission behavior of the MAM under a normal incidence. The MAM is composed of a prestretched elastic membrane with attached rigid masses. To accurately capture finite-dimension rigid mass effects on the membrane deformation, the point matching approach is adopted by applying a set of distributed point forces along the interfacial boundary between masses and the membrane. The accuracy and capability of the theoretical model is verified through the comparison with the finite element method. In particular, microstructure effects such as weight, size and eccentricity of the attached mass, pretension and thickness of the membrane on the resulting transmission peak and dip frequencies of the MAM are quantitatively investigated. New peak and dip frequencies are found for the MAM with one and multiple eccentric attached masses. The developed model can be served as an efficient tool for design of such membrane-type metamaterials.

  6. Analytical coupled vibroacoustic modeling of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials: membrane model. (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai; Sun, Chin-Teh


    Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) have demonstrated unusual capacity in controlling low-frequency sound transmission/reflection. In this paper, an analytical vibroacoustic membrane model is developed to study sound transmission behavior of the MAM under a normal incidence. The MAM is composed of a prestretched elastic membrane with attached rigid masses. To accurately capture finite-dimension rigid mass effects on the membrane deformation, the point matching approach is adopted by applying a set of distributed point forces along the interfacial boundary between masses and the membrane. The accuracy and capability of the theoretical model is verified through the comparison with the finite element method. In particular, microstructure effects such as weight, size, and eccentricity of the attached mass, pretension, and thickness of the membrane on the resulting transmission peak and dip frequencies of the MAM are quantitatively investigated. New peak and dip frequencies are found for the MAM with one and multiple eccentric attached masses. The developed model can be served as an efficient tool for design of such membrane-type metamaterials.

  7. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model (United States)

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan


    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  8. Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias? (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E


    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytic expressions for the construction of a fire event PSA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Dong San; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model is analytically presented and discussed. Many fire PSA models have fire induced initiating event fault trees not shown in an internal event PSA model. Fire-induced initiating fault tree models are developed for addressing multiple initiating event issues. A single fire event within a fire compartment or fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events. As an example, a fire in a turbine building area can cause a loss of the main feed-water and loss of off-site power initiating events. Up to now, there has been no analytic study on the construction of a fire event PSA model using an internal event PSA model with fault trees of initiating events. In this paper, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model was analytically presented and discussed. This study results show that additional cutsets can be obtained if the fault trees of initiating events for a fire event PSA model are not exactly developed.

  10. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René


    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  11. Testing the circular structure of human values : a meta-analytical structural equation modelling approach


    Holger Steinmetz; Rodrigo Isidor; Naissa Baeuerle


    "Schwartz' theory of human values has found widespread interest in the social sciences. A central part of the theory is that the 10 proposed basic values (i.e., achievement, power, self-direction, hedonism, stimulation, benevolence, universalism, conformity, security, and tradition) are arranged in a circular structure. The present study applies a meta-analytical structural equation modeling approach to test the circular structure. The model tested was the quasi-circumplex model, which is con...

  12. Simultaneous assessment of vessel size index, relative blood volume, and vessel permeability in a mouse brain tumor model using a combined spin echo gradient echo echo-planar imaging sequence and viable tumor analysis. (United States)

    Kording, Fabian; Weidensteiner, Claudia; Zwick, Stefan; Osterberg, Nadja; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Staszewski, Ori; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Reichardt, Wilfried


    Combining multiple imaging biomarkers in one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) session would be beneficial to gain more data pertaining to tumor vasculature under therapy. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of perfusion, permeability, and vessel size imaging (VSI) using a gradient echo spin echo (GE-SE) sequence with injection of a clinically approved gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent was assessed in an orthotopic glioma model. A combined spin echo gradient echo echo-planar imaging sequence was implemented using a single contrast agent Gd diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). This sequence was tested in a mouse brain tumor model (U87_MG), also under treatment with an antiangiogenic agent (bevacizumab). T2 maps and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were used to differentiate regions of cell death and viable tumor tissue. In viable tumor tissue regional blood volume was 5.7 ± 0.6% in controls and 5.2 ± 0.3% in treated mice. Vessel size was 18.1 ± 2.4 μm in controls and 12.8 ± 2.0 μm in treated mice, which correlated with results from immunohistochemistry. Permeability (K(trans) ) was close to zero in treated viable tumor tissue and 0.062 ± 0.024 min(-1) in controls. Our MRI method allows simultaneous assessment of several physiological and morphological parameters and extraction of MRI biomarkers for vasculature. These could be used for treatment monitoring of novel therapeutic agents such as antiangiogenic drugs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental validation of analytical models for a rapid determination of cycle parameters in thermoplastic injection molding (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Sobotka, Vincent; Boyard, Nicolas; Delaunay, Didier


    Two different analytical models were presented to determine cycle parameters of thermoplastics injection process. The aim of these models was to provide quickly a first set of data for mold temperature and cooling time. The first model is specific to amorphous polymers and the second one is dedicated to semi-crystalline polymers taking the crystallization into account. In both cases, the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold could be considered as perfect or not (thermal contact resistance was considered). Results from models are compared with experimental data obtained with an instrumented mold for an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and a polypropylene (PP). Good agreements were obtained for mold temperature variation and for heat flux. In the case of the PP, the analytical crystallization times were compared with those given by a coupled model between heat transfer and crystallization kinetics.

  14. Mathematical model of complex technical asymmetric system based on numerical-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Lazareva


    Full Text Available A new mathematical model of asymmetric support structure frame type is built on the basis of numerical-analytical boundary elements method (BEM. To describe the design scheme used is the graph theory. Building the model taken into account is the effect of frame members restrained torsion, which presence is due to the fact that these elements are thin-walled. The built model represents a real object as a two-axle semi-trailer platform. To implement the BEM algorithm obtained are analytical expressions of the fundamental functions and vector load components. The effected calculations are based on the semi-trailer two different models, using finite elements and boundary elements methods. The analysis showed that the error between the results obtained on the basis of two numerical methods and experimental data is about 4%, that indicates the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model.

  15. Class-modelling in food analytical chemistry: Development, sampling, optimisation and validation issues - A tutorial. (United States)

    Oliveri, Paolo


    Qualitative data modelling is a fundamental branch of pattern recognition, with many applications in analytical chemistry, and embraces two main families: discriminant and class-modelling methods. The first strategy is appropriate when at least two classes are meaningfully defined in the problem under study, while the second strategy is the right choice when the focus is on a single class. For this reason, class-modelling methods are also referred to as one-class classifiers. Although, in the food analytical field, most of the issues would be properly addressed by class-modelling strategies, the use of such techniques is rather limited and, in many cases, discriminant methods are forcedly used for one-class problems, introducing a bias in the outcomes. Key aspects related to the development, optimisation and validation of suitable class models for the characterisation of food products are critically analysed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision Making in Reference to Model of Marketing Predictive Analytics – Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tarka


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to describe concepts and assumptions of predictive marketing analytics in reference to decision making. In particular, we highlight issues pertaining to the importance of data and the modern approach to data analysis and processing with the purpose of solving real marketing problems that companies encounter in business. Methodology: In this paper authors provide two study cases showing how, and to what extent predictive marketing analytics work can be useful in practice e.g., investigation of the marketing environment. The two cases are based on organizations operating mainly on Web site domain. The fi rst part of this article, begins a discussion with the explanation of a general idea of predictive marketing analytics. The second part runs through opportunities it creates for companies in the process of building strong competitive advantage in the market. The paper article ends with a brief comparison of predictive analytics versus traditional marketing-mix analysis. Findings: Analytics play an extremely important role in the current process of business management based on planning, organizing, implementing and controlling marketing activities. Predictive analytics provides the actual and current picture of the external environment. They also explain what problems are faced with the company in business activities. Analytics tailor marketing solutions to the right time and place at minimum costs. In fact they control the effi ciency and simultaneously increases the effectiveness of the firm. Practical implications: Based on the study cases comparing two enterprises carrying business activities in different areas, one can say that predictive analytics has far more been embraces extensively than classical marketing-mix analyses. The predictive approach yields greater speed of data collection and analysis, stronger predictive accuracy, better obtained competitor data, and more transparent models where one can

  17. The Effectiveness of CBL Model to Improve Analytical Thinking Skills the Students of Sport Science (United States)

    Sudibyo, Elok; Jatmiko, Budi; Widodo, Wahono


    Sport science undergraduate education, one of which purposes is to produce an analyst in sport. However, generally analytical thinking skills of sport science's students is still relatively very low in the context of sport. This study aimed to describe the effectiveness of Physics Learning Model in Sport Context, Context Based Learning (CBL)…

  18. Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printing for (Bio)analytical Device Fabrication : Procedures, Materials, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, Gert Ij; Oomen, Pieter E; Grajewski, Maciej; Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    In this work, the use of fused deposition modeling (FDM) in a (bio)analytical/lab-on-a-chip research laboratory is described. First, the specifications of this 3D printing method that are important for the fabrication of (micro)devices were characterized for a benchtop FDM 3D printer. These include

  19. Extension of semi-analytical Erbium-doped fiber amplifier model to self-saturation regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissov, Morten


    We show in this paper that the analytical erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) model presented by Jopson and Saleh in 1991 can be extended to the self-saturation regime, making it capable of simulating all practical EDFAs. We show that an Intel Pentium 66 based computer can calculate gain and noise...... figure for a counterdirectionally pumped self-saturated amplifier in

  20. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Rodolfo H. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Gomez, Sergio S. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)


    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown.

  1. An Analytical Framework for Evaluating E-Commerce Business Models and Strategies. (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Shing


    Considers electronic commerce as a paradigm shift, or a disruptive innovation, and presents an analytical framework based on the theories of transaction costs and switching costs. Topics include business transformation process; scale effect; scope effect; new sources of revenue; and e-commerce value creation model and strategy. (LRW)

  2. Analytical solutions for spin response functions in model storage rings with Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R. [Convergent Computing Inc., P.O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)], E-mail:


    I present analytical solutions for the spin response functions for radial field rf dipole spin flippers in models of storage rings with one Siberian Snake or two diametrically opposed orthogonal Siberian Snakes. The solutions can serve as benchmarks tests for computer programs. The spin response functions can be used to calculate the resonance strengths for radial field rf dipole spin flippers in storage rings.

  3. A semi?analytical model for the simulation of delamination in laminated composites


    Wimmer, G.; Pettermann, H.E.


    A semi?analytical model for the simulation of delamination in laminated composites correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +43 1 58801 31733; fax: +43 1 58801 31799. (Wimmer, G.) (Wimmer, G.) Austrian Aeronautics Research (AAR) / Network for Materials and Engineering--> , Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics--> , Vienna University of Technology--> , Gusshausstrasse 2...

  4. A structurally based analytic model for estimation of biomass and fuel loads of woodland trees (United States)

    Robin J. Tausch


    Allometric/structural relationships in tree crowns are a consequence of the physical, physiological, and fluid conduction processes of trees, which control the distribution, efficient support, and growth of foliage in the crown. The structural consequences of these processes are used to develop an analytic model based on the concept of branch orders. A set of...

  5. The Use of Decision-Analytic Models in Atopic Eczema: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal. (United States)

    McManus, Emma; Sach, Tracey; Levell, Nick


    The objective of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of published economic decision-analytic models within atopic eczema against best practice guidelines, with the intention of informing future decision-analytic models within this condition. A systematic search of the following online databases was performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, Scopus, Health Technology Assessment, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they described a decision-analytic model evaluating both the costs and benefits associated with an intervention or prevention for atopic eczema. Data were extracted using a standardised form by two independent reviewers, whilst quality was assessed using the model-specific Philips criteria. Twenty-four models were identified, evaluating either preventions (n = 12) or interventions (n = 12): 14 reported using a Markov modelling approach, four utilised decision trees and one a discrete event simulation, whilst five did not specify the approach. The majority, 22 studies, reported that the intervention was dominant or cost effective, given the assumptions and analytical perspective taken. Notably, the models tended to be short-term (16 used a time horizon of ≤1 year), often providing little justification for the limited time horizon chosen. The methodological and reporting quality of the studies was generally weak, with only seven studies fulfilling more than 50% of their applicable Philips criteria. This is the first systematic review of decision models in eczema. Whilst the majority of models reported favourable outcomes in terms of the cost effectiveness of the new intervention, the usefulness of these findings for decision-making is

  6. Evaluation of the Component Chemical Potentials in Analytical Models for Ordered Alloy Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Oates


    Full Text Available The component chemical potentials in models of solution phases with a fixed number of sites can be evaluated easily when the Helmholtz energy is known as an analytical function of composition. In the case of ordered phases, however, the situation is less straightforward, because the Helmholtz energy is a functional involving internal order parameters. Because of this, the chemical potentials are usually obtained numerically from the calculated integral Helmholtz energy. In this paper, we show how the component chemical potentials can be obtained analytically in ordered phases via the use of virtual cluster chemical potentials. Some examples are given which illustrate the simplicity of the method.

  7. Analytical Modeling of Wind Farms: A New Approach for Power Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Niayifar


    Full Text Available Wind farm power production is known to be strongly affected by turbine wake effects. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a new analytical model for the prediction of wind turbine wakes and the associated power losses in wind farms. The new model is an extension of the one recently proposed by Bastankhah and Porté-Agel for the wake of stand-alone wind turbines. It satisfies the conservation of mass and momentum and assumes a self-similar Gaussian shape of the velocity deficit. The local wake growth rate is estimated based on the local streamwise turbulence intensity. Superposition of velocity deficits is used to model the interaction of the multiple wakes. Furthermore, the power production from the wind turbines is calculated using the power curve. The performance of the new analytical wind farm model is validated against power measurements and large-eddy simulation (LES data from the Horns Rev wind farm for a wide range of wind directions, corresponding to a variety of full-wake and partial-wake conditions. A reasonable agreement is found between the proposed analytical model, LES data, and power measurements. Compared with a commonly used wind farm wake model, the new model shows a significant improvement in the prediction of wind farm power.

  8. A semi-analytical model of a near-field optical trapping potential well (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Padhy, Punnag; Hesselink, Lambertus


    A semi-analytical model is proposed to describe the force generated by a near-field optical trap. The model contains fitting parameters that can be adjusted to resemble a reference force-field. The model parameters for a plasmonic near-field trap consisting of a C-shaped engraving are determined using least squares regression. The reference values required for the regression analysis are calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor method. The speed and accuracy of the proposed model are compared with the conventional method. The model is found to be significantly faster with an acceptable level of accuracy.

  9. Using design tools in strategy workshops to co-create viable and value creating business model ideas with relational business-to-business partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Winie; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde

    & Snehota (1995), and effective relational participation therefore involves understanding of one’s own and relational partners’ business models, including the value they seek from their network (George and Bock, 2010). But little research focus on how design can reveal dominant mental models and support...

  10. Analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Otero-Espinar, Victoria; Nieto, Juan J; Mira, Jorge


    An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also sug...

  11. Analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete considering the structure internal force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyue Lin


    Full Text Available Based on the assumptions of uniform corrosion and linear elastic expansion, an analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete was established, which is able to consider the structure internal force. And then, by means of the complex variable function theory and series expansion technology established by Muskhelishvili, the corresponding stress component functions of concrete around the reinforcement were obtained. Also, a comparative analysis was conducted between the numerical simulation model and present model in this paper. The results show that the calculation results of both methods were consistent with each other, and the numerical deviation was less than 10%, proving that the analytical model established in this paper is reliable.

  12. Analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete considering the structure internal force (United States)

    Lin, Xiangyue; Peng, Minli; Lei, Fengming; Tan, Jiangxian; Shi, Huacheng


    Based on the assumptions of uniform corrosion and linear elastic expansion, an analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete was established, which is able to consider the structure internal force. And then, by means of the complex variable function theory and series expansion technology established by Muskhelishvili, the corresponding stress component functions of concrete around the reinforcement were obtained. Also, a comparative analysis was conducted between the numerical simulation model and present model in this paper. The results show that the calculation results of both methods were consistent with each other, and the numerical deviation was less than 10%, proving that the analytical model established in this paper is reliable.

  13. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander


    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts. T...... formation water for chemical flooding can be calculated from the reduced auxiliary system. Reduction of the number of equations allows the generation of new analytical models for EOR. The analytical model for displacement of oil by a polymer slug with water drive is presented.......) and transitional tie lines are independent of relative permeabilities and phases viscosities. Relative motion of polymer, surfactant and fresh water slugs depends on sorption isotherms only. Therefore, MMP for gasflood or minimum fresh water slug size providing isolation of polymer/surfactant from incompatible...

  14. 2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor (United States)

    Malé, G.; Lubin, T.; Mezani, S.; Lévêque, J.


    An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.

  15. A novel stress distribution analytical model of O-ring seals under different properties of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Shao Ping; Wang, Xing Jian [School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing (China)


    The elastomeric O-ring seals have been widely used as sealing elements in hydraulic systems. The sealing performance of O-ring seals is related to stress distribution. The stresses distribution depends on the squeeze rate and internal pressure, and would vary with properties of O-ring seals materials. Thus, in order to study the sealing performance of O-ring seals, it is necessary to describe the analytic relationship between stress distribution and properties of O-ring seals materials. For this purpose, a novel Stress distribution analytical model (SDAM) is proposed in this paper. The analytical model utilizes two stress complex functions to describe the stress distribution of O-ring seals. The proposed SDAM can express not only the analytical relationship between stress distribution and Young’s modulus, but also the one between stress distribution and Poisson’s ratio. Finally, compared results between finite element analysis and the SDAM validate that the proposed model can effectively reveal the stress distribution under different properties for O-ring materials.

  16. Modern Strategies of Modelling Informational and Analytical Support of Inclusive Higher Education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpushkina N.V.


    Full Text Available The paper gives a description of modern approaches to the modelling of informational and analytical support of higher education in persons with disabilities. It proposes a model of such support depending on the type of disability and provides a detailed description of structure components of informational and analytical support. It is argued that the main areas of support of individuals with disabilities are the following: adaptational and orientating (pre-university; organizational and coordinative; psychological and educational; academic; sociocultural; medical and health-improving; vocational (postgraduate etc. Each area is comprehensively defined. The paper reveals the principles underlying the modelling of informational and analytical support of higher inclusive education, such as: the principle of expanding and shaping a tolerant ‘barrier-free’ environment; the principle of subjectivity and socialization; the principle of strong motivation and activity; the principle of dialogue; the principle of variation; and, finally, the principle of informational openness. This work was carried out with the support of the Government Contract of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (project 2016- 01.04- 05- 020 – F- 35.001 “Monitoring and Informational/Analytical Support of Regional Resource Centers for Higher Education for the Disabled”.

  17. Analytical modeling of Schottky tunneling source impact ionization MOSFET with reduced breakdown voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Singh


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated a novel Schottky tunneling source impact ionization MOSFET (STS-IMOS to lower the breakdown voltage of conventional impact ionization MOS (IMOS and developed an analytical model for the same. In STS-IMOS there is an accumulative effect of both impact ionization and source induced barrier tunneling. The silicide source offers very low parasitic resistance, the outcome of which is an increment in voltage drop across the intrinsic region for the same applied bias. This reduces operating voltage and hence, it exhibits a significant reduction in both breakdown and threshold voltage. STS-IMOS shows high immunity against hot electron damage. As a result of this the device reliability increases magnificently. The analytical model for impact ionization current (Iii is developed based on the integration of ionization integral (M. Similarly, to get Schottky tunneling current (ITun expression, Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB approximation is employed. Analytical models for threshold voltage and subthreshold slope is optimized against Schottky barrier height (ϕB variation. The expression for the drain current is computed as a function of gate-to-drain bias via integral expression. It is validated by comparing it with the technology computer-aided design (TCAD simulation results as well. In essence, this analytical framework provides the physical background for better understanding of STS-IMOS and its performance estimation.

