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Sample records for viability measurements demonstrated

  1. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  2. Direct evaluation of myocardial viability and stem cell engraftment demonstrates salvage of the injured myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Ge, Xiaohu; Matsuura, Yuka; Toma, Ildiko; Metzler, Scott; Kooreman, Nigel G; Ramunas, John; Holbrook, Colin; McConnell, Michael V; Blau, Helen; Harnish, Phillip; Rulifson, Eric; Yang, Phillip C

    2015-03-27

    The mechanism of functional restoration by stem cell therapy remains poorly understood. Novel manganese-enhanced MRI and bioluminescence reporter gene imaging were applied to follow myocardial viability and cell engraftment, respectively. Human-placenta-derived amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) demonstrate unique immunoregulatory and precardiac properties. In this study, the restorative effects of 3 AMC-derived subpopulations were examined in a murine myocardial injury model: (1) unselected AMCs, (2) ckit(+)AMCs, and (3) AMC-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (MiPSCs). To determine the differential restorative effects of the AMC-derived subpopulations in the murine myocardial injury model using multimodality imaging. SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice underwent left anterior descending artery ligation and were divided into 4 treatment arms: (1) normal saline control (n=14), (2) unselected AMCs (n=10), (3) ckit(+)AMCs (n=13), and (4) MiPSCs (n=11). Cardiac MRI assessed myocardial viability and left ventricular function, whereas bioluminescence imaging assessed stem cell engraftment during a 4-week period. Immunohistological labeling and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of the explanted myocardium were performed. The unselected AMC and ckit(+)AMC-treated mice demonstrated transient left ventricular functional improvement. However, the MiPSCs exhibited a significantly greater increase in left ventricular function compared with all the other groups during the entire 4-week period. Left ventricular functional improvement correlated with increased myocardial viability and sustained stem cell engraftment. The MiPSC-treated animals lacked any evidence of de novo cardiac differentiation. The functional restoration seen in MiPSCs was characterized by increased myocardial viability and sustained engraftment without de novo cardiac differentiation, indicating salvage of the injured myocardium. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  4. The PLX- α project: demonstrating the viability of spherically imploding plasma liners as an MIF driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.; Gilmore, M.; Samulyak, R.; Stoltz, P.; the PLX-α Team

    2015-11-01

    Under ARPA-E's ALPHA program, the Plasma Liner Experiment-ALPHA (PLX- α) project aims to demonstrate the viability and scalability of spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff, high-implosion-velocity magneto-inertial-fusion (MIF) driver that is potentially compatible with both low- and high- β targets. The project has three major objectives: (a) advancing existing contoured-gap coaxial-gun technology to achieve higher operational reliability/precision and better control/reproducibility of plasma-jet properties and profiles; (2) conducting ~ π / 2 -solid-angle plasma-liner experiments with 9 guns to demonstrate (along with extrapolations from modeling) that the jet-merging process leads to Mach-number degradation and liner uniformity that are acceptable for MIF; and (3) conducting 4 π experiments with up to 60 guns to demonstrate the formation of an imploding spherical plasma liner for the first time, and to provide empirical ram-pressure and uniformity scaling data for benchmarking our codes and informing us whether the scalings justify further development beyond ALPHA. This talk will provide an overview of the PLX- α project as well as key research results to date. Supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program; original PLX construction supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences.

  5. Landscape-based population viability models demonstrate importance of strategic conservation planning for birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...

  6. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could provide additional protection in chlorinated drinking water distribution systems. Copper-Silver (Cu-Ag) ionization treatment systems are commercially available for use in large building water systems to help control the risks from Legionella bacteria. The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize Legionella viability assays and use them to investigate the viability of Legionella bacteria after exposure to water treated with coppper and silver ions. Methods: Log phase L. pneumophila cells were used in all experiments and were generated by incubation at 35C for 48 hours in buffered yeast extract broth. Viability assays used included plating on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar to determine the number of culturable cells and treating cells with propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) followed by quantitative PCR targeting mip gene of L. pneumophila. The qPCR viability assays were optimized using L. pneumophila inactivated by heat treatment at 65C for 60 min. The effectiveness of Cu-Ag ionization treatment was studied by inoculating L. pneumonia at 105 CFU/mL in water collected directly from a building water system that employed this technology and incubat

  7. Spatial and Temporal Measurements of Temperature and Cell Viability in Response to Nanoparticle Mediated Photothermal Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Jon R [ORNL; Rodgers, Amanda [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Harvie, Erica [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Carswell, William [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Torti, Suzy [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Rylander, Christopher [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Rylander, Nichole M [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Nanoparticle enhanced photothermal therapy is a promising alternative to tumor resection. However, quantitative measurements of cellular response to these treatments are limited. This paper introduces a Bimodal Enhanced Analysis of Spatiotemporal Temperature (BEAST) algorithm to rapidly determine the viability of cancer cells in vitro following photothermal therapy alone or in combination with nanoparticles. Materials & Methods: To illustrate the capability of the BEAST viability algorithm, single wall carbon nanohorns were added to renal cancer (RENCA) cells in vitro and time-dependent spatial temperature maps measured with an infrared camera during laser therapy were correlated with post-treatment cell viability distribution maps obtained by cell-staining fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion: The BEAST viability algorithm accurately and rapidly determined the cell viability as function of time, space, and temperature.

  8. Demonstrating the viability and value of community-based monitoring schemes in catchment science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological catchments are complex systems which need to be monitored over time in order to characterise their behaviour on a local level, model, implement mitigation measures and meet policy targets. Despite hydrometric monitoring techniques being well developed, data is often inadequate within rural areas. Local knowledge and experiences are also vital sources of information in this sector but they are not routinely harvested. Long-term evidence is required to provide stakeholders with confidence and innovation is required to fully engage with and inform the public. Citizen science and volunteered geographical information (VGI) projects are encouraging volunteers to participate in crowdsourcing activities and generate new knowledge, but they have not been fully investigated within catchment science. A citizen science approach has therefore been implemented within the 42km2 Haltwhistle Burn catchment (northern England) using effective engagement techniques. This catchment responds rapidly, experiences flash flood events, and like many, it does not benefit from any traditional monitoring equipment. Participation levels confirm that members of the public do want to monitor their local water environment, with flooding being a key driver. Regular 'River Watch' volunteers and passers-by are sharing their knowledge and monitoring rainfall, river levels, water quality parameters, sediment issues, flood events and performance of flood risk management features. This has enabled a variety of low-cost data collection and submission tools to be tested over a two year period. Training has encouraged good quality data to be collected and volunteers are ready to capture meaningful information during unexpected flood events. Although volunteers are capable of collecting quantitative information, photographs and videos are submitted more readily. Twitter has also been used to share real-time observations successfully. A traditional monitoring network has been running in parallel

  9. Do Multiwell Plate High Throughput Assays Measure Loss of Cell Viability Following Exposure to Genotoxic Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based assays in multiwell plates are widely used for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity assessment with different mammalian cell types. Despite their relative ease of performance, such assays lack specificity as they do not distinguish between the cytostatic (reversible/sustained growth arrest and cytotoxic (loss of viability effects of genotoxic agents. We recently reported studies with solid tumor-derived cell lines demonstrating that radiosensitivity as measured by multiwell plate colorimetric (e.g., XTT and fluorimetric (e.g., CellTiter-Blue assays reflects growth arrest but not loss of viability. Herein we report similar observations with cancer cell lines expressing wild-type p53 (A549 lung carcinoma or mutant p53 (MDA–MB-231 breast carcinoma after treatment with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Importantly, we show that treatment of cancer cells with concentrations of cisplatin that result in 50% effect (i.e., IC50 in multiwell plate assays trigger the emergence of growth arrested cells that exhibit highly enlarged morphology, remain viable and adherent to the culture dish, and metabolize the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT to its formazan derivative. The emergence of markedly enlarged viable cells complicates the interpretation of chemosensitivity data obtained with multiwell plate high throughput assays. Relying solely on IC50 values could be misleading.

  10. Lactate as a novel quantitative measure of viability in Schistosoma mansoni drug sensitivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, which is central to Schistosoma survival. Lactate is the end product of glycolysis in human Schistosoma stages and can be detected in the supernatant. We assessed lactate as a surrogate marker for viability in Schistosoma drug screening assays. We thoroughly investigated parameters of lactate measurement and performed drug sensitivity assays by applying schistosomula and adult worms to establish a proof of concept. Lactate levels clearly reflected the viability of schistosomula and correlated with schistosomulum numbers. Compounds with reported potencies were tested, and activities were determined by lactate assay and by microscopy. We conclude that lactate is a sensitive and simple surrogate marker to be measured to determine Schistosoma viability in compound screening assays. Low numbers of schistosomula and the commercial availability of lactate assay reagents make the assay particularly attractive to throughput approaches. Furthermore, standardization of procedures and quantitative evaluation of compound activities facilitate interassay comparisons of potencies and, thus, concerted drug discovery approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E

    2013-12-01

    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities < 1%. Thus, we show that tadpoling provides an easy, inexpensive, space-saving method, amenable to high-throughput screens, for accurately measuring yeast cell viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. New optical sensing technique of tissue viability and blood flow based on nanophotonic iterative multi-plane reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Inbar; Haddad, Menashe; Duadi, Hamootal; Motiei, Menachem; Fixler, Dror

    Physiological substances pose a challenge for researchers since their optical properties change constantly according to their physiological state. Examination of those substances noninvasively can be achieved by different optical methods with high sensitivity. Our research suggests the application of a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, ie, iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE) based on reflectance measurements, for tissue viability examination and gold nanorods (GNRs) and blood flow detection. The IMOPE model combines an experimental setup designed for recording light intensity images with the multi-plane iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for reconstructing the reemitted light phase and calculating its standard deviation (STD). Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. We have demonstrated this new concept of correlating the light phase STD and the optical properties of a substance, using transmission measurements only. This paper presents, for the first time, reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography) to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg).

  13. Combining biofilm matrix measurements with biomass and viability assays in susceptibility assessments of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, Malena Elise; Vuorela, Pia Maarit; Fallarero, Adyary

    2012-09-01

    Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

  14. Measurement of bioimpedance and cell viability during ischemia-reperfusion in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H; Shin, H; Yun, S; Kim, J; Choi, J

    2005-01-01

    During liver resection and liver transplant, liver is damaged by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Until now, there is no approved method to measure or predict the extent of liver injury during the operation. This is the preliminary study to make the real time monitoring system by quantification of bioimpedance and ischemiareperfusion reperfusion injury in liver. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to different periods of 70% partial hepatic ischemia (30, 60, 90 and 120minutes ischemia) and reperfusion. We measured changes of liver tissue bioimpedance (120Hz-100KHz) every five minutes. Cell viability was assessed by metabolic capacity of fatty acid (palmitic acid metabolic rate), ATP content and histological examination (H/E and TUNEL stain) at every 30 minutes interval during ischemia.

  15. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. The viability of the Parenting Representations Interview for assessing and measuring change in parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2015-01-01

    Parents' representations include parents' views of their adolescent, of their own parenting and of the parent-adolescent relationship. Two longitudinal studies of parents and their adolescent sons and daughters support the validity of scales coding mothers in the Parenting Representations Interview-Adolescence (PRI-A). The studies, conducted in Israel during the transition from home to military service, demonstrated that three dimensions derived from the PRI-A: positive representations of adolescents, negative emotionality and inadequate boundaries were associated with adolescents' AAI variables, relatedness-autonomy behaviors with mothers, and with other indicators, such as adolescents' wellbeing, romantic intimacy and individuation. Examining parenting representations could help practitioners pinpoint targets for intervention and evaluate the changes that families go through during psychotherapy, as well as the therapeutic process and its outcomes. The findings support the viability of the PRI for use in attachment based interventions for adolescents.

  17. Measuring Marbles: Demonstrating the Basic Tenets of Measurement Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on activity is described in which students attempt to measure something that they cannot see. In small groups, students estimate the number of marbles in sealed boxes. Next, students' estimates are compared with the actual numbers. Last, values from both the students' estimates and actual numbers are used to explain measurement theory and…

  18. Monitoring change in refractive index of cytosol of animal cells on affinity surface under osmotic stimulus for label-free measurement of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Jin, Sung Il; Kim, Hyung Min; Ahn, Junhyoung; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Eun Gyo; Kim, Min-Gon; Shin, Yong-Beom

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrated that a metal-clad waveguide (MCW)-based biosensor can be applied to label-free measurements of viability of adherent animal cells with osmotic stimulation in real time. After Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293) cells were attached to a Concanavalin A (Con A)-modified sensor surface, the magnitudes of cell responses to non-isotonic stimulation were compared between live and dead cells. The live cells exhibited a change in the refractive index (RI) of the cytosol caused by a redistribution of water through the cell membrane, which was induced by the osmotic stimulus, but the dead cells did not. Moreover, the normalized change in the RI measured via the MCW sensor was linearly proportional to the viability of attached cells and the resolution in monitoring cell viability was about 0.079%. Therefore, the viability of attached animal cells can be measured without labels by observing the relative differences in the RI of cytosol in isotonic and non-isotonic buffers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple method to measure cell viability in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Lotufo, Mônica Andrade; Gagioti, Sonia Maria; Barros, Fabiana de Mesquita; Andrade, Priscila Maria

    2009-01-01

    Resazurin dye has been broadly used as indicator of cell viability in several types of assays for evaluation of the biocompatibility of medical and dental materials. Mitochondrial enzymes, as carriers of diaphorase activities, are probably responsible for the transference of electrons from NADPH + H+ to resazurin, which is reduced to resorufin. The level of reduction can be quantified by spectrophotometers since resazurin exhibits an absorption peak at 600 etam and resorufin at 570 etam wavelengths. However, the requirement of a spectrophotometer and specific filters for the quantification could be a barrier to many laboratories. Digital cameras containing red, green and blue filters, which allow the capture of red (600 to 700 etam) and green (500 to 600 etam) light wavelengths in ranges bordering on resazurin and resorufin absorption bands, could be used as an alternative method for the assessment of resazurin and resorufin concentrations. Thus, our aim was to develop a simple, cheap and precise method based on a digital CCD camera to measure the reduction of resazurin. We compared the capability of the CCD-based method to distinguish different concentrations of L929 and normal Human buccal fibroblast cell lines with that of a conventional microplate reader. The correlation was analyzed through the Pearson coefficient. The results showed a strong association between the measurements of the method developed here and those made with the microplate reader (r(2) = 0.996; p < 0.01) and with the cellular concentrations (r(2) = 0.965; p < 0.01). We concluded that the developed Colorimetric Quantification System based on CCD Images allowed rapid assessment of the cultured cell concentrations with simple equipment at a reduced cost.

  20. A simple method to measure cell viability in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carneiro Borra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resazurin dye has been broadly used as indicator of cell viability in several types of assays for evaluation of the biocompatibility of medical and dental materials. Mitochondrial enzymes, as carriers of diaphorase activities, are probably responsible for the transference of electrons from NADPH + H+ to resazurin, which is reduced to resorufin. The level of reduction can be quantified by spectrophotometers since resazurin exhibits an absorption peak at 600 ηm and resorufin at 570 ηm wavelengths. However, the requirement of a spectrophotometer and specific filters for the quantification could be a barrier to many laboratories. Digital cameras containing red, green and blue filters, which allow the capture of red (600 to 700 ηm and green (500 to 600 ηm light wavelengths in ranges bordering on resazurin and resorufin absorption bands, could be used as an alternative method for the assessment of resazurin and resorufin concentrations. Thus, our aim was to develop a simple, cheap and precise method based on a digital CCD camera to measure the reduction of resazurin. We compared the capability of the CCD-based method to distinguish different concentrations of L929 and normal Human buccal fibroblast cell lines with that of a conventional microplate reader. The correlation was analyzed through the Pearson coefficient. The results showed a strong association between the measurements of the method developed here and those made with the microplate reader (r² = 0.996; p < 0.01 and with the cellular concentrations (r² = 0.965; p < 0.01. We concluded that the developed Colorimetric Quantification System based on CCD Images allowed rapid assessment of the cultured cell concentrations with simple equipment at a reduced cost.

  1. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul-Antoine Moreau; Javier Sabines-Chesterking; Rebecca Whittaker; Siddarth K Joshi; Patrick M Birchall; Alex McMillan; John G Rarity; Jonathan C F Matthews

    2017-01-01

    ... strategies can be improved. Here, for optical direct absorption measurement, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of an absolute advantage per photon probe that is exposed to the absorbative sample...

  2. Cross-disciplinary approaches for measuring parasitic helminth viability and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic worms (helminths within the Phyla Nematoda and Platyhelminthes are responsible for some of the most debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations across the globe. As no subunit vaccine for any parasitic helminth is close to being developed, the frontline strategy for intervention is administration of therapeutic, anthelmintic drugs. Worryingly, and unsurprising due to co-evolutionary mechanisms, many of these worms are developing resistance to the limited compound classes currently being used. This unfortunate reality has led to a renaissance in next generation anthelmintic discovery within both academic and industrial sectors. However, a major bottleneck in this process is the lack of quantitative methods for screening large numbers of small molecules for their effects on the whole organism. Development of methodologies that can objectively and rapidly distinguish helminth viability or phenotype would be an invaluable tool in the anthelmintic discovery pipeline. Towards this end, we describe how several basic techniques currently used to assess single cell eukaryote viability have been successfully applied to parasitic helminths. We additionally demonstrate how some of these methodologies have been adopted for high-throughput use and further modified for assessing worm phenotype. Continued development in this area is aimed at increasing the rate by which novel anthelmintics are identified and subsequently translated into everyday, practical applications.Vermes parasíticos (helmintos dos filos Nematoda e Platelmintos são responsáveis por algumas das doenças infecciosas crônicas e mais debilitantes das populações humana e animal em todo o globo. Já que nenhuma vacina está prestes a ser desenvolvida para nenhum parasita helmíntico, a frente estratégica de intervenção é a administração de drogas terapêuticas anti-helmínticas. De maneira preocupante, e não surpreendente devido a mecanismos

  3. MD1405: Demonstration of forced dynamic aperture measurements at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, Felix Simon; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurements of dynamic aperture become more important for the LHC as it advances into increasingly nonlinear regimes of operations, as well as for the High Luminosity LHC where machine nonlinearities will have a significantly larger impact. Direct dynamic aperture measurements at top energy in the LHC are challenging, and conventional single kick methods are not viable. Dynamic aperture measurements under forced oscillation of AC dipoles have been proposed as s possible alternative observable. A first demonstration of forced DA measurements at injections energy is presented.

  4. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  5. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Sabines-Chesterking, Javier; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick M; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2017-07-24

    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory promises to offer practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, for optical direct absorption measurement, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of an absolute advantage per photon probe that is exposed to the absorbative sample. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with 100% efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to 50% absorption, with a maximum observed factor of improvement of 1.46. This equates to around 32% reduction in the total number of photons traversing an optical sample, compared to any future direct optical absorption measurement using classical light.

  6. The importance of additionality in evaluating the economic viability of motor-related energy efficiency measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zuberi, Muhammad Jibran Shahzad; Patel, Martin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The additionality of an energy efficiency (EE) measure is defined as the supplementary impact of a measure beyond standard practices and autonomous changes. The consideration of additionality and the manner of accounting for it may strongly influence the cost-effectiveness of the EE measures and consequently the decision by policy makers. Many studies on energy efficiency improvement potentials fail to provide transparency regarding the methodology and underlying data (discount rate, lifetime...

  7. Synthesis and anticancer activity of new flavonoid analogs and inconsistencies in assays related to proliferation and viability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Alaina M; Lin, Huimin; Meadows, Gary G; Meier, G Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Flavonoids have been studied intensely for their ability to act as anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-aging agents and are often marketed as supplements related to their anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have primarily focused on the effects of polar natural flavonoids. We examined the activity of novel hydrophobic and lipophilic flavonols against human DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. All flavonol analogs were more active than the naturally occurring flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide and galangin. The most potent analogs were 6.5-fold more active against DU-145 and PC-3 cells than quercetin and fell within the biologically relevant concentration range (low micromolar). We also evaluated the potential toxic effects of flavonol analogs on normal cells, an assessment that has frequently been ignored when studying the anticancer effects of flavonoids. During these analyses, we discovered that various metabolic and DNA staining assays were unreliable methods for assessing cell viability of flavonoids. Flavonoids reduce colorimetric dyes such as MTT and Alamar Blue in the absence of cells. We showed that flavonol-treated prostate cancer cells were stained less intensely with crystal violet than untreated cells at non-toxic concentrations. The trypan blue exclusion assay was selected as a reliable alternative for measuring cell viability.

  8. Drugs with anti-oxidant properties can interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Stenson, Mary; Lawson, Joshua; Abeykoon, Jithma; Patnaik, Mrinal; Wu, Xiaosheng; Witzig, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Cell viability assays such as Cell Titer Blue and Alamar Blue rely on the reducing property of viable cells to reduce the reagent dye to a product which gives a fluorescent signal. The current manufacture-recommended protocols do not take into account the possibility of the reagent substrate being reduced directly to the fluorescent product by drugs with an anti-oxidant property. After suspecting spurious results while determining the cytotoxic potential of a drug of interest (DOI) with known anti-oxidant property against a renal cell cancer (RCC) cell line, we aimed to establish that drugs with anti-oxidant property can indeed cause false-negative results with the current protocols of these assays by direct reduction of the reagent substrate. We also aimed to counter the same with a simple modification added to the protocol. Through our experiments, we conclusively demonstrate that drugs with anti-oxidant properties can indeed interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells. A simple modification in the protocol, as elaborated in the manuscript, can prevent spurious results with these otherwise convenient assays.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.18.

  9. Multimodal optical measurement for study of lower limb tissue viability in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Viktor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Makovik, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zharkikh, Elena V.; Potapova, Elena V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Doronin, Alexander A.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-08-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, the challenge of early stage diagnosis and treatment effectiveness monitoring in diabetes is currently one of the highest priorities in modern healthcare. The potential of combined measurements of skin fluorescence and blood perfusion by the laser Doppler flowmetry method in diagnostics of low limb diabetes complications was evaluated. Using Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling, the diagnostic volume and depth of the diagnosis were evaluated. The experimental study involved 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These patients were divided into two groups depending on the degree of complications. The control group consisted of 48 healthy volunteers. The local thermal stimulation was selected as a stimulus on the blood microcirculation system. The experimental studies have shown that diabetic patients have elevated values of normalized fluorescence amplitudes, as well as a lower perfusion response to local heating. In the group of people with diabetes with trophic ulcers, these parameters also significantly differ from the control and diabetes only groups. Thus, the intensity of skin fluorescence and level of tissue blood perfusion can act as markers for various degrees of complications from the beginning of diabetes to the formation of trophic ulcers.

  10. Stable Lobed Mixer With Combustion Demonstrated and Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center collaborated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on an experiment to study the use of lobed mixers to improve the fuel-air mixing process and increase combustion intensity in combustors with minimal pressure loss. This experiment is the first known stable combusting flow studied for this device, and the data show a much faster and much more uniform combustion process than for flat-plate mixers. Several potential benefits may be realized from this study in future combustors, including a reduction in NO_x emissions because of the more uniform temperature distribution. The experiment was done in Lewis' Planar Reacting Shear Layer facility, which was adapted to accept a lobed mixer in addition to the original planar tip. A graduate student at MIT provided the mixer design concept, and Lewis provided the engineering, operations, and research expertise. The experiment used hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures to react with vitiated hot air at 920 K. A flow speed of about 120 m/sec and a speed ratio of 0.5 were used. Flow diagnostics consisted of traversing fine-wire thermocouples and pitot probes for flow mapping. Supplementary fluorescence images were taken with a charged coupled device (CCD) camera to show the location and temporal behavior of the reaction zone. The data showed that the lobed mixer consumed the reactants between 3 to 10 times faster than a corresponding planar shear layer. The figure shows the dramatic difference in the measured temperature distribution with and without the lobed mixer. The increased mixing rate was due to a larger interfacial area as well as to the secondary flow from the streamwise vortices off the tips of the lobes. In addition, the fluorescence images showed that the lobes acted as flame stabilizers.