  18. Decision analytic modeling in spinal surgery: a methodologic overview with review of current published literature. (United States)

    McAnany, Steven J; Anwar, Muhammad A F; Qureshi, Sheeraz A


    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of decision analysis studies in the spine literature. Although there are several published reviews on the different types of decision analysis (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-utility), there is limited information in the spine literature regarding the mathematical models used in these studies (decision tree, Markov modeling, Monte Carlo simulation). The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the types of decision analytic models used in spine surgery. A secondary aim was to provide a systematic overview of the most cited studies in the spine literature. This is a systematic review of the available information from all sources regarding decision analytics and economic modeling in spine surgery. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane review was performed to identify the most relevant peer-reviewed literature of decision analysis/cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models including decisions trees, Markov models, and Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, CEA models based on investigational drug exemption studies were reviewed in particular detail, as these studies are prime candidates for economic modeling. The initial review of the literature resulted in 712 abstracts. After two reviewer-assessment of abstract relevance and methodologic quality, 19 studies were selected: 12 with decision tree constructs and 7 with Markov models. Each study was assessed for methodologic quality and a review of the overall results of the model. A generalized overview of the mathematical construction and methodology of each type of model was also performed. Limitations, strengths, and potential applications to spine research were further explored. Decision analytic modeling represents a powerful tool both in the assessment of competing treatment options and potentially in the formulation of policy and reimbursement. Our review provides a generalized overview and a conceptual framework to help

  19. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir


    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  20. Analytical Modeling of a Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, IIftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Uddin, Md Wasi; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain; Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard


    This paper presents a nonlinear analytical model of a novel double-sided flux concentrating Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) based on the Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model. The analytical model uses a series-parallel combination of flux tubes to predict the flux paths through different parts of the machine including air gaps, permanent magnets, stator, and rotor. The two-dimensional MEC model approximates the complex three-dimensional flux paths of the TFM and includes the effects of magnetic saturation. The model is capable of adapting to any geometry that makes it a good alternative for evaluating prospective designs of TFM compared to finite element solvers that are numerically intensive and require more computation time. A single-phase, 1-kW, 400-rpm machine is analytically modeled, and its resulting flux distribution, no-load EMF, and torque are verified with finite element analysis. The results are found to be in agreement, with less than 5% error, while reducing the computation time by 25 times.

  1. Analysis and Comprehensive Analytical Modeling of Statistical Variations in Subthreshold MOSFET's High Frequency Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawid Banchuin


    Full Text Available In this research, the analysis of statistical variations in subthreshold MOSFET's high frequency characteristics defined in terms of gate capacitance and transition frequency, have been shown and the resulting comprehensive analytical models of such variations in terms of their variances have been proposed. Major imperfection in the physical level properties including random dopant fluctuation and effects of variations in MOSFET's manufacturing process, have been taken into account in the proposed analysis and modeling. The up to dated comprehensive analytical model of statistical variation in MOSFET's parameter has been used as the basis of analysis and modeling. The resulting models have been found to be both analytic and comprehensive as they are the precise mathematical expressions in terms of physical level variables of MOSFET. Furthermore, they have been verified at the nanometer level by using 65~nm level BSIM4 based benchmarks and have been found to be very accurate with smaller than 5 % average percentages of errors. Hence, the performed analysis gives the resulting models which have been found to be the potential mathematical tool for the statistical and variability aware analysis and design of subthreshold MOSFET based VHF circuits, systems and applications.

  2. Deceleration of CMEs in the interplanetary medium: comparison of different analytic models (United States)

    Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.


    We study the evolution of fast CMEs from near the Sun to 1 AU. There are several analytic models to describe the CME's propagation and to predict the 1 AU transit times and arrival velocities. In this work we compare the drag force (Vrsnak & Gopalswamy [2002], Cargill [2004]), mass piling up (Canto et al. [2005], Tappin [2006]) and viscous and turbulent force (Borgazzi et al. [2009]) deceleration models. We present a few study cases applying the different models and comparing the results with observations. We discuss the similarities and differences between the models.

  3. Systematic assessment of decision-analytic models for chronic myeloid leukemia. (United States)

    Rochau, Ursula; Schwarzer, Ruth; Jahn, Beate; Sroczynski, Gaby; Kluibenschaedl, Martina; Wolf, Dominik; Radich, Jerald; Brixner, Diana; Gastl, Guenther; Siebert, Uwe


    Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Decision-analytic modeling can help to extrapolate data from short-term clinical trials and also consider quality of life when evaluating different treatment strategies. Our goal was to describe and analyze the structural and methodological approaches of published decision-analytic models for various treatment strategies in CML and to derive recommendations for the development of future CML models. We performed a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE/PreMEDLINE, EconLit, EMBASE, NHS EED, and Tuft's CEA Registry) to identify published studies evaluating CML treatment strategies using mathematical models. The search was updated in August 2013. The models were required to compare different treatment strategies in relation to relevant clinical and patient-relevant health outcomes [e.g., life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years] over a defined time horizon and population. We used standardized forms for data extraction, description of study design, methodological framework, and data sources for each model. We identified 18 different decision-analytic modeling studies. Of these, 17 included economic evaluations. Modeling approaches included decision trees, Markov cohort models, state-transition models with individual (Monte Carlo) simulations, and mathematical equations. Analytic time horizons ranged from 2 years to a lifetime. Treatment strategies compared included bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, conventional chemotherapy, interferon-α, and TKIs. Only one model evaluated a second-generation TKI. Most models did not report a model validation. All models conducted deterministic sensitivity analyses and four reported a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Articles that were not published in English or German were not included in this review. Our literature search was restricted to published full-text articles in certain

  4. Towards better analysis of machine learning models: A visual analytics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixia Liu


    Full Text Available Interactive model analysis, the process of understanding, diagnosing, and refining a machine learning model with the help of interactive visualization, is very important for users to efficiently solve real-world artificial intelligence and data mining problems. Dramatic advances in big data analytics have led to a wide variety of interactive model analysis tasks. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis and interpretation of this rapidly developing area. Specifically, we classify the relevant work into three categories: understanding, diagnosis, and refinement. Each category is exemplified by recent influential work. Possible future research opportunities are also explored and discussed. Keywords: Interactive model analysis, Interactive visualization, Machine learning, Understanding, Diagnosis, Refinement

  5. A Proposed Analytical Model for Integrated Pick-and-Sort Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study we present an analytical approach for integration of order picking and sortation operations which are the most important, labour intensive and costly activity for warehouses. Main aim is to investigate order picking and sorting efficiencies under different design issues as a function of order wave size. Integrated analytical model is proposed to estimate the optimum order picking and order sortation efficiency. The model, which has been tested by simulations with different illustrative examples, calculates the optimum wave size that solves the trade-off between picking and sorting operations and makes the order picking and sortations efficiency maximum. Our model also allow system designer to predict the order picking and sorting capacity for different system configurations. This study presents an innovative approach for integrated warehouse operations.

  6. A unified analytical model for charge transport in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (United States)

    Venkateswara Reddy, K.; DasGupta, Amitava


    A unified analytical charge transport model of HBTs, which is applicable for a wide variety of emitter-base (e-b) structures of HBTs, viz. abrupt or graded heterojunctions and p-n junctions displaced into wider or narrower band gap material is proposed. This is a thermionic field diffusion model, which considers thermionic emission and tunneling at the e-b heterojunction and diffusion in the quasi-neutral base regions. The Fermi-level splitting is considered while calculating the space charge region (SCR) recombination currents, which in turn is taken into account to calculate excess electron concentration at the edge of the depletion region in the base side of the e-b p-n junction. Closed form analytical expressions for the terminal currents are obtained, which has been implemented in a circuit simulator. The accuracy of the model is established by comparison with numerical simulation results and experimental data.

  7. Analytical solution of diffusion model for nutrient release from controlled release fertilizer (United States)

    Ameenuddin Irfan, Sayed; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar


    An analytical method has been developed to solve the initial value problem which arises from Fick’s diffusion equation encountered in the modelling of the Controlled Release Fertilizers. The proposed analytical solution is developed using the modified Adomian decomposition method. This method does not require the discretization method, reliability and efficiency of this method is more and it also reduces the calculation time. The model has predicted the effect of granule radius and diffusion coefficient on the nutrient release and total release time of Controlled Release Fertilizer. Model has predicted that increase in the radius of granule reduces the release and vice versa in case of diffusion coefficient. Detailed understanding of these parameters helps in improved designing of Controlled Release Fertilizer.

  8. An explicit closed-form analytical solution for European options under the CGMY model (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Du, Meiyu; Xu, Xiang


    In this paper, we consider the analytical pricing of European path-independent options under the CGMY model, which is a particular type of pure jump Le´vy process, and agrees well with many observed properties of the real market data by allowing the diffusions and jumps to have both finite and infinite activity and variation. It is shown that, under this model, the option price is governed by a fractional partial differential equation (FPDE) with both the left-side and right-side spatial-fractional derivatives. In comparison to derivatives of integer order, fractional derivatives at a point not only involve properties of the function at that particular point, but also the information of the function in a certain subset of the entire domain of definition. This ;globalness; of the fractional derivatives has added an additional degree of difficulty when either analytical methods or numerical solutions are attempted. Albeit difficult, we still have managed to derive an explicit closed-form analytical solution for European options under the CGMY model. Based on our solution, the asymptotic behaviors of the option price and the put-call parity under the CGMY model are further discussed. Practically, a reliable numerical evaluation technique for the current formula is proposed. With the numerical results, some analyses of impacts of four key parameters of the CGMY model on European option prices are also provided.

  9. Analytical modeling of PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) (United States)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor


    This paper discusses theoretical analysis of electro-mechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS). Both free and constrained PWAS EMIS models are developed for in-plane (lengthwise) and outof plane (thickness wise) mode. The paper starts with the general piezoelectric constitutive equations that express the linear relation between stress, strain, electric field and electric displacement. This is followed by the PWAS EMIS models with two assumptions: 1) constant electric displacement in thickness direction (D3) for out-of-plane mode; 2) constant electric field in thickness direction (E3) for in-plane mode. The effects of these assumptions on the free PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane EMIS models are studied and compared. The effects of internal damping of PWAS are considered in the analytical EMIS models. The analytical EMIS models are verified by Coupled Field Finite Element Method (CF-FEM) simulations and by experimental measurements. The extent of the agreement between the analytical and experimental EMIS results is discussed. The paper ends with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.

  10. Analytical Business Model for Sustainable Distributed Retail Enterprises in a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courage Matobobo


    Full Text Available Retail enterprises are organizations that sell goods in small quantities to consumers for personal consumption. In distributed retail enterprises, data is administered per branch. It is important for retail enterprises to make use of data generated within the organization to determine consumer patterns and behaviors. Large organizations find it difficult to ascertain customer preferences by merely observing transactions. This has led to quantifiable losses, such as loss of market share to competitors and targeting the wrong market. Although some enterprises have implemented classical business models to address these challenging issues, they still lack analytics-based marketing programs to gain a competitive advantage to deal with likely catastrophic events. This research develops an analytical business (ARANN model for distributed retail enterprises in a competitive market environment to address the current laxity through the best arrangement of shelf products per branch. The ARANN model is built on association rules, complemented by artificial neural networks to strengthen the results of both mutually. According to experimental analytics, the ARANN model outperforms the state of the art model, implying improved confidence in business information management within the dynamically changing world economy.

  11. Analytical development and optimization of a graphene-solution interface capacitance model. (United States)

    Karimi, Hediyeh; Rahmani, Rasoul; Mashayekhi, Reza; Ranjbari, Leyla; Shirdel, Amir H; Haghighian, Niloofar; Movahedi, Parisa; Hadiyan, Moein; Ismail, Razali


    Graphene, which as a new carbon material shows great potential for a range of applications because of its exceptional electronic and mechanical properties, becomes a matter of attention in these years. The use of graphene in nanoscale devices plays an important role in achieving more accurate and faster devices. Although there are lots of experimental studies in this area, there is a lack of analytical models. Quantum capacitance as one of the important properties of field effect transistors (FETs) is in our focus. The quantum capacitance of electrolyte-gated transistors (EGFETs) along with a relevant equivalent circuit is suggested in terms of Fermi velocity, carrier density, and fundamental physical quantities. The analytical model is compared with the experimental data and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is calculated to be 11.82. In order to decrease the error, a new function of E composed of α and β parameters is suggested. In another attempt, the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is implemented for optimization and development of an analytical model to obtain a more accurate capacitance model. To further confirm this viewpoint, based on the given results, the accuracy of the optimized model is more than 97% which is in an acceptable range of accuracy.

  12. Analytical Compliance Modeling of Serial Flexure-Based Compliant Mechanism Under Arbitrary Applied Load (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Jiang, Yao; Li, Tie-Min


    Analytical compliance model is vital to the flexure- based compliant mechanism in its mechanical design and motion control. The matrix is a common and effective approach in the compliance modeling while it is not well developed for the closed-loop serial and parallel compliant mechanisms and is not applicable to the situation when the external loads are applied on the flexure members. Concise and explicit analytical compliance models of the serial flexure-based compliant mechanisms under arbitrary loads are derived by using the matrix method. An equivalent method is proposed to deal with the situation when the external loads are applied on the flexure members. The external loads are transformed to concentrated forces applied on the rigid links, which satisfy the equations of static equilibrium and also guarantee that the deformations at the displacement output point remain unchanged. Then the matrix method can be still adopted for the compliance analysis of the compliant mechanism. Finally, several specific examples and an experimental test are given to verify the effectiveness of the compliance models and the force equivalent method. The research enriches the matrix method and provides concise analytical compliance models for the serial compliant mechanism.

  13. Cytokine gene expression in a mouse model: The first instillations with viable bacillus Calmette-Guerin determine the succeeding Th1 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Elizabeth C.; Rooijakkers, Sietske J.; Schamhart, Denis H.; Kurth, Karl-Heinz


    Purpose: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for superficial bladder cancer is immune dependent and activation of a Th1 immune response is probably required for clinical efficacy. Given the empirical approach to improving BCG therapy we investigated in a mouse model the consequences of

  14. Development of collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media for instrumental analytical chemistry lectures (United States)

    Zurweni, Wibawa, Basuki; Erwin, Tuti Nurian


    The framework for teaching and learning in the 21st century was prepared with 4Cs criteria. Learning providing opportunity for the development of students' optimal creative skills is by implementing collaborative learning. Learners are challenged to be able to compete, work independently to bring either individual or group excellence and master the learning material. Virtual laboratory is used for the media of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry (Vis, UV-Vis-AAS etc) lectures through simulations computer application and used as a substitution for the laboratory if the equipment and instruments are not available. This research aims to design and develop collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media for Instrumental Analytical Chemistry lectures, to know the effectiveness of this design model adapting the Dick & Carey's model and Hannafin & Peck's model. The development steps of this model are: needs analyze, design collaborative-creative learning, virtual laboratory media using macromedia flash, formative evaluation and test of learning model effectiveness. While, the development stages of collaborative-creative learning model are: apperception, exploration, collaboration, creation, evaluation, feedback. Development of collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media can be used to improve the quality learning in the classroom, overcome the limitation of lab instruments for the real instrumental analysis. Formative test results show that the Collaborative-Creative Learning Model developed meets the requirements. The effectiveness test of students' pretest and posttest proves significant at 95% confidence level, t-test higher than t-table. It can be concluded that this learning model is effective to use for Instrumental Analytical Chemistry lectures.

  15. Number of Clusters and the Quality of Hybrid Predictive Models in Analytical CRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapczyński Mariusz


    Full Text Available Making more accurate marketing decisions by managers requires building effective predictive models. Typically, these models specify the probability of customer belonging to a particular category, group or segment. The analytical CRM categories refer to customers interested in starting cooperation with the company (acquisition models, customers who purchase additional products (cross- and up-sell models or customers intending to resign from the cooperation (churn models. During building predictive models researchers use analytical tools from various disciplines with an emphasis on their best performance. This article attempts to build a hybrid predictive model combining decision trees (C&RT algorithm and cluster analysis (k-means. During experiments five different cluster validity indices and eight datasets were used. The performance of models was evaluated by using popular measures such as: accuracy, precision, recall, G-mean, F-measure and lift in the first and in the second decile. The authors tried to find a connection between the number of clusters and models' quality.

  16. Function-weighted frequency response function sensitivity method for analytical model updating (United States)

    Lin, R. M.


    Since the frequency response function (FRF) sensitivity method was first proposed [26], it has since become a most powerful and practical method for analytical model updating. Nevertheless, the original formulation of the FRF sensitivity method does suffer the limitation that the initial analytical model to be updated should be reasonably close to the final updated model to be sought, due the assumed mathematical first order approximation implicit to most sensitivity based methods. Convergence to correct model is not guaranteed when large modelling errors exist and blind application often leads to optimal solutions which are truly sought. This paper seeks to examine all the important numerical characteristics of the original FRF sensitivity method including frequency data selection, numerical balance and convergence performance. To further improve the applicability of the method to cases of large modelling errors, a new novel function-weighted sensitivity method is developed. The new method has shown much superior performance on convergence even in the presence of large modelling errors. Extensive numerical case studies based on a mass-spring system and a GARTEUR structure have been conducted and very encouraging results have been achieved. Effect of measurement noise has been examined and the method works reasonably well in the presence of measurement uncertainties. The new method removes the restriction of modelling error magnitude being of second order in Euclidean norm as compared with that of system matrices, thereby making it a truly general method applicable to most practical model updating problems.

  17. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo


    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  18. Analytical spectral density of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model at finite N (United States)

    García-García, Antonio M.; Verbaarschot, Jacobus J. M.


    We derive an approximate analytical formula for the spectral density of the q -body Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model obtained by summing a class of diagrams representing leading intersecting contractions. This expression agrees with that of Q -Hermite polynomials, with Q a nontrivial function of q ≥2 and the number of Majorana fermions N . Numerical results, obtained by exact diagonalization, are in excellent agreement with this approximate analytical spectral density even for relatively small N ˜8 . For N ≫1 and not close to the edge of the spectrum, we find that the approximate analytical spectral density simplifies to ρasym(E )=exp [2 arcsin2(E /E0)/log η ] , where η (N ,q ) is the suppression factor of the contribution of intersecting Wick contractions relative to nested contractions and E0 is the ground-state energy per particle. This spectral density reproduces the known result for the free energy in the large-q and large-N limit at arbitrary values of the temperature. In the infrared region, where the SYK model is believed to have a gravity dual, the analytical spectral density is given by ρ (E )˜sinh [2 π √{2 }√{(1 -E /E0)/(-log η ) }] . It therefore has a square-root edge, as in random matrix ensembles, followed by an exponential growth, a distinctive feature of black holes and also of low-energy nuclear excitations. Results for level statistics in this region confirm the agreement with random matrix theory. Physically this is a signature that, for sufficiently long times, the SYK model and its gravity dual evolve to a fully ergodic state whose dynamics only depends on the global symmetry of the system. Our results strongly suggest that random matrix correlations are a universal feature of quantum black holes and that the SYK model, combined with holography, may be relevant to modeling certain aspects of the nuclear dynamics.

  19. Analytical solution for the anisotropic Rabi model: effects of counter-rotating terms. (United States)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Zhu, Hanjie


    The anisotropic Rabi model, which was proposed recently, differs from the original Rabi model: the rotating and counter-rotating terms are governed by two different coupling constants. This feature allows us to vary the counter-rotating interaction independently and explore the effects of it on some quantum properties. In this paper, we eliminate the counter-rotating terms approximately and obtain the analytical energy spectrums and wavefunctions. These analytical results agree well with the numerical calculations in a wide range of the parameters including the ultrastrong coupling regime. In the weak counter-rotating coupling limit we find out that the counter-rotating terms can be considered as the shifts to the parameters of the Jaynes-Cummings model. This modification shows the validness of the rotating-wave approximation on the assumption of near-resonance and relatively weak coupling. Moreover, the analytical expressions of several physics quantities are also derived, and the results show the break-down of the U(1)-symmetry and the deviation from the Jaynes-Cummings model.

  20. An analytical model of heat generation for eccentric cylindrical pin in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ramadan Shaaban Essa


    Full Text Available An analytical model for heat generation for eccentric cylindrical pin in friction stir welding was developed that utilizes a new factor based on the tool pin eccentricity. The proposed analytical expression is a modification of previous analytical models from the literature, which is verified and well matches with the model developed by previous researchers. Results of plunge force and peak temperature were used to validate the current proposed model. The cylindrical tool pin with eccentricities of 0, 0.2, and 0.8 mm were used to weld two types of aluminum alloys; a low deformation resistant AA1050-H12, and a relatively high deformation resistant AA5754-H24 alloy. The FSW was performed at constant tool rotation speed of 600 rpm and different welding speeds of 100, 300, and 500 mm/min. Experimental results implied that less temperature is generated using eccentric cylindrical pin than cylindrical pin without eccentricity under the given set of FSW process conditions. Furthermore, numerical simulation results show that increasing the pin eccentricity leads to decrease in peak temperature.

  1. Experiments in the wind turbine far wake for the evaluation of an analytical wake model (United States)

    García, Luis; Vatn, Mari; Mühle, Franz; Sætran, Lars


    Nowadays, not only the size of single wind turbines but also the size of wind farms is increasing. Understanding the interaction between the turbines and especially the wakes formed behind them are getting more important to further improve such wind turbine arrays. Consequently, new issues in wind energy research arise. An experimental wind tunnel study was conducted, in order to analyze and understand the far wake of a wind turbine. The experimental results were used to test if an analytical wake model derived by H. Schilichting for blunt bodies can be used to describe the velocity and width development in the far wake of wind turbines. The results of the evaluation show that the wake of a wind turbine agrees fairly well with the model according to Schlichting. The velocity deficit as well as the width in the wake behind the turbine, are found to deviate with around only 2% from the results obtained applying the analytical model. Thus, it can be concluded that the analytical wake model by Schlichting is well suited to estimate the velocity deficit and the width in the far wake of a wind turbine.

  2. Accurate analytical modeling of junctionless DG-MOSFET by green's function approach (United States)

    Nandi, Ashutosh; Pandey, Nilesh


    An accurate analytical model of Junctionless double gate MOSFET (JL-DG-MOSFET) in the subthreshold regime of operation is developed in this work using green's function approach. The approach considers 2-D mixed boundary conditions and multi-zone techniques to provide an exact analytical solution to 2-D Poisson's equation. The Fourier coefficients are calculated correctly to derive the potential equations that are further used to model the channel current and subthreshold slope of the device. The threshold voltage roll-off is computed from parallel shifts of Ids-Vgs curves between the long channel and short-channel devices. It is observed that the green's function approach of solving 2-D Poisson's equation in both oxide and silicon region can accurately predict channel potential, subthreshold current (Isub), threshold voltage (Vt) roll-off and subthreshold slope (SS) of both long & short channel devices designed with different doping concentrations and higher as well as lower tsi/tox ratio. All the analytical model results are verified through comparisons with TCAD Sentaurus simulation results. It is observed that the model matches quite well with TCAD device simulations.

  3. The Super-NFW model: an analytic dynamical model for cold dark matter haloes and elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Lilley, Edward J.; Wyn Evans, N.; Sanders, Jason L.


    An analytic galaxy model with ρ ˜ r-1 at small radii and ρ ˜ r-3.5 at large radii is presented. The asymptotic density fall-off is slower than the Hernquist model, but faster than the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile for dark matter haloes, and so in accord with recent evidence from cosmological simulations. The model provides the zeroth-order term in a biorthornomal basis function expansion, meaning that axisymmetric, triaxial and lopsided distortions can easily be added (much like the Hernquist model itself which is the zeroth-order term of the Hernquist-Ostriker expansion). The properties of the spherical model, including analytic distribution functions which are either isotropic, radially anisotropic or tangentially anisotropic, are discussed in some detail. The analogue of the mass-concentration relation for cosmological haloes is provided.

  4. The Patient Care Delivery Model--an open system framework: conceptualisation, literature review and analytical strategy. (United States)

    O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Meyer, Raquel M; Hayes, Laureen J; Wang, Sping


    This paper presents the Patient Care Delivery Model to illustrate interrelationships between model components and to support its application in research using advanced analytical techniques, including structural equation modelling. Many complex factors contribute to the nature of healthcare environments and to nurse, patient and system outcomes. A better understanding of these factors and their interrelationships would provide insight for decision-makers to develop strategies to improve outcomes. A literature review approach was used to address the objectives. A threefold approach used existing theory to explicate a comprehensive conceptual framework, reviewed empirical studies of the proposed relationships and considered the application of advanced analytical techniques to inform future research directions. As per general system theory, inputs (patient, nurse and system characteristics) to the Patient Care Delivery Model interact with throughputs (nursing interventions, work environments and environmental complexity) to produce intermediate (staffing levels) and distal outputs (patient, nurse and system outcomes). Application of the model in research and its relevance for healthcare settings is supported in the current literature. Statistical techniques that allow model testing and the investigation of multiple relationships simultaneously have demonstrated the interconnections among the model components. Development of the Patient Care Delivery Model is a step towards understanding work environments and providing healthcare managers with evidence-based management tools. Formal testing of comprehensive, multilevel conceptual models will provide empirical linkages between inputs and outputs and will identify potential mediators between predictors and outcomes to offer new insight into organisational practices. A better understanding of how factors in the work environment impact clinical outcomes can facilitate care processes in the nursing unit. Future studies

  5. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads (United States)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.


    In this paper, we present an analytic model for thickness resonating plate ultrasound energy receivers, which we have derived from the piezoelectric and the wave equations and, in which we have included dielectric, viscosity and acoustic attenuation losses. Afterwards, we explore the optimal electric load predictions by the zero reflection and power maximization approaches present in the literature with different acoustic boundary conditions, and discuss their limitations. To validate our model, we compared our expressions with the KLM model solved numerically with very good agreement. Finally, we discuss the differences between the zero reflection and power maximization optimal electric loads, which start to differ as losses in the receiver increase.

  6. Confronting semi-analytic galaxy models with galaxy-matter correlations observed by CFHTLenS (United States)

    Saghiha, Hananeh; Simon, Patrick; Schneider, Peter; Hilbert, Stefan


    Testing predictions of semi-analytic models of galaxy evolution against observations helps to understand the complex processes that shape galaxies. We compare predictions from the Garching and Durham models implemented on the Millennium Simulation (MS) with observations of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing (G3L) for various galaxy samples with stellar masses in the range 0.5 ≤ M∗/ 1010M⊙ Durham models are strongly excluded by the observations at the 95% confidence level because they largely over-predict the amplitudes of the GGL and G3L signals, probably because they predict too many satellite galaxies in massive halos.

  7. Analytical Modeling Of The Steinmetz Coefficient For Single-Phase Transformer Eddy Current Loss Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy


    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz coefficient applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active power consumed by the core is expressed analytically in function of the electrical parameters as resistivity and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The required coefficient is identified from the empirical Steinmetz data based on the experimented active power expression. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with two in two different frequencies and measurements were carried out. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  8. Analytical solutions for the mathematical model describing the formation of liver zones via Adomian's method. (United States)

    Ebaid, Abdelhalim


    The formation of liver zones is modeled by a system of two integropartial differential equations. In this research, we introduce the mathematical formulation of these integro-partial differential equations obtained by Bass et al. in 1987. For better understanding of this mathematical formulation, we present a medical introduction for the liver in order to make the formulation as clear as possible. In applied mathematics, the Adomian decomposition method is an effective procedure to obtain analytic and approximate solutions for different types of operator equations. This Adomian decomposition method is used in this work to solve the proposed model analytically. The stationary solutions (as time tends to infinity) are also obtained through it, which are in full agreement with those obtained by Bass et al. in 1987.

  9. Analytical drain current model for Gate and Channel Engineered RingFET (GCE-RingFET) (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Kumari, Vandana; Singh, Sanjeev; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula


    In this work, an analytical drain current model for Gate and Channel Engineered RingFET (GCE-RingFET) has been developed by solving 2D-Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates. The authenticity of proposed model for GCE-RingFET architecture has been justified by comparing the analytical results with simulation results obtained using ATLAS 3D device simulation. Performance comparison of GCE-RingFET with the conventional RingFET device architectures has been performed. Various important performance metrics such as surface potential, transfer characteristic (Ids-Vgs), ION/IOFF ratio, Threshold voltage roll off, Sub-threshold Slope (SS), Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL), Trans-conductance Generation Efficiency (gm/Ids), have been investigated.

  10. Simulation of inverse heat conduction problems in fusion welding with extended analytical heat source models (United States)

    Karkhin, V. A.; Pittner, A.; Schwenk, C.; Rethmeier, M.


    The paper presents bounded volume heat sources and the corresponding functional-analytical expressions for the temperature field. The power density distributions considered here are normal, exponential and parabolic. The sources model real heat sources like the welding arc, laser beam, electron beam, etc., the convection in the weld pool as well as the latent heat due to fusion and solidification. The parameters of the heat source models are unknown a priori and have to be evaluated by solving an inverse heat conduction problem. The functional-analytical technique for calculating 3D temperature fields in butt welding is developed. The proposed technique makes it possible to reduce considerably the total time for data input and solution. It is demonstrated with an example of laser beam welding of steel plates.

  11. A developed nearly analytic discrete method for forward modeling in the frequency domain (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Lang, Chao; Yang, Hui; Wang, Wenshuai


    High-efficiency forward modeling methods play a fundamental role in full waveform inversion (FWI). In this paper, the developed nearly analytic discrete (DNAD) method is proposed to accelerate frequency-domain forward modeling processes. We first derive the discretization of frequency-domain wave equations via numerical schemes based on the nearly analytic discrete (NAD) method to obtain a linear system. The coefficients of numerical stencils are optimized to make the linear system easier to solve and to minimize computing time. Wavefield simulation and numerical dispersion analysis are performed to compare the numerical behavior of DNAD method with that of the conventional NAD method. The results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method. Finally, the DNAD method is implemented in frequency-domain FWI, and high-resolution inverse results are obtained.

  12. Upon the reconstruction of accidents triggered by tire explosion. Analytical model and case study (United States)

    Gaiginschi, L.; Agape, I.; Talif, S.


    Accident Reconstruction is important in the general context of increasing road traffic safety. In the casuistry of traffic accidents, those caused by tire explosions are critical under the severity of consequences, because they are usually happening at high speeds. Consequently, the knowledge of the running speed of the vehicle involved at the time of the tire explosion is essential to elucidate the circumstances of the accident. The paper presents an analytical model for the kinematics of a vehicle which, after the explosion of one of its tires, begins to skid, overturns and rolls. The model consists of two concurent approaches built as applications of the momentum conservation and energy conservation principles, and allows determination of the initial speed of the vehicle involved, by running backwards the sequences of the road event. The authors also aimed to both validate the two distinct analytical approaches by calibrating the calculation algorithms on a case study

  13. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model: Description and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.; Engel, D.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.; Strachan, D.M.; Reid, C.R.; Windisch, C.F.; Erikson, R.L.; Johnson, K.I.


    The geologic repository system consists of several components, one of which is the engineered barrier system. The engineered barrier system interfaces with natural barriers that constitute the setting of the repository. A model that simulates the releases from the engineered barrier system into the natural barriers of the geosphere, called a source-term model, is an important component of any model for assessing the overall performance of the geologic repository system. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model being developed is one such model. This report describes the current state of development of the AREST model and the code in which the model is implemented. The AREST model consists of three component models and five process models that describe the post-emplacement environment of a waste package. All of these components are combined within a probabilistic framework. The component models are a waste package containment (WPC) model that simulates the corrosion and degradation processes which eventually result in waste package containment failure; a waste package release (WPR) model that calculates the rates of radionuclide release from the failed waste package; and an engineered system release (ESR) model that controls the flow of information among all AREST components and process models and combines release output from the WPR model with failure times from the WPC model to produce estimates of total release. 167 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. A semi-analytical method for simulating matrix diffusion in numerical transport models. (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W; Wang, Wenwen


    A semi-analytical approximation for transient matrix diffusion is developed for use in numerical contaminant transport simulators. This method is an adaptation and extension of the heat conduction method of Vinsome and Westerveld (1980) used to simulate heat losses during thermally enhanced oil recovery. The semi-analytical method is used in place of discretization of the low permeability materials, and it represents the concentration profile in the low permeability materials with a fitting function that is adjusted in each element at each time-step. The resulting matrix diffusion fluxes are added to the numerical model as linear concentration-dependent source/sink terms. Since only the high permeability zones need to be discretized, the numerical formulation is extremely efficient compared to traditional approaches that require discretization of both the high and low permeability zones. The semi-analytical method compares favorably with the analytical solution for transient one-dimensional diffusion with first order decay, with a two-layer aquifer/aquitard solution, with the solution for transport in a fracture with matrix diffusion and decay, and with a fully numerical solution for transport in a thin sand zone bounded by clay with variable decay rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Manufactured analytical solutions for isothermal full-Stokes ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sargent


    Full Text Available We present the detailed construction of a manufactured analytical solution to time-dependent and steady-state isothermal full-Stokes ice sheet problems. The solutions are constructed for two-dimensional flowline and three-dimensional full-Stokes ice sheet models with variable viscosity. The construction is done by choosing for the specified ice surface and bed a velocity distribution that satisfies both mass conservation and the kinematic boundary conditions. Then a compensatory stress term in the conservation of momentum equations and their boundary conditions is calculated to make the chosen velocity distributions as well as the chosen pressure field into exact solutions. By substituting different ice surface and bed geometry formulas into the derived solution formulas, analytical solutions for different geometries can be constructed.

    The boundary conditions can be specified as essential Dirichlet conditions or as periodic boundary conditions. By changing a parameter value, the analytical solutions allow investigation of algorithms for a different range of aspect ratios as well as for different, frozen or sliding, basal conditions. The analytical solutions can also be used to estimate the numerical error of the method in the case when the effects of the boundary conditions are eliminated, that is, when the exact solution values are specified as inflow and outflow boundary conditions.

  16. Analytical Performance Modeling and Validation of Intel’s Xeon Phi Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunduri, Sudheer; Balaprakash, Prasanna; Morozov, Vitali; Vishwanath, Venkatram; Kumaran, Kalyan


    Modeling the performance of scientific applications on emerging hardware plays a central role in achieving extreme-scale computing goals. Analytical models that capture the interaction between applications and hardware characteristics are attractive because even a reasonably accurate model can be useful for performance tuning before the hardware is made available. In this paper, we develop a hardware model for Intel’s second-generation Xeon Phi architecture code-named Knights Landing (KNL) for the SKOPE framework. We validate the KNL hardware model by projecting the performance of mini-benchmarks and application kernels. The results show that our KNL model can project the performance with prediction errors of 10% to 20%. The hardware model also provides informative recommendations for code transformations and tuning.

  17. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Stress Distributions within Single-Lap Adhesively Bonded Beams


    Xiaocong He; Yuqi Wang


    An analytical model for predicting the stress distributions within single-lap adhesively bonded beams under tension is presented in this paper. By combining the governing equations of each adherend with the joint kinematics, the overall system of governing equations can be obtained. Both the adherends and the adhesive are assumed to be under plane strain condition. With suitable boundary conditions, the stress distribution of the adhesive in the longitudinal direction is determined.

  18. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Stress Distributions within Single-Lap Adhesively Bonded Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong He


    Full Text Available An analytical model for predicting the stress distributions within single-lap adhesively bonded beams under tension is presented in this paper. By combining the governing equations of each adherend with the joint kinematics, the overall system of governing equations can be obtained. Both the adherends and the adhesive are assumed to be under plane strain condition. With suitable boundary conditions, the stress distribution of the adhesive in the longitudinal direction is determined.

  19. A Coupling Technique for Analytical Solution of Time Fractional Biological Population Model


    Mohan, R; Prajapati


    In this study, homotopy perturbation transform method (HPTM) is used to obtain the approximate analytical solutions of time fractional biological population model. The solution procedure obtained by proposed method indicate that the approach is easy to implement and accurate. Some numerical examples are given in the support of the validity of the method. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and easy to use. The comparisons between exact solution and approximate solu...

  20. Analytic solutions for seismic travel time and ray path geometry through simple velocity models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Sanford


    The geometry of ray paths through realistic Earth models can be extremely complex due to the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the velocity distribution within the models. Calculation of high fidelity ray paths and travel times through these models generally involves sophisticated algorithms that require significant assumptions and approximations. To test such algorithms it is desirable to have available analytic solutions for the geometry and travel time of rays through simpler velocity distributions against which the more complex algorithms can be compared. Also, in situations where computational performance requirements prohibit implementation of full 3D algorithms, it may be necessary to accept the accuracy limitations of analytic solutions in order to compute solutions that satisfy those requirements. Analytic solutions are described for the geometry and travel time of infinite frequency rays through radially symmetric 1D Earth models characterized by an inner sphere where the velocity distribution is given by the function V (r) = A-Br{sup 2}, optionally surrounded by some number of spherical shells of constant velocity. The mathematical basis of the calculations is described, sample calculations are presented, and results are compared to the Taup Toolkit of Crotwell et al. (1999). These solutions are useful for evaluating the fidelity of sophisticated 3D travel time calculators and in situations where performance requirements preclude the use of more computationally intensive calculators. It should be noted that most of the solutions presented are only quasi-analytic. Exact, closed form equations are derived but computation of solutions to specific problems generally require application of numerical integration or root finding techniques, which, while approximations, can be calculated to very high accuracy. Tolerances are set in the numerical algorithms such that computed travel time accuracies are better than 1 microsecond.

  1. An analytical model of strain isolation for stretchable and flexible electronics (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Wu, J.; Li, M.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, Y.-S.; Huang, Y.; Kang, Z.; Hwang, K. C.; Rogers, J. A.


    One important aspect of stretchable electronics design is to shield the active devices from strains through insertion of a soft layer between devices and substrate. An analytical model is established, which gives linear dependence of strain isolation on the reciprocal of strain-isolation layer thickness, and the reciprocal of device and substrate stiffness. Strain isolation is also linearly proportional to the shear modulus of strain-isolation layer and square of device length.

  2. A Hybrid Analytical/Simulation Modeling Approach for Planning and Optimizing Mass Tactical Airborne Operations (United States)


    Vol. 31, No. 6, November- December 1983, pp. 1030-1052. Taha , Hamdy A ., Operations Research: An Introduction, MacMillan Press, New York, 1992. Tzong... A HYBRID ANALYTICAL/SIMULATION MODELING APPROACH FOR PLANNING AND OPTIMIZING MASS TACTICAL AIRBORNE OPERATIONS by DAVID DOUGLAS BRIGGS M.S.B.A...Science College of Engineering University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida A COO MDiatr;,~i’ Spring Term 1995 This Document Contains Missing Page/s That

  3. What makes us think? A three-stage dual-process model of analytic engagement. (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Koehler, Derek J


    The distinction between intuitive and analytic thinking is common in psychology. However, while often being quite clear on the characteristics of the two processes ('Type 1' processes are fast, autonomous, intuitive, etc. and 'Type 2' processes are slow, deliberative, analytic, etc.), dual-process theorists have been heavily criticized for being unclear on the factors that determine when an individual will think analytically or rely on their intuition. We address this issue by introducing a three-stage model that elucidates the bottom-up factors that cause individuals to engage Type 2 processing. According to the model, multiple Type 1 processes may be cued by a stimulus (Stage 1), leading to the potential for conflict detection (Stage 2). If successful, conflict detection leads to Type 2 processing (Stage 3), which may take the form of rationalization (i.e., the Type 1 output is verified post hoc) or decoupling (i.e., the Type 1 output is falsified). We tested key aspects of the model using a novel base-rate task where stereotypes and base-rate probabilities cued the same (non-conflict problems) or different (conflict problems) responses about group membership. Our results support two key predictions derived from the model: (1) conflict detection and decoupling are dissociable sources of Type 2 processing and (2) conflict detection sometimes fails. We argue that considering the potential stages of reasoning allows us to distinguish early (conflict detection) and late (decoupling) sources of analytic thought. Errors may occur at both stages and, as a consequence, bias arises from both conflict monitoring and decoupling failures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytic model for academic research productivity having factors, interactions and implications (United States)


    Financial support is dear in academia and will tighten further. How can the research mission be accomplished within new restraints? A model is presented for evaluating source components of academic research productivity. It comprises six factors: funding; investigator quality; efficiency of the research institution; the research mix of novelty, incremental advancement, and confirmatory studies; analytic accuracy; and passion. Their interactions produce output and patterned influences between factors. Strategies for optimizing output are enabled. PMID:22130145

  5. Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printing for (Bio)analytical Device Fabrication: Procedures, Materials, and Applications


    Salentijn, Gert IJ.; Oomen, Pieter E.; Grajewski, Maciej; Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    In this work, the use of fused deposition modeling (FDM) in a (bio)analytical/lab-on-a-chip research laboratory is described. First, the specifications of this 3D printing method that are important for the fabrication of (micro)devices were characterized for a benchtop FDM 3D printer. These include resolution, surface roughness, leakage, transparency, material deformation, and the possibilities for integration of other materials. Next, the autofluorescence, solvent compatibility, and biocompa...

  6. A conceptual snow model with an analytic resolution of the heat and phase change equations (United States)

    Riboust, Philippe; Le Moine, Nicolas; Thirel, Guillaume; Ribstein, Pierre


    Compared to degree-day snow models, physically-based snow models resolve more processes in an attempt to achieve a better representation of reality. Often these physically-based models resolve the heat transport equations in snow using a vertical discretization of the snowpack. The snowpack is decomposed into several layers in which the mechanical and thermal states of the snow are calculated. A higher number of layers in the snowpack allow for better accuracy but it also tends to increase the computational costs. In order to develop a snow model that estimates the temperature profile of snow with a lower computational cost, we used an analytical decomposition of the vertical profile using eigenfunctions (i.e. trigonometric functions adapted to the specific boundary conditions). The mass transfer of snow melt has also been estimated using an analytical conceptualization of runoff fingering and matrix flow. As external meteorological forcing, the model uses solar and atmospheric radiation, air temperature, atmospheric humidity and precipitations. It has been tested and calibrated at point scale at two different stations in the Alps: Col de Porte (France, 1325 m) and Weissfluhjoch (Switzerland, 2540 m). A sensitivity analysis of model parameters and model inputs will be presented together with a comparison with measured snow surface temperature, SWE, snow depth, temperature profile and snow melt data. The snow model is created in order to be ultimately coupled with hydrological models for rainfall-runoff modeling in mountainous areas. We hope to create a model faster than physically-based models but capable to estimate more physical processes than degree-day snow models. This should help to build a more reliable snow model capable of being easily calibrated by remote sensing and in situ observation or to assimilate these data for forecasting purposes.