  11. Contributions of modern measurement theory to measuring executive function in early childhood: An empirical demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Wirth, R J; Blair, Clancy B

    2011-03-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from low-income and African American families. IRT models were applied to a select set of tasks to demonstrate empirically (a) a principled method for item evaluation, including the utility of item characteristic curves; (b) how to explicitly test whether the measurement properties of executive function tasks are invariant across mutually exclusive subgroups of youths; (c) how the precision of measurement of a given task can vary according to underlying child ability; and (d) the utility of using IRT-based versus percentage correct scores. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of developing psychometrically sound and scalable instruments that facilitate the measurement of interindividual differences in intraindividual change of executive function across the early childhood period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional and structural studies on the Neisseria gonorrhoeae GmhA, the first enzyme in the glycero-manno-heptose biosynthesis pathways, demonstrate a critical role in lipooligosaccharide synthesis and gonococcal viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Igor H; Zielke, Ryszard A; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2017-04-01

    Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase, GmhA, is the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of nucleotide-activated-glycero-manno-heptoses and an attractive, yet underexploited, target for development of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We demonstrated that GmhA homologs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis (hereafter called GmhAGC and GmhANM , respectively) were interchangeable proteins essential for lipooligosaccharide (LOS) synthesis, and their depletion had adverse effects on neisserial viability. In contrast, the Escherichia coli ortholog failed to complement GmhAGC depletion. Furthermore, we showed that GmhAGC is a cytoplasmic enzyme with induced expression at mid-logarithmic phase, upon iron deprivation and anaerobiosis, and conserved in contemporary gonococcal clinical isolates including the 2016 WHO reference strains. The untagged GmhAGC crystallized as a tetramer in the closed conformation with four zinc ions in the active site, supporting that this is most likely the catalytically active conformation of the enzyme. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the active site residues E65 and H183 were important for LOS synthesis but not for GmhAGC function in bacterial viability. Our studies bring insights into the importance and mechanism of action of GmhA and may ultimately facilitate targeting the enzyme with small molecule inhibitors. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Nishidate, Izumi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue is highly vulnerable to ischemia/hypoxia, and real-time monitoring of its viability is important. By fiber-based measurements for rat brain, we previously observed a unique triphasic reflectance change (TRC) after a certain period of time after hypoxia. After TRC, rats could not be rescued, suggesting that TRC can be used as an indicator of loss of brain tissue viability. In this study, we investigated this diffuse-reflectance change due to hypoxia in three parts. First, we developed and validated a theoretical method to quantify changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients involved in TRC. Second, we performed charge-coupled-device-based reflectance imaging of the rat brain during hypoxia followed by reoxygenation to examine spatiotemporal characteristics of the reflectance and its correlation with reversibility of brain tissue damage. Third, we made simultaneous imaging and fiber-based measurement of the reflectance for the rat to compare signals obtained by these two modalities. We observed a nontriphasic reflectance change by the imaging, and it was associated with brain tissue viability. We found that TRC measured by the fibers preceded the reflectance-signal change captured by the imaging. This time difference is attributable to the different observation depths in the brain with these two methods.

  14. Tracing Conidial Fate and Measuring Host Cell Antifungal Activity Using a Reporter of Microbial Viability in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jhingran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence can be harnessed to monitor microbial fate and to investigate functional outcomes of individual microbial cell-host cell encounters at portals of entry in native tissue environments. We illustrate this concept by introducing fluorescent Aspergillus reporter (FLARE conidia that simultaneously report phagocytic uptake and fungal viability during cellular interactions with the murine respiratory innate immune system. Our studies using FLARE conidia reveal stepwise and cell-type-specific requirements for CARD9 and Syk, transducers of C-type lectin receptor and integrin signals, in neutrophil recruitment, conidial uptake, and conidial killing in the lung. By achieving single-event resolution in defined leukocyte populations, the FLARE method enables host cell profiling on the basis of pathogen uptake and killing and may be extended to other pathogens in diverse model host organisms to query molecular, cellular, and pharmacologic mechanisms that shape host-microbe interactions.

  15. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  16. Construction and performance measurement of a portable thermoacoustic refrigerator demonstration apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Berhow, Todd J.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis documents the construction and performance measurement of a portable thermoacoustic refrigerator demonstration apparatus. The objective of the portable refrigerator is to graphically display, as a demonstration during lectures, a substantial thermoacoustic cooling power. Within minutes of start up, the apparatus develops frost on a small metal portion of the device. The refrigerator is small and compact and fits into a port...

  17. Measuring worker turnover in long-term care: lessons from the better jobs better care demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Theresa Teta; Kemper, Peter; Brannon, S Diane

    2008-06-01

    Turnover among direct-care workers (DCWs) continues to be a challenge in long-term care. Both policy makers and provider organizations recognize this issue as a major concern and are designing efforts to reduce turnover among these workers. However, there is currently no standardized method of measuring turnover to define the scope of the problem or to assess the effectiveness of interventions. This article draws on our experience of the Better Jobs Better Care Demonstration (BJBC) to explicate some important issues in measuring and interpreting turnover related to interventions designed to improve DCW jobs. We used turnover data from a selected group of BJBC providers (N = 9) to demonstrate some of the measurement issues we uncovered in developing a turnover tracking system for BJBC. We also illustrate how the data elements collected in the tracking system make it possible to construct measures that are useful at both policy and practice levels. Differences in definitions of turnover and the data elements used to construct the measure can have large effects on turn over rates, how they are used, and what they mean. Policy makers, researchers, and managers who need comparative turnover information to address the impending demand for DCWs should be aware that turnover measures differ, and they should take steps to ensure that measures they use have common definitions and data elements.

  18. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  19. Demonstration of the two-chamber approach for high-voltage measurements using collinear laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Elisa; Ullmann, Johannes; Frömmgen, Nadja; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Kaufmann, Simon; Krieger, Andreas; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2014-06-01

    An electronic measurement of high-voltages of several ten kV with accuracy as required for precision experiments is currently only feasible using highly sophisticated voltage dividers. Collinear laser spectroscopy can provide a direct and precise measurement of high-voltages using the Doppler shift of accelerated ions. Although proposed already in 1982, a measurement with relative accuracy better than 10-4 was not reported so far. To improve this accuracy, a dedicated new setup for high-voltage measurements will be installed at the Technische Universität Darmstadt. A two-chamber approach will be used to remove uncertainties due to the insufficiently known starting potential inside the ion source. Here we present a demonstration of the pump-and-probe technique performed in preparatory studies at the TRIGA-LASER experiment in Mainz.

  20. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  1. Fast Cycled Magnet demonstrator program at CERN: Instrumentation and measurement campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G; Borgnolutti, F; Bottura, L; Datskov, V; Deferne, G; Feuvrier, J; Fiscarelli, L; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Roger, V

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to develop economical magnets for an upgrade of the LHC injector complex, CERN started an R&D program on superconducting Fast Cycled Magnets (FCM) in 2009. One of the challenges in this program was to develop a test station, which started working in summer 2012 when the FCM dipole demonstrator was tested. The magnet contains several important features, like forced-flow cooling of supercritical He and it has a protection scheme based direct voltage measurement with co-wound voltage tap wires. In this paper we report on the cryogenic and powering requirements and operation, the quench protection system, the temperature and mechanical measurements. The functioning of the test station and instrumentation are evaluated and we will discuss the measurements on a detailed level.

  2. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Choi, Ik-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton's laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS) with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  3. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  4. Recovery of autonomic nervous activity after myocardial infarction demonstrated by short-term measurements of SDNN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study serial measurement of SDNN (standard deviation of the mean of qualified NN-interval) in short intervals was used to assess HRV changes after AMI, and det......OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study serial measurement of SDNN (standard deviation of the mean of qualified NN-interval) in short intervals was used to assess HRV changes after AMI......, and determine the role of these as independent risk factors compared to clinical, arrhythmic, ischemic and anamnestic variables. Measurements from a normal healthy middle-aged male population were used as reference (n = 63). METHODS: SDNN from a five-minute period during day and night-time, respectively......, was examined in 103 patients 1 week (n = 54), 1 month (n = 72) and 12-16 months (n = 54) after infarction. RESULTS: Day SDNN did not change during one-and-a-half years after AMI, and was significantly reduced compared with healthy males. Night SDNN, low after 1 week, with recovery 1 month after AMI...

  5. An inter-laboratory comparison of urinary 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid measurement demonstrates good reproducibility between laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Brian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers have been used extensively in clinical studies to assess toxicant exposure in smokers and non-smokers and have recently been used in the evaluation of novel tobacco products. The urinary metabolite 3-HPMA, a metabolite of the major tobacco smoke toxicity contributor acrolein, is one example of a biomarker used to measure exposure to tobacco smoke. A number of laboratories have developed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS based methods to measure urinary 3-HPMA; however, it is unclear to what extent the data obtained by these different laboratories are comparable. Findings This report describes an inter-laboratory comparison carried out to evaluate the comparability of 3-HPMA measurement between four laboratories. A common set of spiked and authentic smoker and non-smoker urine samples were used. Each laboratory used their in-house LC-MS/MS method and a common internal standard. A comparison of the repeatability ('r', reproducibility ('R', and coefficient of variation for 3-HPMA demonstrated that within-laboratory variation was consistently lower than between-laboratory variation. The average inter-laboratory coefficient of variation was 7% for fortified urine samples and 16.2% for authentic urine samples. Together, this represents an inter-laboratory variation of 12.2%. Conclusion The results from this first inter-laboratory comparison for the measurement of 3-HPMA in urine demonstrate a reasonably good consensus between laboratories. However, some consistent measurement biases were still observed between laboratories, suggesting that additional work may be required to further reduce the inter-laboratory coefficient of variation.

  6. Developing a research and practice tool to measure walkability: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Macaulay, Gus; Middleton, Nick; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Butterworth, Iain; Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Roberts, Rebecca; Christian, Hayley

    2014-12-01

    Growing evidence shows that higher-density, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly neighbourhoods encourage active transport, including transport-related walking. Despite widespread recognition of the benefits of creating more walkable neighbourhoods, there remains a gap between the rhetoric of the need for walkability and the creation of walkable neighbourhoods. Moreover, there is little objective data to benchmark the walkability of neighbourhoods within and between Australian cities in order to monitor planning and design intervention progress and to assess built environment and urban policy interventions required to achieve increased walkability. This paper describes a demonstration project that aimed to develop, trial and validate a 'Walkability Index Tool' that could be used by policy makers and practitioners to assess the walkability of local areas; or by researchers to access geospatial data assessing walkability. The overall aim of the project was to develop an automated geospatial tool capable of creating walkability indices for neighbourhoods at user-specified scales. The tool is based on open-source software architecture, within the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN) framework, and incorporates key sub-component spatial measures of walkability (street connectivity, density and land use mix). Using state-based data, we demonstrated it was possible to create an automated walkability index. However, due to the lack of availability of consistent of national data measuring land use mix, at this stage it has not been possible to create a national walkability measure. The next stage of the project is to increase useability of the tool within the AURIN portal and to explore options for alternative spatial data sources that will enable the development of a valid national walkability index. AURIN's open-source Walkability Index Tool is a first step in demonstrating the potential benefit of a tool that could measure walkability across Australia. It

  7. First Airborne Lidar Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Applying the MERLIN Demonstrator CHARM-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amediek, Axel; Büdenbender, Christian; Ehret, Gerhard; Fix, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Kiemle, Chritstoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    2016-04-01

    CHARM-F is the new airborne four-wavelengths lidar for simultaneous soundings of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Due to its high technological conformity it is also a demonstrator for MERLIN, the French-German satellite mission providing a methane lidar. MERLIN's Preliminary Design Review was successfully passed recently. The launch is planned for 2020. First CHARM-F measurements were performed in Spring 2015 onboard the German research aircraft HALO. The aircraft's maximum flight altitude of 15 km and special features of the lidar, such as a relatively large laser ground spot, result in data similar to those obtained by a spaceborne system. The CHARM-F and MERLIN lidars are designed in the IPDA (integrated path differential absorption) configuration using short double pulses, which gives column averaged gas mixing ratios between the system and ground. The successfully completed CHARM-F flight measurements provide a valuable dataset, which supports the retrieval algorithm development for MERLIN notably. Furthermore, the dataset allows detailed analyses of measurement sensitivities, general studies on the IPDA principle and on system design questions. These activities are supported by another instrument onboard the aircraft during the flight campaign: a cavity ring down spectrometer, providing in-situ data of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor with high accuracy and precision, which is ideal for validation purposes of the aircraft lidar. For the near future, detailed characterizations of CHARM-F are planned, further support of the MERLIN design, as well as the scientific aircraft campaign CoMet.

  8. Characterization and demonstration results of a SQUID magnetometer system developed for geomagnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, J.; Miyamoto, M.; Kawabata, M.; Nosé, M.; Haruta, Y.; Uehara, G.

    2017-08-01

    We characterized a low temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system developed for high-sensitivity geomagnetic field measurement, and demonstrated the detection of weak geomagnetic signals. The SQUID magnetometer system is comprised of three-axis SQUID magnetometers housed in a glass fiber reinforced plastic cryostat, readout electronics with flux locked loop (FLL), a 24-bit data logger with a global positioning system and batteries. The system noise was approximately 0.2 pT √Hz- 1/2 in the 1-50 Hz frequency range. This performance was determined by including the thermal noise and the shielding effect of the copper shield, which covered the SQUID magnetometers to eliminate high-frequency interference. The temperature drift of the system was ˜0.8 pT °C- 1 in an FLL operation. The system operated for a month using 33 l liquid helium. Using this system, we performed the measurements of geomagnetic field in the open-air, far away from the city. The system could detect weak geomagnetic signals such as the Schumann resonance with sixth harmonics, and the ionospheric Alfvén resonance appearing at night, for the north-south and east-west components of the geomagnetic field. We confirm that the system was capable of high-sensitivity measurement of the weak geomagnetic activities.

  9. Field measurements demonstrate distinct initiation and cessation thresholds governing aeolian sediment transport flux

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Raleigh L

    2016-01-01

    Wind-blown sand and dust transport models depend sensitively on selection of the threshold wind stress. However, the coexistence of distinct "fluid" and "impact" thresholds for the respective initiation and cessation of aeolian saltation, which is suggested by laboratory and numerical experiments, produces ambiguity in wind-driven transport predictions. Based on comprehensive high-frequency field saltation measurements, we provide the first field-based demonstration of distinct fluid and impact thresholds, and we determine the respective importance of these thresholds for modeling wind-blown sediment flux. We show that statistically-determined "effective" threshold stress decreases linearly with the fraction of time that saltation is active. As saltation activity increases, potential threshold crossings are increasingly governed by impact threshold, whose value is only 80% of fluid threshold shear velocity. Though both fluid and impact thresholds are likely important for high-frequency saltation prediction, w...

  10. Occupancy measurement in building: A litterature review, application on an energy efficiency research demonstrated building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caucheteux A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the energy efficiency of buildings and its confrontation with the current Building Energy Simulations now faces knowledge of what is commonly called “occupancy”. This work has been made in order to implement a monitoring system on a research demonstrator building at DLRCA in Angers (France. The goals were first to know the occupancy as input data of models but also to build occupancy models. Occupancy can be defined as all the action of occupants that affect building energy efficiency. The chosen monitoring deals with its presence, lightning, windows opening and internal gains. It seems that the use of an Infra- red detector allows a accuracy of 5 min in the detection of presence. The use of dry contact sensors allows the detection of five different rates of slide windows opening that can affect temperature decrease. Light sensors seem to be efficient to detect artificial lighting states when correctly configured.

  11. HYPOTrace: image analysis software for measuring hypocotyl growth and shape demonstrated on Arabidopsis seedlings undergoing photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Uilecan, Ioan Vlad; Assadi, Amir H; Kozmik, Christine A; Spalding, Edgar P

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of time series of images can quantify plant growth and development, including the effects of genetic mutations (phenotypes) that give information about gene function. Here is demonstrated a software application named HYPOTrace that automatically extracts growth and shape information from electronic gray-scale images of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Key to the method is the iterative application of adaptive local principal components analysis to extract a set of ordered midline points (medial axis) from images of the seedling hypocotyl. Pixel intensity is weighted to avoid the medial axis being diverted by the cotyledons in areas where the two come in contact. An intensity feature useful for terminating the midline at the hypocotyl apex was isolated in each image by subtracting the baseline with a robust local regression algorithm. Applying the algorithm to time series of images of Arabidopsis seedlings responding to light resulted in automatic quantification of hypocotyl growth rate, apical hook opening, and phototropic bending with high spatiotemporal resolution. These functions are demonstrated here on wild-type, cryptochrome1, and phototropin1 seedlings for the purpose of showing that HYPOTrace generated expected results and to show how much richer the machine-vision description is compared to methods more typical in plant biology. HYPOTrace is expected to benefit seedling development research, particularly in the photomorphogenesis field, by replacing many tedious, error-prone manual measurements with a precise, largely automated computational tool.

  12. Multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy : experimental demonstration and potential applications for living cell measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Galland, Rémi; Kloster, Meike; Herbomel, Gaetan; Destaing, Olivier; Balland, Martial; Souchier, Catherine; Usson, Yves; Derouard, Jacques; Wang, Irène; Delon, Antoine; 10.2741/e263

    2011-01-01

    We report, for the first time, a multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mFCS) technique which allows parallel measurements at different locations, by combining a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), with an Electron Multiplying-CCD camera (EM-CCD). The SLM is used to produce a series of laser spots, while the pixels of the EM-CCD play the roles of virtual pinholes. The phase map addressed to the SLM is calculated by using the spherical wave approximation and makes it possible to produce several diffraction limited laser spots, either aligned or spread over the field of view. To attain fast enough imaging rates, the camera has been used in different acquisition modes, the fastest of which leads to a time resolution of 100 $\\mu$s. We qualified the experimental set-up by using solutions of sulforhodamine G in glycerol and demonstrated that the observation volumes are similar to that of a standard confocal set-up. To demonstrate that our mFCS method is suitable for intracellular studies, experiments have...

  13. Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Yajun; Zhang, Labao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zhijun; Wu, Ganhua; Yan, Xiachao; Zhai, Jiquan; Wu, Yang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Chi; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-11-08

    The monitor of sea fogs become more important with the rapid development of marine activities. Remote sensing through laser is an effective tool for monitoring sea fogs, but still challengeable for large distance. We demonstrated a Long-distance Lidar for sea fog with superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), which extended the ranging area to a 180-km diameter area. The system, which was verified by using a benchmark distance measurement of a known island, is applied to the Mie scattering weather prediction Lidar system. The fog echo signal distribution in the range of 42.3∼63.5 km and 53.2∼74.2 km was obtained by the Lidar system. Then the fog concentration and the velocity of the fog were deduced from the distribution, which is consistent with the weather prediction. The height of the sea fog is about two hundred meter while the visibility at this height is about 90 km due to the Earth's radius of curvature. Therefore, the capability of this SNSPD-based Lidar was close to the theoretical limit for sea fog measurements for extremely high signal-to-noise ratio of SNSPD.

  14. Towards measuring the semantic capacity of a physical medium demonstrated with elementary cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The organic code concept and its operationalization by molecular codes have been introduced to study the semiotic nature of living systems. This contribution develops further the idea that the semantic capacity of a physical medium can be measured by assessing its ability to implement a code as a contingent mapping. For demonstration and evaluation, the approach is applied to a formal medium: elementary cellular automata (ECA). The semantic capacity is measured by counting the number of ways codes can be implemented. Additionally, a link to information theory is established by taking multivariate mutual information for quantifying contingency. It is shown how ECAs differ in their semantic capacities, how this is related to various ECA classifications, and how this depends on how a meaning is defined. Interestingly, if the meaning should persist for a certain while, the highest semantic capacity is found in CAs with apparently simple behavior, i.e., the fixed-point and two-cycle class. Synergy as a predictor for a CA's ability to implement codes can only be used if context implementing codes are common. For large context spaces with sparse coding contexts synergy is a weak predictor. Concluding, the approach presented here can distinguish CA-like systems with respect to their ability to implement contingent mappings. Applying this to physical systems appears straight forward and might lead to a novel physical property indicating how suitable a physical medium is to implement a semiotic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM...Performance Report 1 January 2013 – 1 January 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine...regulations. Evidently, it is imperative that accurate and reliable aircraft turbine engine measurement techniques are developed for total (volatile

  16. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  17. Appropriate Measures of Productivity and Output for the Evaluation of Transit Demonstration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Output and productivity, two economic concepts that have important applications in the evaluation of transportation demonstrations, are discussed in this paper. The focus of these discussions is on how the terms' typical definitions in transportation...

  18. 21 CFR 320.23 - Basis for measuring in vivo bioavailability or demonstrating bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demonstrating bioequivalence. 320.23 Section 320.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.23 Basis for...

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  20. Demonstrating Tools and Results of a Measurement Campaign for Indoor GPS Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We demo raw measurements and results from a measurement campaign which show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS availability is good in many buildings with standard material walls...... and roofs: The root mean squared accuracy of the measured positions is below five meters in wooden buildings and below ten meters in most of the investigated brick and concrete buildings. Lower accuracies, where observed, can be linked to either low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad...

  1. Stress Measurements on Blair High School Gymnasium: A Demonstration of Space Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastel, Dean

    1966-01-01

    This Report describes an actual demonstration of transfer to non-space use of technologies developed for space programs applications. Techniques used in assessing static and dynamic characteristics of the Blair High School gymnasium involved data acquisition by continuous scanning of strain gauge data acquired over a time of wide-temperature range, and analysis by a computer routine developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory five years ago. The advantage of this method over conventional structural testing of uniquely designed structures was proved. More importantly, the process of demonstration was shown to be of great assistance to, and extension of, normal methods of disseminating information of new technologies. It is felt that significant benefit will derive from this improved mode oi concept transfer.

  2. Biases of chamber methods for measuring soil CO2 efflux demonstrated with a laboratory apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Mark Nay; Kim G. Mattson; Bernard T. Bormann

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have historically measured soil CO2 efflux as an indicator of soil microbial and root activity and more recently in calculations of carbon budgets. The most common methods estimate CO2 efflux by placing a chamber over the soil surface and quantifying the amount of CO2 entering the...

  3. Demonstration of over core stress measurement from surface using the Sigra IST tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gray, I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available 7 Core Sample Mechanical Properties Page 8 Stress Measurement Results Page 8 Principal and Tectonic Stresses and Tectonic Strains Page 9 Conclusions Page 11 Acknowledgments Page 11 Table 1 Sample Descriptions... Solutions Page 26 Appendix D Directional Survey Information Page 39 Appendix E Photographs of Each Test Core Page 41 4 5 TABLES Table 1- Sample Descriptions and Material...

  4. Alternate behavioural measurements following a single operant training regime demonstrate differences in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Frequently studies of learning and memory measure a single focal behaviour; however it is likely that any learning paradigm will alter multiple behavioural traits in the same animal. We used video footage of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis), collected immediately prior to both training and testing for memory in response to operant conditioning to reduce aerial respiration, to measure two additional alternate behavioural traits: reducing the size of the pneumostome (breathing orifice) opening and shell tilt to cover the pneumostome. Typically, the training regime used here results in memory to reduce the number of breathing attempts lasting 24 h but not 72 h. However, memory duration when measured using the two additional behavioural traits differed significantly; shell tilt was short-lived lasting less than 1 h following training, whereas the reduction in pneumostome size was still apparent 72 h following training. Therefore, conclusions about the ability of L. stagnalis to retain memory in response to a single type of training regime will differ significantly depending on the focal behavioural trait measured. A significant correlation between the reduction in opening attempts and visible pneumostome area indicated that these behavioural traits are co-specialised, whereas pneumostome opening and shell tilt behaviour varied independently.

  5. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney van der Ree

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a "reconnected" population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable "undivided" population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  6. Mass Measurements Demonstrate a Strong N =28 Shell Gap in Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Ahn, S; Browne, J; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T

    2015-01-01

    We present results from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. We report the first mass measurements of 48Ar and 49Ar and find atomic mass excesses of -22.28(31) MeV and -17.8(1.1) MeV, respectively. These masses provide strong evidence for the closed shell nature of neutron number N=28 in argon, which is therefore the lowest even-Z element exhibiting the N=28 closed shell. The resulting trend in binding-energy differences, which probes the strength of the N=28 shell, compares favorably with shellmodel calculations in the sd-pf shell using SDPF-U and SDPF-MU Hamiltonians.

  7. Waddenfonds Tidal Texel Demonstration project. BlueTEC Texel Tidal Project: Environmental measurement and performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsoni, L.; Nauw, J. J.; Smit, M.; Ober, S.; Nichols, C; Kenkhuis, J.; Schmidt, C.; Buatois, A.; Haas, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the BlueTEC project, this report starts by introducing theBlueTEC tidal energy platform and reviewing the patterns of circulation of theMarsdiep inlet. The energy resource assessment and the site selection for theplatform's deployment are reported. This document analyses di?erent datasetssampled during the project, including current speeds, wave parameters, turbinepower output, platform excursions, and environmental parameters. Most of thedata was measured by instruments ins...

  8. First-time demonstration of measuring concrete prestress levels with metal packaged fibre optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, I.; Fusiek, G.; Perry, M.; Johnston, M.; Saafi, M.; Niewczas, P.; Walsh, M.; Khan, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the first large-scale demonstration of metal packaged fibre Bragg grating sensors developed to monitor prestress levels in prestressed concrete. To validate the technology, strain and temperature sensors were mounted on steel prestressing strands in concrete beams and stressed up to 60% of the ultimate tensile strength of the strand. We discuss the methods and calibration procedures used to fabricate and attach the temperature and strain sensors. The use of induction brazing for packaging the fibre Bragg gratings and welding the sensors to prestressing strands eliminates the use of epoxy, making the technique suitable for high-stress monitoring in an irradiated, harsh industrial environment. Initial results based on the first week of data after stressing the beams show the strain sensors are able to monitor prestress levels in ambient conditions.

  9. The relationship between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplaski, Mary K; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Mullen, Brendan; Garbens, Alaina; Jarvi, Keith A

    2015-05-14

    In humans, sperm DNA fragmentation rates have been correlated with sperm viability rates. Reduced sperm viability is associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation, while conversely high sperm viability is associated with low rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Both elevated DNA fragmentation rates and poor viability are correlated with impaired male fertility, with a DNA fragmentation rate of >30% indicating subfertility. We postulated that in some men, the sperm viability assay could predict the sperm DNA fragmentation rates. This in turn could reduce the need for sperm DNA fragmentation assay testing, simplifying the infertility investigation and saving money for infertile couples. All men having semen analyses with both viability and DNA fragmentation testing were identified via a prospectively collected database. Viability was measured by eosin-nigrosin assay. DNA fragmentation was measured using the sperm chromosome structure assay. The relationship between DNA fragmentation and viability was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. From 2008-2013, 3049 semen analyses had both viability and DNA fragmentation testing. A strong inverse relationship was seen between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates, with r=-0.83. If viability was ≤50% (n=301) then DNA fragmentation was ≥ 30% for 95% of the samples. If viability was ≥75% (n=1736), then the DNA fragmentation was ≤30% for 95% of the patients. Sperm viability correlates strongly with DNA fragmentation rates. In men with high levels of sperm viability≥75%, or low levels of sperm viability≤ 30%, DFI testing may be not be routinely necessary. Given that DNA fragmentation testing is substantially more expensive than vitality testing, this may represent a valuable cost-saving measure for couples undergoing a fertility evaluation.

  10. Measured Infiltration and Ventilation in Manufactured Homes : Residential Construction Demonstration Project, Cycle II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiter, Larry S.

    1992-04-28

    Air infiltration is an important factor in heat loss and indoor air quality; in modern well-insulated homes, it may account for as much as half of the total heat loss. Due to the recent emphasis by home buyers and manufacturers on energy efficiency, tighter homes are being constructed. In the past, it was assumed that natural infiltration would provide adequate ventilation to maintain acceptable indoor air quality, but this is no longer the case in modern energy-efficient homes. This report summarizes the results of infiltration measurements made on two groups of manufactured homes in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area: 131 energy-efficient homes constructed under RCDP, and a control group of 29 homes not participating in energy-efficiency programs.

  11. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  12. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    excavation, 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three parallel circuits - out and back), and the multiple instances of FHX and/or HGHX are all connected in series. The working fluid is 20% by weight propylene glycol in water. Model and design tool development was undertaken in parallel with constructing the houses, installing instrumentation, and monitoring performance for a year. Several detailed numerical models for FHX were developed as part of the project. Essentially the project team was searching for an energy performance model accurate enough to achieve project objectives while also having sufficient computational efficiency for practical use in EnergyPlus. A 3-dimensional, dual-coordinate-system, finite-volume model satisfied these criteria and was included in the October 2011 EnergyPlus Version 7 public release after being validated against measured data.

  13. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    excavation, 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three parallel circuits - out and back), and the multiple instances of FHX and/or HGHX are all connected in series. The working fluid is 20% by weight propylene glycol in water. Model and design tool development was undertaken in parallel with constructing the houses, installing instrumentation, and monitoring performance for a year. Several detailed numerical models for FHX were developed as part of the project. Essentially the project team was searching for an energy performance model accurate enough to achieve project objectives while also having sufficient computational efficiency for practical use in EnergyPlus. A 3-dimensional, dual-coordinate-system, finite-volume model satisfied these criteria and was included in the October 2011 EnergyPlus Version 7 public release after being validated against measured data.

  14. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, M F; Kühn, M.; Petrovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement......This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short......-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dualLidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were...

  15. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay......The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...

  16. Fault Detection and Isolation using Viability Theory and Interval Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaniee Zarch, Majid; Puig, Vicenç; Poshtan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of interval observers and viability theory in fault detection and isolation (FDI). Viability theory develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty. These methods can be used for checking the consistency between observed and predicted behavior by using simple sets that approximate the exact set of possible behavior (in the parameter or state space). In this paper, fault detection is based on checking for an inconsistency between the measured and predicted behaviors using viability theory concepts and sets. Finally, an example is provided in order to show the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  17. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.

  18. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  19. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  20. Extending the viability of sea urchin gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, M A; Oppenheimer, S B

    1995-04-01

    The sea urchin is the material of choice for studying many early developmental events. Methods to extend the viability of sea urchin gametes have not received much attention, but it is well known that the eggs are easily damaged by freezing. This study was designed to extend the viability of Lytechinus pictus eggs and sperm without freezing. Gamete viability measurements were based on relative numbers of fertilized vs unfertilized eggs, percentage fertilization, and on observations of embryonic development. Results indicate that gametes can be stored longer and at lower temperatures than previously described. Sperm were consistently kept viable for at least 12 days with little decrease in viability when stored in glass test tubes or plastic petri dishes and submerged in ice inside a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. In one experiment, sperm stored in glass test tubes on ice remained viable up to 20 days after extraction. Eggs were maintained from 1 to 7 days, rather than the 1 day or so previously reported, when stored in glass test tubes submerged in ice in a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. Results of egg and sperm experiments varied at different times in the season. Such variations may be caused by seasonal cytoplasmic changes, population differences, or the time mature individuals were maintained unfed in aquaria prior to use. Results from this study should be useful for a variety of research, mariculture, and teaching applications in which sea urchin supplies are limited or when the same gamete population is required for subsequent experiments.

  1. Effect of storage temperature on the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fubo; Qi, Shengcai; Lu, Liyan; Xu, Yuanzhi

    2015-02-01

    The viability of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted avulsed teeth. When immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is not possible, the cells should be incubated in a physiological storage medium instantly to maintain their biological activity. The ability of different storage media to preserve PDLF viability has been previously evaluated. However, few studies have showed the effect of temperature on the viability of PDLF cultured with various storage media in vitro. This study was designed to measure PDLF activity by CCK-8 assay to compare the effectiveness at 4, 22 (room temperature), and 37°C under various storage media. Statistical analysis demonstrated that tap water, saline, and saliva decreased cell viability as the storage temperature increased. But the temperature played only a minor role on cell viability when cells were incubated in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), or milk. Within the parameters of this study, it seems that room temperature is adequate for storing the avulsed teeth in HBSS, DMEM, or milk in the extra-alveolar period. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. On-sky demonstration of matched filters for wavefront measurements using ELT-scale elongated laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Bardou, L.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Buey, T.; Centrone, M.; Chemla, F.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Gratadour, D.; Guidolin, I.; Jenkins, D. R.; Marchetti, E.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Reeves, A. P.; Reyes, M.; Rousset, G.; Lombardi, G.; Townson, M. J.; Vidal, F.

    2017-04-01

    The performance of adaptive optics systems is partially dependent on the algorithms used within the real-time control system to compute wavefront slope measurements. We demonstrate the use of a matched filter algorithm for the processing of elongated laser guide star (LGS) Shack-Hartmann images, using the CANARY adaptive optics instrument on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope and the European Southern Observatory Wendelstein LGS Unit placed 40 m away. This algorithm has been selected for use with the forthcoming Thirty Meter Telescope, but until now had not been demonstrated on-sky. From the results of a first observing run, we show that the use of matched filtering improves our adaptive optics system performance, with increases in on-sky H-band Strehl measured up to about a factor of 1.1 with respect to a conventional centre of gravity approach. We describe the algorithm used, and the methods that we implemented to enable on-sky demonstration.

  3. Quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS) platform for absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements: Demonstration with human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Palero, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine relies on accurate measurements of relevant material properties of target absorbers. Here, we present a method for simultaneous measurements of the absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of small volume of liquid scattering and absorbing media using a coupled-integrating sphere system which we refer to as quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS) platform. The derived equations do not require absolute magnitudes of optical energy and pressure values, only calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions is necessary. As a demonstration, measurements with blood samples from various human donors are done at room and body temperatures using an incubator. Measured absorption coefficient values are consistent with known oxygen saturation dependence of blood absorption at 750 nm, whereas measured Grüneisen parameter values indicate variability among five different donors. An increasing Grüneisen parameter value with both hematocrit and temperature is observed. These observations are consistent with those reported in literature.

  4. Development and Demonstration of Measurement-Time Efficient Methods for Impedance Spectroscopy of Electrode and Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Johnson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of impedance-based array devices is hindered by a lack ofrobust platforms and methods upon which to evaluate and interrogate sensors. One aspectto be addressed is the development of measurement-time efficient techniques forbroadband impedance spectroscopy of large electrode arrays. The objective of this workwas to substantially increase the low frequency impedance measurement throughputcapability of a large channel count array analyzer by developing true parallel measurementmethods. The goal was achieved by Fourier transform-based analysis of simultaneouslyacquiredmulti-channel time-based current and voltage data. Efficacy and quantitativeanalysis of the parallel approach at frequencies less than ca. 10 Hz as well as a combinedsequential parallel approach for efficient broadband impedance spectroscopy over 5-orders of magnitude in frequency is demonstrated through complex impedancemeasurement of arrays consisting of up to 100 elements.

  5. Modern prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women: assessing the viability of a measure of modern homonegative attitudes within an Irish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G; Kenny, Paula; Harrington, Aoife

    2005-08-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the gay and lesbian versions of the Modern Homonegativity Scale (MHS-G and MHS-L) in samples of heterosexual Irish university students (Ns=179 and 353). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the MHS-G and MHS-L were unidimensional and factorially distinct from a well-established measure of old-fashioned homonegativity (Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale [ATLG]). Alpha coefficients for both versions of the MHS were good (range = .81 to .86), with 95% confidence intervals suggesting that unsatisfactory levels of scale score reliability (i.e., alpha values modern homonegativity correlated positively with their levels of old-fashioned and modem racism, patriotism, nationalism, religious fundamentalism, social dominance, and perceived political conservatism. The authors also observed a substantial inverse correlation between modern prejudice toward sexual minorities and support for their human rights. Finally, a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that, despite their interrelatedness, modern and old-fashioned homonegativity, particularly as they pertain to gay men, possess differential predictors. Limitations of the current series of studies and the need to conduct further research on attitudes toward sexual minorities within an Irish context are also discussed.

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  7. Large area scanning probe microscope in ultra-high vacuum demonstrated for electrostatic force measurements on high-voltage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Gysin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The resolution in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM, a descendant of atomic force microscopy (AFM, has reached nanometre dimensions, necessary to investigate integrated circuits in modern electronic devices. However, the characterization of conducting or semiconducting power devices with EFM methods requires an accurate and reliable technique from the nanometre up to the micrometre scale. For high force sensitivity it is indispensable to operate the microscope under high to ultra-high vacuum (UHV conditions to suppress viscous damping of the sensor. Furthermore, UHV environment allows for the analysis of clean surfaces under controlled environmental conditions. Because of these requirements we built a large area scanning probe microscope operating under UHV conditions at room temperature allowing to perform various electrical measurements, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy, scanning capacitance force microscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy, and also electrostatic force microscopy at higher harmonics. The instrument incorporates beside a standard beam deflection detection system a closed loop scanner with a scan range of 100 μm in lateral and 25 μm in vertical direction as well as an additional fibre optics. This enables the illumination of the tip–sample interface for optically excited measurements such as local surface photo voltage detection.Results: We present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM measurements before and after sputtering of a copper alloy with chromium grains used as electrical contact surface in ultra-high power switches. In addition, we discuss KPFM measurements on cross sections of cleaved silicon carbide structures: a calibration layer sample and a power rectifier. To demonstrate the benefit of surface photo voltage measurements, we analysed the contact potential difference of a silicon carbide p/n-junction under illumination.

  8. Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used

  9. Design and Implementation of a DSP-Based MIMO System Prototype for Real-Time Demonstration and Indoor Channel Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. Reed

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the Virginia Tech Space-Time Advanced Radio (VT-STAR, a multiple antenna element space-time (ST processing prototype testbed, is presented. The testbed is a research tool for comparing practical and theoretical performance metrics (e.g., throughput, link reliability in different wireless channel conditions. The prototype builds around software-defined radio (SDR concepts on a DSP platform and provides the flexibility to implement various forms of ST techniques. Different components of the system are described in detail, including the software implementation, I/O schemes with custom hardware, and data transfer mechanisms between the DSP and the host PC. Two different example realizations are presented, a real-time demonstration and an offline measurement tool. Finally, some representative measurement results obtained in indoor environments are presented. These results show VT-STAR to be a promising tool for performing MIMO experiments and generating channel measurements that can complement simulation studies in this area.

  10. Rewards of bridging the divide between measurement and clinical theory: demonstration of a bifactor model for the Brief Symptom Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that psychiatric disorders maintain hierarchical associations where general and domain-specific factors play prominent roles (see D. Watson, 2005). Standard, unidimensional measurement models can fail to capture the meaningful nuances of such complex latent variable structures. The present study examined the ability of the multidimensional item response theory bifactor model (see R. D. Gibbons & D. R. Hedeker, 1992) to improve construct validity by serving as a bridge between measurement and clinical theories. Archival data consisting of 688 outpatients' psychiatric diagnoses and item-level responses to the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; L. R. Derogatis, 1993) were extracted from files at a university mental health clinic. The bifactor model demonstrated superior fit for the internal structure of the BSI and improved overall diagnostic accuracy in the sample (73%) compared with unidimensional (61%) and oblique simple structure (65%) models. Consistent with clinical theory, multiple sources of item variance were drawn from individual test items. Test developers and clinical researchers are encouraged to consider model-based measurement in the assessment of psychiatric distress.

  11. HYPOTrace: Image Analysis Software for Measuring Hypocotyl Growth and Shape Demonstrated on Arabidopsis Seedlings Undergoing Photomorphogenesis1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Uilecan, Ioan Vlad; Assadi, Amir H.; Kozmik, Christine A.; Spalding, Edgar P.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of time series of images can quantify plant growth and development, including the effects of genetic mutations (phenotypes) that give information about gene function. Here is demonstrated a software application named HYPOTrace that automatically extracts growth and shape information from electronic gray-scale images of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Key to the method is the iterative application of adaptive local principal components analysis to extract a set of ordered midline points (medial axis) from images of the seedling hypocotyl. Pixel intensity is weighted to avoid the medial axis being diverted by the cotyledons in areas where the two come in contact. An intensity feature useful for terminating the midline at the hypocotyl apex was isolated in each image by subtracting the baseline with a robust local regression algorithm. Applying the algorithm to time series of images of Arabidopsis seedlings responding to light resulted in automatic quantification of hypocotyl growth rate, apical hook opening, and phototropic bending with high spatiotemporal resolution. These functions are demonstrated here on wild-type, cryptochrome1, and phototropin1 seedlings for the purpose of showing that HYPOTrace generated expected results and to show how much richer the machine-vision description is compared to methods more typical in plant biology. HYPOTrace is expected to benefit seedling development research, particularly in the photomorphogenesis field, by replacing many tedious, error-prone manual measurements with a precise, largely automated computational tool. PMID:19211697

  12. Viability and Management Targets of Mediterranean Demersal Fisheries: The Case of the Aegean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tserpes

    Full Text Available Management of the Mediterranean demersal stocks has proven challenging mainly due to the multi-species character of the fisheries. In the present work, we focus on the multi-species demersal fisheries of the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean aiming to study the effects of different management measures on the main commercial stocks, as well as to explore the economic viability of the fisheries depending upon these resources, by means of simulated projections. Utilizing the limited available data, our results demonstrated that, under the current exploitation pattern, the economic viability of the fleets is threatened, particularly if fuel prices increase. Additionally, the biological targets set for the most exploited species, such as hake, will not be met under the current management regime. The projections also showed that the only management scenario under which both resource sustainability and economic viability of the fisheries are ensured is the decrease of fleet capacity in terms of vessel numbers. In this case, however, measures to support the fisheries-dependent communities need to be implemented to prevent the collapse of local economies due to employment decrease. Scenarios assuming selectivity improvements would be also beneficial for the stocks but they showed low economic performance and their application would threaten the viability of the fleets, particularly that of the trawlers.

  13. [Hemodialysis improves the subendocardial viability ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Antonella; Sirico, Maria; Di Micco, Lucia; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    The subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a parameter introduced by Buckberg, represents a non-invasive measure of myocardial perfusion related to left ventricular work. AIM. The aim of this study was to verify if dialysis may determine modifications of SEVR and how these modifications are modulated in the 2-day interdialytic period. METHODS.We studied 54 subjects of mean age 6314 years and receiving dialysis for 3215 months. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, resistant hypertension and peripheral vascular diseases and intradialytic hypotension evidenced during the study dialysis session. Pulse wave velocity and SEVR assessments were performed during the third dialysis session of the week, before (pre-HD) and after (post-HD) dialysis, in 2-day interdialytic period after and at the beginning of the following dialysis session. RESULTS.Dialysis reduces PWV, in particular the tertile with the lowest PWV presents the highest percentage reduction (-26%) compared with the second and the third tertiles. In the same way, dialysis leads to an increase of SEVR and patients in the tertile with the highest SEVR values maintain high SEVR values during dialysis and in the interdialytic period. Patients with severe vascular calcifications present higher PWV value and lower SEVR value. CONCLUSIONS.The results of present study demonstrate that ultrafiltration improves PWV (with a mean reduction of 16%) and SEVR (increase of 13%) and that the severity of vascular calcifications influences the effect of ultrafiltration on these two parameters. More studies are certainly necessary to verify our findings. Considered the higher mortality of patients with higher SEVR, it would be important to understand if new dialytic strategies are needed in patients with higher PVW and lower SEVR values.

  14. Transgenerational effects of maternal and grandmaternal age on offspring viability and performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch Qazi, Margaret C; Miller, Paige B; Poeschel, Penny M; Phan, Mai H; Thayer, Joseph L; Medrano, Christian L

    2017-07-01

    In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence. To test the hypothesis that female senescence has transgenerational effects on offspring viability and development, we measured the effects of maternal age on offspring survival over two generations and under two larval densities in two laboratory strains of flies (Oregon-R and Canton-S). Transgenerational effects of maternal age influence embryonic viability and embryonic to adult viability in both strains. However, the generation causing the effects, and the magnitude and direction of those effects differed by genotype. The effects of maternal age on embryonic to adult viability when larvae are stressed was also genotype-specific. Maternal effects involve provisioning: older females produced smaller eggs and larger offspring. These results show that maternal age has profound, complex, and multigenerational consequences on several components of offspring fitness and traits. This study contributes to a body of work demonstrating that female age is an important condition affecting phenotypic variation and viability across multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Ontario nursing workload demonstration projects: rethinking how we measure, cost and plan the work of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Paré, Mary; Bandurchin, Annabelle

    2010-05-01

    In 2008 the Nursing Secretariat of Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care formed a Nursing Workload Steering Committee to oversee the implementation of three demonstration projects with the objectives: to assess the feasibility of Health Outcomes for Better Information and Care (HOBIC) data as a measure of nursing workload, determine the indicators that best support nurse leaders to measure nursing work and make informed staffing decisions, and develop a model that predicts acute care nursing costs. Three HOBIC scales--activities of daily living (ADLs), continence and fatigue--explained a small amount of the variance in nurse judgment of the amount of nursing time patients require in the first 24 hours of care. Nurses in the study appreciated providing their professional judgment to help estimate the nursing work requirements of patients. The priority and secondary indicators most important for decision-making included medical severity of patients, environmental complexity, nurse experience, patient turnover, nurse-to-patient ratio, cognitive status, infection control, nurse vacancy, predictability of patient types, nursing interventions, patient volumes, co-morbidities, patient self-care abilities, physical and psychosocial functioning, unit type and medical diagnosis. A fairly robust model was developed using existing data sources to estimate nursing input into a patient's costs. The model explained between 69% and 80% of the variation in nursing costs for each patient. In order to effectively measure, plan and cost nursing, we need to determine what nursing is. In the future, recognition of nurses as knowledge workers will require us to consider the many patient and environmental factors that affect the ability of nurses to apply their professional judgment to care for patients.

  16. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; O'Neill, Peggy; Miles, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  17. The viability of perilabyrinthine osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2012-01-01

    Bone remodeling is highly inhibited around the inner ear space, most likely by the anti-resorptive action of the inner ear cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) entering perilabyrinthine bone through the lacuno-canalicular porosity (LCP). This extracellular signaling pathway depends on the viability...

  18. The Smallest R/V: A Small-scale Ocean Exploration Demonstration of Real-time Bathymetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Boston, B.; Maher, S. M.; Sleeper, J. D.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In October 2013, graduate student members of the University of Hawaii Geophysical Society designed a small-scale model research vessel (R/V) that uses sonar to create 3D maps of a model seafloor in real-time. This pilot project was presented to the public at the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology's (SOEST) Biennial Open House weekend. An estimated 7,600 people attended the two-day event, including children and teachers from Hawaii's schools, home school students, community groups, families, and science enthusiasts. Our exhibit demonstrated real-time sonar mapping of a cardboard volcano using a toy size research vessel on a fixed 2D model ship track suspended above a model seafloor. Sound wave travel times were recorded using an unltrasonic emitter/receiver attached to an Arduino microcontroller platform, while the same system measured displacement along the ship track. This data was streamed through a USB connection to a PC running MatLab, where a 3D model was updated as the ship collected data. Our exhibit demonstrates the practical use of complicated concepts, like wave physics and data processing, in a way that even the youngest elementary students are able to understand. It provides an accessible avenue to learn about sonar mapping, and could easily be adapted to talk about bat and marine mammal echolocation by replacing the model ship and volcano. The exhibit received an overwhelmingly positive response from attendees, and has inspired the group to develop a more interactive model for future exhibitions, using multiple objects to be mapped that participants could arrange, and a more robust ship movement system that participants could operate.

  19. Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR veto system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR muon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31 ± 0.17) ×10-9 μ /s/cm2. Demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y)in the 4-keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value for 76Ge ββ(0ν) decay. This is required for tonne-scale germanium-based searches that will probe the inverted-ordering neutrino-mass parameter space for the effective Majorana neutrino mass in ββ(0ν) decay. Show technical and engineering scalability toward a tonne-scale instrument. Perform searches for additional physics beyond the Standard Model, such as dark matter and axions. The MAJORANA Collaboration has designed a modular instrument composed of two cryostats built from ultra-pure electroformed copper, with each cryostat capable of housing over 20 kg of HPGe detectors. The MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR contains 30 kg of detectors fabricated from Ge material enriched to 88% in 76Ge and another 15 kg fabricated from natural Ge (7.8% 76Ge). The modular approach allows us to assemble and optimize each cryostat independently, providing a fast deployment with minimal effect on already-operational detectors.Starting from the innermost cavity, the cryostats are surrounded by a compact graded shield composed of an inner layer of electroformed copper, a layer of commercially sourced C10100 copper, high-purity lead, an active muon veto, borated polyethylene, and pure polyethylene shielding. The cryostats, copper, and lead shielding are enclosed in a radon exclusion box and rest on an over-floor table that has openings for the active muon veto and polyethylene shielding panels situated below the detector. The entire experiment is located in a clean room at the 4850 ft level of SURF. A high

  20. Yeast viability and concentration analysis using lens-free computational microscopy and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Research laboratories and the industry rely on yeast viability and concentration measurements to adjust fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature, and pressure. Beer-brewing processes as well as biofuel production can especially utilize a cost-effective and portable way of obtaining data on cell viability and concentration. However, current methods of analysis are relatively costly and tedious. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, portable, and cost-effective platform for imaging and measuring viability and concentration of yeast cells. Our platform features a lens-free microscope that weighs 70 g and has dimensions of 12 × 4 × 4 cm. A partially-coherent illumination source (a light-emitting-diode), a band-pass optical filter, and a multimode optical fiber are used to illuminate the sample. The yeast sample is directly placed on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor chip, which captures an in-line hologram of the sample over a large field-of-view of >20 mm2. The hologram is transferred to a touch-screen interface, where a trained Support Vector Machine model classifies yeast cells stained with methylene blue as live or dead and measures cell viability as well as concentration. We tested the accuracy of our platform against manual counting of live and dead cells using fluorescent exclusion staining and a bench-top fluorescence microscope. Our regression analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells/mL. This compact and cost-effective yeast analysis platform will enable automatic quantification of yeast viability and concentration in field settings and resource-limited environments.

  1. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions for multiple alleles under viability selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo

    2008-04-01

    Departures of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (HWP) for a single autosomal locus due to viability selection in a random mating population have been studied only for the two-allele case. In this article, the analysis of deviations from HWP due to constant viability selection is extended to multiple alleles. The deviations for an autosomal locus with k alleles are measured by means of k fii fixation indices for homozygotes and k(k-1)/2 fij fixation indices for heterozygotes, and expressions are obtained for these indices (FIS statistics) under the multiallele viability model. Furthermore, expressions for fii and fij when the multiallele polymorphism is at stable equilibrium are also derived and it is demonstrated that the pattern of multiallele Hardy-Weinberg deviations at equilibrium is characterized by a global heterozygote excess and a deficiency of each of the homozygotes. This pattern may be useful for detecting whether a given multiallelic polymorphism is at stable equilibrium in the population due to viability selection. An analysis of Hardy-Weinberg deviations from published data for the three-allele polymorphism at the beta-globin locus in human populations from West Africa is presented for illustration.