  7. Comparing galaxy formation in semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter D.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Helly, John C.; Schaller, Matthieu; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Theuns, Tom


    It is now possible for hydrodynamical simulations to reproduce a representative galaxy population. Accordingly, it is timely to assess critically some of the assumptions of traditional semi-analytic galaxy formation models. We use the Eagle simulations to assess assumptions built into the Galform semi-analytic model, focussing on those relating to baryon cycling, angular momentum and feedback. We show that the assumption in Galform that newly formed stars have the same specific angular momentum as the total disc leads to a significant overestimate of the total stellar specific angular momentum of disc galaxies. In Eagle, stars form preferentially out of low specific angular momentum gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) due to the assumed gas density threshold for stars to form, leading to more realistic galaxy sizes. We find that stellar mass assembly is similar between Galform and Eagle but that the evolution of gas properties is different, with various indications that the rate of baryon cycling in Eagle is slower than is assumed in Galform. Finally, by matching individual galaxies between Eagle and Galform, we find that an artificial dependence of AGN feedback and gas infall rates on halo mass doubling events in Galform drives most of the scatter in stellar mass between individual objects. Put together our results suggest that the Galform semi-analytic model can be significantly improved in light of recent advances.

  8. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K. S.


    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical Model of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of High-Voltage Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou


    Full Text Available Under rainfall conditions, rain-wind induced vibration occurs on high-voltage transmission line occasionally. This phenomenon is caused by raindrops hitting the high-voltage conductor with a certain velocity and suspends to the bottom surface of the high-voltage conductor. By action of wind velocity and high-voltage conductor's motion, some suspended raindrops will be blown away or shaken off. The remaining water may be reformed as upper rivulet and lower rivulet. Like the effect of icing galloping, this type of vibration can cause metal fatigue on fittings and towers, while its mechanism remains unknown. The objective of this paper is to validate an analytical model of rain-wind induced vibration of the high-voltage transmission line and to investigate the effect of wind velocity, rivulet motion, raindrop velocity, and time varying mass on the vibration amplitude. Taking Tuo-chang transmission line as an example, the analytical model is solved by Galerkin weighted residual method and central difference method. The numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data available in the literature. The analytical model enables more comprehensive understanding of the rain-wind induced vibration mechanism.

  10. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan


    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  11. Applications of meta-analytic structural equation modelling in health psychology: examples, issues, and recommendations. (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Hong, Ryan Y


    Statistical methods play an important role in behavioural, medical, and social sciences. Two recent statistical advances are structural equation modelling (SEM) and meta-analysis. SEM is used to test hypothesised models based on substantive theories, which can be path, confirmatory factor analytic, or full structural equation models. Meta-analysis is used to synthesise research findings in a particular topic. This article demonstrates another recent statistical advance - meta-analytic structural equation modelling (MASEM) - that combines meta-analysis and SEM to synthesise research findings for the purpose of testing hypothesised models. Using the theory of planned behaviour as an example, we show how MASEM can be used to address important research questions that cannot be answered by univariate meta-analyses on Pearson correlations. Specifically, MASEM allows researchers to: (1) test whether the proposed models are consistent with the data; (2) estimate partial effects after controlling for other variables; (3) estimate functions of parameter estimates such as indirect effects; and (4) include latent variables in the models. We illustrate the procedures with an example on the theory of planned behaviour. Practical issues in MASEM and suggested solutions are discussed.

  12. Analytical modeling of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FET for high-speed switching applications. (United States)

    Rahmani, Meisam; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Abadi, Hediyeh Karimi Feiz; Saeidmanesh, Mehdi; Akbari, Elnaz; Ismail, Razali


    Recent development of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors (FETs) will be governed by transistor electrostatics and quantum effects that impose scaling limits like those of Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The current-voltage characteristic of a Schottky-barrier FET has been studied as a function of physical parameters such as effective mass, graphene nanoribbon length, gate insulator thickness, and electrical parameters such as Schottky barrier height and applied bias voltage. In this paper, the scaling behaviors of a Schottky-barrier FET using trilayer graphene nanoribbon are studied and analytically modeled. A novel analytical method is also presented for describing a switch in a Schottky-contact double-gate trilayer graphene nanoribbon FET. In the proposed model, different stacking arrangements of trilayer graphene nanoribbon are assumed as metal and semiconductor contacts to form a Schottky transistor. Based on this assumption, an analytical model and numerical solution of the junction current-voltage are presented in which the applied bias voltage and channel length dependence characteristics are highlighted. The model is then compared with other types of transistors. The developed model can assist in comprehending experiments involving graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FETs. It is demonstrated that the proposed structure exhibits negligible short-channel effects, an improved on-current, realistic threshold voltage, and opposite subthreshold slope and meets the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors near-term guidelines. Finally, the results showed that there is a fast transient between on-off states. In other words, the suggested model can be used as a high-speed switch where the value of subthreshold slope is small and thus leads to less power consumption.

  13. The environmental effect on the fluorescence intensity in solution. An analytical model. (United States)

    Galbán, Javier; Mateos, Elena; Cebolla, Vicente; Domínguez, Andrés; Delgado-Camón, Arancha; de Marcos, Susana; Sanz-Vicente, Isabel; Sanz, Vanesa


    In this paper a mathematical model describing the non-specific interactions of the medium surrounding a fluorophore on its fluorescence intensity is proposed. The model, which has been developed for quantitative analytical applications, is based on the following general ideas: (1) the medium affects the fluorescence quantum yield across the non-radiative decay constant (k(nr)); (2) the k(nr) can be simplified to the singlet-to-triplet intersystem crossing (k(ISC)) constants; (3) k(ISC) follows the energy gap law and then depends on the singlet and triplet energy difference, and (4) the medium, due to solvation, changes the energy of both excited levels (singlet and triplet), then the constants and finally the fluorescence intensity. In our model, the strength of the fluorophore solvation by the solvent (represented by its refraction index, n, dielectric constant, epsilon, and electric charge) changes the singlet (excited)-to-fundamental and the singlet-to-triplet energy gaps, thus the k(ISC) and k(IC) (internal conversion constant) values and in consequence the fluorescence quantum yield. The final model relates the fluorescence intensity (F) with the solvent dielectric constant and refraction index. Finally, the model is particularized for the case of a medium composed of a solvent and a solute, obtaining an F-to-solute concentration relationship and enabling this fact to be used for analytical applications. The very first experimental data are shown demonstrating the fulfilment of this model.

  14. Analytic estimation and numerical modeling of actively cooled thermal protection systems with nickel alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xinzhi


    Full Text Available Actively cooled thermal protection system has great influence on the engine of a hypersonic vehicle, and it is significant to obtain the thermal and stress distribution in the system. So an analytic estimation and numerical modeling are performed in this paper to investigate the behavior of an actively cooled thermal protection system. The analytic estimation is based on the electric analogy method and finite element analysis (FEA is applied to the numerical simulation. Temperature and stress distributions are obtained for the actively cooled channel walls with three kinds of nickel alloys with or with no thermal barrier coating (TBC. The temperature of the channel wall with coating has no obvious difference from the one with no coating, but the stress with coating on the channel wall is much smaller than that with no coating. Inconel X-750 has the best characteristics among the three Ni-based materials due to its higher thermal conductivity, lower elasticity module and greater allowable stress. Analytic estimation and numerical modeling results are compared with each other and a reasonable agreement is obtained.

  15. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...... radius and the effect of the surface topography due to the previous milling passes. The model is completely analytical can be applied to ball end micro milling of slanted surfaces for any value of the surface inclination angle relative to the tool axis....

  16. Application of 3-D Analytical Model for Wellbore Friction Calculation in Actual wells


    Ismayilov, Orkhan


    With the increasing number of drilled ultra-extended reach wells and complex geometry wells, the drilling limitation caused by excessive torque and drag forces must be further investigated. The wellbore friction being a main limiting factor in extended reach well needs to be studied with the new developed models.This master thesis presents an application of the new 3-dimentional analytical model developed by Bernt S. Aadnøy in the synthetic test and four real wells. Quite diverse wellbore tr...

  17. Analytical modeling of soliton interactions in a nonlocal nonlinear medium analogous to gravitational force (United States)

    Zeng, Shihao; Chen, Manna; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Lu, Daquan


    We illuminate an analytical model of soliton interactions in lead glass by analogizing to a gravitational force system. The orbits of spiraling solitons under a long-range interaction are given explicitly and demonstrated to follow Newton's second law of motion and the Binet equation by numerical simulations. The condition for circular orbits is obtained and the oscillating orbits are proved not to be closed. We prove the analogy between the nonlocal nonlinear optical system and gravitational system and specify the quantitative relation of the quantity between the two models.

  18. Analytical model of fast ion behavior in current hole tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepf, K.; Yavorskij, V.; Goloborod' ko, V.; Neururer, P. [Innsbruck Univ., Institute for Theoretical Physics, Association EURATOM-OEAW (Austria); Goloborod' ko, V. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine)


    Though a current hole (CH) regime is recognized to provide better detention of the bulk plasma, it may negatively act on the confinement of fast ions such as fusion products and neutral beam injected ions. Since, however, the transport properties of these energetic particles determine the heating profiles and the power loading upon the first wall, and therefore are of crucial importance in a fusion reactor, we examine here analytically the CH effects on the fast ion behavior in a tokamak. For that we employ a simplified model based on an analytical approximation of the poloidal flux function allowing for a complete characterization of possible orbit topologies. In the constants-of-motion space we determine the confinement domains for the different types of ion orbits, calculate the CH induced alterations of the fast ion transport and derive the distribution of neutral beam injected ions for a specific JET current hole plasma scenario.

  19. Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints (United States)

    Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.


    A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

  20. On the similarity between exchangeable profiles: A psychometric model, analytic strategy, and empirical illustration. (United States)

    Furr, R Michael; Wood, Dustin


    Analyses of profile similarity are widespread in personality psychology, but their apparent simplicity masks difficult psychometric and statistical issues. We present a psychometric framework that addresses an important challenge (i.e., profile normativeness) in examinations of dyadic exchangeable profiles. In addition, we present an analytic strategy accounting for non-independence that often arises in analyses of profile similarity, facilitating integrated examinations of variables at dyadic and individual levels. An empirical analysis of personality similarity and relationship quality demonstrates that the model and analytic strategy can reveal novel psychological insights. These are important advances, as previous work has ignored exchangeable profiles and has failed to present an integrated psychometric and statistical framework for profile similarity.

  1. Analytical and Finite Element Modeling of Nanomembranes for Miniaturized, Continuous Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Burgin


    Full Text Available Hemodialysis involves large, periodic treatment doses using large-area membranes. If the permeability of dialysis membranes could be increased, it would reduce the necessary dialyzer size and could enable a wearable device that administers a continuous, low dose treatment of chronic kidney disease. This paper explores the application of ultrathin silicon membranes to this purpose, by way of analytical and finite element models of diffusive and convective transport of plasma solutes during hemodialysis, which we show to be predictive of experimental results. A proof-of-concept miniature nanomembrane dialyzer design is then proposed and analytically predicted to clear uremic toxins at near-ideal levels, as measured by several markers of dialysis adequacy. This work suggests the feasibility of miniature nanomembrane-based dialyzers that achieve therapeutic levels of uremic toxin clearance for patients with kidney failure.

  2. Analytical, steady-state model of gain saturation in channel electron multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Giudicotti, L


    By using the transmission line modeling (TLM) technique we derive a simple model describing the saturation of the gain in channel electron multipliers and show that it generalizes and extends a previous steady-state model due to Shikhaliev. Then by introducing a physically consistent rational approximation of the non-linear gain equation we derive an exact, steady-state, analytical solution in which, contrary to other empirical assumptions about the functional dependence of the internal voltage are not required. The model is then used to simulate a multianode microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier, showing that the computed gain in saturated conditions is qualitatively in agreement with published experimental data. Finally, we discuss the general validity of our model, we suggest possible measurements and comment existing data relevant for its validation.

  3. Analytical and artificial neural network models to estimate the discharge coefficient for ogee spillway (United States)

    Yarar, Alpaslan


    In this study, analytical and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model were used for determine the discharge coefficient of Ogee Spillways. For this aim, discharge coefficients of 11 different heads were calculated by using a test flume having 7.5 cm width, 15 cm depth and 5 m length, in the laboratory. Discharge coefficients were also computed by the formula for the same heads measured in the laboratory to investigate the accuracy of experimental setup. An ANN model was set by using the experimental results in order to estimate the discharge coefficient. Then, the performance of the ANN model was investigated. As the result, the coefficient of determination between ANN model and experimental setup is found R2= 0.98. ANN model is show a good consistency with experimental results.

  4. Analytical model (CELIC) for describing organic and inorganic solar cells based on drift-diffusion calculations (United States)

    Müller, Arne; Jovanov, Vladislav; Wagner, Veit


    This work shows an analytical semiconductor diode model suitable to describe photovoltaic cells for a large variety of physical parameters, such as mobility of charge carriers and illumination intensity. The model is based on a simplified drift-diffusion calculation assuming a constant electric field and a linear increasing current inside the semiconductor layer. The model also accounts for recombination processes in the active and contact layers. Organic and inorganic solar cells can be accurately modeled, which is confirmed by comparison of experimental data and full drift-diffusion calculations with the same physical parameters. In addition, this model shows how physical properties can be directly extracted from the crossing point often found in J-V characteristics.

  5. Validity of analytical formulas for autoionization and dielectronic capture rates used in collisional-radiative models (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong


    Large-scale level-by-level calculations were carried out to obtain as accurate autoionization and dielectronic capture (DC) rates of Ni-like Au51+ and Cu-like Au50+ as possible by including adequate electron correlations. The accuracy is estimated to be better than 20% for strong autoionized levels. Our results of the dielectronic recombination (DR) process through 3d94lnl' (n=4,5) agree excellently (within 10%) with other theoretical results also obtained by detailed level-by-level calculations reported in the literature. The level-by-level results were transformed to configuration-by-configuration autoionization and DC rates (which are estimated to be better than 30% in accuracy) and used to check the validity of the rate coefficients in collisonal-radiative (CR) models by using an analytical formula. Large discrepancies were found between the detailed calculated rates and those predicted by the analytical formula. The autoionization and DC rates predicted by the analytical formula can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than the detailed calculated rates, in particular for the autoionized configurations whose energy is near the ionization potential (IP). However, for those autoionized configurations whose energy is far above the IP, the autoionization and DC rates predicted by the analytical formula can be nearly one order of magnitude smaller. Differences between different theoretical methods found in this work, when approximate methods are used to calculate the autoionization and DC rates, would result in differences when non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (NLTE) models used the less accurate methods to obtain these atomic data.

  6. An analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity (United States)

    Otero-Espinar, M. V.; Seoane, L. F.; Nieto, J. J.; Mira, J.


    An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also suggest ways to further improve the model and facilitate the comparison of its consequences with those from other approaches or with real data.

  7. Can We Practically Bring Physics-based Modeling Into Operational Analytics Tools?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bonvini, Marco [Whisker Labs, Oakland, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lin, Guanjing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hu, R. Lilly [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    We present that analytics software is increasingly used to improve and maintain operational efficiency in commercial buildings. Energy managers, owners, and operators are using a diversity of commercial offerings often referred to as Energy Information Systems, Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) systems, or more broadly Energy Management and Information Systems, to cost-effectively enable savings on the order of ten to twenty percent. Most of these systems use data from meters and sensors, with rule-based and/or data-driven models to characterize system and building behavior. In contrast, physics-based modeling uses first-principles and engineering models (e.g., efficiency curves) to characterize system and building behavior. Historically, these physics-based approaches have been used in the design phase of the building life cycle or in retrofit analyses. Researchers have begun exploring the benefits of integrating physics-based models with operational data analytics tools, bridging the gap between design and operations. In this paper, we detail the development and operator use of a software tool that uses hybrid data-driven and physics-based approaches to cooling plant FDD and optimization. Specifically, we describe the system architecture, models, and FDD and optimization algorithms; advantages and disadvantages with respect to purely data-driven approaches; and practical implications for scaling and replicating these techniques. Finally, we conclude with an evaluation of the future potential for such tools and future research opportunities.

  8. Human eye analytical and mesh-geometry models for ophthalmic dosimetry using MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelocci, Lucas V.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Eye tumors can be treated with brachytherapy using Co-60 plaques, I-125 seeds, among others materials. The human eye has regions particularly vulnerable to ionizing radiation (e.g. crystalline) and dosimetry for this region must be taken carefully. A mathematical model was proposed in the past [1] for the eye anatomy to be used in Monte Carlo simulations to account for dose distribution in ophthalmic brachytherapy. The model includes the description for internal structures of the eye that were not treated in previous works. The aim of this present work was to develop a new eye model based on the Mesh geometries of the MCNP6 code. The methodology utilized the ABAQUS/CAE (Simulia 3DS) software to build the Mesh geometry. For this work, an ophthalmic applicator containing up to 24 model Amersham 6711 I-125 seeds (Oncoseed) was used, positioned in contact with a generic tumor defined analytically inside the eye. The absorbed dose in eye structures like cornea, sclera, choroid, retina, vitreous body, lens, optical nerve and optical nerve wall were calculated using both models: analytical and MESH. (author)

  9. A theoretical study of CsI:Tl columnar scintillator image quality parameters by analytical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyvas, N., E-mail:; Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.


    Medical X-ray digital imaging systems such as mammography, radiography and computed tomography (CT), are composed from efficient radiation detectors, which can transform the X-rays to electron signal. Scintillators are materials that emit light when excited by X-rays and incorporated in X-ray medical imaging detectors. Columnar scintillator, like CsI:T1 is very often used for X-ray detection due to its higher performance. The columnar form limits the lateral spread of the optical photons to the scintillator output, thus it demonstrates superior spatial resolution compared to granular scintillators. The aim of this work is to provide an analytical model for calculating the MTF, the DQE and the emission efficiency of a columnar scintillator. The model parameters were validated against published Monte Carlo data. The model was able to predict the overall performance of CsI:Tl scintillators and suggested an optimum thickness of 300 μm for radiography applications. - Highlights: • An analytical model for calculating MTF, DQE and Detector Optical Gain (DOG) of columnar phosphors was developed. • The model was fitted to published efficiency and MTF Monte Carlo data. • A good fit was observed for 300 µm columnar CsI:Tl thickness. • The performance of the 300 µm column thickness CsI:Tl was better in terms of MTF and DOG for radiographic applications.

  10. Analytical applications and effective properties of a second gradient isotropic elastic material model (United States)

    Enakoutsa, Koffi


    Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.

  11. Analytical solutions of jam pattern formation on a ring for a class of optimal velocity traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Caputo, Jean Guy


    are found analytically. Their velocity and amplitude are determined from a perturbation approach based on collective coordinates with the discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries equation as the zero order equation. This contains the standard OV model as a special case. The analytical results are in excellent...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreneva Elena Borisovna


    Full Text Available The author proposes analytical methods of analysis of foundation slabs in the dense environment of present-day cities and towns. The two analytical models, including the model of semi-infinite and finite beams are considered. The influence produced by adjacent tunnels, deep excavations and foundation pits is examined. Bedding properties are described through the employment of the Winkler model. Account of additional deflections and angles of deflections must be taken in the above-mentioned cases.

  13. A three-dimensional (3D) analytical model for subthreshold characteristics of uniformly doped FinFET (United States)

    Tripathi, Shweta; Narendar, Vadthiya


    In this paper, three dimensional (3D) analytical model for subthreshold characteristics of doped FinFET has been presented. The separation of variables technique is used to solve the 3D Poisson's equation analytically with appropriate boundary conditions so as to obtain the expression for channel potential. The thus obtained potential distribution function has been employed in deriving subthreshold current and subthreshold slope model. The channel potential characteristics have been studied as a function of various device parameters such as gate length, gate oxide thickness and channel doping. The proposed analytical model results have been validated by comparing with the simulation data obtained by the 3D device simulator ATLAS™ from Silvaco.

  14. Comparison of analytic models of instability of rarefied gas flow in a channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenova, Olga A. [St.-Petersburg State University, Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, 198504, Universitetskiy pr., 28, Peterhof, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khalidov, Iskander A. [St.-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, 195251, Polytechnicheskaya ul., 29, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Numerical and analytical results are compared concerning the limit properties of the trajectories, attractors and bifurcations of rarefied gas flows in channels. The cascade of bifurcations obtained in our previous analytical and numerical investigations is simulated numerically for different scattering functions V generalizing the ray-diffuse reflection of gas particles from the surface. The main purpose of numerical simulation by Monte Carlo method is the investigation of the properties of different analytic nonlinear dynamic systems corresponding to rarefied gas flow in a channel. The results are compared as well for the models suggested originally by R. N. Miroshin, as for the approximations considered for the first time or for studied in our subsequent papers. Analytical solutions we obtained earlier for the ray reflection which means only one determined velocity of scattered from the walls gas atoms, generally different from the specular reflection. The nonlinear iterative equation describing a rarefied gas flow in a long channel becomes unstable in some regions of corresponding parameters of V (it means the sensitivity to boundary conditions). The values of the parameters are found from analytical approximations in these regions. Numerical results show that the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear dynamic system corresponds to strange attractors and distinguishes clearly from Maxwellian distribution and from the equilibrium on the whole. In the regions of instability (as the dimension of the attractor increases) the search for a corresponding state requires a lot more computation time and a lot of data (the amount of data required increases exponentially with embedding dimension). Therefore the main complication in the computation is reducing as well the computing time as the amount of data to find a suitably close solution. To reduce the computing time our analytical results are applied. Flow conditions satisfying the requirements to the experiment are

  15. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Monteiro


    Full Text Available We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF. Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adjusting irradiation data of clear sky by an irradiation attenuation index, combined with a PV power production attenuation index. The MPVF model consists of an artificial neural network based model (selected among a large set of ANN optimized with genetic algorithms, GAs. The two models use forecasts from the same NWP tool as inputs. The APVF and MPVF models have been applied to a real-life case study of a grid-connected PV plant using the same data. Despite the fact that both models are quite different, they achieve very similar results, with forecast horizons covering all the daylight hours of the following day, which give a good perspective of their applicability for PV electric production sale bids to electricity markets.

  16. The Biosurveillance Analytics Resource Directory (BARD: Facilitating the Use of Epidemiological Models for Infectious Disease Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen J Margevicius

    Full Text Available Epidemiological modeling for infectious disease is important for disease management and its routine implementation needs to be facilitated through better description of models in an operational context. A standardized model characterization process that allows selection or making manual comparisons of available models and their results is currently lacking. A key need is a universal framework to facilitate model description and understanding of its features. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL has developed a comprehensive framework that can be used to characterize an infectious disease model in an operational context. The framework was developed through a consensus among a panel of subject matter experts. In this paper, we describe the framework, its application to model characterization, and the development of the Biosurveillance Analytics Resource Directory (BARD;, to facilitate the rapid selection of operational models for specific infectious/communicable diseases. We offer this framework and associated database to stakeholders of the infectious disease modeling field as a tool for standardizing model description and facilitating the use of epidemiological models.

  17. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Franesqui


    Full Text Available This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA. The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled “Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves” (Franesqui et al., 2017 [1].

  18. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: review of modeling and analytical studies. (United States)

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd


    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO2) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analytical model for stage-discharge estimation in meandering compound channels with submerged flexible vegetation (United States)

    Shan, Yuqi; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Liu, Chao


    For overbank flows, submerged flexible vegetation on floodplains increases channel resistance and decreases channel conveyance capability. This study presents an analytical model for estimating the stage-discharge relationship in a meandering compound channel with dense, submerged, flexible vegetation on floodplains under high flow conditions. The mean velocity within a canopy was linked to the depth-averaged velocity, and a relationship between the two velocities was proposed. The governing equation was deduced in curvilinear coordinates, and the lateral shear stresses were found to be negligible, as validated by our experimental measurements in a large-scale meandering channel. Then, analytical solutions of subarea discharges and total discharge were derived by ignoring lateral shear stresses. Measurements from two flume experiments and one field study were used to verify the proposed model. The field case involved a natural river with both submerged and emergent grass on the floodplains. Good agreement between predictions and measurements indicated that the model accurately predicted subarea discharges and the stage-discharge relationships in a meandering compound channel with submerged vegetation. Finally, the predictions of this model were sensitive to the secondary flow parameters in the main channel but insensitive to those on the floodplains.

  20. An analytical and experimental investigation of natural circulation transients in a model pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, M


    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy heat. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled ''Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS),'' were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady-state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behavior to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  1. Self-consistent semi-analytic models of the first stars (United States)

    Visbal, Eli; Haiman, Zoltán; Bryan, Greg L.


    We have developed a semi-analytic framework to model the large-scale evolution of the first Population III (Pop III) stars and the transition to metal-enriched star formation. Our model follows dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulations, utilizing their individual merger histories and three-dimensional positions, and applies physically motivated prescriptions for star formation and feedback from Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation, hydrogen ionizing radiation, and external metal enrichment due to supernovae winds. This method is intended to complement analytic studies, which do not include clustering or individual merger histories, and hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, which include detailed physics, but are computationally expensive and have limited dynamic range. Utilizing this technique, we compute the cumulative Pop III and metal-enriched star formation rate density (SFRD) as a function of redshift at z ≥ 20. We find that varying the model parameters leads to significant qualitative changes in the global star formation history. The Pop III star formation efficiency and the delay time between Pop III and subsequent metal-enriched star formation are found to have the largest impact. The effect of clustering (i.e. including the three-dimensional positions of individual halos) on various feedback mechanisms is also investigated. The impact of clustering on LW and ionization feedback is found to be relatively mild in our fiducial model, but can be larger if external metal enrichment can promote metal-enriched star formation over large distances.

  2. Selecting the optimal healthcare centers with a modified P-median model: a visual analytic perspective. (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Tao, Hongbing; Qin, Kun; Wang, Yulong; Liu, Chengkun; Gao, Qili


    In a conventional P-median model, demanding points are likely assigned to the closest supplying facilities, but this method exhibits evident limitations in real cases. This paper proposed a modified P-median model in which exact and approximate strategies are used. The first strategy aims to enumerate all of the possible combinations of P facilities, and the second strategy adopts simulated annealing to allocate resources considering capacity constraint and spatial compactness constraint. These strategies allow us to choose optimal locations by applying visual analytics, which is rarely employed in location allocation planning. This model is applied to a case study in Henan Province, China, where three optimal healthcare centers are selected from candidate cities. First, the weighting factor in spatial compactness constraint is visually evaluated to obtain a plausible spatial pattern. Second, three optimal healthcare centers, namely, Zhengzhou, Xinxiang, and Nanyang, are identified in a hybrid transportation network by performing visual analytics. Third, alternative healthcare centers are obtained in a road network and compared with the above solution to understand the impacts of transportation network types. The optimal healthcare centers are visually detected by employing an improved P-median model, which considers both geographic accessibility and service quality. The optimal solutions are obtained in two transportation networks, which suggest high-speed railways and highways play a significant role respectively.

  3. Experiment and simulation validated analytical equivalent circuit model for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers. (United States)

    Smyth, Katherine; Kim, Sang-Gook


    An analytical Mason equivalent circuit is derived for a circular, clamped plate piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) design in 31 mode, considering an arbitrary electrode configuration at any axisymmetric vibration mode. The explicit definition of lumped parameters based entirely on geometry, material properties, and defined constants enables straightforward and wide-ranging model implementation for future pMUT design and optimization. Beyond pMUTs, the acoustic impedance model is developed for universal application to any clamped, circular plate system, and operating regimes including relevant simplifications are identified via the wave number-radius product ka. For the single-electrode fundamental vibration mode case, sol-gel Pb(Zr0.52)Ti0.48O3 (PZT) pMUT cells are microfabricated with varying electrode size to confirm the derived circuit model with electrical impedance measurements. For the first time, experimental and finite element simulation results are successfully applied to validate extensive electrical, mechanical, and acoustic analytical modeling of a pMUT cell for wide-ranging applications including medical ultrasound, nondestructive testing, and range finding.

  4. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements. (United States)

    Franesqui, Miguel A; Yepes, Jorge; García-González, Cándida


    This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) [1].

  5. Analytical Modeling and Contradictions in Limestone Reservoirs: Breccias, Vugs, and Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros-Galvis


    Full Text Available Modeling of limestone reservoirs is traditionally developed applying tectonic fractures concepts or planar discontinuities and has been simulated dynamically without considering nonplanar discontinuities as sedimentary breccias, vugs, fault breccias, and impact breccias, assuming that all these nonplanar discontinuities are tectonic fractures, causing confusion and contradictions in reservoirs characterization. The differences in geometry and connectivity in each discontinuity affect fluid flow, generating the challenge to develop specific analytical models that describe quantitatively hydrodynamic behavior in breccias, vugs, and fractures, focusing on oil flow in limestone reservoirs. This paper demonstrates the differences between types of discontinuities that affect limestone reservoirs and recommends that all discontinuities should be included in simulation and static-dynamic characterization, because they impact fluid flow. To demonstrate these differences, different analytic models are developed. Findings of this work are based on observations of cores, outcrops, and tomography and are validated with field data. The explanations and mathematical modeling developed here could be used as diagnostic tools to predict fluid velocity and fluid flow in limestone reservoirs, improving the complex reservoirs static-dynamic characterization.

  6. Formally Verifying Human-Automaton Interaction with Specification Properties Generated from Task Analytic Models (United States)

    Bolton, M. L.; Jimenez, N.; van Paassen, M. M.; Trujillo, M.


    Human-automation interaction (HAI) is a major contributor to failures in aerospace systems, often due to unexpected interactions between system components. Formal verification is a method of analysis that exhaustively examines all of the interaction in a formal system model to determine if it adheres to desirable specification properties. Task analytic models can be included in formal system models to allow HAI to be evaluated with formal verification. However, previous work required analysts to manually formulate specification properties they wished to check. A practice which can result in unexpected, dangerous HAI conditions not being checked. This paper presents a method for generating specification properties from task models to allow analysts to automatically check for HAI problems they may not have anticipated. The paper describes the design and implementation of the method. An example (a pilot performing a before landing checklist) is presented to illustrate its utility.

  7. A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.

  8. Analytical model of ionization and energy deposition by proton beams in subcellular compartments (United States)

    de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Solov'yov, Andrey V.


    We present an analytical model to evaluate in a fast, simple and effective manner the energy delivered by proton beams moving through a cell model made of nucleus and cytoplasm, taking into account the energy carried by the secondary electrons generated along the proton tracks. The electronic excitation spectra of these subcellular compartments have been modelled by means of an empirical parameterization of their dielectric properties. The energy loss rate and target ionization probability induced by swift protons are evaluated by means of the dielectric formalism. With the present model we have quantified the energy delivered, the specific energy, and the number of ionizations produced per incoming ion in a typical human cell by a typical hadrontherapy proton beam having energies usually reached around the Bragg peak (below 20 MeV). We find that the specific energy per incoming ion delivered in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm are rather similar for all the proton energy range analyzed.

  9. Analytical Model for the End-Bearing Capacity of Tapered Piles Using Cavity Expansion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Manandhar


    Full Text Available On the basis of evidence from model tests on increasing the end-bearing behavior of tapered piles at the load-settlement curve, this paper proposes an analytical spherical cavity expansion theory to evaluate the end-bearing capacity. The angle of tapering is inserted in the proposed model to evaluate the end-bearing capacity. The test results of the proposed model in different types of sands and different relative densities show good effects compared to conventional straight piles. The end-bearing capacity increases with increases in the tapering angle. The paper then propounds a model for prototypes and real-type pile tests which predicts and validates to evaluate the end-bearing capacity.

  10. Numerical and analytical modelling of trapped gas in micromechanical squeeze-film dampers (United States)

    Veijola, Timo; Lehtovuori, Anu


    Damping in air gaps of micromechanical devices that vibrate out-of-plane is studied at frequencies where the acoustic wavelength is comparable with the air gap dimensions. A FEM study with a viscoacoustic solver shows that above a certain frequency, closed damper borders can be assumed in the approximate analysis of the squeeze-film damper, regardless of the practical border conditions. Here, this closed-border (trapped gas) problem is solved analytically from the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in 1D. This results in a compact model for the mechanical impedance that accounts for damping, inertial and spring forces as well as thermal behaviour and slip border conditions. The model produces the gas resonances in the air gap when the wavelength of the acoustic wave is smaller than the gap dimensions. Due to the slip conditions, the model is valid in modeling micromechanical oscillating structures with small air gaps.

  11. Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, D; Höhener, P; Hunkeler, D; 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.09.006


    Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion, and the equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experimental data from a one-dimensional laboratory column and a radial-symmetric field experiment, and the comparison yielded a satisfying agreement. The model results clearly illustrate the significant isotope fractionation by gas-phase diffusion under transient state conditions. This leads to an initial depletion of heavy isotopes with increasing distance from the source. The isotope evolution of the source is governed by the combined effects of isotope fractionation due to vaporization, diffusion and biodegradation. The net...

  12. Optimal design of supply chain network under uncertainty environment using hybrid analytical and simulation modeling approach (United States)

    Chiadamrong, N.; Piyathanavong, V.


    Models that aim to optimize the design of supply chain networks have gained more interest in the supply chain literature. Mixed-integer linear programming and discrete-event simulation are widely used for such an optimization problem. We present a hybrid approach to support decisions for supply chain network design using a combination of analytical and discrete-event simulation models. The proposed approach is based on iterative procedures until the difference between subsequent solutions satisfies the pre-determined termination criteria. The effectiveness of proposed approach is illustrated by an example, which shows closer to optimal results with much faster solving time than the results obtained from the conventional simulation-based optimization model. The efficacy of this proposed hybrid approach is promising and can be applied as a powerful tool in designing a real supply chain network. It also provides the possibility to model and solve more realistic problems, which incorporate dynamism and uncertainty.

  13. 2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, G; Lubin, T; Mezani, S; Leveque, J, E-mail: [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Universite Henri Poincare, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France)


    An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.

  14. Functional Decoding and Meta-analytic Connectivity Modeling in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F Xavier; Eickhoff, Claudia R; D'Acunto, Giulia; Masi, Gabriele; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B


    Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD. Each ADHD-related dysfunctional region resulting from the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was then analyzed using functional decoding based on ~7500 fMRI experiments in the BrainMap database. This approach allows mapping brain regions to functions not necessarily tested in individual studies, thus suggesting possible novel functions for those regions. Additionally, ADHD-related dysfunctional regions were clustered based on their functional coactivation profiles across all the experiments stored in BrainMap (meta-analytic connectivity modeling). ADHD-related hypoactivation was found in the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), left temporal pole, and right caudate. Functional decoding mapped the left putamen to cognitive aspects of music perception/reproduction and the left temporal lobe to language semantics; both these regions clustered together on the basis of their meta-analytic functional connectivity. Left inferior gyrus mapped to executive function tasks; right caudate mapped to both executive function tasks and music-related processes. Our study provides meta-analytic support to the hypothesis that, in addition to well-known deficits in typical executive functions, impairment in processes related to music perception/reproduction and language semantics may be involved in the pathophysiology of adult ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Functional Decoding and Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; D’Acunto, Giulia; Masi, Gabriele; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.


    Background Task-based fMRI studies of adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. Methods We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD. Each ADHD-related dysfunctional region resulting from the ALE meta-analysis was then analyzed using functional decoding based on ~7,500 fMRI experiments in the BrainMap database. This approach allows mapping brain regions to functions not necessarily tested in individual studies, thus suggesting possible novel functions for those regions. Additionally, ADHD-related dysfunctional regions were clustered based on their functional co-activation profiles across all the experiments stored in BrainMap (meta-analytic connectivity modeling). Results ADHD-related hypoactivation was found in left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), left temporal pole, and right caudate. Functional decoding mapped the left putamen and the left temporal lobe to cognitive aspects of music perception/reproduction and language semantics, respectively; both these regions clustered together based on their meta-analytic functional connectivity. Left inferior gyrus mapped to executive function tasks; right caudate mapped both to executive functions tasks and music-related processes. Conclusions Our study provides meta-analytic support to the hypothesis that, in addition to well-known deficits in typical executive functions, impairment in processes related to music perception/reproduction and language semantics may be involved in the pathophysiology of adult ADHD. PMID:27569542

  16. On the Analytical Model of Charge Evolution of Solar Flare Ions (United States)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Balderas-Avilez, Gabriel; Rodriguez-Frias, Dolores; Del Peral, Luis; Hebrero, Gema; Cruz, Ricardo

    Models attempting to describe the charge state of solar flare ions are in general of numerical nature, where the involved physics is masked by their high mathematical complexity. There is however, the oldest of the models, developed long ago for one of us, which is of analytical nature, and based in very simple physical concepts, namely hereafter the High Energy Crosssections Model (HECSM). In this model definition of the charge state of the energetic ions occurs during the acceleration process at the flare source. It is assumed the atomic interactions between a population which is being accelerated getting an exponential (or power law) spectrum, namely the ions projectiles, and another population which is in thermodynamic equilibrium (TE), with a Maxwellian spectrum, namely the targets. In contrast with other models that use thermal cross-sections (ionization and recombination) even for energetic ions which are out of the (TE), in our model we employ High Energy Cross-sections for electron capture and loss, since the population which is being accelerated acquires a non-thermal spectrum. First, we have built temperature-dependent cross-sections. Then, we have developed criteria for charge interchange establishment, it is determined whether there is establishment of (1) both processes, capture and los, or (2) only one of them, or even (3) none of them. In case (1) charge equilibrium is reached. In case (2) when only electron capture is established, at the beginning of the acceleration process, the local charge value will decrease up to an energy where both crosssection becomes of the same order, or when only electron loss is established the effective charge goes faster toward the nuclear charge value than in conditions of charge equilibrium. In case (3) ions keep the local thermal charge at the source temperature. After, we derivate an analytical expression for the Effective Charge (equilibrium charge), qef f, on basis to direct and simple physical concepts. We

  17. An Analytical Model of Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose for Passively-Scattered Proton Radiotherapy and Validation with Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Christopher; Newhauser, Wayne, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Farah, Jad [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Service de Dosimétrie Externe, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose (H/D) at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference). Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference). The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation.

  18. An Analytical Model of Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose for Passively-Scattered Proton Radiotherapy and Validation with Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schneider


    Full Text Available Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose  at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference. The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation.

  19. Stand dynamics and tree coexistence in an analytical structured model: the role of recruitment. (United States)

    Angulo, Óscar; Bravo de la Parra, Rafael; López-Marcos, Juan C; Zavala, Miguel A


    Understanding the mechanisms of coexistence and niche partitioning in plant communities is a central question in ecology. Current theories of forest dynamics range between the so-called neutral theories which assume functional equivalence among coexisting species to forest simulators that explain species assemblages as the result of tradeoffs in species individual strategies at several ontogenetic stages. Progress in these questions has been hindered by the inherent difficulties of developing analytical size-structured models of stand dynamics. This precludes examination of the relative importance of each mechanism on tree coexistence. In previous simulation and analytical studies emphasis has been given to interspecific differences at the sapling stage, and less so to interspecific variation in seedling recruitment. In this study we develop a partial differential equation model of stand dynamics in which competition takes place at the recruitment stage. Species differ in their size-dependent growth rates and constant mortality rates. Recruitment is described as proportional to the basal area of conspecifics, to account for fecundity and seed supply per unit of basal area, and is corrected with a decreasing function of species specific basal area to account for competition. We first analyze conditions for population persistence in monospecific stands and second we investigate conditions of coexistence for two species. In the monospecific case we found a stationary stand structure based on an inequality between mortality rate and seed supply. In turn, intra-specific competition does not play any role on the asymptotic extinction or population persistence. In the two-species case we found that coexistence can be attained when the reciprocal negative effect on recruitment follows a given relation with respect to intraspecific competition. Specifically a tradeoff between recruitment potential (i.e. shade tolerance or predation avoidance) and fecundity or growth rate

  20. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal


    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  1. Analytical models for coupling reliability in identical two-magnet systems during slow reversals (United States)

    Kani, Nickvash; Naeemi, Azad


    This paper follows previous works which investigated the strength of dipolar coupling in two-magnet systems. While those works focused on qualitative analyses, this manuscript elucidates reversal through dipolar coupling culminating in analytical expressions for reversal reliability in identical two-magnet systems. The dipolar field generated by a mono-domain magnetic body can be represented by a tensor containing both longitudinal and perpendicular field components; this field changes orientation and magnitude based on the magnetization of neighboring nanomagnets. While the dipolar field does reduce to its longitudinal component at short time-scales, for slow magnetization reversals, the simple longitudinal field representation greatly underestimates the scope of parameters that ensure reliable coupling. For the first time, analytical models that map the geometric and material parameters required for reliable coupling in two-magnet systems are developed. It is shown that in biaxial nanomagnets, the x ̂ and y ̂ components of the dipolar field contribute to the coupling, while all three dimensions contribute to the coupling between a pair of uniaxial magnets. Additionally, the ratio of the longitudinal and perpendicular components of the dipolar field is also very important. If the perpendicular components in the dipolar tensor are too large, the nanomagnet pair may come to rest in an undesirable meta-stable state away from the free axis. The analytical models formulated in this manuscript map the minimum and maximum parameters for reliable coupling. Using these models, it is shown that there is a very small range of material parameters which can facilitate reliable coupling between perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy nanomagnets; hence, in-plane nanomagnets are more suitable for coupled systems.