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  3. Bupivacaine decreases cell viability and matrix protein synthesis in an intervertebral disc organ model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Vo, Nam V; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Hartman, Robert A; Ngo, Kevin; Choe, So Ra; Witt, William T; Dong, Qing; Lee, Joon Y; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Kang, James D

    2011-02-01

    Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic commonly used for back pain management in interventional procedures. Cytotoxic effects of bupivacaine have been reported in articular cartilage and, recently, in intervertebral disc cell culture. However, the relevance of these effects to discs in vivo remains unclear. This study examines the effect of bupivacaine on disc cell metabolism using an organotypic culture model system that mimics the in vivo environment. To assess the effect of bupivacaine on disc cell viability and matrix protein synthesis using an organotypic model system and to determine whether this anesthetic has toxic effects. Mouse intervertebral discs were isolated and maintained ex vivo in an organotypic culture then exposed to clinically relevant concentrations of bupivacaine, and the impact on disc cell viability and matrix proteoglycan (PG) and collagen syntheses were measured in the presence and absence of the drug. Mouse functional spine units (FSUs) were isolated from the lumbar spines of 10-week-old mice. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Total PG and collagen syntheses were determined by measuring the incorporation of radioactive (35)S-sulfate and (3)H-l-proline into PG and collagen, respectively. Organotypic cultures of mouse FSUs were exposed to different concentrations (0%-0.5%) of bupivacaine for variable amounts of time (0-2 hours). Cell viability within disc tissue was quantified by MTT staining and histologic assay. Matrix protein synthesis was measured by incorporation of radioactive (35)S-sulfate (for PG synthesis) and (3)H-l-proline (for collagen synthesis). Untreated mouse disc organs were maintained in culture for up to 1 month with minimal changes in tissue histology, cell viability, and matrix protein synthesis. Exposure to bupivacaine decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exposure to bupivacaine at concentrations less than or equal to 0.25% did

  4. Microorganism viability influences internal phase droplet size changes during storage in water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGheynst, Jean S; Guo, Hong-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert

    2013-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions provide an alternative for long-term stabilization of microorganisms. Maintaining physical stability of the emulsion and cell viability is critical for large-scale application. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions were prepared with the biolarvacide Lagenidium giganteum and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Physical stability was measured via light scattering measurements of the internal phase droplets and cell viability was measured by plating and enumerating colony forming units. Emulsions were demonstrated to stabilize L. giganteum and C. vulgaris for more than 4 months without refrigeration. Introducing nutrients into the internal phase of W/O emulsions without cells had no significant effect on changes in aqueous phase droplet size dynamics. Internal phase droplet size changes that occurred over time were greater in the presence of cells. Increases in droplet size were correlated with cell death indicating measurement of internal phase droplet size changes may be an approach for monitoring declines in cell viability during storage.

  5. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  6. Demonstration of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements in U-10Mo nuclear fuel foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis [Applied Spectra Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The use of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium directly in U-10Mo fuel foils. The measurements were done on both the flat surface and cross sections of bare and Zr clad U-10Mo fuel foil samples. The results for the depleted uranium content measurements were less than 10% of the accepted U235/238 ratio of 0.0020. Sampling was demonstrated for line scans and elemental mapping over large areas. In addition to the U isotopic ratio measurement, the Zr thickness could be measured as well as trace elemental composition if required. A number of interesting features were observed during the feasibility measurements which could provide the basis for further investigation using this methodology. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using fs-LA-ICP-MS for measuring the U isotopic ratio in U-10Mo fuel foils.

  7. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  8. Reflectance Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  9. Quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS) platform for absorption coefficient and Gruneisen parameter measurements: Demonstration with human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, Y.Y.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilhelmina; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine relies on accurate measurements of relevant material properties of target absorbers. Here, we present a method for simultaneous measurements of the absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of small volume of liquid scattering and absorbing

  10. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  11. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    with vasospastic arterial disease. It implies an underestimation of palmar arch systolic pressure measured indirectly on the fingers. FSP measured under these circumstances may be taken as an estimate of the vascular tone, and can be employed in diagnosis and quantification of vasospastic disorders.......Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...

  12. Field measurements to demonstrate new technology for heat pump systems; Faeltmaetningar foer att demonstrera ny teknik foer vaermepumpsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiljander, Pia; Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lidbom, Peter; Viktorsson, Magnus; Lindahl, Markus; Axell, Monica

    2010-09-15

    Within the frames of this project there are ongoing measurements of five different heat pump facilities used for heating houses and tap water in one-family houses. The measurements started in the first part of 2010 and are supposed to go on for one year. The final result together with analysis and discussions will be presented in a report that will be published in summer 2011. The purpose of the measurements is to present the potential for heat pump technology in order to raise the acceptance of the technology and through raised acceptance increase the implementation of the technology in new markets. The project also has its purpose in usage of the results and conclusions as basic data and guidelines for constructors and assembling fitters. The project is not intended to grade individual heat pumps from various suppliers in regard to efficiency. A field study does not adapt well for comparison between different heat pumps since there are too many variables (outdoor climate, usage pattern, construction of the building, installation solution, kind of heat pump system) that affect the performance of the heating system. Results from field studies should therefore never be used for comparison. This kind of work should be carried out in a laboratory where variables that affect the result can be controlled. The project started with a mapping of the Swedish heat pump market in order to obtain a base when choosing the different heat pump facilities that should be included in the field study. The selection was made together with the heat pump manufacturers with focus on selecting the best possible technology and to include different technologies. Another important criterion for the selection was to find households that agreed to participate in the study. Included in the study are two buildings with geothermal heating, one with geothermal heating combined with solar panels, one brine/water heat pump connected to a ground storage combined with solar panels and one building

  13. Comparison of Simulations and Offshore Measurement Data of a Combined Floating Wind and Wave Energy Demonstration Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software WAMIT. The main focus of the comparison is on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads, and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions. Finally, challenges...

  14. Malthus, Boserup and population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneuil, N

    1994-01-01

    The Malthus-Boserup explanatory framework is revisited from the point of view of viability theory. Instead of imposing a univocal relationship between population pressure and level of knowledge, the way technology will change is not determined, it is only constrained. This leads to regard any situation as associated to a set of reachable futures. When no possibility is left for systems to avoid extinction, systems are no longer viable. Hence, the control-phase space can be divided into regions corresponding to gradual danger or security. This point of view allows the introduction of ideas such as incentives to create or to use new knowledge, gives a role to the threatening power of Malthusian checks, and leaves space for a specific variety of behaviors. The Boserupian theme then appears indirectly, emerging from the constraints imposed by the inertia of technological change.

  15. Viability of telework at PROCEMPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, Maria Amelia de Mesquita

    2003-02-01

    At the end of the 20th century, telework appears as one of the modalities of flexible work, which is related to new organizational structures as well as to increasing use of technology. It revolutionizes the traditional ways of performing work. Its implementation creates a number of questions to be answered by the organizations and the individuals involved. This article presents a case study on the viability of implementing telework at Procempa (The Data Processing Company of the City of Porto Alegre). The case study analyzes the technical, organizational, psychological, legal, and labor union dimensions. As a result of this study, we can identify the organization's stage of readiness for telework, the conditions under which it would be implemented, and the specific issues of an implementation.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  17. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2017-01-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earths surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil.

  18. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...

  19. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Green

    Full Text Available Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies.

  20. Evaluation of the viability of HL60 cells in contact with commonly used microchip materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, F.; ter Braak, Paulus Martinus; le Gac, Severine; Lüttge, Regina; Andersson, Helene; Vermes, I.; van den Berg, Albert; Jensen, K.F; Han, J.; Harrison, D.J.; Voldman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents beneficial data when deciding to perform cell experiments in lab-on- a-chip devices. The choice of material can influence the viability of mammalian cells. PDMS, precoated with serum or not, suits well for HL60 cells, demonstrating the best results in the viability experiments,

  1. Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Larson; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus)...

  2. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  3. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  4. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  5. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  7. Poison pills: A defensive measure against a hostile takeover or a demonstration of power of the target company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Zattila Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance of power is particularly at stake in hostile takeovers, which makes the issue of establishing the balance of power one of the most controversial issues in the contemporary company law. In the circumstances of direct market competition and the need to have a dominant market position, companies are necessarily forced to constantly upgrade and advance their offensive and defensive methods, techniques and strategies. In order to prevent a hostile takeover, the target company may resort to an array of defence mechanisms, the most prominent of which are 'poison pills'. In spite of being perceived as the most powerful tool for obstructing hostile takeovers (and commonly designated as the 'Holy Grail' among the defensive mechanisms, there are many pros and cons underlying their application. One of the positive effects of using the poison pills is that the fear of takeovers makes the target company management more disciplined and efficient in business operations. The negative consequences are reflected in the relationship between the company board of directors and the shareholders. The target company management makes a unilateral decision on using a poison pill and this decision does not have to be approved by the shareholders in the General Meeting; however, this is highly inconsistent with the basic principles of corporate governance. The asymmetry of information, where the management (an agent has disproportionately more relevant information at its disposal than the shareholders (principals, generates a conflict between the management and the shareholders. In company law, this agency problem is generally known as the principal-agent problem, which is most prominent in a takeover. Poison pills are often associated with the discrimination of the target company shareholders, but not necessarily. The controversial nature of this defensive measure which can be applied by the target company has given rise to numerous debates on the need to

  8. [Influence of high molecular weight polyethylene on viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gaohong; Lin, Angru; Pei, Guoxian; Hu, Basheng

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the influence of high molecular weight polyethylene (HMWP) on the viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation in the process of fracture healing, the osteoblasts derived from adult human bone marrow were cultured in HMWP maceration extract and normal culture medium. The viability of the osteoblasts was measured by MTT assay, and the function of the osteoblasts was detected by use of alkaline phosphatase test kit. The locked double-plating (steel plate and HMWP plate) was implanted and fixed at the artificial fracture of distal femur of dogs. Specimens were gained at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks postoperatively, examined with macroscopy, microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that HMWP did no harm to osteoblasts. There is no significant difference in activities of proliferation and alkaline phosphatase between HMWP maceration extract and normal culture medium at each observation time of at 2,4,8, and 14 dyas (P>0. 05). Bone tissue under the implanted HMWP plate manifested no absorption; the new bones formed under the HMWP plate and gradually matured as time went on. It is demonstrated in this study that HMWP has no adverse influence on the viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation and it can be used as internal fixation implant in treating fractures.

  9. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  10. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  11. Importance of Donor Chondrocyte Viability for Osteochondral Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Stannard, James P; Stoker, Aaron M; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation provides a biological treatment option for functional restoration of large articular cartilage defects in multiple joints. While successful outcomes after OCA transplantation have been linked to viable donor chondrocytes, the importance of donor cell viability has not been comprehensively validated. To use a canine model to determine the importance of donor chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation with respect to functional success of femoral condylar OCAs based on radiographic, gross, cell viability, histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical outcome measures. Controlled laboratory study. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, adult female dogs (N = 16) were implanted with 8-mm cylindrical OCAs from male dogs in the lateral and medial femoral condyles of 1 knee. OCAs were preserved for 28 or 60 days after procurement, and chondrocyte viability was quantified before implantation. Two different storage media, temperatures, and time points were used to obtain a spectrum of percentage chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation. A successful outcome was defined as an OCA that was associated with graft integration, maintenance of hyaline cartilage, lack of associated cartilage disorder, and lack of fibrillation, fissuring, or fibrous tissue infiltration of the allograft based on subjective radiographic, gross, and histologic assessments at 6 months after implantation. Chondrocyte viability ranged from 23% to 99% at the time of implantation. All successful grafts had >70% chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation, and no graft with chondrocyte viability <70% was associated with a successful outcome. Live-dead stained sections and histologic findings with respect to cell morphological features suggested that successful grafts were consistently composed of viable chondrocytes in lacunae, while grafts that were not successful were composed of nonviable

  12. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  13. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  14. A novel concentration and viability detection method for Brettanomyces using the Cellometer image cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniak, Brian; Bolton, Jason; Kuksin, Dmitry; Shahin, Suzanne M; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Brettanomyces spp. can present unique cell morphologies comprised of excessive pseudohyphae and budding, leading to difficulties in enumerating cells. The current cell counting methods include manual counting of methylene blue-stained yeasts or measuring optical densities using a spectrophotometer. However, manual counting can be time-consuming and has high operator-dependent variations due to subjectivity. Optical density measurement can also introduce uncertainties where instead of individual cells counted, an average of a cell population is measured. In contrast, by utilizing the fluorescence capability of an image cytometer to detect acridine orange and propidium iodide viability dyes, individual cell nuclei can be counted directly in the pseudohyphae chains, which can improve the accuracy and efficiency of cell counting, as well as eliminating the subjectivity from manual counting. In this work, two experiments were performed to demonstrate the capability of Cellometer image cytometer to monitor Brettanomyces concentrations, viabilities, and budding/pseudohyphae percentages. First, a yeast propagation experiment was conducted to optimize software counting parameters for monitoring the growth of Brettanomyces clausenii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces lambicus, which showed increasing cell concentrations, and varying pseudohyphae percentages. The pseudohyphae formed during propagation were counted either as multiple nuclei or a single multi-nuclei organism, where the results of counting the yeast as a single multi-nuclei organism were directly compared to manual counting. Second, a yeast fermentation experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed image cytometric analysis method can monitor the growth pattern of B. lambicus and B. clausenii during beer fermentation. The results from both experiments displayed different growth patterns, viability, and budding/pseudohyphae percentages for each Brettanomyces species. The proposed

  15. A non-invasive, 3D, dynamic MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms in vivo: demonstration in the human ankle joint and Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E C; Martin, J H; d'Entremont, A G; Pandy, M G; Wilson, D R; Herbert, R D

    2015-01-01

    Muscle moment arms are used widely in biomechanical analyses. Often they are measured in 2D or at a series of static joint positions. In the present study we demonstrate a simple MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms dynamically in 3D from a single range-of-motion cycle. We demonstrate this method in the Achilles tendon for comparison with other methods, and validate the method using a custom apparatus. The method involves registration of high-resolution joint geometry from MRI scans of the stationary joint with low-resolution geometries from ultrafast MRI scans of the slowly moving joint. Tibio-talar helical axes and 3D Achilles tendon moment arms were calculated throughout passive rotation for 10 adult subjects, and compared with recently published data. A simple validation was conducted by comparing MRI measurements with direct physical measurements made on a phantom. The moment arms measured using our method and those of others were similar and there was good agreement between physical measurements (mean 41.0mm) and MRI measurements (mean 39.5mm) made on the phantom. This new method can accurately measure muscle moment arms from a single range-of-motion cycle without the need to control rotation rate or gate the scanning. Supplementary data includes custom software to assist implementation. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does the balanced scorecard support organizational viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Beeres, R.J.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we assess whether the balanced scorecard (BSC) supports the necessary functions for organizational viability. To this purpose, we use the viable system model (VSM) as a means to describe the functions required for organizational viability. Then we use the VSM as a template to assess

  17. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  18. Demonstration of the validity of the SF-36 for measurement of the temporal recovery of quality of life outcomes in burns survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Dale; Dawson, Alana; Hankey, Genevieve; Phillips, Michael; Wood, Fiona

    2010-11-01

    Outcome assessment after burn is complex. Determination of quality of life is often measured using the Burns Specific Health Scale (BSHS), a validated tool in the burn population. The SF-36 is a generic quality of life questionnaire that is validated for numerous populations, but not in burns. The aim of the study was to examine the validity of SF-36, using the BSHS as a reference. 280 burn patients were recruited at Royal Perth Hospital. Each completed SF-36 and BSHS-B at regular intervals to 2 years after burn. Regression modelling was used to assess the temporal validity and the relative sensitivity of the measures. SF-36 domains and BSHS-B demonstrated significant associations at all time points (r=0.37-0.76, pSF-36 domains: role physical; bodily pain; social function and role emotional outperformed BSHS-B total score and domain scores. Greater measurement sensitivity was demonstrated in all SF-36 summary and subscales measures (except General Health) when compared to BSHS-B and sub-domains. This study demonstrated SF-36 as a valid measure of recovery of quality of life in the burn patient population. The data suggests that SF-36 components were more sensitive to change than the BSHS-B from ∼1 month after injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  1. Microfluidic high viability neural cell separation using viscoelastically tuned hydrodynamic spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhigang; Hjort, Klas; Wicher, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    A high viability microfluidic cell separation technique of high throughput was demonstrated based on size difference continuous mode hydrodynamic spreading with viscoelastic tuning. Using water with fluorescent dye as sample fluid and in parallel introducing as elution a viscoelastic biocompatible...

  2. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  3. Final report of the environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer system technology demonstration at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    The environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRs system during drilling are compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  4. Near viability for fully nonlinear differential inclusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Căpraru; Alina Lazu

    2014-01-01

    .... We establish a viability result under Lipschitz hypothesis on F, that consists in proving the existence of solutions of the differential inclusion above, starting from a given set, which remain...

  5. Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries...

  6. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  7. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Sampo J. Lahtinen

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells, and therefore is also possible that also nonviable probiotics could have some health benefits. The eff...

  8. A preliminary comparison of total skin electron treatment techniques to demonstrate the application of a mid-torso phantom for measurement of dose penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, G; Al-Alawi, T; Fletcher, C L; Mills, J A; Grieve, R J

    2011-12-01

    In the UK, the treatment of patients with mycosis fungoides using total skin electron (TSE) beam therapy is undertaken using a number of different irradiation techniques. As part of a review of these techniques, a comparative set of measurements would be useful to determine how the techniques differ in terms of dose distribution. A dose penetration intercomparison method that could be used as part of such a study is presented here. The dose penetrations for six treatment techniques currently or recently used in four centres in the UK were measured. The variation of dose with skin depth was measured in a WT1 solid water mid-torso phantom. The phantom is portable and suitable to be used in all the techniques. It is designed to hold four small radiochromic film dosemeters to investigate the variation in dose around the mid-torso. For each treatment technique, the phantom was irradiated using the clinical set-up. The phantom performed well and was able to measure dose penetration and the uniformity of penetration for several treatment techniques. These preliminary results demonstrate that there is some variation in dose distribution between different TSE treatment techniques and that the phantom could be used in a more comprehensive intercomparison. The results are not intended to demonstrate comprehensively the range of penetration that can be achieved in clinical practice as, for one of the treatment techniques, the penetration is customised for the extent of the disease.

  9. Assessment of donor heart viability during ex vivo heart perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher W; Ambrose, Emma; Müller, Alison; Li, Yun; Le, Hoa; Hiebert, Brett; Arora, Rakesh; Lee, Trevor W; Dixon, Ian; Tian, Ganghong; Nagendran, Jayan; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren

    2015-10-01

    Ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP) may facilitate resuscitation of discarded donor hearts and expand the donor pool; however, a reliable means of demonstrating organ viability prior to transplantation is required. Therefore, we sought to identify metabolic and functional parameters that predict myocardial performance during EVHP. To evaluate the parameters over a broad spectrum of organ function, we obtained hearts from 9 normal pigs and 37 donation after circulatory death pigs and perfused them ex vivo. Functional parameters obtained from a left ventricular conductance catheter, oxygen consumption, coronary vascular resistance, and lactate concentration were measured, and linear regression analyses were performed to identify which parameters best correlated with myocardial performance (cardiac index: mL·min(-1)·g(-1)). Functional parameters exhibited excellent correlation with myocardial performance and demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for identifying hearts at risk of poor post-transplant function (ejection fraction: R(2) = 0.80, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.85; stroke work: R(2) = 0.76, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.77; minimum dP/dt: R(2) = 0.74, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.54; tau: R(2) = 0.51, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.92), whereas metabolic parameters were limited in their ability to predict myocardial performance (oxygen consumption: R(2) = 0.28; coronary vascular resistance: R(2) = 0.20; lactate concentration: R(2) = 0.02). We concluded that evaluation of functional parameters provides the best assessment of myocardial performance during EVHP, which highlights the need for an EVHP device capable of assessing the donor heart in a physiologic working mode.

  10. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  11. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  12. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  13. Effect of cadmium on cellular viability in two species of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Letty Beatriz C; Carruyo, Ingrid M; Montiel, Xiomara M; Morales, Carolina B; de Soto, Patricia Moreno

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of several concentrations of cadmium (0, 5, 10, and 20 microg/l) on cellular viability in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis, by measuring growth at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and pigment production at 10 days. Algae were obtained from the Nonvascular Plant Laboratory collection, in the Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela. Growth was measured by cellular counting, while pigment content was evaluated using conventional spectrophotometric techniques. Growth of both species decreased in the exposed cultures comparing with the control, but its behavior was similar, because in both control and exposed cultures, its was observed an adaptive phase in the first hours, as well as a growth phase after 72 h. Cadmium concentrations above 10 microg/l produced an adverse effect on pigment production, depending on the concentration and/or exhibition time. However, even though cadmium inhibited growth and pigment production, levels of both parameters indicated cellular viability, demonstrating the adaptability of the algae cultures when they were exposed to the metal.

  14. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) viability via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Kelly; Lewis, Davina; Shew, Mathew; Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Khadijeh; Halum, Stacey

    2014-12-01

    Muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) are currently being investigated as cellular vectors to deliver neurotrophic factor (NF) for the promotion of re-innervation after axonal injury. Ideally NF delivery in such a model would enhance axonal regeneration while simultaneously promoting MPC viability. To date, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is one of the few NFs known to promote both re-innervation and MPC viability. We herein identify ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) as a factor that promotes MPC viability in culture, and demonstrate CNTF to impart greater viability effects on MPCs than IGF-1. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition via LY294002 results in abrogation of CNTF-mediated viability, suggesting that the CNTF-mediated MPC viability benefit occurs via the PI3-Akt pathway. Finally, we employ a genetic model, establishing MPC cultures from mice deficient in class IA PI-3 K (p85α(-/-) ) mice, and demonstrate that the viability benefit imparted by CNTF is completely abrogated in PI-3 K-deficient MPCs compared to wild-type controls. In summary, our investigations define CNTF as a promoter of MPC viability beyond IGF-1, and reveal that the CNTF-mediated MPC viability effects occur via the PI3-Akt pathway. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Viability studies of optically trapped T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain; Wright, Amanda J.

    2011-10-01

    We present a viability study of optically trapped live T cell hybridomas. T cells form an important part of the adaptive immune response system which is responsible for fighting particular pathogens or diseases. The cells of interest were directly trapped by a laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm and their viability measured as a function of time. Cell death was monitored using an inverted fluorescent microscope to observe the uptake by the cell of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide. Studies were undertaken at various laser powers and beam profiles. There is a growing interest in optically trapping immune cells and this is the first study that investigates the viability of a T cell when trapped using a conventional optical trapping system. In such experiments it is crucial that the T cell remains viable and trapping the cell directly means that any artefacts due to a cell-bead interface are removed. Our motivation behind this experiment is to use optical tweezers to gain a greater understanding of the interaction forces between T cells and antigen presenting cells. Measuring these interactions has become important due to recent theories which indicate that the strength of this interaction may underlie the activation of the T-cell and subsequent immune response.

  16. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  17. Viability analysis in biological evaluations: Concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; John R. Squires

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection strategies often rely on environmental impact assessments. As part of the assessment process biologists are routinely asked to evaluate the effects of management actions on plants and animals. This evaluation often requires that biologists make judgments about the viability of affected populations. However, population viability...

  18. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Fernández, P.S.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to

  19. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  20. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo J. Lahtinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

  1. Cell motility, morphology, viability and proliferation in response to nanotopography on silicon black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Gradinaru, Cristian; Wierzbicki, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while...... viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e. g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much...

  2. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X; Vahala, K; Li, J; Diddams, S; Ycas, G; Plavchan, P; Leifer, S; Sandhu, J; Vasisht, G; Chen, P; Gao, P; Gagne, J; Furlan, E; Bottom, M; Martin, E C; Fitzgerald, M P; Doppmann, G; Beichman, C

    2016-01-27

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope.

  3. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic viability and marketing strategies of periwinkle species in twelve major markets across Rivers State Nigeria were investigated using structured questionnaires. The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), to wholesalers (those who purchase in small quantities ...

  4. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierson, J.C.; Beissinger, S.R.; Bragg, J.G.; Coates, D.J.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Sunnucks, P.; Schumaker, N.H.; Trotter, M.V.; Young, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand

  5. Assessment of myocardial viability using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    The potential for recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial revascularization represents a practical clinical definition for myocardial viability. The evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with severe global left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary artery disease and with regional dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is an important issue whether left ventricular dysfunction may be reversible or irreversible after therapy. If the dysfunction is due to stunning or hibernation, functional improvement is observed. But stunned myocardium may recover of dysfunction with no revascularization. Hibernation is chronic process due to chronic reduction in the resting myocardial blood flow. There are two types of myocardial hibernation; 'functional hibernation' with preserved contractile reserve and 'structural hibernation' without contractile reserve in segments with preserved glucose metabolism. This review focus on the application of F-18 FDG and other radionuclides to evaluate myocardial viability. In addition the factors influencing predictive value of FDG imaging for evaluating viability and the different criteria for viability are also reviewed.

  6. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  7. Viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Mano, Renneth T; Ngongoni, Nobbert Takarwirwa

    2013-04-01

    Viability differences in smallholder dairy farming are a result of differences in access to markets and services. It is hypothesized that innovations that improve productivity and market linkages also improve returns and viability. The viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza was characterised by interviewing 52 households using semi-structured questionnaires. Information on demographics, production, marketing, livestock numbers, assets and constraints was obtained. Farmers were resource-constrained with differences in access to resources. The highly resourced farmers had higher milk output and numbers of livestock. Almost 40 % of the households were female-headed, and these dominated the poor category. Household sizes ranged from 4 to 13 persons. Milk off-take was low (3.7 ± 0.53 l/cow/day), due to various constraints. Only rich farmers had viable enterprises in purely financial terms. Per litre cost of milk was more than selling price (US$0.96) for most farmers except the relatively rich. Operating ratios were 1.7, 0.6, 1.4 and 1.1 for the poor, rich, sub-centre and milk collection centre farmers, respectively. This means incomes from the dairy activities did not cover costs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increases in total variable costs and labour reduced returns. Milk production and viability were influenced by access to resources and markets.