  2. Clinical and pharmaceutical success from discovery to regulatory approval: biomarkers, modeling and analytical technologies. (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi Tee; Weng, Naidong; Lee, Mike


    The 8th Annual Shanghai Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA): Clinical and Pharmaceutical Success from Discovery to Regulatory Approval: Biomarkers, Modeling and Analytical Technologies (CPSA Shanghai 2017); Renaissance Shanghai Pudong Hotel, Shanghai, China, 12-14 April 2017 was held on 12-14 April 2017 in Shanghai, China. The meeting was featured with highly interactive events including diversified symposia, workshops, roundtable discussions, conference awards and poster sessions. There were over 220 participants with 61 oral presentations and 20 posters presented. In addition, the meeting included a preconference workshop with an inaugural session on the evaluation of quality and efficacy for generic drugs in China.

  3. Analytical Model based on Green Criteria for Optical Backbone Network Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    Key terms such as Global warming, Green House Gas emissions, or Energy efficiency are currently on the scope of scientific research. Regarding telecommunications networks, wireless applications, routing protocols, etc. are being designed following this new “Green” trend. This work contributes...... to the evaluation of the environmental impact of networks from physical interconnection point of view. Networks deployment, usage, and disposal are analyzed as contributing elements to ICT’s (Information and Communications Technology) CO2 emissions. This paper presents an analytical model for evaluating...

  4. Positive Streamer in the Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Air: Numerical Modelling and Analytical Estimations (United States)

    Soloviev, V.; Krivtsov, V.


    According to performed numerical simulation of the surface dielectric barrier discharge driven by positive polarity nanosecond voltage pulse the discharge in this case evolves as a streamer “flying” above the dielectric surface. The distance between the streamer and dielectric surface does not depend on dielectric barrier parameters and applied voltage value. The developed analytical model for surface streamer evolution confirms these results and explains the physics of this phenomenon. The electric field in front of a stationary streamer head is constant and defined only by ionization rate constant of the gas and its density.

  5. Analytic Approximations to Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems Modeling Beam-Type Nano-Electromechanical Systems (United States)

    Zou, Li; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei; Jeffrey, David J.


    Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

  6. Analytic approximations to nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Li [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). State Key Lab. of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). School of Mathematical Sciences; Jeffrey, David J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada). Dept. of Applied Mathematics


    Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

  7. Analytical model of particle and heat flux collection by dust immersed in dense magnetized plasmas (United States)

    Vignitchouk, L.; Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.


    A comprehensive analytical description is presented for the particle and heat fluxes collected by dust in dense magnetized plasmas. Compared to the widely used orbital motion limited theory, the suppression of cross-field transport leads to a strong reduction of the electron fluxes, while ion collection is inhibited by thin-sheath effects and the formation of a potential overshoot along the field lines. As a result, the incoming heat flux loses its sensitivity to the floating potential, thereby diminishing the importance of electron emission processes in dust survivability. Numerical simulations implementing the new model for ITER-like detached divertor plasmas predict a drastic enhancement of the dust lifetime.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălin ROŞU


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an analytical model for lathe tools displacements calculus in the manufacturing process. We will present step by step the methodology for the displacements calculus and in the end we will insert these relations in a program for automatic calculus and we extract the conclusions. There is taken into account only the effects of the bending moments (because these insert the highest displacements. The simplifying assumptions and the calculus relations for the displacements (linea r and angular ones are presented in an original way.

  9. A functional-analytic model of analogy: a relational frame analysis.


    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Roche, Bryan; Smeets, Paul M


    The aim of this study was to explore a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning, defined as the discrimination of formal similarity via equivalence-equivalence responding. In Experiment 1, adult humans were trained and tested for the formation of four three-member equivalence relations: A1-B1-C1, A2-B2-C2, A3-B3-C3, and A4-B4-C4. The B and C stimuli were three-letter nonsense syllables, and the A stimulus was a colored shape. Subjects were then successfully tested for equivalence-equiv...

  10. An analytic approach to modeling the optical response of anisotropic nanoparticle arrays at surfaces and interfaces. (United States)

    Persechini, L; Verre, R; McAlinden, N; Wang, J J; Ranjan, M; Facsko, S; Shvets, I V; McGilp, J F


    Anisotropic nanoparticle (NP) arrays with useful optical properties, such as localized plasmon resonances (LPRs), can be grown by self-assembly on substrates. However, these systems often have significant dispersion in NP dimensions and distribution, which makes a numerical approach to modeling the LPRs very difficult. An improved analytic approach to this problem is discussed in detail and applied successfully to NP arrays from three systems that differ in NP metal, shape and distribution, and in substrate and capping layer. The materials and anisotropic NP structures that will produce LPRs in desired spectral regions can be determined using this approach.

  11. Analytical design and performance studies of nuclear furnace tests of small nuclear light bulb models (United States)

    Latham, T. S.; Rodgers, R. J.


    Analytical studies were continued to identify the design and performance characteristics of a small-scale model of a nuclear light bulb unit cell suitable for testing in a nuclear furnace reactor. Emphasis was placed on calculating performance characteristics based on detailed radiant heat transfer analyses, on designing the test assembly for ease of insertion, connection, and withdrawal at the reactor test cell, and on determining instrumentation and test effluent handling requirements. In addition, a review of candidate test reactors for future nuclear light bulb in-reactor tests was conducted.

  12. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul


    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  13. Analytical model of multi-planetary resonant chains and constraints on migration scenarios (United States)

    Delisle, J.-B.


    Resonant chains are groups of planets for which each pair is in resonance, with an orbital period ratio locked at a rational value (2/1, 3/2, etc.). Such chains naturally form as a result of convergent migration of the planets in the proto-planetary disk. In this article, I present an analytical model of resonant chains of any number of planets. Using this model, I show that a system captured in a resonant chain can librate around several possible equilibrium configurations. The probability of capture around each equilibrium depends on how the chain formed, and especially on the order in which the planets have been captured in the chain. Therefore, for an observed resonant chain, knowing around which equilibrium the chain is librating allows for constraints to be put on the formation and migration scenario of the system. I apply this reasoning to the four planets orbiting Kepler-223 in a 3:4:6:8 resonant chain. I show that the system is observed around one of the six equilibria predicted by the analytical model. Using N-body integrations, I show that the most favorable scenario to reproduce the observed configuration is to first capture the two intermediate planets, then the outermost, and finally the innermost.

  14. An analytical model and parametric study of electrical contact resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, S. Jack [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)


    This paper presents an analytical model of the electrical contact resistance between the carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model is developed based on the classical statistical contact theory for a PEM fuel cell, using the same probability distributions of the GDL structure and BPP surface profile as previously described in Wu et al. [Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, G. Lin, S. Wang, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 182 (2008) 265-269] and Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Results show that estimates of the contact resistance compare favorably with experimental data by Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Factors affecting the contact behavior are systematically studied using the analytical model, including the material properties of the two contact bodies and factors arising from the manufacturing processes. The transverse Young's modulus of chopped carbon fibers in the GDL and the surface profile of the BPP are found to be significant to the contact resistance. The factor study also sheds light on the manufacturing requirements of carbon fiber GDLs for a better contact performance in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  15. An analytical model and parametric study of electrical contact resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Hu, S. Jack

    This paper presents an analytical model of the electrical contact resistance between the carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model is developed based on the classical statistical contact theory for a PEM fuel cell, using the same probability distributions of the GDL structure and BPP surface profile as previously described in Wu et al. [Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, G. Lin, S. Wang, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 182 (2008) 265-269] and Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Results show that estimates of the contact resistance compare favorably with experimental data by Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Factors affecting the contact behavior are systematically studied using the analytical model, including the material properties of the two contact bodies and factors arising from the manufacturing processes. The transverse Young's modulus of chopped carbon fibers in the GDL and the surface profile of the BPP are found to be significant to the contact resistance. The factor study also sheds light on the manufacturing requirements of carbon fiber GDLs for a better contact performance in PEM fuel cells.

  16. Performance study of Active Queue Management methods: Adaptive GRED, REDD, and GRED-Linear analytical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdel-jaber


    Full Text Available Congestion control is one of the hot research topics that helps maintain the performance of computer networks. This paper compares three Active Queue Management (AQM methods, namely, Adaptive Gentle Random Early Detection (Adaptive GRED, Random Early Dynamic Detection (REDD, and GRED Linear analytical model with respect to different performance measures. Adaptive GRED and REDD are implemented based on simulation, whereas GRED Linear is implemented as a discrete-time analytical model. Several performance measures are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the compared methods mainly mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, and packet dropping probability. The ultimate aim is to identify the method that offers the highest satisfactory performance in non-congestion or congestion scenarios. The first comparison results that are based on different packet arrival probability values show that GRED Linear provides better mean queue length; average queueing delay and packet overflow probability than Adaptive GRED and REDD methods in the presence of congestion. Further and using the same evaluation measures, Adaptive GRED offers a more satisfactory performance than REDD when heavy congestion is present. When the finite capacity of queue values varies the GRED Linear model provides the highest satisfactory performance with reference to mean queue length and average queueing delay and all the compared methods provide similar throughput performance. However, when the finite capacity value is large, the compared methods have similar results in regard to probabilities of both packet overflowing and packet dropping.

  17. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter


    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  18. Semi-analytical Single-domain Modeling of Magnetoresistive Multilayer Thin Films (United States)

    Oti, John O.


    Sub-micrometer magnetoresistive (MR) multilayer thin films show great promise as active elements of future-generation magnetic recording read heads and sensors, and non-volatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. In very small films the transition lengths of internal Neel magnetic domain walls films may become larger than the dimensions of the films, thereby rendering the films incapable of sustaining domain walls. The films then display a predominant single-domain behavior. This greatly simplifies the mathematical modeling of very small MR multilayers. Simulated size dependence properties of the MR behavior of spin-valve read heads and MRAMs, using a semi-analytical single-domain model [1,2], are presented. The model forms part of a personal computer based semi-analytical micromagnetics design tool we have developed. The program utilizes a convenient graphical windowing interface that facilitates the design and analysis of the system, and enables the 3-D rendering of the interacting films and animation of their magnetization reversals. A real-time demonstration of the program will be given as part of the presentation. [1] C. E. Johnson, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2515 (1962). [2] J. O. Oti, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6386 (1996).

  19. Evaluation of gamma dose effect on PIN photodiode using analytical model (United States)

    Jafari, H.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Boorboor, S.


    The PIN silicon photodiodes are widely used in the applications which may be found in radiation environment such as space mission, medical imaging and non-destructive testing. Radiation-induced damage in these devices causes to degrade the photodiode parameters. In this work, we have used new approach to evaluate gamma dose effects on a commercial PIN photodiode (BPX65) based on an analytical model. In this approach, the NIEL parameter has been calculated for gamma rays from a 60Co source by GEANT4. The radiation damage mechanisms have been considered by solving numerically the Poisson and continuity equations with the appropriate boundary conditions, parameters and physical models. Defects caused by radiation in silicon have been formulated in terms of the damage coefficient for the minority carriers' lifetime. The gamma induced degradation parameters of the silicon PIN photodiode have been analyzed in detail and the results were compared with experimental measurements and as well as the results of ATLAS semiconductor simulator to verify and parameterize the analytical model calculations. The results showed reasonable agreement between them for BPX65 silicon photodiode irradiated by 60Co gamma source at total doses up to 5 kGy under different reverse voltages.

  20. A Review of Numerical Simulation and Analytical Modeling for Medical Devices Safety in MRI. (United States)

    Kabil, J; Belguerras, L; Trattnig, S; Pasquier, C; Felblinger, J; Missoffe, A


    To review past and present challenges and ongoing trends in numerical simulation for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) safety evaluation of medical devices. A wide literature review on numerical and analytical simulation on simple or complex medical devices in MRI electromagnetic fields shows the evolutions through time and a growing concern for MRI safety over the years. Major issues and achievements are described, as well as current trends and perspectives in this research field. Numerical simulation of medical devices is constantly evolving, supported by calculation methods now well-established. Implants with simple geometry can often be simulated in a computational human model, but one issue remaining today is the experimental validation of these human models. A great concern is to assess RF heating on implants too complex to be traditionally simulated, like pacemaker leads. Thus, ongoing researches focus on alternative hybrids methods, both numerical and experimental, with for example a transfer function method. For the static field and gradient fields, analytical models can be used for dimensioning simple implants shapes, but limited for complex geometries that cannot be studied with simplifying assumptions. Numerical simulation is an essential tool for MRI safety testing of medical devices. The main issues remain the accuracy of simulations compared to real life and the studies of complex devices; but as the research field is constantly evolving, some promising ideas are now under investigation to take up the challenges.

  1. A Validated Analytical Model for Availability Prediction of IPTV Services in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd E. Wolfinger


    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, besides the original applications typically related to traffic safety, we nowadays can observe an increasing trend toward infotainment applications, such as IPTV services. Quality of experience (QoE, as observed by the end users of IPTV, is highly important to guarantee adequate user acceptance for the service. In IPTV, QoE is mainly determined by the availability of TV channels for the users. This paper presents an efficient and rather generally applicable analytical model that allows one to predict the blocking probability of TV channels, both for channel-switching-induced, as well as for handover-induced blocking events. We present the successful validation of the model by means of simulation, and we introduce a new measure for QoE. Numerous case studies illustrate how the analytical model and our new QoE measure can be applied successfully for the dimensioning of IPTV systems, taking into account the QoE requirements of the IPTV service users in strongly diverse traffic scenarios.

  2. Analytical Modelling of the Spread of Disease in Confined and Crowded Spaces (United States)

    Goscé, Lara; Barton, David A. W.; Johansson, Anders


    Since 1927 and until recently, most models describing the spread of disease have been of compartmental type, based on the assumption that populations are homogeneous and well-mixed. Recent models have utilised agent-based models and complex networks to explicitly study heterogeneous interaction patterns, but this leads to an increasing computational complexity. Compartmental models are appealing because of their simplicity, but their parameters, especially the transmission rate, are complex and depend on a number of factors, which makes it hard to predict how a change of a single environmental, demographic, or epidemiological factor will affect the population. Therefore, in this contribution we propose a middle ground, utilising crowd-behaviour research to improve compartmental models in crowded situations. We show how both the rate of infection as well as the walking speed depend on the local crowd density around an infected individual. The combined effect is that the rate of infection at a population scale has an analytically tractable non-linear dependency on crowd density. We model the spread of a hypothetical disease in a corridor and compare our new model with a typical compartmental model, which highlights the regime in which current models may not produce credible results.

  3. Cellular Scanning Strategy for Selective Laser Melting: Capturing Thermal Trends with a Low-Fidelity, Pseudo-Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankhya Mohanty


    Full Text Available Simulations of additive manufacturing processes are known to be computationally expensive. The resulting large runtimes prohibit their application in secondary analysis requiring several complete simulations such as optimization studies, and sensitivity analysis. In this paper, a low-fidelity pseudo-analytical model has been introduced to enable such secondary analysis. The model has been able to mimic a finite element model and was able to capture the thermal trends associated with the process. The model has been validated and subsequently applied in a small optimization case study. The pseudo-analytical modelling technique is established as a fast tool for primary modelling investigations.

  4. Exact and Analytic-Numerical Solutions of Lagging Models of Heat Transfer in a Semi-Infinite Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Castro


    conduction in a semi-infinite domain, which allow the construction of analytic-numerical solutions with prescribed accuracy. Examples of numerical computations, comparing the properties of the models considered, are presented.

  5. Dynamical Formation of Kerr Black Holes with Synchronized Hair: An Analytic Model (United States)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen


    East and Pretorius have successfully evolved, using fully nonlinear numerical simulations, the superradiant instability of the Kerr black hole (BH) triggered by a massive, complex vector field. Evolutions terminate in stationary states of a vector field condensate synchronized with a rotating BH horizon. We show that these end points are fundamental states of Kerr BHs with synchronized Proca hair. Motivated by the "experimental data" from these simulations, we suggest a universal (i.e., field-spin independent), analytic model for the subset of BHs with synchronized hair that possess a quasi-Kerr horizon, applicable in the weak hair regime. Comparing this model with fully nonlinear numerical solutions of BHs with a synchronized scalar or Proca hair, we show that the model is accurate for hairy BHs that may emerge dynamically from superradiance, whose domain we identify.

  6. Data Analytics Based Dual-Optimized Adaptive Model Predictive Control for the Power Plant Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhao Tang


    Full Text Available To control the furnace temperature of a power plant boiler precisely, a dual-optimized adaptive model predictive control (DoAMPC method is designed based on the data analytics. In the proposed DoAMPC, an accurate predictive model is constructed adaptively by the hybrid algorithm of the least squares support vector machine and differential evolution method. Then, an optimization problem is constructed based on the predictive model and many constraint conditions. To control the boiler furnace temperature, the differential evolution method is utilized to decide the control variables by solving the optimization problem. The proposed method can adapt to the time-varying situation by updating the sample data. The experimental results based on practical data illustrate that the DoAMPC can control the boiler furnace temperature with errors of less than 1.5% which can meet the requirements of the real production process.

  7. An analytical modeling approach for a gate all around (GAA) tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) (United States)

    Narang, Rakhi; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, R. S.; Gupta, Mridula


    An analytical model for a gate all around (GAA) Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) having circular and square cross section geometry has been proposed in this work describing the important device electrostatic parameters i.e. Surface Potential, Electric Field and Energy Band profile. Further, the model is extended for both a p-i-n and p-n-p-n architecture keeping in view the advantages offered by a p-n-p-n architecture (also known as tunnel source or halo doped TFET) over a p-i-n based TFET. The results obtained from the model have been validated with results obtained through Silvaco ATLAS 3D device simulation software.

  8. Gate leakage current partitioning in nanoscale double gate MOSFETs, using compact analytical model (United States)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Lime, François; Cerdeira, Antonio; Estrada, Magali; Garduño, Salvador Ivan; Iñiguez, Benjamin


    This paper presents a compact gate leakage current partitioning model for nanoscale Double Gate (DG) MOSFETs, using analytical models of the direct tunneling gate leakage current. Gate leakage current becomes important and an essential aspect of MOSFET modeling as the gate oxide thickness is scaled down to 1 nm and below in advanced CMOS processes. We considered an ideal interface (ideal case without an interfacial layer) and two layers high k dielectric materials as gate insulators. In the case of two layers, a thin layer of SiO2 as an interfacial layer is considered. The results of the gate current partitioning components into drain and source show good agreement with 2D TCAD numerical device simulation (Silvaco Atlas).

  9. Testing and Analytical Modeling for Purging Process of a Cryogenic Line (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Mazurkivich, P. V.; Nelson, M. A.; Majumdar, A. K.


    To gain confidence in developing analytical models of the purging process for the cryogenic main propulsion systems of upper stage, two test series were conducted. The test article, a 3.35 m long with the diameter of 20 cm incline line, was filled with liquid or gaseous hydrogen and then purged with gaseous helium (GHe). Total of 10 tests were conducted. The influences of GHe flow rates and initial temperatures were evaluated. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), an in-house general-purpose fluid system analyzer computer program, was utilized to model and simulate selective tests. The test procedures, modeling descriptions, and the results are presented in the following sections.

  10. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS (United States)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A.; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.


    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  11. Analytical model for release calculations in solid thin-foils ISOL targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egoriti, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, CeSNEF-Nuclear Engineering Division, Via Ponzio, 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Boeckx, S. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); ICTEAM Inst., Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Ghys, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Houngbo, D., E-mail: [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Gent University (UGent), St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Popescu, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)


    A detailed analytical model has been developed to simulate isotope-release curves from thin-foils ISOL targets. It involves the separate modeling of diffusion and effusion inside the target. The former has been modeled using both first and second Fick's law. The latter, effusion from the surface of the target material to the end of the ionizer, was simulated with the Monte Carlo code MolFlow+. The calculated delay-time distribution for this process was then fitted using a double-exponential function. The release curve obtained from the convolution of diffusion and effusion shows good agreement with experimental data from two different target geometries used at ISOLDE. Moreover, the experimental yields are well reproduced when combining the release fraction with calculated in-target production.

  12. Wavelet Based Analytical Expressions to Steady State Biofilm Model Arising in Biochemical Engineering. (United States)

    Padma, S; Hariharan, G


    In this paper, we have developed an efficient wavelet based approximation method to biofilm model under steady state arising in enzyme kinetics. Chebyshev wavelet based approximation method is successfully introduced in solving nonlinear steady state biofilm reaction model. To the best of our knowledge, until now there is no rigorous wavelet based solution has been addressed for the proposed model. Analytical solutions for substrate concentration have been derived for all values of the parameters δ and SL. The power of the manageable method is confirmed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the wavelet method. Moreover the use of Chebyshev wavelets is found to be simple, efficient, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive.