  8. Pollen viability in Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batos Branislava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of viability (germination rate and the length of pollen tubes of fresh pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. pollen grains was studied in vitro on a medium containing 15% sucrose. Spatial variability was studied by sampling fresh pollen grains from a total of thirteen trees at four different sites in the area of Belgrade (Košutnjak, Banovo Brdo, Ada Ciganlija and Bojčin Forest in a single year (2011. In order to assess temporal variability and determine the effects of climate change on a small time scale, we studied the viability of the pollen grains collected from one tree at the Banovo Brdo site in six different years (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2011 and 2012. Interindividual variability was tested on the pollen grains sampled from eight trees at Ada Ciganlija in 2004. The percentage values of the pollen grain germination rate and the pollen tube length showed no statistically significant differences between the sites. However, the studied characteristics of the pollen grain viability (germination rate and pollen tube length showed statistically significant differences in both temporal (between the pollen collection years and interindividual variability. This type of research makes a valuable contribution to pedunculate oak breeding programs through the identification of trees with stable production and a good quality of pollen. Furthermore, it can be important in defining the patterns of spatial, temporal and individual variability of pollen grain viability under the influence of climate factors, which are showing compelling changing trends from year to year.

  9. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, N V; Nout, M J R

    2004-04-15

    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were unsuccessful, Malt Extract Broth (MEB) showed to be a good activation medium, with 80% of dormant spores being activated as measured by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescent marker, compared with 11% with the control. Peptone and yeast extract but not glucose played an important role in activating dormant spores. Metabolically active (fluorescent) and swollen spores, followed by germ tubes were obtained after activation in MEB for 25 min., 2 and 4 h, respectively, at 37 degrees C. Simultaneously, some interesting transitions took place. Dormant spores represent 85-90% of the total spores at harvest and after drying. Their number decreased to 21-32% after activation with MEB with a concomitant increase of metabolically active spores. As a result of storage, some dormancy was lost, yielding an increase of active spores from 11.2% at harvest to 28.8% after 3 months storage. Levels of active spores were well correlated with their viability. By activation of dormant spores, their viability increased; levels of viable and active spores were maximum in 1 month old starter (61.7% and 75.9% of total spores, respectively) but gradually decreased with concomitant increase of the number of dead spores.

  10. Characteristics associated with regional health information organization viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Landefeld, John; Jha, Ashish K

    2010-01-01

    Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability. Using data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational and factors associated with financial viability. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify unique predictors. We classified RHIOs actively facilitating data exchange as operational and measured financial viability as the percent of operating costs covered by revenue from participants in data exchange (0-24%, 25-74%, 75-100%). Predictors included breadth of participants, breadth of data exchanged, whether the RHIO focused on a specific population, whether RHIO participants had a history of collaborating, and sources of revenue during the planning phase. Exchanging a narrow set of data and involving a broad group of stakeholders were independently associated with a higher likelihood of being operational. Involving hospitals and ambulatory physicians, and securing early funding from participants were associated with a higher likelihood of financial viability, while early grant funding seemed to diminish the likelihood. Finding ways to help RHIOs become operational and self-sustaining will bolster the current approach to nationwide health information exchange. Our work suggests that convening a broad coalition of stakeholders to focus on a narrow set of data is an important step in helping RHIOs become operational. Convincing stakeholders to financially commit early in the process may help RHIOs become self-sustaining.

  11. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muelken

    Full Text Available Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior. Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c. on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day. Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these

  12. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models

  13. Demonstration of two-laser Polarimeter-Interferometer (PIer) scheme for simultaneous measurements of Faraday rotation angle and electron density on HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. G.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Li, Y.; Wang, H. X.; Yuan, B. S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z. J.; Ji, X. Q.; Wu, T. Y.; Chen, W. J.; Chen, W.; Yu, L. M.; Zhang, Y. P.; Li, L. C.; Shi, Z. B.; Liu, Yi.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Ding, X. T.; Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.

    2017-11-01

    A novel two-laser Polarimeter-Interferometer (PIer) diagnostic scheme, in which Faraday rotation angle (αF) and electron density (ne) can be simultaneously measured by taking advantage of two lasers and two detectors for each channel, has been successfully demonstrated on HL-2A tokamak through upgrading one channel of existing monofunctional Faraday-effect polarimeter. In comparison with the conventional three-laser PIer diagnostic, two-laser PIer generates only one intermediate frequency (IF), avoiding the overlap of IF frequency bands, so as to increase the time resolution and decrease the phase noise of system. The single channel two-laser PIer was firstly put into operation in 2016 HL-2A experimental campaign, and both Faraday rotation angle and electron density phase have been measured with a fast time resolution of 1.0 μs and a phase resolution of 0.1o and 1.0o, respectively. This work is valuable for next step far-infrared (FIR) laser PIer construction on HL-2M tokamak, as well as the future International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  14. Osteopathic manipulative treatment and its relationship to autonomic nervous system activity as demonstrated by heart rate variability: a repeated measures study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Charles E; Ivins, Douglas; Mills, Miriam; Wen, Frances K; Benjamin, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and the autonomic nervous system has long been acknowledged, but is poorly understood. In an effort to define this relationship, cervical myofascial release was used as the OMT technique with heart rate variability (HRV) as a surrogate for autonomic activity. This study quantifies that relationship and demonstrates a cause and effect. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects, nine males and eight females aged 19–50 years from the faculty, staff, and students at Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine, acted as their own controls and received interventions, administered in separate sessions at least 24 hours apart, of cervical myofascial OMT, touch-only sham OMT, and no-touch control while at a 50-degree head-up tilt. Each group was dichotomized into extremes of autonomic activity using a tilt table. Comparisons were made between measurements taken at tilt and those taken at pre- and post-intervention in the horizontal. The variance of the spectral components of HRV, expressed as frequencies, measured the response to change in position of the subjects. Normalized low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) values, including LF/HF ratio, were calculated and used to determine the effect of position change on HRV. Results Predominantly parasympathetic responses were observed with subjects in the horizontal position, while a 50-degree tilt provided a significantly different measure of maximum sympathetic tone (p < 0.001). Heart rate changed in all subjects with change in position; respirations remained constant. When OMT was performed in a sympathetic environment (tilt), a vagal response was produced that was strong enough to overcome the sympathetic tone. There was no HRV difference between sham and control in either the horizontal or tilt positions. Conclusion The vagal response produced by the myofascial release procedure in the maximally stimulated

  15. Osteopathic manipulative treatment and its relationship to autonomic nervous system activity as demonstrated by heart rate variability: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Charles E; Ivins, Douglas; Mills, Miriam; Wen, Frances K; Benjamin, Bruce A

    2008-06-05

    The relationship between osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and the autonomic nervous system has long been acknowledged, but is poorly understood. In an effort to define this relationship, cervical myofascial release was used as the OMT technique with heart rate variability (HRV) as a surrogate for autonomic activity. This study quantifies that relationship and demonstrates a cause and effect. Seventeen healthy subjects, nine males and eight females aged 19-50 years from the faculty, staff, and students at Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine, acted as their own controls and received interventions, administered in separate sessions at least 24 hours apart, of cervical myofascial OMT, touch-only sham OMT, and no-touch control while at a 50-degree head-up tilt. Each group was dichotomized into extremes of autonomic activity using a tilt table. Comparisons were made between measurements taken at tilt and those taken at pre- and post-intervention in the horizontal.The variance of the spectral components of HRV, expressed as frequencies, measured the response to change in position of the subjects. Normalized low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) values, including LF/HF ratio, were calculated and used to determine the effect of position change on HRV. Predominantly parasympathetic responses were observed with subjects in the horizontal position, while a 50-degree tilt provided a significantly different measure of maximum sympathetic tone (p autonomic nervous system. The lack of significance between control and sham in all positions indicates that HRV may be a useful method of developing sham controls in future studies of OMT. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00516984.

  16. Do clinical practitioners seeking credentialing for nuchal translucency measurement demonstrate compliance with biosafety recommendations? Experience of the Nuchal Translucency Quality Review Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Bryann; Spitz, Jean; Fuchs, Karin; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate compliance with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle by practitioners seeking credentialing for nuchal translucency (NT) measurement between 11 and 14 weeks' gestation. Nuchal Translucency Quality Review Program credentialing requires quantitative scoring of 5 NT measurements from 5 different fetuses. Images submitted by 100 consecutive practitioners were retrospectively evaluated for the output display standard (ODS). The thermal index (TI) type (bone [TIb] or soft tissue [TIs]) and numeric value of the index were recorded. The TIb was considered the correct index for this study. Compliance with the numeric value was evaluated in several ways. Collectively, a TIb lower than 0.5 was considered optimal, lower than 0.7 compliant, and 1.0 or lower satisfactory. An ODS was present in at least 1 image submitted by 77 practitioners. The TIb was used exclusively by 15 (19.5%), the TIs by 37 (48.1%), and 25 used a combination of the TIb and TIs. Only 4 of 77 providers (5%) used the correct TI type (TIb) at lower than 0.5 for all submitted images, 5 of 77 (6%) at lower than 0.7, and 9 of 77 (12%) at 1.0 or lower. A TI (TIb or TIs) higher than 1.0 was used by 15 of 77 providers (19.5%). Proficiency in NT measurement and educational background (physician or sonographer) did not influence compliance with ALARA. Clinicians seeking credentialing in NT do not demonstrate compliance with the recommended use of the TIb in monitoring acoustic output. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. No. 347-Obstetric Management at Borderline Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Noor Niyar N; Chari, Radha S; Dunn, Michael S; Jones, Griffith; Shah, Prakesh; Barrett, Jon F R

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective of this guideline was to develop consensus statements to guide clinical practice and recommendations for obstetric management of a pregnancy at borderline viability, currently defined as prior to 25+6 weeks. Clinicians involved in the obstetric management of women whose fetus is at the borderline of viability. Women presenting for possible birth at borderline viability. This document presents a summary of the literature and a general consensus on the management of pregnancies at borderline viability, including maternal transfer and consultation, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate, fetal heart rate monitoring, and considerations in mode of delivery. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: extreme prematurity, borderline viability, preterm, pregnancy, antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery. The results were then studied, and relevant articles were reviewed. The references of the reviewed studies were also searched, as were documents citing pertinent studies. The evidence was then presented at a consensus meeting, and statements were developed. The content and recommendations were developed by the consensus group from the fields of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Neonatology, Perinatal Nursing, Patient Advocacy, and Ethics. The quality of evidence was rated using criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology framework (reference 1). The Board of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved the final draft for publication. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology framework. The interpretation of strong and weak recommendations is described later. The Summary of Findings is available upon request. A multidisciplinary approach should be used in counselling women and families at borderline

  18. Viability of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVI TRIANA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 had advantages as probiotic digestive system cholesterol lowering Lactobacillus. Applying in industry, particular processing technique is necessary for gaining product that ready for marketing and consuming. Spray drying is common technique using in various food processing. High processing temperature, 100-200oC, for 3-10 second become the barrier because cells were under extreme temperature stress. Therefore, encapsulate was needed to protect the cells from those extreme conditions. Viability and survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 have been investigated. The result showed that Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 that was encapsulated by 10% skim milk has higher viability than those by 5% skim milk, namely 72.37% and 51.69% respectively. Survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus cells will come to zero in 41.28 years. Therefore, encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 may use as probiotic agent.

  19. A Review: The Probiotic Bacteria Viability under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina CALINOIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized the current knowledge on probiotics and on the effects that different conditions have under this type of bacteria. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the survival rate/resistance or viability of different probiotic bacteria under several conditions, such as: processing, food composition, storage, freezing, thawing, refrigeration, temperature, oxygen, pH, gastrointestinal environment and package. Nowadays, the demand on probiotic functional foods is increasing rapidly, as the consumers became more aware about the potential health benefits, due to the fact that probiotics help in maintaining the balance and composition of intestinal flora and protect it from pathogens. A daily ingestion of 108–109 CFU ml−1 probiotic microorganisms is crucial in order to be able to demonstrate an effect in our organism, considering the dose and the effect of storage/gastrointestinal environments on the probiotic viability. Microencapsulation of probiotics in different polysaccharides was proven to be an ideal way to preserve and protect the cells from detrimental factors during processing, storage or resistance in the gastrointestinal transit, as many studies demonstrate it. There is a general interest in the improvement of the physical and mechanical stability of the polymers used in probiotics encapsulation, to ensure high population of probiotics not only in food during storage, but also after gastrointestinal digestion. Also, the carrier plays a very important role and should be carefully examined.

  20. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Feizi, Alborz

    2016-09-24

    Monitoring yeast cell viability and concentration is important in brewing, baking and biofuel production. However, existing methods of measuring viability and concentration are relatively bulky, tedious and expensive. Here we demonstrate a compact and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm2. This lens-free microscope weighs 70 g and utilizes a partially-coherent illumination source and an opto-electronic image sensor chip. A touch-screen user interface based on a tablet-PC is developed to reconstruct the holographic shadows captured by the image sensor chip and use a support vector machine (SVM) model to automatically classify live and dead cells in a yeast sample stained with methylene blue. In order to quantify its accuracy, we varied the viability and concentration of the cells and compared AYAP\\'s performance with a fluorescence exclusion staining based gold-standard using regression analysis. The results agree very well with this gold-standard method and no significant difference was observed between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells per mL, providing a dynamic range suitable for various applications. This lensfree computational imaging technology that is coupled with machine learning algorithms would be useful for cost-effective and rapid quantification of cell viability and density even in field and resource-poor settings.

  1. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring yeast cell viability and concentration is important in brewing, baking and biofuel production. However, existing methods of measuring viability and concentration are relatively bulky, tedious and expensive. Here we demonstrate a compact and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm2. This lens-free microscope weighs 70 g and utilizes a partially-coherent illumination source and an opto-electronic image sensor chip. A touch-screen user interface based on a tablet-PC is developed to reconstruct the holographic shadows captured by the image sensor chip and use a support vector machine (SVM) model to automatically classify live and dead cells in a yeast sample stained with methylene blue. In order to quantify its accuracy, we varied the viability and concentration of the cells and compared AYAP's performance with a fluorescence exclusion staining based gold-standard using regression analysis. The results agree very well with this gold-standard method and no significant difference was observed between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells per mL, providing a dynamic range suitable for various applications. This lensfree computational imaging technology that is coupled with machine learning algorithms would be useful for cost-effective and rapid quantification of cell viability and density even in field and resource-poor settings.

  2. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Margaret E; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time. Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients with a lower limb disorder whereas Section 3 involves patients indicating their current percentage of pre-injury duties. Section 1 of the LLFI-10 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99) whilst Section 3 demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.88, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94). MDC scores for Sections 1 and 3 were 1.27 points and 30.22 %, respectively. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a significant negative association (r s  = -0.83) between Sections 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 (p reliable for measuring functional ability in patients who have sustained lower limb burns in the previous 12 months, and furthermore, Section 1 is sensitive to changes in patient function over time.

  4. Cardiac magnetic resonance for the assessment of myocardial viability: from pathophysiology to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Guarini, Pasquale; Savarese, Gianluigi; Gambardella, Francesco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Cirillo, Annapaola; Vitagliano, Alice; Formisano, Tiziana; Pellegrino, Angela M; Bossone, Eduardo; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly applied for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with ischemic ventricular dysfunction, and it holds potential advantages over more traditional imaging modalities, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). CMR-based techniques for viability assessment include the evaluation of transmural extent of the scar using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, the evaluation of end-diastolic wall thickness from resting cine images and the study of inotropic reserve during low-dose dobutamine infusion. During the past decade, the diffusion of the use of CMR for viability assessment confirmed the clinical strengths of this modality and, at the same time, helped to use old techniques with an increased level of awareness. With LGE CMR, both viable and nonviable dysfunctional myocardium can be visualized in a single image, allowing a direct quantification of the amount of regional viability, with a significant impact on the estimation of chance for recovery. As well, studies with CMR applied in the setting of ischemic heart disease allowed a better understanding of the best way to apply and interpret other tests for viability evaluation. For instance, it has been demonstrated that the transmural extension of the scar may influence the level of concordance between SPECT and DSE in assessing myocardial viability. The transmural extent of scar on LGE CMR also correlates with the timing of postrevascularization recovery of systolic function, with significant impact on the diagnostic accuracy of any applied imaging modality.

  5. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  6. Demonstration of the Viability and Evaluation of Production Costs for Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshad, Kourosh [Coaltek Incorporated, Tucker, GA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project was split into four main areas, first to identify the best combination of coal and biomass, second, create and test lab quantity of preferred combinations, Third, create a sizeable quantity for larger scale handling and consuming analysis and fourth, to provide analysis for a commercial scale production capacity. Samples of coal and biomass were collected. Five coals, representing the three major coal ranks, were collected including one bituminous, two sub-bituminous, and two lignite samples. In addition, three square bales (~50 lbs/bale) each of corn Stover and switch grass were collected with one bale of each sample processed through a hammer mill to approximately -5 mesh. A third sample of sawdust was collected once experimentation began at the University of Kentucky. Multiple combinations of coal and biomass; coal, biomass, with biomass binder, were tested until a formulation was identified that could meet the requirement criteria. Based on the results of the binderless briquetting evaluations, the CS/Sub-bit combinations was selected for extended evaluation at a 10% biomass addition rate while the WS/Bitum combination was selected for extended evaluation at a 30% biomass-addition rate. With the final results of the selection process complete, the CoalTek continuous production pilot plant in Tucker GA was outfitted with the specialized blending equipment and two 1/4 ton production runs of biomass and binder subbituminous coal briquettes were completed. These briquettes were later used for a calorific test burn at the University of North Dakota. The first formulation included subbituminous coal, corn stover and a corn starch binder the second formulation included subbituminous coal, wheat stover and corn starch binder.

  7. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery in rabbits and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, James Richard; Elson, Daniel S.

    2016-10-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery (UTx) has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of the congenital absence or surgical removal of the uterus. Successful surgical attachment of the organ and its associated vasculature is essential for the organ's reperfusion and long-term viability. Spectral imaging techniques have demonstrated the potential for the measurement of hemodynamics in medical applications. These involve the measurement of reflectance spectra by acquiring images of the tissue in different wavebands. Measures of tissue constituents at each pixel can then be extracted from these spectra through modeling of the light-tissue interaction. A multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope was used in sheep and rabbit UTx models to study short- and long-term changes in oxygen saturation following surgery. The whole organ was imaged in the donor and recipient animals in parallel with point measurements from a pulse oximeter. Imaging results confirmed the re-establishment of adequate perfusion in the transplanted organ after surgery. Cornual oxygenation trends measured with MSI are consistent with pulse oximeter readings, showing decreased StO2 immediately after anastomosis of the blood vessels. Long-term results show recovery of StO2 to preoperative levels.

  8. Influence of electrospun scaffolds prepared from distinct polymers on proliferation and viability of endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, V. G., E-mail: matveeva-vg@mail.ru; Antonova, L. V., E-mail: antonova.la@mail.ru; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, 650002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    We compared electrospun nonwoven scaffolds from polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PHBV/PCL). The surface of PHBV/PCL and PCL scaffolds was highly porous and consisted of randomly distributed fibers, whilst the surface of PLA scaffolds consisted of thin straight fibers, which located more sparsely, forming large pores. Culture of EA.hy 926 endothelial cells on these scaffolds during 7 days and further fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the surface of PHBV/PCL scaffolds was most favorable for efficient adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. The lowest proliferation rate and cell viability were detected on PLA scaffolds. Therefore, PHBV/PCL electrospun nonwoven scaffolds demonstrated the best results regarding endothelial cell proliferation and viability as compared to PCL and PLA scaffolds.

  9. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  10. Viability of Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast preserved by lyophilization and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; Grochoski, Mayara; Sartori, Gabriela Felkl; Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Hanseniaspora yeasts are known to produce volatile compounds that give fruity aromas in wine and fermented fruit. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of the Hanseniaspora uvarum strain that had been isolated and identified during a previous study and preserved by lyophilization and freezing at -80 °C (cryopreservation). This strain was assessed in relation to its macroscopic and microscopic morphology and for its ability to ferment apple must. After having been subjected to lyophilization and cryopreservation, viability was assessed in relation to these characteristics during 12 months of storage. The strain showed stable colonial features and its microscopic appearance was unchanged during all recoveries. The plate count results showed consistency in both processes. Regarding the fermentative capacity, the kinetic results showed 100% viability for the strain subjected to lyophilization, as well as for those preserved at -80 °C. These results demonstrate that the preservation methods used are compatible with the maintenance of the relevant characteristics of the strain for the period of evaluation of this study (12 months). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cell viability and angiogenic potential of a bioartificial adipose substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvan, Anitha; Nguyen, Luong T H; Su, Yan; Teo, Wee Eong; Liao, Susan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chan, Ching Wan

    2015-06-01

    An implantable scaffold pre-seeded with cells needs to remain viable and encourage rapid angiogenesis in order to replace injured tissues, especially for tissue defect repairs. We created a bioartificial adipose graft composed of an electrospun 3D nanofibrous scaffold and fat tissue excised from New Zealand white rabbits. Cell viability and angiogenesis potential of the bioartificial substitute were examined during four weeks of culture in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium by immunohistochemical staining with LIVE/DEAD® cell kit and PECAM-1 antibody, respectively. In addition, a Matrigel® assay was performed to examine the possibility of blood vessels sprouting from the bioartificial graft. Our results showed that cells within the graft were viable and vascular tubes were present at week 4, while cells in a fat tissue block were dead in vitro. In addition, capillaries were observed sprouting from the graft into the Matrigel, demonstrating its angiogenic potential. We expect that improved cell viability and angiogenesis in the bioartificial substitute, compared to intact autologous graft, could potentially contribute to its survival following implantation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Prediction of viability of leek (Allium porrum seeds by a new test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Güvenç

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of boiling water test in the prediction of seed viability in leek seed and to compare this test with standard germination and vigour test. Basic principle of boiling water test is the evaluation of radicle protrusion from the seeds immersed to boiling water for certain time. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination and vigour test. In this research. the mean germination of unaged leek seeds varied from 29,639% to 70,18% depending on the cultivars. While the range of boiling water test in unaged leek seeds was between 35.57% to 51,06%, the range for emergence was between 27,63% to 72,05%. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination test. According to the results of this research, it might be assessed that boiling water test is a rapid and simple method to measure seed viability by evaluating radicle protrusion of leek seeds in boiling water. In conclusion. boiling water test as a new viability test for leek seed could be used as a rapid method for determining the viability in leek seeds.

  13. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  14. A pilot study demonstrating a non-invasive method for the measurement of protein turnover in skin disorders: application to psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Emson, Claire L; Fitzmaurice, Sarah; Lindwall, Glen; Li, Kelvin W; Hellerstein, Marc K; Maibach, Howard I; Liao, Wilson; Turner, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies of epidermal kinetics in psoriasis have relied on invasive biopsy procedures or the use of radioactive labels. We previously developed a non-invasive method for measuring keratin synthesis in human skin using deuterated water labeling, serial collection of tape strips and measurement of deuterium enrichment in protein by mass spectrometry. This powerful method can be applied to measure other skin proteins and lipids collected by tape stripping. Here, for the first ...

  15. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  16. Technical Viability of Battery Second Life: A Study from the Ageing Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Sarasketa-Zabala, Elixabet; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    Reusing electric vehicle batteries once they have been retired from the automotive application is stated as one of the possible solutions to reduce electric vehicle costs. Many publications in literature have analysed the economic viability of such a solution, and some car manufacturers have...... recently started running several projects to demonstrate the technical viability of the so-called battery second life. Nevertheless, the degradation behaviour of second life batteries remains unknown and represents one of the biggest gaps in the literature. The present work aims at evaluating the effects...

  17. Effect of Diluent and Relative Humidity on Apparent Viability of Airborne Pasteurella pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, William D.; Ross, Harold

    1966-01-01

    Airborne Pasteurella pestis (A-1122) at low humidities [20 to 50% relative humidity (RH)] exhibited exponential decay when either 1% peptone or Heart Infusion Broth (HIB) was used as the diluent in the viable assay system. At higher RH values (65 and 87%), however, the 1% peptone diluent adversely affected the viability assay. In contrast, HIB as diluent was remarkably effective in demonstrating a higher number of viable cells in aerosols held at high RH values. Similarly, with HIB as diluent, aerosols were shown to contain viable cells during 90 min of observation; with 1% peptone, viability was not detectable after 20 min in the airborne state. PMID:5970462

  18. Effect of diluent and relative humidity on apparent viability of airborne Pasteurella pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, W D; Ross, H

    1966-09-01

    Airborne Pasteurella pestis (A-1122) at low humidities [20 to 50% relative humidity (RH)] exhibited exponential decay when either 1% peptone or Heart Infusion Broth (HIB) was used as the diluent in the viable assay system. At higher RH values (65 and 87%), however, the 1% peptone diluent adversely affected the viability assay. In contrast, HIB as diluent was remarkably effective in demonstrating a higher number of viable cells in aerosols held at high RH values. Similarly, with HIB as diluent, aerosols were shown to contain viable cells during 90 min of observation; with 1% peptone, viability was not detectable after 20 min in the airborne state.

  19. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  20. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  1. Cell adhesion and viability of human endothelial cells on electrospun polymer scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matschegewski Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The usage of electrospun polymer scaffolds is a promising approach for artificial heart valve design. This study aims at the evaluation of biological performance of nanofibrous polymer scaffolds poly(L-lactide PLLA L210, PLLA L214 and polyamide-6 fabricated by electrospinning via analyzing viability, adhesion and morphology of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926. Nanofibrous surface topography was shown to influence cell phenotype and cell viability according to the observation of diminished cell spreading accompanied with reduced cell viability on nonwovens. Among those, highest biocompatibility was assessed for PLLA L214, although being generally low when compared to the planar control surface. Electrospinning was demonstrated as an innovative technique for the fabrication of advanced biomaterials aiming at guided cellular behavior as well as the design of novel implant platforms. A better understanding of cell–biomaterial interactions is desired to further improve implant development.