  13. Analytical modeling of the steady state ablation of a 3D C/C composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaud, J.; Aspa, Y.; Vignoles, G.L. [Universite Bordeaux 1, Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux (LCTS), 33 - Pessac (France); Aspa, Y. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), 31 - Toulouse (France)


    Following an analysis of surface roughness features that develop on a 3D C/C composite during ablation, i.e. wall recession by oxidation and/or sublimation, a modeling strategy is set up in order to predict the composite behavior from that of its components. It relies on two changes of scale: (i) microscopic scale (fiber, matrix) to mesoscopic scale (bundle) and (ii) mesoscopic scale (bundle, matrix) to macroscopic scale (composite). The physical basis is a general model for receding surfaces under a gasification process coupled to mass transfer. At each scale, the 3D surface equation is analytically solved in steady state considering a 1-D mass transfer perpendicular to the overall surface. The models are validated by comparison to experimental data. (authors)

  14. Analytical modeling of threshold voltage for Cylindrical Gate All Around (CGAA MOSFET using center potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Pradhan


    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical threshold voltage model is proposed for a cylindrical gate-all-around (CGAA MOSFET by solving the 2-D Poisson’s equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. A comparison is made for both the center and the surface potential model of CGAA MOSFET. This paper claims that the calculation of threshold voltage using center potential is more accurate rather than the calculation from surface potential. The effects of the device parameters like the drain bias (VDS, oxide thickness (tox, channel thickness (r, etc., on the threshold voltage are also studied in this paper. The model is verified with 3D numerical device simulator Sentaurus from Synopsys Inc.

  15. On the Use of Factor-Analytic Multinomial Logit Item Response Models to Account for Individual Differences in Response Style (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy R.; Bolt, Daniel M.


    Multidimensional item response models are usually implemented to model the relationship between item responses and two or more traits of interest. We show how multidimensional multinomial logit item response models can also be used to account for individual differences in response style. This is done by specifying a factor-analytic model for…

  16. Dynamics of Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Large-Eddy Simulations and Reduced Analytical Models (United States)

    Momen, Mostafa

    Real-world atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers (ABL) involve many inherent complexities, the understanding and modeling of which manifestly exceeds our current capabilities. Previous studies largely focused on the "textbook ABL", which is (quasi) steady and barotropic. However, it is evident that the "real-world ABL", even over flat terrain, rarely meets such simplifying assumptions. The present thesis aims to illustrate and model four complicating features of ABLs that have been overlooked thus far despite their ubiquity: 1) unsteady pressure gradients in neutral ABLs (Chapters 2 and 3), 2) interacting effects of unsteady pressure gradients and static stability in diabatic ABLs (Chapter 4), 3) time-variable buoyancy fluxes (Chapter 5) , and 4) impacts of baroclinicity in neutral and diabatic ABLs (Chapter 6). State-of-the-art large-eddy simulations will be used as a tool to explain the underlying physics and to validate analytical models we develop for these features. Chapter 2 focuses on the turbulence equilibrium: when the forcing time scale is comparable to the turbulence time scale, the turbulence is shown to be out of equilibrium, and the velocity profiles depart from the log-law; However, for longer, and surprisingly for shorter forcing times, quasi-equilibrium is maintained. In Chapter 3, a reduced analytical model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, will be introduced and shown to be analogous to a damped oscillator where inertial, Coriolis, and friction forces mirror the mass, spring, and damper, respectively. When a steady buoyancy (stable or unstable) is superposed on the unsteady pressure gradient, the same model structure can be maintained, but the damping term, corresponding to friction forces and vertical coupling, needs to account for stability. However, for the reverse case with variable buoyancy flux and stability, the model needs to be extended to allow time-variable damper coefficient. These extensions of the analytical model are

  17. Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking. (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J


    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

  18. An analytical model for non-conservative pollutants mixing in the surf zone. (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Joon Ha


    Accurate simulation of the surf zone is a prerequisite to improve beach management as well as to understand the fundamentals of fate and transport of contaminants. In the present study, a diagnostic model modified from a classic solute model is provided to illuminate non-conservative pollutants behavior in the surf zone. To readily understand controlling processes in the surf zone, a new dimensionless quantity is employed with index of kappa number (K, a ratio of inactivation rate to transport rate of microbial pollutant in the surf zone), which was then evaluated under different environmental frames during a week simulation period. The sensitivity analysis showed that hydrodynamics and concentration gradients in the surf zone mostly depend on n (number of rip currents), indicating that n should be carefully adjusted in the model. The simulation results reveal, furthermore, that large deviation typically occurs in the daytime, signifying inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria is the main process to control surf zone water quality during the day. Overall, the analytical model shows a good agreement between predicted and synthetic data (R(2) = 0.51 and 0.67 for FC and ENT, respectively) for the simulated period, amplifying its potential use in the surf zone modelling. It is recommended that when the dimensionless index is much larger than 0.5, the present modified model can predict better than the conventional model, but if index is smaller than 0.5, the conventional model is more efficient with respect to time and cost.

  19. Semi-analytic off-axis X-ray source model (United States)

    Shamshad, M.; Anjomrouz, M.; Smithies, D. J.; Largeau, A.; Lu, G.; Atharifard, A.; Vanden Broeke, L.; Aamir, R.; Panta, R. K.; Walsh, M. F.; Goulter, B. P.; Healy, J. L.; Bheesette, S.; Bell, S. T.; Bateman, C. J.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.


    Spectral computed tomography (CT) systems are employed with energy-resolving photon counting detectors. Incorporation of a spectrally accurate x-ray beam model in image reconstruction helps to improve material identification and quantification by these systems. Using an inaccurate x-ray model in spectral reconstruction can lead to severe image artifacts, one of the extreme cases of this is the well-known beam-hardening artifacts. An often overlooked spectral feature of x-ray beams in spectral reconstruction models is the angular dependence of the spectrum with reference to the central beam axis. To address these factors, we have developed a parameterized semi-analytical x-ray source model in the diagnostic imaging range (30-120 kVp) by applying regression techniques to data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc). This x-ray beam model is generalized to describe the off-axis spectral information within ±17o along θ (vertical direction), ±5o along phi (horizontal direction) of the central axis, and can be parameterized for specific x-ray tube models. Comparisons of our model with those generated by SpekCalc, TOPAS, and IPEM78 at central axis show good agreement (within 2 %). We have evaluated the model with experimental data collected with a small animal spectral scanner.

  20. Analytical model for radial injection of NORM with a step-function source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Smith, K.; Blunt, D.


    This paper presents information on a model used to analyze the underground injection of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This model uses a step-function contaminant source, which models intermittent NORM injection in a continuous brine injection well. The governing equations are presented and transformed into Laplace space, where the equations are solved. The numerical inversion of this solution is detailed. The model is cast in a nondimensional form such that a single model solution is valid for a large number of different field conditions. This paper also presents a case study that compares this analytical model to a simple mixing model for a field demonstration site in west Texas. This case study showed that at distances of more than 100 meters from the injection well, calculated subsurface NORM activities were lower than proposed US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards. The comparison also shows that the simple mixing model overpredicts activity levels close to the injection well and underpredicts activities further from the well.

  1. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Delamination Evolution in Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites Subject to Flexural Loading (United States)

    Xie, Jiawen

    Delamination is a common failure mode in composite (fiber reinforced and layered) structures subject to low-velocity impacts by foreign objects. To maximize the design capacity, it is important to have reliable tools to predict delamination evolution in laminated composites. The focus of this research is to analyze flexural responses and delamination evolution in laminated composites subject to flexural loading. Analytical solutions were derived from linear elasticity theory and structural mechanics of beam and plate configurations. Formulations and evaluations of the proposed analytical approaches were validated by comparing with results of finite element (FE) simulations in similar settings and published experiment data. Two-dimensional (2D) elasticity theory for laminated panels was extended to analyze elastodynamic responses of pristine panels and quasi-static responses of pre-delaminated panels. A highlight of the approach is exact solutions of displacement and stress fields it provides. Further investigations showed that the 2D elasticity theory is not amenable to a closed-form solution for laminates containing off-axis angle plies due to three-dimensional (3D) states of stress. Closed-form solutions of cohesive zone modeling (CZM) were developed for popular delamination toughness tests of laminated beams. A laminate was modeled as an assembly of two sub-laminates connected by a virtual deformable layer with infinitesimal thickness. Comprehensive parametric studies were performed, offering a deeper understanding of CZM. The studies were further simplified so that closed-form expressions can be obtained, serving as a quick estimation of the flexural responses and the process zone lengths. Analytical CZM solutions were extended analyze quasi-static impact tests of laminated composite plates with arbitrary stacking sequences, aiming to predict critical load, critical interfaces and extent of delamination at that interface. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used to

  2. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.


    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  3. Analytical model for Transient Current Technique (TCT) signal prediction and analysis for thin interface characterization (United States)

    Bronuzzi, J.; Mapelli, A.; Sallese, J. M.


    A silicon wafer bonding technique has been recently proposed for the fabrication of monolithic silicon radiation detectors. This new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer. Therefore, monolithic silicon detectors could be fabricated in this way which would allow the free choice of electronic chips and high resistive silicon bulk, even from different providers. Moreover, a monolithic detector with a high resistive bulk would also be available. Electrical properties of the bonded interface are then critical for this application. Indeed, mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface to be collected by the read-out electronics. In order to characterize this interface, the concept of Transient Current Technique (TCT) has been explored by means of numerical simulations combined with a physics based analytical model. In this work, the analytical model giving insight into the physics behind the TCT dependence upon interface traps is validated using both TCAD simulations and experimental measurements.

  4. A predictive analytic model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays (United States)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim


    An important factor limiting our ability to understand the production and propagation of cosmic rays pertains to the effects of heliospheric forces, commonly known as solar modulation. The solar wind is capable of generating time- and charge-dependent effects on the spectrum and intensity of low-energy (≲10 GeV ) cosmic rays reaching Earth. Previous analytic treatments of solar modulation have utilized the force-field approximation, in which a simple potential is adopted whose amplitude is selected to best fit the cosmic-ray data taken over a given period of time. Making use of recently available cosmic-ray data from the Voyager 1 spacecraft, along with measurements of the heliospheric magnetic field and solar wind, we construct a time-, charge- and rigidity-dependent model of solar modulation that can be directly compared to data from a variety of cosmic-ray experiments. We provide a simple analytic formula that can be easily utilized in a variety of applications, allowing us to better predict the effects of solar modulation and reduce the number of free parameters involved in cosmic-ray propagation models.

  5. A novel high-performance self-powered ultraviolet photodetector: Concept, analytical modeling and analysis (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.


    In this paper, a new MSM-UV-photodetector (PD) based on dual wide band-gap material (DM) engineering aspect is proposed to achieve high-performance self-powered device. Comprehensive analytical models for the proposed sensor photocurrent and the device properties are developed incorporating the impact of DM aspect on the device photoelectrical behavior. The obtained results are validated with the numerical data using commercial TCAD software. Our investigation demonstrates that the adopted design amendment modulates the electric field in the device, which provides the possibility to drive appropriate photo-generated carriers without an external applied voltage. This phenomenon suggests achieving the dual role of effective carriers' separation and an efficient reduce of the dark current. Moreover, a new hybrid approach based on analytical modeling and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to achieve improved photoelectric behavior at zero bias that can ensure favorable self-powered MSM-based UV-PD. It is found that the proposed design methodology has succeeded in identifying the optimized design that offers a self-powered device with high-responsivity (98 mA/W) and superior ION/IOFF ratio (480 dB). These results make the optimized MSM-UV-DM-PD suitable for providing low cost self-powered devices for high-performance optical communication and monitoring applications.

  6. Analytical solutions and numerical modeling for a dam-break problem in inclined channels (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Didenkulova, Ira; Didenkulov, Oleg; Rodin, Artem


    Here we obtain different analytical solutions of the shallow-water equations for inviscid nonlinear waves in inclined channels. (i) The first solution describes Riemann wave moving up or down alone the channel slope. It requires the initial fluid flow, which often accompanies waves generated by landslides. This solution is valid for a finite time before the wave breaks. (ii) The second solution generalizes the classical dam-break problem for the case of a dam located in the inclined channel. In this case the cross-section of the channel influences the speed of wave propagation inside the channel, and therefore changes wave dynamics inside the channel compare to the plane beach. (iii) The third solution describes the intermediate stage of the wave front dynamics for a dam of a large height. This solution is derived with the use of generalized Carrier-Greenspan approach developed early by Didenkulova & Pelinovsky (2011) and Rybkin et al (2014). Some of the analytical solutions are tested with the means of numerical modeling. The numerical modeling is carried out using the CLAWPACK software based on nonlinear shallow water equations. Application of the described solutions to possible laboratory experiments is discussed.

  7. Unveiling the Properties of Metagratings via a Detailed Analytical Model for Synthesis and Analysis (United States)

    Epstein, Ariel; Rabinovich, Oshri


    We present detailed analytical modeling and in-depth investigation of wide-angle reflect-mode metagrating beam splitters. These recently introduced ultrathin devices are capable of implementing intricate diffraction engineering functionalities with only a single meta-atom per macroperiod, making them considerably simpler to synthesize than conventional metasurfaces. We extend recent work and focus on electrically polarizable metagratings, comprised of loaded conducting wires in front of a perfect electric conductor, excited by transverse-electric polarized fields, which are more practical for planar fabrication. The derivation further relates the metagrating performance parameters to the individual meta-atom load, facilitating an efficient semianalytical synthesis scheme to determine the required conductor geometry for achieving optimal beam splitting. Subsequently, we utilize the model to analyze the effects of realistic conductor losses, reactance deviations, and frequency shifts on the device performance, and reveal that metagratings feature preferable working points, in which the sensitivity to these nonidealities is rather low. The analytical relations shed light on the physical origin of this phenomenon, associating it with fundamental interference processes taking place in the device. These results, verified via full-wave simulations of realistic physical structures, yield a set of efficient engineering tools, as well as profound physical intuition, for devising future metagrating devices, with immense potential for microwave, terahertz, and optical beam-manipulation applications.

  8. The mechanical properties of human dentin for 3-D finite element modeling: Numerical and analytical evaluation. (United States)

    Grzebieluch, Wojciech; Będziński, Romuald; Czapliński, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Urszula


    The FEM is often used in investigations of dentin loading conditions; however, its anisotropy is mostly neglected. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anisotropy and the elastic properties of an equivalent homogenous material model of human dentin as well as to compare isotropic and anisotropic dentin FE-models. Analytical and numerical dentin homogenization according to Luciano and Barbero was performed and E-modulus (E), Poisson's ratios (v) G-modulus (G) were calculated. The E-modulus of the dentin matrix was 28.0 GPa, Poisson's ratio (v) was 0.3; finite element models of orthotropic and isotropic dentin were created, loaded and compared using Ansys® 14.5 and CodeAster® 11.2 software. Anisotropy of the dentin ranged from 6.9 to 35.2%. E-modulus and G-modulus were as follows: E1 = 22.0-26.0 GPa, E2/E3 = 15.7-23.0 GPa; G12/G13 = 6.96-9.35 GPa and G23 = 6.08-8.09 GPa (highest values in the superficial layer). In FEM analysis of the displacement values were higher in the isotropic than in the orthotropic model, reaching up to 16% by shear load, 37% by compression and 23% in the case of shear with bending. Strain values were higher in the isotropic model, up to 35% for the shear load, 31% for compression and 35% in the case of shear with bending. The decrease in the volumetric fraction and diameter of tubules increased the G and E values. Anisotropy of the dentin applied during FEM analysis decreased the displacements and strain values. The numerical and analytical homogenization of dentin showed similar results.

  9. Toward an in-situ analytics and diagnostics framework for earth system models (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Wolf, Matthew; Rasch, Philip; Klasky, Scott; Williams, Dean; Jacob, Rob; Ma, Po-Lun; Kuo, Kwo-Sen


    , atmospheric rivers, blizzards, etc. It is evident that ESMs need an in-situ framework to decouple the diagnostics and analytics from the prognostics and physics computations of the models so that the diagnostic computations could be performed concurrently without limiting model throughput. We are designing a science-driven online analytics framework for earth system models. Our approach is to adopt several data workflow technologies, such as the Adaptable IO System (ADIOS), being developed under the U.S. Exascale Computing Project (ECP) and integrate these to allow for extreme performance IO, in situ workflow integration, science-driven analytics and visualization all in a easy to use computational framework. This will allow science teams to write data 100-1000 times faster and seamlessly move from post processing the output for validation and verification purposes to performing these calculations in situ. We can easily and knowledgeably envision a near-term future where earth system models like ACME and CESM will have to address not only the challenges of the volume of data but also need to consider the velocity of the data. The earth system model of the future in the exascale era, as they incorporate more complex physics at higher resolutions, will be able to analyze more simulation content without having to compromise targeted model throughput.

  10. A flowstream based analytical model for design of parallel plate heatsinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, M.F.; Kang, S.S. [IBM Corp., Rochester, MN (United States); Bar-Cohen, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    An analytical model for calculating thermal and pressure drop performance in compact, laminar flow parallel plate heatsink fins is developed. The flow field in the channel between the fins is modeled as a Hele-Shaw flow. Conduction within the fin is modeled by superposition of a kernel function derived from the method of images. Convective heat transfer coefficients are adapted from existing parallel plate correlations. A pressure drop model function is developed. Using examples of a simple side-inlet-side-outlet (SISE) flow pattern and a complex top-inlet-side-outlet (TISE) flow pattern, the model is shown to handle arbitrary flow stream patterns. TISE model results are in good agreement with experiment and CFD results. Optimization of flow pattern in a TISE heatsink at constant pumping power resulted in a 5% reduction in thermal resistance. The model can solve for anew fin geometry or flow rate in just 5 seconds on a PC platform, making it suitable for parametric design studies.

  11. Collective I/O Tuning Using Analytical and Machine-Learning Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaila, Florin; Balaprakash, Prasanna; Wild, Stefan M.; Kimpe, Dries; Latham, Rob; Ross, Rob; Hovland, Paul


    The ever larger demand of scientific applications for computation and data is currently driving a continuous increase in scale of parallel computers. The inherent complexity of scaling up a computing systems in terms of both hardware and software stack exposes an increasing number of factors impacting the performance and complicating the process of optimization. In particular, the optimization of parallel I/O has become increasingly challenging due to increasing storage hierarchy and well known performance variability of shared storage systems. This paper focuses on model-based autotuning of the two-phase collective I/O algorithm from a popular MPI distribution on the Blue Gene/Q architecture. We propose a novel hybrid model, constructed as a composition of analytical models for communication and storage operations and black-box models for the performance of the individual operations. We perform an in-depth study of the complexity involved in performance modeling including architecture, software stack and noise. In particular we address this challenges of modeling the performance of shared storage systems by building a benchmark that helps synthesizing factors such as topology, file caching, and noise. The experimental results show that the hybrid approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art machine learning approaches and shows a higher robustness to noise, at the cost of a higher modeling complexity

  12. Analytical Solutions for Rumor Spreading Dynamical Model in a Social Network (United States)

    Fallahpour, R.; Chakouvari, S.; Askari, H.


    In this paper, Laplace Adomian decomposition method is utilized for evaluating of spreading model of rumor. Firstly, a succinct review is constructed on the subject of using analytical methods such as Adomian decomposion method, Variational iteration method and Homotopy Analysis method for epidemic models and biomathematics. In continue a spreading model of rumor with consideration of forgetting mechanism is assumed and subsequently LADM is exerted for solving of it. By means of the aforementioned method, a general solution is achieved for this problem which can be readily employed for assessing of rumor model without exerting any computer program. In addition, obtained consequences for this problem are discussed for different cases and parameters. Furthermore, it is shown the method is so straightforward and fruitful for analyzing equations which have complicated terms same as rumor model. By employing numerical methods, it is revealed LADM is so powerful and accurate for eliciting solutions of this model. Eventually, it is concluded that this method is so appropriate for this problem and it can provide researchers a very powerful vehicle for scrutinizing rumor models in diverse kinds of social networks such as Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, LinkedIn and Tuitor.

  13. Analytical method of CIM to PIM transformation in Model Driven Architecture (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kardos


    Full Text Available Information system’s models on higher level of abstraction have become a daily routine in many software companies. The concept of Model Driven Architecture (MDA published by standardization body OMG1 since 2001 has become a concept for creation of software applications and information systems. MDA specifies four levels of abstraction: top three levels are created as graphical models and the last one as implementation code model. Many research works of MDA are focusing on the lower levels and transformations between each other. The top level of abstraction, called Computation Independent Model (CIM and its transformation to the lower level called Platform Independent Model (PIM is not so extensive research topic. Considering to a great importance and usability of this level in practice of IS2Keywords: transformation, MDA, CIM, PIM, UML, DFD. development now our research activity is focused to this highest level of abstraction – CIM and its possible transformation to the lower PIM level. In this article we are presenting a possible solution of CIM modeling and its analytic method of transformation to PIM.