  2. Osteopathic manipulative treatment and its relationship to autonomic nervous system activity as demonstrated by heart rate variability: a repeated measures study

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, Charles E; Ivins, Douglas; Mills, Miriam; Wen, Frances K; Benjamin, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and the autonomic nervous system has long been acknowledged, but is poorly understood. In an effort to define this relationship, cervical myofascial release was used as the OMT technique with heart rate variability (HRV) as a surrogate for autonomic activity. This study quantifies that relationship and demonstrates a cause and effect. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects, nine males and eight females aged 19–50 years f...

  3. A Multi-Rotor System for the Collection and Analysis of Measurements to Evaluate and Spatially Demonstrate the Pollutants in the Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Molnár

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most outstanding problems of our technical age is the heavy aerial pollution. There are several well-known methods [6, 10–15] that exist for large-area pollution detection, but the measurement of the exact rate of pollution in smaller areas (e.g., industrial zones or disaster-affected areas of a few square kilometres, as well as the numerical expression of changes therein, remain an unsolved problem. The main feature of the developed device is that it can provide exact measurements for a small area at low altitudes (under 500m AGL (Above Ground Level, and it is also capable of periodical measurements between 0.0001–10 Hz. With the data analysis provided by the system, we can obtain immediate information about the pollution of the given area, as well as changes in pollution levels over time.

  4. Demonstration of droplet size and vaporization rate measurements in the near field of a two-phase jet with droplet lasing spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, P J; Flowers, D; Kennedy, I M

    1998-08-20

    Droplet lasing spectroscopy has been applied to the measurement of droplet size and evaporation rate in a spray. A single droplet, doped with laser dye, was injected along the centerline of a liquid spray. Filters were used to block the strong elastic-scattering signal. The lasing emission from the doped droplet could be detected against the background with mass loadings of liquid in the spray as high as 20%. An analysis of the spectrum of droplet lasing was used to evaluate the droplet diameter. The evaporation rate of the droplet was obtained from consecutive lasing spectra that were obtained from the same droplet. An error analysis of the drop size and drop evaporation measurements was carried out and showed that accurate measurements of evaporation rates were feasible.

  5. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; hide

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  6. Savinase action on bovine serum albumin (BSA) monolayers demonstrated with measurements at the air-water interface and liquid Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balashev, Konstantin; Callisen, Thomas H; Svendsen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    We studied the enzymatic action of Savinase on bovine serum albumin (BSA) organized in a monolayer spread at the air/water interface or adsorbed at the mica surface. We carried out two types of experiments. In the first one we followed the degradation of the protein monolayer by measuring...

  7. Integrated regional-economic modeling of cost-effective programs of water quality measures in the WFD: Development of a demonstration tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soesbergen, van A.; Dellink, R.; Brouwer, R.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Economic Modelling for Policy Analysis (WEMPA) project aims to develop and operationalize an integrated water and economy model framework to enable the analysis of the economic effects of measures to reach the Water Framework Directive objectives. This framework is developed on both a

  8. A systematic review of single-sample glomerular filtration rate measurement techniques and demonstration of equal accuracy to slope-intercept methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, Helena; Wickham, Fred; Barnfield, Mark; Burniston, Maria

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to identify the most accurate single-sample glomerular filtration rate (SS-GFR) technique for all patient ages. We performed a systematic review of all published SS-GFR measurement techniques and compared the results from each test with a gold-standard nine-point 'area-under-curve' measurement of GFR as well as slope-intercept (SI-GFR) methods for 412 GFR tests. We have shown that for patients of all ages the SS-GFR technique developed by Fleming and colleagues delivers the best accuracy and precision, with results equivalent to those calculated by SI-GFR. The median percentage difference from the gold-standard GFR for the Fleming technique is 4.8% (95% confidence interval 3.9-5.7%) and that for the three-point SI-GFR is 5.6% (95% confidence interval 4.9-6.3%). The interquartile range of the distribution of percentage difference from the gold standard is -0.23 to 11% for the Fleming method and 1.6-11% for the three-point SI-GFR. The Fleming technique outperforms the method currently recommended by the international guidelines, and is simpler as only one equation is required for all patients instead of separate equations for adults and children. We propose that the SS-GFR technique of Fleming replace the methods currently recommended by the international and BNMS guidelines for routine measurement of GFR for expected results greater than 30 ml/min/1.73 m. A thorough system of measurement checks should be implemented for all methods of GFR assessment; the perceived lack of opportunity for quality control checks to be performed on the result of a single-sample measurement is addressed in the companion paper of this study.

  9. Natural Hirudin Increases Rat Flap Viability by Anti-Inflammation via PARs/p38/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural hirudin on rat random skin flap viability and to determine the mechanism. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. After the dorsal skin flap operation (3 cm × 10 cm in size, subcutaneous injections of 6 ATU hirudin were administered to group H (n=24 every 12 h, while group C (n=24 received an equal volume of 0.9% normal saline. Six rats from each group were euthanized 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after the operation. A full skin sample was collected from these rats to measure the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK, phospho-p38- (Pp38- MAPK, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65, phosphor-NF-κB (pNF-κB p65, tumour necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM- 1 levels via western blot (WB assays. The results showed that flap viability was significantly higher in the hirudin-treated group, which showed a reduced inflammatory response compared with the control group. The Pp38/p38, pNF-κB p65/NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-6, and ICAM-1 levels in the hirudin-treated group were lower than those in the control group. The results demonstrated that hirudin could improve random skin flap viability and suggested that this effect maybe occurs by blocking the thrombin/proteinase-activated receptors (PARs/p38/NF-κB signalling pathway, thus decreasing the inflammatory response.

  10. Cell viability and MRI performance of highly efficient polyol-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando [Universidad de las Américas de Puebla, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas (Mexico); Gutiérrez-García, Eric [Instituto Literario, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (Mexico); Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia, E-mail: shid@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Física (Mexico); López-Vasquez, Ciro; Brito-Barrera, Yazmín A. [Universidad de las Américas de Puebla, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas (Mexico); Flores-Tochihuitl, Julia [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Facultad de Estomatología (Mexico); Angulo-Molina, Aracely [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas (Mexico); Reyes-Leyva, Julio R. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Oriente (CIBIOR) (Mexico); González-Rodríguez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery L. [Texas Christian University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Pal, Umapada [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo, Instituto de Física (Mexico); and others

    2016-11-15

    This work aimed at determining conditions that would allow us to control the size of the NPs and create a system with characteristics apt for biomedical applications. We describe a comprehensive study on the synthesis and physical characterization of two highly sensitive sets of triethylene glycol (TREG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to be evaluated for use as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The ferrofluids demonstrated excellent colloidal stability in deionized water at pH 7.0 as indicated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) data. The magnetic relaxivities, r{sub 2}, were measured on a 1.5 T clinical MRI instrument. Values in the range from 205 to 257 mM{sup −1} s{sup −1} were obtained, varying proportionally to the SPIONs’ sizes and coating nature. Further in vitro cell viability tests and in vivo biodistribution analyses of the intravenously administered nanoparticles showed that the prepared systems have good biocompatibility and migrate to several organs, mainly the meninges, spleen, and liver. Based on these results, our findings demonstrated the potential utility of these nanosystems as clinical contrast agents for MR imaging.

  11. Fewer study participants needed to demonstrate superior antidepressant efficacy when using the Hamilton melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) as outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica

    2016-01-01

    Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item melanc...... questions addressed in this study.  Conclusions Both for ethical and financial reasons it is of interest to minimize the number of participants in clinical trials. Therefore, we suggest employing the HAM-D6 as outcome measure in clinical trials of depression.......Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item...... melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) may be more informative than other scales, due to its superior psychometric properties. In the present study we investigated whether the HAM-D6 had higher informativeness than the HAM-D17 based on data from a randomized...

  12. Surface Ozone Measured at GLOBE Schools in the Czech Republic: A Demonstration of the Importance of Student Contribution to the Larger Science Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret R.; Creilson, John K.; Henderson, Bryana L.; Ladd, Irene H.; Fishman, Jack; Votapkova, Dana; Krpcova, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based education and science program, developed to give students a chance to perform real science by making measurements, analyzing data, and participating in research in collaboration with scientists. As part of the GLOBE Surface Ozone Protocol and with the assistance of the TEREZA Association in the Czech Republic, schools in the Czech Republic have been making and reporting daily measurements of surface ozone and surface meteorological data since 2001. Using a hand-held ozone monitor developed for GLOBE, students at several Czech schools have generated multiyear data records of surface ozone from 2001 to 2005. Analysis of the data shows surface ozone levels were anomalously high during the summer of 2003 relative to other summers. These findings are consistent with measurements by the European Environment Agency that highlights the summer of 2003 as having exceptionally long-lasting and spatially extensive episodes of high surface ozone, especially during the first half of August. Further analysis of the summer s prevailing meteorology shows not only that it was one of the hottest on record, a finding also seen in the student data, but the conditions for production of ozone were ideal. Findings such as these increase student, teacher, and scientist confidence in the utility of the GLOBE data for engaging budding scientists in the collection, analysis, and eventual interpretation of the data for inquiry-based education.

  13. Thermoforming of tracheal cartilage: viability, shape change, and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-10-01

    Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72 degrees C) for 5-100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (lambda = 1.45 microm, 220-400 J/cm(2)). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66 degrees C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm(2) (peak temperatures 65+/-10 degrees C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2+/-4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5+/-3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A pilot study demonstrating a non-invasive method for the measurement of protein turnover in skin disorders: application to psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, Claire L; Fitzmaurice, Sarah; Lindwall, Glen; Li, Kelvin W; Hellerstein, Marc K; Maibach, Howard I; Liao, Wilson; Turner, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of epidermal kinetics in psoriasis have relied on invasive biopsy procedures or the use of radioactive labels. We previously developed a non-invasive method for measuring keratin synthesis in human skin using deuterated water labeling, serial collection of tape strips and measurement of deuterium enrichment in protein by mass spectrometry. This powerful method can be applied to measure other skin proteins and lipids collected by tape stripping. Here, for the first time, we apply this technique to investigate the epidermal kinetics of psoriasis, the first step in defining a kinetic profile for normal skin versus activated or quiescent psoriatic skin. Psoriatic subjects were given (2)H2O orally as twice-daily doses for 16-38 days. Affected and unaffected skin was sampled by tape stripping and washing (modified Pachtman method). Proteins were isolated from the tape strips by a method that enriches for keratin. Turnover times were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Kinetic data were compared to transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Deuterium-labeled protein from lesional psoriatic skin appeared at the skin surface within 3-8 days of label administration, whereas labeled protein from non-lesional skin requires 10-20 days to appear. Psoriatic skin had similar rate of growth despite varying anatomic location. Proteins recovered from tape strips were identified by nanoscale liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Isolated peptides were >98% from keratin in uninvolved skin and >72% keratin in psoriatic skin. Revealing that one-quarter of all newly synthesized proteins in psoriatic skin are antimicrobial defense and other immune-related proteins. TEWL values were greater in lesional than non-lesional skin, suggesting barrier compromise in psoriatic skin despite increased clinical thickness. This simple, elegant, and non-invasive method for measuring epidermal protein synthesis, which can also be adapted to measure epidermal lipids

  15. Assessing the Viability of Tiger Subpopulations in a Fragmented Landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew Linkie; Guillaume Chapron; Deborah J. Martyr; Jeremy Holden; Nigel Leader-Williams

    2006-01-01

    .... This study aimed to provide such information for tigers in the Kerinci Seblat (KS) region, Sumatra, by identifying and assessing subpopulation viability under different management strategies. 2...

  16. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of storage conditions on the viability of enteropathogenics bacteria in biobanking of human stools: Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae O: 1.

  17. In vitro electrochemical corrosion and cell viability studies on nickel-free stainless steel orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahinejad, Erfan; Hadianfard, Mohammad Jafar; Macdonald, Digby Donald; Sharifi-Asl, Samin; Mozafari, Masoud; Walker, Kenneth J; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Madihally, Sundararajan V; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and cell viability behaviors of nanostructured, nickel-free stainless steel implants were studied and compared with AISI 316L. The electrochemical studies were conducted by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements in a simulated body fluid. Cytocompatibility was also evaluated by the adhesion behavior of adult human stem cells on the surface of the samples. According to the results, the electrochemical behavior is affected by a compromise among the specimen's structural characteristics, comprising composition, density, and grain size. The cell viability is interpreted by considering the results of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments.

  18. In Vitro Electrochemical Corrosion and Cell Viability Studies on Nickel-Free Stainless Steel Orthopedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahinejad, Erfan; Hadianfard, Mohammad Jafar; Macdonald, Digby Donald; Sharifi-Asl, Samin; Mozafari, Masoud; Walker, Kenneth J.; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and cell viability behaviors of nanostructured, nickel-free stainless steel implants were studied and compared with AISI 316L. The electrochemical studies were conducted by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements in a simulated body fluid. Cytocompatibility was also evaluated by the adhesion behavior of adult human stem cells on the surface of the samples. According to the results, the electrochemical behavior is affected by a compromise among the specimen's structural characteristics, comprising composition, density, and grain size. The cell viability is interpreted by considering the results of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments. PMID:23630603

  19. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  20. The effect of storage temperature and duration on northern red oak acorn viability and vigour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Noland; Andree E. Morneault; Daniel C. Dey; Dave. Deugo

    2013-01-01

    Three separate collections of Ontario sources of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns were made to determine the effects of long-term cold storage at +2°C, -1°C, and -2°C on their viability and vigour. We measured acorn moisture content, percent germination during storage, speed of germination and total germination...

  1. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP) Delivery Order 0042: Development of the Equivalent Overload Model, Demonstration of the Failure of Superposition, and Relaxation/Redistribution Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    measured and recorded per the standard. The raw data from this test is plotted against several comparison curve, Figure 1. These include “ Harter -T” data...Data 2I05 Harter T NASGRO AGARD v6 A5P10XX Data EIFSv8 7 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 3.1.2.1 Specimen Geometry All...4% cold working residual stress, NASGRO FCG rates for 2024-T351, and Harter -T FCG rates for 2024-T351. The 102 Approved for public release

  2. Curcumin Alters Neural Plasticity and Viability of Intact Hippocampal Circuits and Attenuates Behavioral Despair and COX-2 Expression in Chronically Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ga-Young; Kim, Hyun-Bum; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Lee, Seok; Kim, Min-Ji; Choi, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung-Ok; Kim, Sang-Seong; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a major diarylheptanoid component of Curcuma longa with traditional usage for anxiety and depression. It has been known for the anti-inflammatory, antistress, and neurotropic effects. Here we examined curcumin effect in neural plasticity and cell viability. 60-channel multielectrode array was applied on organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) to monitor the effect of 10 μM curcumin in long-term depression (LTD) through low-frequency stimulation (LFS) to the Schaffer collaterals and commissural pathways. Cell viability was assayed by propidium iodide uptake test in OHSCs. In addition, the influence of oral curcumin administration on rat behavior was assessed with the forced swim test (FST). Finally, protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured by Western blot in chronically stressed rats. Our results demonstrated that 10 μM curcumin attenuated LTD and reduced cell death. It also recovered the behavior immobility of FST, rescued the attenuated BDNF expression, and inhibited the enhancement of COX-2 expression in stressed animals. These findings indicate that curcumin can enhance postsynaptic electrical reactivity and cell viability in intact neural circuits with antidepressant-like effects, possibly through the upregulation of BDNF and reduction of inflammatory factors in the brain.

  3. Curcumin Alters Neural Plasticity and Viability of Intact Hippocampal Circuits and Attenuates Behavioral Despair and COX-2 Expression in Chronically Stressed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a major diarylheptanoid component of Curcuma longa with traditional usage for anxiety and depression. It has been known for the anti-inflammatory, antistress, and neurotropic effects. Here we examined curcumin effect in neural plasticity and cell viability. 60-channel multielectrode array was applied on organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs to monitor the effect of 10 μM curcumin in long-term depression (LTD through low-frequency stimulation (LFS to the Schaffer collaterals and commissural pathways. Cell viability was assayed by propidium iodide uptake test in OHSCs. In addition, the influence of oral curcumin administration on rat behavior was assessed with the forced swim test (FST. Finally, protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 were measured by Western blot in chronically stressed rats. Our results demonstrated that 10 μM curcumin attenuated LTD and reduced cell death. It also recovered the behavior immobility of FST, rescued the attenuated BDNF expression, and inhibited the enhancement of COX-2 expression in stressed animals. These findings indicate that curcumin can enhance postsynaptic electrical reactivity and cell viability in intact neural circuits with antidepressant-like effects, possibly through the upregulation of BDNF and reduction of inflammatory factors in the brain.

  4. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon; Efecto sobre la viabilidad en poblaciones de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuestas a Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M. [Depto. de Biologia, ININ, Km.36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear. inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 {+-} 7, 12 {+-} 2, 43 {+-} 5, 25 {+-} 7, 14 {+-} 2, 6 {+-} 2, 78 {+-} 1, 58 {+-} 5 and 74 {+-} 7 k B/m{sup 3} with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors.

  5. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  6. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Suppression of electron correlations in the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 under ambient pressure demonstrated by As75 NMR/NQR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Y.; Roy, B.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-03-01

    The static and the dynamic spin correlations in the low-temperature collapsed tetragonal and the high-temperature tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 have been investigated by As75 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements. Through the temperature (T) dependence of the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the Knight shifts, although stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin correlations are realized in the high-temperature tetragonal phase, no trace of the AFM spin correlations can be found in the nonsuperconducting, low-temperature, collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase. Given that there is no magnetic broadening in As75 NMR spectra, together with the T-independent behavior of magnetic susceptibility χ and the T dependence of 1/T1Tχ, we conclude that Fe spin correlations are completely quenched statically and dynamically in the nonsuperconducting cT phase in CaFe2As2.

  8. Measurement of dabigatran: previously demonstrated Hemoclot® Thrombin Inhibitor assay reagent instability on Sysmex CS-2100i is no longer an issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comuth, Willemijn; Faaborg, Louise; Henriksen, Linda Østervig

    2017-01-01

    The Hemoclot® Thrombin Inhibitor (HTI) assay has been recommended for measurement of dabigatran concentrations in specific clinical situations. Traditionally, reagents for biochemical assays are prepared from instructions found in the package insert. For the HTI reagents the manufacturer recommends...... incubating the reagents much longer than indicated in the package insert. These recommendations are added to the application sheets designed for different analyzers. Many clinicians and laboratory personnel may be unaware of the discrepancy between the two instructions, resulting in incorrect handling...... of the reagents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the two different preparation methods on reagent stability and test results. For the standard concentration range, reagent stability on Sysmex CS-2100i was only two hours instead of the eight hours indicated by the producer when following...

  9. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  10. Establishing guidelines to retain viability of probiotics during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess

  11. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated by field artificial ...

  12. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neuronal cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Vulto, P; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  13. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of biological material that is capable of...

  14. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated.

  15. Studies On Fermentation, Alcohol Production And Viability In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reverse was true in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Yeasts with high viability tended to have high alcohol production ability in the sucrose medium and vice-versa. KEY WORDS: Alcohol production; fermentation; induced mutants; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; viability. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ...

  16. The Economy and Democracy: Viability and Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economy and Democracy: Viability and Challenges for Sustainable Democratisation in Nigeria. ... Economic and Policy Review ... the viability for developing sustainable democracy in Nigeria against the background of the country's enormous economic potentials and the economic reforms introduced following the ...

  17. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  18. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  19. Effects of polymer-coated metal oxide nanoparticles on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) neutrophil viability and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, V A; Katzenback, B A; Stafford, J L; Belosevic, M; Goss, G G

    2015-02-01

    Exposure effects from polyacrylic acid (PAA) metal-oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, CeO2, Fe2O3, ZnO) on fish neutrophil viability and effector functions (degranulation, respiratory burst, inflammatory gene expression) were investigated using primary kidney goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) neutrophils as a model. Several studies have reported cytotoxic effects of NPs but there are limited reports on their potential to perturb the innate immune system of aquatic organisms. PAA-TiO2 significantly decreased neutrophil viability in a time and dose-dependent manner at all measured time points (0-48 h) and concentrations (0-200 µg/mL). Maximum viability decreased by (mean ± SEM): 67.1 ± 3.3%, 78.4 ± 4.2% and 74.9 ± 5.0% when exposed to 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL for 48 h, respectively. PAA-ZnO also significantly decreased neutrophil viability but only at 48 h exposures at higher concentrations. Neutrophil degranulation increased by approximately 3% after 30 min and by 8% after 4 h when exposed to sublethal doses (10 µg/mL) of PAA-CeO2 or PAA-Fe2O3. All PAA-NPs induced an increase in neutrophil respiratory burst when exposed to 10 µg/mL for 30 and 60 min, however, PAA-Fe2O3 was the only NP where the response was significant. Lastly, NPs altered the expression of a number of pro-inflammatory and immune genes, where PAA-TiO2 most significantly increased the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes (il-1b, ifng) in neutrophils by 3 and 2.5 times, respectively. Together, these data demonstrate that goldfish neutrophils can be negatively affected from exposures to PAA-coated NPs and are functionally responsive to specific core-material properties at sublethal doses. These changes could perturb the innate response and affect the ability of fish to respond to pathogens.

  20. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  1. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Scheffler, Patrick; Yu, Alice; Egiziano, Giordano; Mutter, Andrew; Bacon, Simon; Carli, Franco; Daskalopoulos, Marios E; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2011-01-01

    Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9) and non-smokers (n = 53) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1) after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition) and 2) immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition). At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular function

  2. The effect of glucocorticoids on tendon cell viability in human tendon explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Wai Ting; Chuen Fu, Sai; Man Lee, Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Previous studies on the culture of human tenocytes have shown that dexamethasone and triamcino-lone reduce cell viability, suppress cell proliferation, and reduce collagen synthesis. However, such cell cultures lack the extracellular matrix and three-dimensional structure of normal tendons, which affects their response to stimuli. We established a human tendon explant culture system and tested the effects of dexamethasone and triamcinolone on cell viability. Methods Primary human tendon explant cultures were prepared from healthy hamstring tendons. Tendon strips were harvested from hamstring tendons and cultured in 24-well plates in Dulbecco’s modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum. The tendon explants were treated with 0 μM (control), 10 μM, or 100 μM dexamethasone sodium phosphate or 0 μM (control), 10 μM, or 100 μM triamcinolone acetonide in DMEM for 96 h. Cell viability was measured by Alamar blue assay before and after glucocorticoid treatment. Results Incubation with 10 μM and 100 μM dexamethasone reduced cell viability in human tendon explants by 35% and 45%, respectively, as compared to a 6% increase in the controls (p = 0.01, mixed-effects ANOVA). Triamcinolone at 10 μM and 100 μM reduced cell viability by 33% and 36%, respectively, as compared to a 9% increase in the controls (p = 0.07, mixed-effects ANOVA). Interpretation Human tendon explant cultures can be used to study the effects of glucocorticoids on human tendon. Dexamethasone and triamcinolone suppress the cell viability of human tendon in its natural 3-dimensional environment with matrix anchorage. Human tendon explant cultures provide a species-specific model for further investigation of the effects of glucocorticoids on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix of human tendon, and on its mechanical properties. PMID:19421908

  3. Development and demonstration of a method to monitor the effects of measures to reduce VOC emissions in the EU. LIFE 95/NL/A11/NL/365/ZHL [1996-1998] (Final Report )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Oss, R.F. van

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, TNO was granted by the European Commission to carry out in the framework of the LIFE programme a project entitled "Development and dem-onstration of a method to monitor the effects of measures to reduce VOC emis-sions in the EU". An additional grant was supplied by the Dutch Ministry for

  4. Myocardial viability estimation during the recovery phase of stress echocardiography after acute beta-blocker administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Stefanos E; Feringa, Harm H H; Bax, Jeroen J; Elhendy, Abdu; Dunkelgrun, Martin; Vidakovic, Radosav; Hoeks, S E; van Domburg, Ron; Valhema, Roelf; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Poldermans, Don

    2007-04-01

    Myocardial viability assessment in severely dysfunctional segments by dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is less sensitive than nuclear scanning. To assess the additional value of using the recovery phase of DSE after acute beta-blocker administration for identifying viable myocardium. The study included 49 consecutive patients with ejection fraction (LVEF)DISA-SPECT) evaluation for viability of severely dysfunctional segments. Patients with >or=4 viable segments were considered viable. Coronary revascularization followed within 3 months in all patients. Radionuclide evaluation of LVEF was performed before and 12 months after revascularization. Viability with DISA-SPECT was detected in 463 (59%) segments, while 154 (19.7%) segments presented as scar. The number of viable segments increased from 415 (53%) at DSE to 463 (59%) at DSE and recovery, and the number of viable patients increased from 43 to 49 respectively. LVEF improved by >or=5% in 27 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, DSE with recovery phase was the only independent predictor of >or=5% LVEF improvement after revascularization (OR 14.6, CI 1.4-133.7). In this study, we demonstrate that the recovery phase of DSE has an increased sensitivity for viability estimation compared to low-high dose DSE.