  14. An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.


    Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases

  15. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents. (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie


    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS, respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  16. An analytic linear accelerator source model for GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations. (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Folkerts, Michael; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun


    Recently, there has been a lot of research interest in developing fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation methods on graphics processing unit (GPU) platforms. A good linear accelerator (linac) source model is critical for both accuracy and efficiency considerations. In principle, an analytical source model should be more preferred for GPU-based MC dose engines than a phase-space file-based model, in that data loading and CPU-GPU data transfer can be avoided. In this paper, we presented an analytical field-independent source model specifically developed for GPU-based MC dose calculations, associated with a GPU-friendly sampling scheme. A key concept called phase-space-ring (PSR) was proposed. Each PSR contained a group of particles that were of the same type, close in energy and reside in a narrow ring on the phase-space plane located just above the upper jaws. The model parameterized the probability densities of particle location, direction and energy for each primary photon PSR, scattered photon PSR and electron PSR. Models of one 2D Gaussian distribution or multiple Gaussian components were employed to represent the particle direction distributions of these PSRs. A method was developed to analyze a reference phase-space file and derive corresponding model parameters. To efficiently use our model in MC dose calculations on GPU, we proposed a GPU-friendly sampling strategy, which ensured that the particles sampled and transported simultaneously are of the same type and close in energy to alleviate GPU thread divergences. To test the accuracy of our model, dose distributions of a set of open fields in a water phantom were calculated using our source model and compared to those calculated using the reference phase-space files. For the high dose gradient regions, the average distance-to-agreement (DTA) was within 1 mm and the maximum DTA within 2 mm. For relatively low dose gradient regions, the root-mean-square (RMS) dose difference was within 1.1% and the maximum

  17. Exploring magnetized liner inertial fusion with a semi-analytic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, R. D.; Slutz, S. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Harding, E. C.; Awe, T. J.; Rovang, D. C.; Hahn, K. D.; Martin, M. R.; Cochrane, K. R.; Peterson, K. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Porter, J. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others


    In this paper, we explore magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] using a semi-analytic model [R. D. McBride and S. A. Slutz, Phys. Plasmas 22, 052708 (2015)]. Specifically, we present simulation results from this model that: (a) illustrate the parameter space, energetics, and overall system efficiencies of MagLIF; (b) demonstrate the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated; (c) explore some of the recent experimental results of the MagLIF program at Sandia National Laboratories [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)]; (d) highlight the experimental challenges presently facing the MagLIF program; and (e) demonstrate how increases to the preheat energy, fuel density, axial magnetic field, and drive current could affect future MagLIF performance.

  18. Analytical solution of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer model based on macrolayer (United States)

    Danish, Mohd; Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.


    In the present work, a transient heat conduction model has been developed for heat transfer through macrolayer in nucleate regime of pool boiling. The developed heat transfer model was solved analytically (Laplace Transform) using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The influence of macrolayer thickness, wall superheat, and time on conduction heat flux has been predicted. The average conduction heat flux as a function of wall superheat and macrolayer thickness has also been predicted. The findings of the study have been compared with experimental results, and they are in reasonable agreement. For higher values of wall superheat, which correspond to nucleate pool boiling, predicted results agree with experimental data. Findings also substantiate the assertion that heat conduction across the macrolayer constitutes the major mode of heat transfer from the heated wall to the boiling liquid in the macrolayer regime of pool boiling.

  19. Optical measurements and analytical modeling of magnetic field generated in a dieletric target (United States)

    Yafeng, BAI; Shiyi, ZHOU; Yushan, ZENG; Yihan, LIANG; Rong, QI; Wentao, LI; Ye, TIAN; Xiaoya, LI; Jiansheng, LIU


    Polarization rotation of a probe pulse by the target is observed with the Faraday rotation method in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid target. The rotation of the polarization plane of the probe pulse may result from a combined action of fused silica and diffused electrons. After the irradiation of the main pulse, the rotation angle changed significantly and lasted ∼2 ps. These phenomena may imply a persistent magnetic field inside the target. An analytical model is developed to explain the experimental observation. The model indicates that a strong toroidal magnetic field is induced by an energetic electron beam. Meanwhile, an ionization channel is observed in the shadowgraph and extends at the speed of light after the irradiation of the main beam. The formation of this ionization channel is complex, and a simple explanation is given.

  20. Description of Guava Osmotic Dehydration Using a Three-Dimensional Analytical Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available The mass migrations during osmotic dehydration of guava were studied. Parallelepiped shaped slices were dipping in syrup of distilled water and sucrose with two concentrations and two temperatures. It was supposed that a three-dimensional diffusion model with boundary condition of the first kind satisfactorily describes the mass migrations and that the volume and effective mass diffusivities can be assumed constant during the process. The effective mass diffusivities were determined by coupling the three-dimensional analytical solution of the diffusion equation with an optimizer based on the inverse method. The proposed model well described the kinetics of water and sucrose migrations and enabled determining the mass distributions (water and sucrose within the product at any instant.

  1. Analytical solution of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer model based on macrolayer (United States)

    Danish, Mohd; Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.


    In the present work, a transient heat conduction model has been developed for heat transfer through macrolayer in nucleate regime of pool boiling. The developed heat transfer model was solved analytically (Laplace Transform) using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The influence of macrolayer thickness, wall superheat, and time on conduction heat flux has been predicted. The average conduction heat flux as a function of wall superheat and macrolayer thickness has also been predicted. The findings of the study have been compared with experimental results, and they are in reasonable agreement. For higher values of wall superheat, which correspond to nucleate pool boiling, predicted results agree with experimental data. Findings also substantiate the assertion that heat conduction across the macrolayer constitutes the major mode of heat transfer from the heated wall to the boiling liquid in the macrolayer regime of pool boiling.

  2. Mechanical-Stress Analytical Modeling for the Design of Coils in Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellan D.


    Full Text Available Modern electrical-power systems are often exploited for transmitting high-frequency carrier signals for communications purposes. Series-connected air-core coils represent the fundamental component allowing such applications by providing a proper filtering in the frequency domain. They must be designed, however, to withstand also the line short-circuit current. When a high-magnitude current flows through a coil, strong mechanical stresses are produced within the conductor, leading to possible damage of the coil. In this paper, an approximate analytical model is derived for the relationship between the maximum mechanical stress and the electrical/geometrical parameters of the coil. Such a model provides the guidelines for a fast and safe coil design, whereas numerical simulations are only needed for the design refinement. The presented approach can be extended to other applications such as, for example, the mechanical stress resulting from the inrush currents in the coils of power transformers.

  3. Analytical modeling of coupled flow and geomechanics for vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ruifei


    Full Text Available The mathematical model of coupled flow and geomechanics for a vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs was established. The analytical modeling of unidirectional flow and radial flow was achieved by Laplace transforms and integral transforms. The results show that uncoupled flow would lead to an overestimate in performance of a vertical fractured well, especially in the later stage. The production rate decreases with elastic modulus because porosity and permeability decrease accordingly. Drawdown pressure should be optimized to lower the impact of coupled flow and geomechanics as a result of permeability decreasing. Production rate increases with fracture half-length significantly in the initial stage and becomes stable gradually. This study could provide a theoretical basis for effective development of tight gas reservoirs.

  4. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  5. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom


    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at z ≈ 0. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. We find that at z ≤ 2, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses M* 109.5 M⊙ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of ≈2 tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of how SA models treat the effect of baryonic self-gravity on the underlying dark matter. The treatment of gas flows in the models needs to be revised based on detailed comparison with observations to understand in particular the evolution of the stellar mass-metallicity relation.

  6. Verification of Compartmental Epidemiological Models using Metamorphic Testing, Model Checking and Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL


    Compartmental models in epidemiology are widely used as a means to model disease spread mechanisms and understand how one can best control the disease in case an outbreak of a widespread epidemic occurs. However, a significant challenge within the community is in the development of approaches that can be used to rigorously verify and validate these models. In this paper, we present an approach to rigorously examine and verify the behavioral properties of compartmen- tal epidemiological models under several common modeling scenarios including birth/death rates and multi-host/pathogen species. Using metamorphic testing, a novel visualization tool and model checking, we build a workflow that provides insights into the functionality of compartmental epidemiological models. Our initial results indicate that metamorphic testing can be used to verify the implementation of these models and provide insights into special conditions where these mathematical models may fail. The visualization front-end allows the end-user to scan through a variety of parameters commonly used in these models to elucidate the conditions under which an epidemic can occur. Further, specifying these models using a process algebra allows one to automatically construct behavioral properties that can be rigorously verified using model checking. Taken together, our approach allows for detecting implementation errors as well as handling conditions under which compartmental epidemiological models may fail to provide insights into disease spread dynamics.

  7. Analytical modeling of the statistical properties of the contrast of large-scale irregularities of the ionosphere (United States)

    Vsekhsviatskaia, I. S.; Evstratova, E. A.; Kalinin, Iu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.


    An analytical model is proposed for the distribution of variations of the relative contrast of the electron density of large-scale ionospheric irregularities. The model is characterized by nonzero asymmetry and excess. It is shown that the model can be applied to horizontal irregularity scales from hundreds to thousands of kilometers.

  8. Analytical model for out-of-field dose in photon craniospinal irradiation (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J; Jalbout, Wassim; Howell, Rebecca M; Khater, Nabil; Geara, Fady; Homann, Kenneth; Newhauser, Wayne D


    Introduction The prediction of late effects after radiotherapy in organs outside a treatment field requires accurate estimations of out-of-field dose. However, out-of-field dose is not calculated accurately by commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs). The purpose of this study was to develop and test an analytical model for out-of-field dose during craniospinal irradiation (CSI) from photon beams produced by a linear accelerator. Materials & Methods In two separate evaluations of the model, we measured absorbed dose for a 6-MV CSI using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed throughout an anthropomorphic phantom and fit the measured data to an analytical model of absorbed dose versus distance outside of the composite field edge. These measurements were performed in two separate clinics—The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MD Anderson) and the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC)—using the same phantom but different linear accelerators and TPSs commissioned for patient treatments. The measurement at AUBMC also included in-field locations. Measured dose values were compared to those predicted by TPSs and parameters were fit to the model in each setting. Results In each clinic, 95% of the measured data were contained within a factor of 0.2 and one root mean square deviation of the model-based values. The root mean square deviations of the mathematical model were 0.91 cGy/Gy and 1.67 cGy/Gy in the MD Anderson and AUBMC clinics, respectively. The TPS predictions agreed poorly with measurements in regions of sharp dose gradient, e.g., near the field edge. At distances greater than 1 cm from the field edge, the TPS underestimated the dose by an average of 14% ± 24% and 44% ± 19% in the MD Anderson and AUBMC clinics, respectively. The in-field measured dose values of the measurement at AUBMC matched the dose values calculated by the TPS to within 2%. Conclusions Dose algorithms in TPSs systematically underestimated the actual out

  9. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome. (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina


    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  10. Analytical model for base transit time of a bipolar transistor with Gaussian-doped base (United States)

    Shahidul Hassan, M. M.; Rahman, Touhidur; Khan, Md. Ziaur Rahman


    The present analysis for base transit time τb of a modern high-speed npn bipolar transistor is done for Gaussian-doped base considering doping dependence of mobility, bandgap narrowing effect and carrier velocity saturation effect at base-collector junction. First the minority carrier current density and electron density equations incorporating all the effects are analytically solved. The collector current density Jc and base stored charge Qb are then separately expressed as a function of the injected electron density n(0) in the base in order to find base transit time. The modeling of Jc, Qb and τb are essential for the design of high-speed bipolar transistor. The equations are applicable for low level of injection. The base transit time calculated analytically is compared with numerical results in order to demonstrate the validity of the assumptions made in deriving the equations. The closed form equations for collector current density and base transit time offer a physical insight into device operation and are a useful tool in device design and optimization.

  11. Physical properties and analytical models of band-to-band tunneling in low-bandgap semiconductors (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Hsing; Dang Chien, Nguyen


    Low-bandgap semiconductors, such as InAs and InSb, are widely considered to be ideal for use in tunnel field-effect transistors to ensure sufficient on-current boosting at low voltages. This work elucidates the physical and mathematical considerations of applying conventional band-to-band tunneling models in low-bandgap semiconductors, and presents a new analytical alternative for practical use. The high-bandgap tunneling generates most at maximum field region with shortest tunnel path, whereas the low-bandgap generations occur dispersedly because of narrow tunnel barrier. The local electrical field associated with tunneling-electron numbers dominates in low-bandgap materials. This work proposes decoupled electric-field terms in the pre-exponential factor and exponential function of generation-rate expressions. Without fitting, the analytical results and approximated forms exhibit great agreements with the sophisticated forms both in high- and low-bandgap semiconductors. Neither nonlocal nor local field is appropriate to be used in numerical simulations for predicting the tunneling generations in a variety of low- and high-bandgap semiconductors.

  12. Results and limits in the 1-D analytical modeling for the asymmetric DG SOI MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cobianu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results and the limits of 1-D analytical modeling of electrostatic potential in the low-doped p type silicon body of the asymmetric n-channel DG SOI MOSFET, where the contribution to the asymmetry comes only from p- and n-type doping of polysilicon used as the gate electrodes. Solving Poisson's equation with boundary conditions based on the continuity of normal electrical displacement at interfaces and the presence of a minimum electrostatic potential by using the Matlab code we have obtained a minimum potential with a slow variation in the central zone of silicon with the value pinned around 0.46 V, where the applied VGS voltage varies from 0.45 V to 0.95 V. The paper states clearly the validity domain of the analytical solution and the important effect of the localization of the minimum electrostatic potential value on the potential variation at interfaces as a function of the applied VGS voltage.

  13. Generalization of the Analytical Exponential Model for Homogeneous Reactor Kinetics Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Nahla


    Full Text Available Mathematical form for two energy groups of three-dimensional homogeneous reactor kinetics equations and average one group of the precursor concentration of delayed neutrons is presented. This mathematical form is called “two energy groups of the point kinetics equations.” We rewrite two energy groups of the point kinetics equations in the matrix form. Generalization of the analytical exponential model (GAEM is developed for solving two energy groups of the point kinetics equations. The GAEM is based on the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix. The eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix are calculated numerically using visual FORTRAN code, based on Laguerre’s method, to calculate the roots of an algebraic equation with real coefficients. The eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix are calculated analytically. The results of the GAEM are compared with the traditional methods. These comparisons substantiate the accuracy of the results of the GAEM. In addition, the GAEM is faster than the traditional methods.

  14. Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printing for (Bio)analytical Device Fabrication: Procedures, Materials, and Applications (United States)


    In this work, the use of fused deposition modeling (FDM) in a (bio)analytical/lab-on-a-chip research laboratory is described. First, the specifications of this 3D printing method that are important for the fabrication of (micro)devices were characterized for a benchtop FDM 3D printer. These include resolution, surface roughness, leakage, transparency, material deformation, and the possibilities for integration of other materials. Next, the autofluorescence, solvent compatibility, and biocompatibility of 12 representative FDM materials were tested and evaluated. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of FDM in a number of important applications. In particular, we consider the fabrication of fluidic channels, masters for polymer replication, and tools for the production of paper microfluidic devices. This work thus provides a guideline for (i) the use of FDM technology by addressing its possibilities and current limitations, (ii) material selection for FDM, based on solvent compatibility and biocompatibility, and (iii) application of FDM technology to (bio)analytical research by demonstrating a broad range of illustrative examples. PMID:28628294

  15. High Z neoclassical transport: Application and limitation of analytical formulae for modelling JET experimental parameters (United States)

    Breton, S.; Casson, F. J.; Bourdelle, C.; Angioni, C.; Belli, E.; Camenen, Y.; Citrin, J.; Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Sertoli, M.; JET Contributors


    Heavy impurities, such as tungsten (W), can exhibit strongly poloidally asymmetric density profiles in rotating or radio frequency heated plasmas. In the metallic environment of JET, the poloidal asymmetry of tungsten enhances its neoclassical transport up to an order of magnitude, so that neoclassical convection dominates over turbulent transport in the core. Accounting for asymmetries in neoclassical transport is hence necessary in the integrated modeling framework. The neoclassical drift kinetic code, NEO [E. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion P50, 095010 (2008)], includes the impact of poloidal asymmetries on W transport. However, the computational cost required to run NEO slows down significantly integrated modeling. A previous analytical formulation to describe heavy impurity neoclassical transport in the presence of poloidal asymmetries in specific collisional regimes [C. Angioni and P. Helander, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 124001 (2014)] is compared in this work to numerical results from NEO. Within the domain of validity of the formula, the factor for reducing the temperature screening due to poloidal asymmetries had to be empirically adjusted. After adjustment, the modified formula can reproduce NEO results outside of its definition domain, with some limitations: When main ions are in the banana regime, the formula reproduces NEO results whatever the collisionality regime of impurities, provided that the poloidal asymmetry is not too large. However, for very strong poloidal asymmetries, agreement requires impurities in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime. Within the JETTO integrated transport code, the analytical formula combined with the poloidally symmetric neoclassical code NCLASS [W. A. Houlberg et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 3230 (1997)] predicts the same tungsten profile as NEO in certain cases, while saving a factor of one thousand in computer time, which can be useful in scoping studies. The parametric dependencies of the temperature

  16. Social Sensor Analytics: Making Sense of Network Models in Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Chase P.; Harrison, Joshua J.; Sathanur, Arun V.; Sego, Landon H.; Corley, Courtney D.


    Social networks can be thought of as noisy sensor networks mapping real world information to the web. Owing to the extensive body of literature in sensor network analysis, this work sought to apply several novel and traditional methods in sensor network analysis for the purposes of efficiently interrogating social media data streams from raw data. We carefully revisit our definition of a social media signal from previous work both in terms of time-varying features within the data and the networked nature of the medium. Further, we detail our analysis of global patterns in Twitter over the months of November 2013 and June 2014, detect and categorize events, and illustrate how these analyses can be used to inform graph-based models of Twitter, namely using a recent network influence model called PhySense: similar to PageRank but tuned to behavioral analysis by leveraging a sociologically inspired probabilistic model. We ultimately identify forms of information dissemination via analysis of time series and dynamic graph spectra and corroborate these findings through manual investigation of the data as a requisite step in modeling the diffusion process with PhySense. We hope to sufficiently characterize global behavior in a medium such as Twitter as a means of learning global model parameters one may use to predict or simulate behavior on a large scale. We have made our time series and dynamic graph analytical code available via a GitHub repository and our data are available upon request.

  17. A semi-analytical beam model for the vibration of railway tracks (United States)

    Kostovasilis, D.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.


    The high frequency dynamic behaviour of railway tracks, in both vertical and lateral directions, strongly affects the generation of rolling noise as well as other phenomena such as rail corrugation. An improved semi-analytical model of a beam on an elastic foundation is introduced that accounts for the coupling of the vertical and lateral vibration. The model includes the effects of cross-section asymmetry, shear deformation, rotational inertia and restrained warping. Consideration is given to the fact that the loads at the rail head, as well as those exerted by the railpads at the rail foot, may not act through the centroid of the section. The response is evaluated for a harmonic load and the solution is obtained in the wavenumber domain. Results are presented as dispersion curves for free and supported rails and are validated with the aid of a Finite Element (FE) and a waveguide finite element (WFE) model. Closed form expressions are derived for the forced response, and validated against the WFE model. Track mobilities and decay rates are presented to assess the potential implications for rolling noise and the influence of the various sources of vertical-lateral coupling. Comparison is also made with measured data. Overall, the model presented performs very well, especially for the lateral vibration, although it does not contain the high frequency cross-section deformation modes. The most significant effects on the response are shown to be the inclusion of torsion and foundation eccentricity, which mainly affect the lateral response.

  18. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  19. An analytical solubility model for nitrogen-methane-ethane ternary mixtures (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; Meyerhofer, Peter; Lorenz, Ralph; Lemmon, Eric


    Saturn's moon Titan has surface liquids of liquid hydrocarbons and a thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere, and is a target for future exploration. Critical to the design and operation of vehicles for this environment is knowledge of the amount of dissolved nitrogen gas within the cryogenic liquid methane and ethane seas. This paper rigorously reviews experimental data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of nitrogen/methane/ethane mixtures, noting the possibility for split liquid phases, and presents simple analytical models for conveniently predicting solubility of nitrogen in pure liquid ethane, pure liquid methane, and a mixture of liquid ethane and methane. Model coefficients are fit to three temperature ranges near the critical point, intermediate range, and near the freezing point to permit accurate predictions across the full range of thermodynamic conditions. The models are validated against the consolidated database of 2356 experimental data points, with mean absolute error between data and model less than 8% for both binary nitrogen/methane and nitrogen/ethane systems, and less than 17% for the ternary nitrogen/methane/ethane system. The model can be used to predict the mole fractions of ethane, methane, and nitrogen as a function of location within the Titan seas.

  20. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.