  5. Effects of the utilization of homeopathic elements in commercial diluent on swine sperm viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco Rafael Martins; Vuaden, Erlete Rosalina; de Paula Coelho, Cideli; Bonamin, Leoni Villano; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Benites, Nilson Roberti; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Ortiz D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena; Visintin, José Antônio; Marques, Mariana Groke

    2011-03-01

    It has been speculated that the homeopathic treatment of sperm cells in order to improve semen quality could be promising. However, few data is available and its use in spermatozoa requires investigation. It is well established that mitochondrial membrane potential is an important viability parameter of spermatozoa and it is intimately related to reproductive efficiency. In this manner, new technologies in order to improve the activity of sperm cells and, finally, the fecundity of swine herds are of extremely importance. Due to the lack of knowledge of homeopathic treatment effect on spermatozoa, the aim of the present study was to verify the effect of three different homeopathic treatments on viability of boar sperm cells. Three homeopathic treatments composed by Pulsatila CH6, Pulsatila and Avena CH6, Avena CH6 and one control treatment (sucrose) were added to diluted boar semen, which were cooled for 24 or 48 h. Interestingly, no positive effect of homeopathic treatments was observed over semen viability. However, it was demonstrated that the 24 h of cooling storage provided more viable sperm cells when compared to the 48-h period. This effect of storage period on sperm viability was assessed by intact plasmatic membrane, intact acrosome and mitochondrial membrane potential evaluation.

  6. Viability of Hand and Wrist Photogoniometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton G; Saunders, Rebecca J; Desale, Sameer; Means, Kenneth R

    2017-04-01

    No goniometric technique is both maximally convenient and completely accurate, although photogoniometry (ie, picture taking to facilitate digital angle measurement) shows promise in this regard. Our purpose was to test the feasibility and reliability of a photogoniometric protocol designed to measure wrist and digit range of motion in general. Two independent observers examined a sample of joints in both normal and abnormal hands according to a photogoniometric protocol. Interrater and intrarater correlation were calculated, and these measurements were compared with measurements made by a third independent examiner with a manual goniometer. The photo-based measurements were reliable within and between observers; however, only a minority of these measurements were in agreement with manually collected values. At present, photogoniometry is not an acceptable alternative to manual goniometry for determining wrist and digit range of motion in general. Joint-specific photogoniometry should be the subject of future study, as should relevant imaging and software technology.

  7. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads

  8. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  9. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton T Laidlaw

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs, or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs. Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  10. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Clinton T; Condon, Jacob M; Belk, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs), or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs). Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  11. Viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus keratocytes after cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefei; Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm(2)) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours.

  12. The Effect of zeolite addition on viability of paddy straw mushroom spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to increase the viability of the paddy straw mushroom spawn by adding natural stone on the media’s composition for the paddy straw mushroom spawn. Mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom was take from the pure development of the paddy straw mushroom which was planted on the various treatment for media e.i. 100% cotton media and rice bran + 0% zeolite (A, 75% cotton media and rice bran + 25% zeolite (B, 50% cotton media and rice bran + 50% zeolite (C, 25% cotton and rice bran + 75% zeolite (D, 0% cotton media and rice bran + 100% rice bran (E. Each treatment was observed for the length of mycelium, the concentration of reduced sugar, total carbon and water content, spawn media weight, pH and temperature. Results demonstrated that there is a positive effect of zeolite added to the paddy straw mushroom media. The zeolite able to adsorbed nutrient through its pores, so the mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom able to use the nutrient gradually and equally appropriate with its growth. Therefore the viability of the paddy straw mushroom is increase. Result showed that the B is the best viability in the Potetos Dectrose Agar (PDA media, that has viability power up to 50 days after inoculation and the temperature are 29,6 0C, then followed by treatment C, D, A and E, each has viability power up to 42; 38; 34; 22 days after inoculation and the maximum length of each mycelium are 17.5; 9.2; 0.9; 0.5 cm, but in the treatment D being contaminated by Aspergillus sp.

  13. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  14. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...

  15. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  16. Maintaining yeast viability in continuous primary beer fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Côrte‐Real, Manuela; Vicente, António A

    2014-01-01

    .... This work was aimed at solving one of the most relevant obstacles to implementing ICT on a large scale in beer fermentations, namely the control of biomass and the maintenance of cell viability in a gas‐lift bioreactor...

  17. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-31

    Hendry et al., 1992) and A. saccharinum (Pukacka and Ratajczak, 2006) and intermediate seeds like Azadirachta indica (Varghese and. Naithani, 2002), Coffea Arabica (Dussert et al., 2006), indicating that loss of seed viability ...

  18. Femtosecond optical transfection of cells:viability and efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Stevenson; B. Agate; X. Tsampoula; P. Fischer; C. T. A. Brown; W. Sibbett; A. Riches; F. Gunn-Moore; K. Dholakia

    2006-01-01

    .... However, there remains no study into the true efficiency of this procedure. Here, we present a detailed analysis of transfection efficiency and cell viability for femtosecond optical transfection using a titanium sapphire laser at 800 nm...

  19. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  20. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Benniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  1. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate

  2. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  3. The Using of Morphometric Parameters in Establishing the Viability of Mouse Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Cean

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate if morphometric parameters can be used in establishing the viability of the mouse embryos. For the experiments, we used mouse mature oocytes and embryos in vivo obtained. The morphometric parameters taken into consideration were: pellucid zone thickness, outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter and for oocytes and zygotes the cellular mass diameter was also measured. The oocytes were measured immediately after recovery then they were in vitro fertilized. After 4-6 hours after fecundation the oocytes that manifested the extrusion of the second polar body (zygotes were measured, and at 24 hours after fecundation the unfertilized oocytes were also measured. The embryos were obtained from mouse females superovulated with gonadotrope hormones (eCG and hCG. For the experiments we used embryos in different developmental stages (2, 4 and 8 cells, morula and blastocyst. After recovery the embryos were morphologically analyzed and divided in viable (quality code 1, 2 and 3 and nonviable embryos (quality code 4 (IETS Manual, 1989 and they were measured for establishing the morphometric parameters value. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Minitab 15, and T test. For the oocytes it was noticed that the pellucid zone thickness is registering a slightly increase if the oocyte is fertilized, without significantly difference from recovery, but if the oocyte is not fertilized the pellucid zone thickness decrease from 8.3±1.5 μm to 8.0±1.5 μm. For the embryos in early developmental stages only the thickness of the pellucid zone can be an indication of the viability. For the embryos in morula stage the thickness of the pellucid zone and inner diameter can be used as indicator of viability. For the embryos in blastocyst stage the thickness of the pellucid zone, the inner and outer diameter can be used as a viability indicator.

  4. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  5. Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakhamanesh Mostafavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of open questions in human evolutionary genetics would become tractable if we were able to directly measure evolutionary fitness. As a step towards this goal, we developed a method to examine whether individual genetic variants, or sets of genetic variants, currently influence viability. The approach consists in testing whether the frequency of an allele varies across ages, accounting for variation in ancestry. We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. Across the genome, we found only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3. These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. Testing viability effects of sets of genetic variants that jointly influence 1 of 42 traits, we detected a number of strong signals. In participants of the UK Biobank of British ancestry, we found that variants that delay puberty timing are associated with a longer parental life span (P~6.2 × 10-6 for fathers and P~2.0 × 10-3 for mothers, consistent with epidemiological studies. Similarly, variants associated with later age at first birth are associated with a longer maternal life span (P~1.4 × 10-3. Signals are also observed for variants influencing cholesterol levels, risk of coronary artery disease (CAD, body mass index, as well as risk of asthma. These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. We also found marked differences between males and females, most notably at the CHRNA3 locus, and variants associated with risk of CAD and cholesterol levels. Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans.

  6. On the Viability of Conspiratorial Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    David Robert Grimes

    2016-01-01

    Conspiratorial ideation is the tendency of individuals to believe that events and power relations are secretly manipulated by certain clandestine groups and organisations. Many of these ostensibly explanatory conjectures are non-falsifiable, lacking in evidence or demonstrably false, yet public acceptance remains high. Efforts to convince the general public of the validity of medical and scientific findings can be hampered by such narratives, which can create the impression of doubt or ...

  7. Tissue viability monitoring: a multi-sensor wearable platform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Davidson, Alan; Buis, Arjan; Glesk, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient's health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  8. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  9. Bacterial abundance and viability in rainwater associated with cyclones, stationary fronts and typhoons in southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Murata, Kotaro; Toyonaga, Satoshi; Zhang, Daizhou

    2017-10-01

    The abundance and viability of bacterial cells in rainwater at a suburban site in southwestern Japan between October 2014 and September 2015 were measured and their distinctiveness, according to synoptic weather systems, i.e., cyclones (cold fronts), stationary fronts (including Meiyu and non-Meiyu fronts) and typhoons, was examined. On average, the cell concentration of bacteria in the rainwater was 2.3 ± 1.5 × 104 cells mL-1, and bacterial viability, the ratio of viable cells to total cells, was 80 ± 10%. In the rainwater of cyclones when clouds were induced by the intrusion of continental air, the bacterial concentration was higher (3.5 ± 1.6 × 104 cells mL-1) and the viability was lower (75 ± 8%) than in the rainwater of other types. In the rainwater of Meiyu fronts and typhoons when clouds were significantly influenced by marine air, bacterial concentrations were 1.5 ± 0.5 × 104 and 1.2 ± 0.3 × 104 cells mL-1, and bacterial viabilities were 84 ± 7% and 85 ± 7%, respectively. In the rainwater of non-Meiyu stationary fronts, the bacterial concentration was 2.4 ± 1.6 × 104 cells mL-1, and the viability was 78 ± 14%. Abundant bacteria were associated with ions nss-SO42-, nss-Ca2+, and NO3- in rainwater, but bacterial concentrations did not correlate with the ratios of airborne particle concentrations to the precipitation amounts. Further investigations with correlation and principal component analysis combining bacteria and ion species revealed that bacteria in the rainwater were likely enclosed in clouds at the stage of cloud formation in addition to below-cloud removal, and bacteria involved in the rainwater did not show confirmable growth.

  10. Do increased drilling speed and depth affect bone viability at implant site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Nazhvanai, Ali Dehghani; Farahmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Pourali, Sara Yasour; Hosseinpour, Sepanta

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing the drilling speed and depth during implant site preparation on bone viability. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, participants were divided into four groups based on the speed and depth of drilling at the first molar site in the mandible. Participants underwent drilling at Group 1: 1000 rpm and 10 mm depth, Group 2: 1500 rpm and 10 mm, Group 3: 1000 rpm and 13 mm, and Group 4: 1500 rpm and 13 mm. Obtained specimens were assessed histologically to the qualitative measurement of bone viability, and the percentage of vital bone were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. ANOVA was used to compare age and the mean percentage of vital bone and Tukey's test as post hoc was applied for pairwise comparison of groups. Results: A total of 100 participants were studied in four groups (25 subjects in each group). Histological evaluation revealed a low level of bone viability maintenance in all groups. Histomorphometric analysis showed the mean percentage of vital bone was 9.5 ± 3.91% in Group 1, 8.86 ± 3.84% in Group 2, 8.32 ± 3.80% in Group 3, and 4.27 ± 3.22% in Group 4. A significant difference was noted in the mean percentage of bone viability among the four groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: It seems that increasing the drilling speed or depth during dental implant site preparation does not affect the mean percentage of cell viability, while the increase in both depth and speed may decrease the percentage of viable cells. PMID:29109748

  11. Serum concentrations of Ang-2 and Flt-1 may be predictive of pregnancy outcome in women with pregnancies of uncertain viability: a phase I exploratory prognostic factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alison; Deb, Shilpa; Campbell, Bruce; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2017-10-26

    The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of Ang-1, Ang-2, Flt-1, IL-15 and/or TRAIL can be used to predict outcome in women with pregnancies of uncertain viability (PUVs). Women presenting to the Early Pregnancy Unit at the Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham between 17.06.14 and 01.09.15 were prospectively recruited. Serum concentrations of Ang-1, Ang-2, Flt-1, IL-15 and TRAIL were measured in women with PUVs. Women were followed-up according to departmental protocols until viability was determined. Biomarker concentrations were correlated with pregnancy outcome. Ninety-four PUVs were studied, of which 61 (64.9%) were subsequently proven to be viable. There were statistically significant (p 1), linear (p-valuetrend 1) associations between Ang-2 and Flt-1 concentrations and pregnancy viability such that women with lower concentrations were significantly more likely to have viable pregnancies than women with higher concentrations. In conclusion, Ang-2 and Flt-1 may be useful in predicting outcome in women with PUVs. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Predicting outcome in women with pregnancies of uncertain viability (PUVs) is challenging. There is currently no accurate and reliable method. All PUVs need to be followed-up until a definitive diagnosis of either a viable or non-viable pregnancy can be made. This takes time, utilises limited resources and generates significant anxiety. Recent studies have demonstrated serum concentrations of Ang-1, Ang-2, Flt-1, IL-15 and TRAIL in viable pregnancies are significantly different to those in non-viable or ectopic pregnancies. What the results of this study add: The results from this prospective study of 94 women with PUVs suggest that serum concentrations of Ang-2 and Flt-1 may be able to predict pregnancy viability in cases of uncertainty. Women with PUVs and low concentrations of Ang-2 or Flt-1 are significantly more likely to have viable pregnancies than women with

  12. The viability of acoustic tomography in monitoring the circulation of Monterey Bay

    OpenAIRE

    James H Miller; Rowan, Theresa M.; Ehret, Laura L.; Dees, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of a fifteen month study on the viability of acoustic tomography in monitoring the circulation of Monterey Bay, California. The basis for ocean acoustic tomography is the measurement of travel times of coded acoustic signals between the transceivers. The sound speed field and current structure can be inferred from the fluctuations in the travel times. However, the extreme bathymetry of the Monterey Submarine Canyon complicates the acoustic transmissions in the...

  13. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  14. The Effects of Magnetic Exposure on the Nervous System: A study on the effects of low-strength low-frequency magnetic fields on neurotransmitter exocytosis and cell viability through ionic cyclotron resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveriades, George

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the study of the effects of magnetic exposure on biological systems using amperometry techniques and viability assays. In our prior work based on the cyclotron resonance model, chromaffin cells in physiological saline and Ca2+-free media were exposed for 5 minutes to a 2.7 muT magnetic field, with frequency sweeps going from 30-60 Hz (targeting several ions involved in exocytosis) and 44-48 Hz (targeting specifically Ca2+ ions), with noticeable effects on exocytosis. The present study extended the work on chromaffin cells by covering frequency sweeps for different ions, manipulating the time of exposure and the strength of the magnetic field. Furthermore, amperometry was conducted on acute coronal brain slices, to demonstrate that the recorded effects could be measured on neuronal tissue. The viability of chromaffin cells and primary neuronal cultures exposed to magnetic fields was also addressed. The results demonstrate that cellular exocytosis is sensitive to the frequency of the magnetic field it is exposed to, the strength of the magnetic field and the duration of exposure. No significant effects were established with regards to the viability of the cells exposed to magnetic fields.

  15. Protest Demonstrations, Political Partici

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... and, even a non terrorist demonstrating crowd is a target of terrorist whose goal is to kill and maim in high numbers. Besides, like terrorism, protest demonstration may threaten the political elite, the dominant class and the state. Protests demonstrations have therefore become contextually different in.

  16. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... semantics and pragmatics of the demonstratives will be examined. We will focus on the deictic and qualitative features embedded in the demonstrative forms. Of particular interest will be what we suggest to be a grammaticalization process involving the Ewe proximal demonstrative. 182 Legan Journal of the HUMANITIES.

  17. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  18. High-content assays for characterizing the viability and morphology of 3D cancer spheroid cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirenko, Oksana; Mitlo, Trisha; Hesley, Jayne; Luke, Steve; Owens, Windsor; Cromwell, Evan F

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in using three-dimensional (3D) spheroids for modeling cancer and tissue biology to accelerate translation research. Development of higher throughput assays to quantify phenotypic changes in spheroids is an active area of investigation. The goal of this study was to develop higher throughput high-content imaging and analysis methods to characterize phenotypic changes in human cancer spheroids in response to compound treatment. We optimized spheroid cell culture protocols using low adhesion U-bottom 96- and 384-well plates for three common cancer cell lines and improved the workflow with a one-step staining procedure that reduces assay time and minimizes variability. We streamlined imaging acquisition by using a maximum projection algorithm that combines cellular information from multiple slices through a 3D object into a single image, enabling efficient comparison of different spheroid phenotypes. A custom image analysis method was implemented to provide multiparametric characterization of single-cell and spheroid phenotypes. We report a number of readouts, including quantification of marker-specific cell numbers, measurement of cell viability and apoptosis, and characterization of spheroid size and shape. Assay performance was assessed using established anticancer cytostatic and cytotoxic drugs. We demonstrated concentration-response effects for different readouts and measured IC50 values, comparing 3D spheroid results to two-dimensional cell cultures. Finally, a library of 119 approved anticancer drugs was screened across a wide range of concentrations using HCT116 colon cancer spheroids. The proposed methods can increase performance and throughput of high-content assays for compound screening and evaluation of anticancer drugs with 3D cell models.

  19. Medical applications of diamond magnetometry: commercial viability

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Matthew W.; Morley, Gavin W.

    2017-01-01

    The sensing of magnetic fields has important applications in medicine, particularly to the sensing of signals in the heart and brain. The fields associated with biomagnetism are exceptionally weak, being many orders of magnitude smaller than the Earth's magnetic field. To measure them requires that we use the most sensitive detection techniques, however, to be commercially viable this must be done at an affordable cost. The current state of the art uses costly SQUID magnetometers, although th...

  20. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  1. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  2. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  3. Viability tests of LIPI-MC mould collection in ampoule of L-drying preservation after one year of storage at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on viability test of several LIPI-MC mould isolates in ampoule of L-drying preservation after one year storage at 5º C had been conducted. In this study, cell survival level of 34 ampoules number from eight mould generas and 17 species had been counted. The objective of this study was to observe the survival or viability level of several mould isolates in ampoule L-drying preservation after one year storage at 5º C. The measurement of viability level was based on the average of colony forming unit density (CFU/ml. The result showed that there were seven mould isolates have hingh viabilitiy, 18 isolates have medium viabilitiy, two isolates have low viability, and five isolates have lost its viability.

  4. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  5. Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Deborah; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) mission is to demonstrate interactive satellite swarms capable of collecting, exchanging and transmitting multi-point scientific measurements. Satellite swarms enable a wide array of scientific, commercial and academic research not achievable with a single satellite. The EDSN satellites are scheduled to be launched into space as secondary payloads on the first flight of the Super Strypi launch vehicle no earlier than Oct. 29, 2015.

  6. The viability of crowdsourcing for survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Tara S; Sharek, David J; Meade, Adam W; Wiebe, Eric N

    2011-09-01

    Online contract labor portals (i.e., crowdsourcing) have recently emerged as attractive alternatives to university participant pools for the purposes of collecting survey data for behavioral research. However, prior research has not provided a thorough examination of crowdsourced data for organizational psychology research. We found that, as compared with a traditional university participant pool, crowdsourcing respondents were older, were more ethnically diverse, and had more work experience. Additionally, the reliability of the data from the crowdsourcing sample was as good as or better than the corresponding university sample. Moreover, measurement invariance generally held across these groups. We conclude that the use of these labor portals is an efficient and appropriate alternative to a university participant pool, despite small differences in personality and socially desirable responding across the samples. The risks and advantages of crowdsourcing are outlined, and an overview of practical and ethical guidelines is provided.

  7. Viability of Azotobacter consortium in auxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulaika, Enny; Solikhah, Farihatus; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, Nengah Dwianita; Shovitri, Maya

    2017-06-01

    Azotobacter is a kind of rhizobacteria which is abundant in soil and having beneficial for plants due to its ability to produce auxin. Each isolated Azotobacter from Eco Urban Farming ITS were able to produce auxin individually. However, the isolated Azotobacter consortium was prefer to produce more auxin than the individual one. Synergism test were carried out in order to verify non-antagonism among Azotobacter isolates. Auxin production test was conducted by inoculating 100 ml of Azotobacter consortium starter in 400 ml nutrient broth by addition of 1.000 ppm of L-tryptophan while shaking 100 rpm in rotary shaker at room temperature for 8 weeks. Auxin concentration was measured spectrophotometrically according to the Salkowski method. The Azotobacter consortium showed living synergistically and able to produce 1,82 ppm auxin in 2 hours incubation time although the concentration was tend to decrease periodically.

  8. Proteins in Relation to Vigor and Viability of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L. Seed Stored for 26 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Dobiesz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the vigor and viability as well as to determine and compare the contents of selected protein fractions of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. seeds stored for 26 years at temperatures of -14°C and +20°C. The seeds stored at -14°C germinated in 86.3%, while the seeds stored at +20°C did not germinate at all. The viability evaluation was confirmed by the measuring electroconductivity of seed exudates. In seeds stored at -14°C the contents of γ, δ, and β conglutin were 14, 4 and 69 mg g-1 fresh mass, respectively, while in seed stored at +20°C they were 15.5, 3, 65 mg g-1 fresh mass, respectively. One-dimensional electrophoresis of γ and δ conglutin fractions indicated the presence of several intense polypeptide bands with molecular weights from 23.0 to 10.3 kDa. Polypeptide bands with a molecular weight of 22.4 and 19.8 kDa exhibited almost two times higher expression in the seeds stored at -14°C compared to the seeds stored at +20°C. Electrophoresis revealed 310 protein spots on the maps generated for seeds stored at -14°C, and 228 spots for seeds stored at +20°C. In seeds stored at +20°C most polypeptide subunits had a pI ranging from 4.5 to 7 and a molecular weight of 10–97 kDa. The greatest differences in the contents of polypeptides between the analyzed variants was observed within the range of 20–45 kDa (-14°C: 175, +20°C: 115 protein spots and within the range of 65–97 kDa (-14°C: 103, +20°C: 75 protein spots. In seeds stored at +20°C, a clear decline in basic (8–10 pI polypeptides was observed. The study demonstrated that the polypeptides identified as γ and δ conglutins are probably closely related to vigor and viability of seeds.

  9. Proteins in Relation to Vigor and Viability of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) Seed Stored for 26 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiesz, Malwina; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the vigor and viability as well as to determine and compare the contents of selected protein fractions of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds stored for 26 years at temperatures of -14°C and +20°C. The seeds stored at -14°C germinated in 86.3%, while the seeds stored at +20°C did not germinate at all. The viability evaluation was confirmed by the measuring electroconductivity of seed exudates. In seeds stored at -14°C the contents of γ, δ, and β conglutin were 14, 4 and 69 mg g-1 fresh mass, respectively, while in seed stored at +20°C they were 15.5, 3, 65 mg g-1 fresh mass, respectively. One-dimensional electrophoresis of γ and δ conglutin fractions indicated the presence of several intense polypeptide bands with molecular weights from 23.0 to 10.3 kDa. Polypeptide bands with a molecular weight of 22.4 and 19.8 kDa exhibited almost two times higher expression in the seeds stored at -14°C compared to the seeds stored at +20°C. Electrophoresis revealed 310 protein spots on the maps generated for seeds stored at -14°C, and 228 spots for seeds stored at +20°C. In seeds stored at +20°C most polypeptide subunits had a pI ranging from 4.5 to 7 and a molecular weight of 10-97 kDa. The greatest differences in the contents of polypeptides between the analyzed variants was observed within the range of 20-45 kDa (-14°C: 175, +20°C: 115 protein spots) and within the range of 65-97 kDa (-14°C: 103, +20°C: 75 protein spots). In seeds stored at +20°C, a clear decline in basic (8-10 pI) polypeptides was observed. The study demonstrated that the polypeptides identified as γ and δ conglutins are probably closely related to vigor and viability of seeds.

  10. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  11. On the Viability of Conspiratorial Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert

    2016-01-01

    Conspiratorial ideation is the tendency of individuals to believe that events and power relations are secretly manipulated by certain clandestine groups and organisations. Many of these ostensibly explanatory conjectures are non-falsifiable, lacking in evidence or demonstrably false, yet public acceptance remains high. Efforts to convince the general public of the validity of medical and scientific findings can be hampered by such narratives, which can create the impression of doubt or disagreement in areas where the science is well established. Conversely, historical examples of exposed conspiracies do exist and it may be difficult for people to differentiate between reasonable and dubious assertions. In this work, we establish a simple mathematical model for conspiracies involving multiple actors with time, which yields failure probability for any given conspiracy. Parameters for the model are estimated from literature examples of known scandals, and the factors influencing conspiracy success and failure are explored. The model is also used to estimate the likelihood of claims from some commonly-held conspiratorial beliefs; these are namely that the moon-landings were faked, climate-change is a hoax, vaccination is dangerous and that a cure for cancer is being suppressed by vested interests. Simulations of these claims predict that intrinsic failure would be imminent even with the most generous estimates for the secret-keeping ability of active participants—the results of this model suggest that large conspiracies (≥1000 agents) quickly become untenable and prone to failure. The theory presented here might be useful in counteracting the potentially deleterious consequences of bogus and anti-science narratives, and examining the hypothetical conditions under which sustainable conspiracy might be possible. PMID:26812482

  12. On the Viability of Conspiratorial Beliefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert Grimes

    Full Text Available Conspiratorial ideation is the tendency of individuals to believe that events and power relations are secretly manipulated by certain clandestine groups and organisations. Many of these ostensibly explanatory conjectures are non-falsifiable, lacking in evidence or demonstrably false, yet public acceptance remains high. Efforts to convince the general public of the validity of medical and scientific findings can be hampered by such narratives, which can create the impression of doubt or disagreement in areas where the science is well established. Conversely, historical examples of exposed conspiracies do exist and it may be difficult for people to differentiate between reasonable and dubious assertions. In this work, we establish a simple mathematical model for conspiracies involving multiple actors with time, which yields failure probability for any given conspiracy. Parameters for the model are estimated from literature examples of known scandals, and the factors influencing conspiracy success and failure are explored. The model is also used to estimate the likelihood of claims from some commonly-held conspiratorial beliefs; these are namely that the moon-landings were faked, climate-change is a hoax, vaccination is dangerous and that a cure for cancer is being suppressed by vested interests. Simulations of these claims predict that intrinsic failure would be imminent even with the most generous estimates for the secret-keeping ability of active participants-the results of this model suggest that large conspiracies (≥1000 agents quickly become untenable and prone to failure. The theory presented here might be useful in counteracting the potentially deleterious consequences of bogus and anti-science narratives, and examining the hypothetical conditions under which sustainable conspiracy might be possible.

  13. On the Viability of Conspiratorial Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert

    2016-01-01

    Conspiratorial ideation is the tendency of individuals to believe that events and power relations are secretly manipulated by certain clandestine groups and organisations. Many of these ostensibly explanatory conjectures are non-falsifiable, lacking in evidence or demonstrably false, yet public acceptance remains high. Efforts to convince the general public of the validity of medical and scientific findings can be hampered by such narratives, which can create the impression of doubt or disagreement in areas where the science is well established. Conversely, historical examples of exposed conspiracies do exist and it may be difficult for people to differentiate between reasonable and dubious assertions. In this work, we establish a simple mathematical model for conspiracies involving multiple actors with time, which yields failure probability for any given conspiracy. Parameters for the model are estimated from literature examples of known scandals, and the factors influencing conspiracy success and failure are explored. The model is also used to estimate the likelihood of claims from some commonly-held conspiratorial beliefs; these are namely that the moon-landings were faked, climate-change is a hoax, vaccination is dangerous and that a cure for cancer is being suppressed by vested interests. Simulations of these claims predict that intrinsic failure would be imminent even with the most generous estimates for the secret-keeping ability of active participants-the results of this model suggest that large conspiracies (≥1000 agents) quickly become untenable and prone to failure. The theory presented here might be useful in counteracting the potentially deleterious consequences of bogus and anti-science narratives, and examining the hypothetical conditions under which sustainable conspiracy might be possible.

  14. Modeling the impact of high temperatures on microalgal viability and photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchet, Quentin; Laviale, Martin; Arsapin, Nicolas; Bonnefond, Hubert; Bernard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Culture collapse due to high temperatures can significantly impact the profitability of outdoor algal cultivation systems. The objective of this study was to model for the first time the impact of high temperatures on algal activity and viability. Viability measurements on Dunaliella salina cultures were based on cytometry with two fluorescent markers (erythrosine and fluorescein di-acetate), and photosynthetic activity was measured by Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry. Kinetic studies revealed that viability and activity losses during exposure to high temperatures could be described by a Weibull model. Both mortality and activity were shown to be functions of the thermal dose received by the algae, defined as the product of duration of exposure to high temperatures and an exponential function of temperature. Simulations at five climatic locations revealed that culture collapse due to high temperatures could impact productivity of D. salina in non-temperature-controlled outdoor photobioreactors by 35 and 40% in arid and Mediterranean climates, respectively. The model developed in this study can be used to forecast the impact of high temperatures on algal biofuel productivity. When coupled with models predicting the temperature of outdoor cultivation systems, this model can also be used to select the best combination of location, system geometry, and algal species to minimize the risks of culture collapse and therefore maximize biofuel productivity.

  15. Tissue viability 2010 -2015:from good to great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jeanette; Ousey, Karen

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the challenges of the changing face of the NHS with specific relation to the challenges for community-based tissue viability services following the publication of government documents that identify the need to provide a quality service for all patients in health-care settings. Patients receiving care in the community is paramount to the success of the NHS going forward; service redesign, improvements in quality, outcome tracking, seamless discharge and patient satisfaction/responsibilities has been heralded as the core prerequisites of successful services. Tissue viability is a relatively young specialism, with most services being nurse led and established less than 15 years. It is argued that in order to continue to be successful as a specialism, tissue viability has to challenge traditional patient and nursing beliefs and values.

  16. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  17. Viability of Lucilia sericata maggots after exposure to wound antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, Georg; Napp, Matthias; Assadian, Ojan; von Podewils, Sebastian; Reese, Kevin; Hinz, Peter; Matiasek, Johannes; Spitzmueller, Romy; Humphreys, Paul; Jünger, Michael; Kramer, Axel

    2017-06-01

    After debridement and before dressing a wound with maggots of calliphorid flies, one frequently performed step is the application of antiseptics to the prepared wound bed. However, the concomitant application of antiseptic agents during maggot therapy is regarded controversial as antiseptics may interfere with maggots' viability. In this experimental in vitro study, the viability of fly maggots was investigated after exposure to various antiseptics frequently used in wound care. Here, we show that Lucilia sericata fly maggots can survive up to an hour's exposure to wound antiseptics such as octenidine, povidone-iodine or polihexanide. Concomitant short-term application of wound antiseptics together with maggots on wound beds is tolerated by larvae and does not impair their viability. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Stellar Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  19. Comparing street demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Walgrave, S.

    2014-01-01

    This introductory article provides a short account of the theoretical framework and the methodological set-up of a comparative study of street demonstrations. The following articles in this issue report results from this study. The data on over 90 street demonstrations and more than 17,000

  20. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hung-Tao; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Hwan-You

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on motility and viability of human sperms after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadmobini, Atefeh; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Khaleghi, Sara; Esmaeili, Farzaneh; Mostafaei, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Semen cryopreservation produces significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to impairment of sperm morphology, function, and ultimately, male fertility. Since Tribulus terrestris has antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties, this study aims to reveal the effect of the Tribulus terrestris extract on motility and vitality of human sperms after cryopreservation. Semen specimens from 80 healthy volunteers were divided into eight groups: fresh control (group I), freeze control (group II), groups III, IV, and V, which had 20, 40, and 50 μg/mL doses of Tribulus terrestris extract added before cryopreservation, and groups VI, VII, and VIII, which were supplemented by these extract doses after the freeze-thaw process. To evaluate the effects of the Tribulus terrestris extract, the semen samples were incubated with the extract and evaluated with a light microscope for motility and viability. After cryopreservation, a significant improvement in spermatozoa viability was observed in group VII. In groups VII and VIII, motility, according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, increased considerably (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference among groups III, IV, and V. The present study demonstrated that the protective effects of Tribulus terrestris, which improves human sperm motility and viability, may be due to its antioxidant properties. On the basis of the results, the researchers concluded that Tribulus terrestris can be used as a safe therapeutic alternative to current modalities for the management of motility dysfunction in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resveratrol Inhibits Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Signaling, Viability, and Invasiveness in Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignancy with high potential to invasion and treatment resistance. The α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH signal transduction involving Wnt/β-catenin, c-Kit, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, a known pathway to produce melanin, has been demonstrated as one of cancer stem cell characteristics. This study was aimed to examine the effect of resveratrol, an abundant ingredient of grape and medicinal plants, on α-MSH signaling, viability, and invasiveness in melanoma cells. By α-MSH treatment, the melanin production in B16 melanoma cells was augmented as a validation for activation of α-MSH signaling. The upregulated expression of α-MSH signaling-related molecules β-catenin, c-Kit, and MITF was suppressed by resveratrol and/or STI571 treatment. Nuclear translocation of MITF, a hallmark of α-MSH signaling activation, was inhibited by combined treatment of resveratrol and STI571. At effective concentration, resveratrol and/or STI571 inhibited cell viability and α-MSH-activated matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-9 expression and invasion capacity of B16 melanoma cells. In conclusion, resveratrol enhances STI571 effect on suppressing the α-MSH signaling, viability, and invasiveness in melanoma cells. It implicates that resveratrol may have potential to modulate the cancer stem cell characteristics of melanoma.

  3. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  4. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  5. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate determinants for the viability of school lunch programmes with a zero-price start-up period. The study is based on a Danish pilot experiment, in which 38 schools were subsidized to provide free school lunch for all pupils during a two-month start...... activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...... for the gap between cost and users’ willingness to pay for school lunches....

  6. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be part...

  7. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  8. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA, hyaluronan (HA, and gelatin (Gn. These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs embedded in 2% (w/v PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins.

  9. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamida, Dimitra; Karagounis, Ilias V; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Kalamida, Sofia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression. A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index), apoptosis (Caspase 9) and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy. Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines. The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  10. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Kalamida

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index, apoptosis (Caspase 9 and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy.Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines.The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  11. Postoperative Lung Torsion With Retained Viability: The Presentation and Surgical Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Takahara, Sayako; Furugen, Tomonori; Atsumi, Eriko; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawabata, Tsutomu

    2017-07-27

    We review our experience with postoperative lung torsion with retained viability. A total of 2165 patients underwent pulmonary resection (lobectomy or segmentectomy) at our institution between 1 January, 1986, and 31 March, 2017. Eight (0.3%, six males and two females: median age, 68 years) had lung torsion with retained viability. The right upper lobe was resected in seven patients, while the left upper segment was resected in one patient. The lung torsion with retained viability was the right middle lobe in seven patients and the left lingular segment in one patient. A bronchoscopic examination was performed in four patients to diagnose the pulmonary torsion; however, it demonstrated no specific findings. Subsequently, computed tomography (CT) was performed in all the patients, and lung torsion was diagnosed in all the patients based on the CT findings. None of the patients showed any symptoms when lung torsion was diagnosed in them. The diagnosis of pulmonary torsion was made at a median of four days (range, 1-22 days) after the initial surgery. Six patients underwent detorsion of the affected lung, while one patient had a lobectomy, and one patient received conservative management. The lungs of all patients in which detorsion was performed adequately re-expanded. Frequent pneumonia in the viable torsed lung was diagnosed as a cause of death in the one patient who received conservative management. The timely decision to follow a surgical approach for lung torsion with retained viability can lead to a satisfactory outcome. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term viability and differentiation of bovine oviductal monolayers: bidimensional versus three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, R; Mollo, V; Braun, S; Barbato, V; Fiorentino, I; Talevi, R

    2012-10-15

    Different in vitro models have been developed to study the interaction of gametes and embryos with the maternal tract. In cattle, the interaction of the oviduct with gametes and embryos have been classically studied using oviductal explants or monolayers (OMs). Explants are well differentiated but have to be used within 24 h after collection, whereas OMs can be used for a longer time after cell confluence but dedifferentiate during culture, losing cell polarity and ciliation. Herein, OMs were cultured either in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum or in a semidefined culture medium (Gray's medium), in an immersed condition on collagen-coated coated microporous polyester or polycarbonate inserts under air-liquid interface conditions. The influence of culture conditions on long-term viability and differentiation of OMs was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy, localization of centrin and tubulin at the confocal laser scanning microscope, and assessment of maintenance of viability of sperm bound to OMs. Findings demonstrated that OMs cultured in an immersed condition with Gray's medium retain a better morphology, do not exhibit signs of crisis at least until 3 wks postconfluence, and maintain the viability of bound sperm significantly better than parallel OMs cultured in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. OM culture with Gray's medium in air-liquid interface conditions on porous inserts promotes cell polarity, ciliation, and maintenance of bound sperm viability at least until 3 wks postconfluence. In conclusion, oviduct culture in Gray's medium in an immersed or air-liquid condition allows long-term culture and, in the latter case, also ciliation of bovine OMs, and may represent in vitro systems that mimick more closely the biological processes modulated by the oviduct in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The catastrophic decline of the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni in Sabah: Historic exploitation, reduced female reproductive performance and population viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kretzschmar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for catastrophic declines of Sumatran rhinos are far from clear and data necessary to improve decisions for conservation management are often lacking. We reviewed literature and assembled a comprehensive data set on surveys of the Sumatran rhino subspecies (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni in the Malaysian state of Sabah on Borneo to chart the historical development of the population in Sabah and its exploitation until the present day. We fitted resource selection functions to identify habitat features preferred by a remnant population of rhinos living in the Tabin Wildlife Reserve in Sabah, and ran a series of population viability analyses (PVAs to extract the key demographic parameters most likely to affect population dynamics. We show that as preferred habitat, the individuals in the reserve were most likely encountered in elevated areas away from roads, in close distance to mud-volcanoes, with a low presence of human trespassers and a wallow on site, and within a neighbourhood of dense forest and grassland patches preferably on Fluvisols and Acrisols. Our population viability analyses identified the percentage of breeding females and female lifetime reproductive period as the crucial parameters driving population dynamics, in combination with total protection even moderate improvements could elevate population viability substantially. The analysis also indicates that unrestrained hunting between 1930 and 1950 drastically reduced the historical rhino population in Sabah and that the remnant population could be rescued by combining the effort of total protection and stimulation of breeding activity. Based on our results, we recommend to translocate isolated reproductively healthy individuals to protected locations and to undertake measures to maximise conceptions, or running state-of-the-art reproductive management with assisted reproduction techniques. Our study demonstrates that a judicious combination of techniques can do

  14. Effect of smokeless tobacco products on human oral bacteria growth and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Jin, Jinshan; Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; Cerniglia, Carl E; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) on oral bacteria, seven smokeless tobacco aqueous extracts (STAEs) from major brands of STPs and three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were used in a growth and viability test against 38 oral bacterial species or subspecies. All seven STAEs showed concentration-dependent effects on the growth and viability of tested oral bacteria under anaerobic culture conditions, although there were strain-to-strain variations. In the presence of 1 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 4 strains decreased over 0.32-2.14 log10 fold, while 14 strains demonstrated enhanced growth of 0.3-1.76 log10 fold, and the growth of 21 strains was not significantly affected. In the presence of 10 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 17 strains was inhibited 0.3-2.11 log10 fold, 18 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3-0.97 log10 fold, and 4 strains were not significantly affected. In the presence of 50 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 32 strains was inhibited 0.3-2.96 log10 fold, 8 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3-1.0 log10 fold, and 2 strains were not significantly affected. All seven STAEs could promote the growth of 4 bacterial strains, including Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus constellatus. Exposure to STAEs modulated the viability of some bacterial strains, with 21.1-66.5% decrease for 4 strains at 1 mg/ml, 20.3-85.7% decrease for 10 strains at 10 mg/ml, 20.0-93.3% decrease for 27 strains at 50 mg/ml, and no significant effect for 11 strains at up to 50 mg/ml. STAEs from snuffs inhibited more tested bacterial strains than those from snus indicating that the snuffs may be more toxic to the oral bacteria than snus. For TSNAs, cell growth and viability of 34 tested strains were not significantly affected at up to 100 μg/ml; while the growth of P. micros was enhanced 0.31-0.54 log10 fold; the growth of Veillonella parvula was repressed 0.33-0.36 log10 fold; and the cell

  15. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  16. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  17. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands,

  18. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  19. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  20. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  1. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  2. The effect of ketorolac tromethamine, methylprednisolone, and platelet-rich plasma on human chondrocyte and tenocyte viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Knut; McCarthy, Mary Beth; Cote, Mark P; Apostolakos, John; Russell, Ryan P; Bradley, James; ElAttrache, Neal S; Romeo, Antony A; Arciero, Robert A; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on cell viability of the isolated and combined use of allogeneic platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and ketorolac tromethamine on human chondrocytes and tenocytes in a highly controlled in vitro environment. PRP was produced from 8 subjects. Human chondrocytes (Lonza, Hopkinton, MA) and tenocytes isolated from samples of the long head of the biceps tendons were treated in culture with PRP, ketorolac tromethamine, and methylprednisolone, both alone and in combination. Control samples were treated in media containing 2% or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cells were exposed for 1 hour. Luminescence assays were obtained to examine cell viability after 24 hours and long-term effects on cell viability after 120 hours. Radioactive thymidine assay was used to measure proliferation after 120 hours. For chondrocytes, cell viability (120 hours) increased significantly with the treatment of PRP alone (43,949 ± 28,104 cells; P investigation into alternative treatment options such as combinations of PRP and ketorolac tromethamine. In vitro evaluation of their effect on cell viability might build a basis for further translational research and clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ambroxol on biofilm adhesion and viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing defective strain

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qi; Hai-ying ZHONG; Lin, Li-Hua; Ya-yin LIN; Xi-qiang YANG; Yu, Jia-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ambroxol on the biofilm viability and pristine adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild (PAO1) and quorum sensing defective strain (QS, gene deletion of ∆lasI and ∆rhlI). Methods The biofilm was treated by different concentrations (0, 1.875, 3.75mg/ml) of ambroxol. The number of colony was measured with agar plate, multifunction fluorometer was used to measure the fluorescence intensity of PAO1 and QS strains at the bottom of 96-well plate. The adhesion ...

  4. On the Viability of PTSD Checklist (PCL) Short Form Use: Analyses from Mississippi Gulf Coast Hurricane Katrina Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschel, Michael J.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2010-01-01

    One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane…

  5. The practice of investment viability appraisal in Akure, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role played by valuers in choosing the right viability appraisal technique for an investment appraisal. Structured questionnaire was administered on Twenty one (21) registered and practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Akure out of which fourteen (14) were retrieved and found good for ...

  6. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  7. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

  8. Assessment of viability of microorganisms employing fluorescence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, P.

    1996-01-01


    Viability assessment of microorganisms is relevant for a wide variety of applications in industry, including evaluation of inactivation treatments and quality assessment of starter cultures for beer, wine, and yoghurt production.

    Usually, the ability of microbial cells to

  9. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intermediate seeds of Mimusopsis elengi showed obvious membrane lipid peroxidation during desiccation. When the moisture content (MC) decreased from initial 41.8 to 6.1%, seed viability significantly decreased from 100 to 23%, consorted with activity changes of a few anti-oxidative enzymes. The activities of superoxide ...

  10. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... A quick and reliable method for evaluating pollen quality is essential in a breeding program, especially in a crop such as banana that is characterized by high male and female sterility. In this study the germination and viability of banana pollen was evaluated in a sucrose solution and diluted banana nectar.

  11. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and reliable method for evaluating pollen quality is essential in a breeding program, especially in a crop such as banana that is characterized by high male and female sterility. In this study the germination and viability of banana pollen was evaluated in a sucrose solution and diluted banana nectar. Twenty banana ...

  12. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  13. Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography: Detection of myocardial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljkovic Milan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography in detection of myocardial viability. Background Vasodilation through low dose dipyridamole infusion may recruit contractile reserve by increasing coronary flow or by increasing levels of endogenous adenosine. Methods Forty-three patients with resting dyssynergy, due to previous myocardial infarction, underwent low-dose adenosine (80, 100, 110 mcg/kg/min in 3 minutes intervals echocardiography test. Gold standard for myocardial viability was improvement in systolic thickening of dyssinergic segments of ≥ 1 grade at follow-up. Coronary angiography was done in 41 pts. Twenty-seven patients were revascularized and 16 were medically treated. Echocardiographic follow up data (12 ± 2 months were available in 24 revascularized patients. Results Wall motion score index improved from rest 1.55 ± 0.30 to 1.33 ± 0.26 at low-dose adenosine (p Conclusion Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography test has high diagnostic potential for detection of myocardial viability in the group of patients with left ventricle dysfunction due to previous myocardial infarction. Low dose adenosine stress echocardiography may be adequate alternative to low-dose dobutamine test for evaluation of myocardial viability.

  14. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae O: 1 ...

  15. The viability of business data mining in the sports environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data mining can be viewed as the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases and utilising this information to make crucial business decisions (Simoudis, 1996: 26). This paper considers the viability of using data mining tools and techniques in sports, particularly with regard to mining the ...

  16. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Effects of gamma radiation on vitality and competitive ability of Cucumis pollen. Euphytica, 32: 677-684. Yanmaz R, Ellialtıoglu S, Taner KY (1999). The effects of gamma irradiation on pollen viability and haploid plant formation in snake cucumber (Cucumis melo L. var. flexuosus Naud.). Acta Hort. 492:.

  17. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  18. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained from the Musa field ... Three different types of pollen were encountered viz, big, moderate and small pollens with corresponding big, moderate and small apertures and pores.

  19. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa diluted with commercial semen extender and two culture media stored at controlled room temperature (24 °C) for 72 hours. Two Nguni bulls were used for semen collection with the aid of an electro-ejaculator. After macroscopic evaluation ...

  20. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  1. Effect of pretreatments on seed viability during fruit development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to identify the stage at which developing fruits of Irvingia gabonensis (var. excelsa and var. gabonensis), picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and germinability were conducted in two harvesting seasons in 2000 and 2001. Some pretreatment methods were used as a means of ...

  2. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After macroscopic evaluation, semen was pooled and aliquoted randomly into Triladyl, modified Ham's F10, and TCM-199 culture media, and then stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA) after 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The study was ...

  3. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  4. Potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents results of the potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability of REDD+ projects in Ugalla- Masito ecosystem using a case of Ilagala and Karago villages whereby REDD+ is being piloted. Various data collection methods were employed and these included focused group discussion, ...

  5. Research Note on viability of herbicide and Hormone - treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses and viability of acid scarified seeds of four tropical weeds to gibberellic acid and seven herbicides including Galex, Gramoxone, 2 - 4 D, Atrazine, Simazine, Roundup and Primextra in the Laboratory were investigated. The weeds used are Cassia occidentalis, Cassia obtusifolia Cassia hirtusa and ...

  6. Economic Viability of Deficit Irrigation in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many arid regions of the world, population growth, groundwater depletion, and uncertain supplies have caused agricultural water to become increasingly scarce. Deficit irrigation (DI) provides a potential response to water scarcity, but no consensus exists on its economic viability. In this pape...

  7. Port viability for choice making among shipping companies in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the study of port viability for choice making among shipping companies in West Africa sub-region trade route was conducted. Discriminant analysis was used to ascertain the consistency of the attributes of ports that establish their overall attractiveness to the carriers. The critical valued port attributes deduced ...

  8. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAKA DANIEL

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica,.

  9. Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CUT User

    Semen was collected from each cock following 5ASM, evaluated for semen viability and 0.05 mL diluted semen used to inseminate five hens per breed, in each experimental group. Significant differences in ejaculation rates and semen quality and quantity were recorded in the four breeds of cocks - with the HP cocks of the ...

  10. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Willem Visser, Claas; Henke, Sieger; Leijten, Jeroen; Saris, Daniël B F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241604443; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  11. Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability. Indicators during Cytotoxicity Testing: Implications for. Ethnopharmacological Studies. Sze Mun Chan1, Kong Soo Khoo2 and Nam Weng Sit1*. 1Department of Biomedical Science, 2Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman,.

  12. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, N.V.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were

  13. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    July 9th, 11th, 15th, 21st and 28th) and pollen age (0th and 1st days) on the pollen viability, germination ability and fruit and seed-set were investigated in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.) and winter squash (Cucurbita maxima ...

  14. Caffeine inhibits the viability and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Guan, X X; Zhu, Z L; Guo, J; Huang, Y C; Hou, W W; Yu, H Y

    2010-12-01

    Caffeine is consumed extensively in Europe and North America. As a risk factor for osteoporosis, epidemiological studies have observed that caffeine can decrease bone mineral density, adversely affect calcium absorption and increase the risk of bone fracture. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effects of caffeine on the viability and osteogenesis of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs). Cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified using thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry. Sequential gene expressions in osteogenic process were measured by real-time PCR. cAMP, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assessed by immunoassay, spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Mineralization was determined by calcium deposition. After treating BMSCs with high caffeine concentrations (0.1-1mM), their viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. This cell death was primarily due to necrosis and, to a small extent, apoptosis. Genes and protein sequentially expressed in osteogenesis, including Cbfa1/Runx2, collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and its protein, were significantly downregulated except for osteocalcin and its protein. Moreover, caffeine inhibited calcium deposition in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but increased intracellular cAMP in a concentration-dependent manner. By suppressing the commitment of BMSCs to the osteogenic lineage and selectively inhibiting gene expression, caffeine downregulated some important events in osteogenesis and ultimately affected bone mass.

  15. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L., is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i. Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.

  16. Extreme-Dipper Profile, Increased Aortic Stiffness, and Impaired Subendocardial Viability in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amah, Guy; Ouardani, Rahma; Pasteur-Rousseau, Adrien; Voicu, Sebastian; Safar, Michel E; Kubis, Nathalie; Bonnin, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    In treated hypertensives, extreme-dippers with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit more severe nighttime cardiac ischemia than dippers. After excluding confounding factors such as diabetes, CAD or chronic kidney disease (CKD), we assessed whether subendocardial viability, determined by the Buckberg index, was more significantly impaired in extreme-dippers than in dippers. Two hundred thirteen consecutive treated hypertensives (156 dippers, 57 extreme-dippers), were included. After 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, patients underwent radial applanation tonometry (with determination of: subendocardial viability ratio [SEVR], central augmentation index [AIx], and pulse pressure amplification [PPamp]), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement, and cycle ergometer stress testing. Extreme-dippers showed higher cfPWV (8.99 ± 2.16 vs. 8.29 ± 1.69 m/s, P = 0.014), higher AIx (29.7 ± 9.4 vs. 26.4 ± 10.4%, P = 0.042), lower PPamp (1.22 ± 0.14 vs. 1.30 ± 0.15, P subendocardial viability compared to dippers. Extreme-dipper hypertensive patients, women in particular, may have a significantly higher risk of silent myocardial ischemia, thus justifying systematic screening.

  17. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Sarah J; Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z' = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples.

  18. Impact of ZnO and Ag Nanoparticles on Bacterial Growth and Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M. S.; Digiovanni, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of consumer products containing nanomaterials are currently available in the U.S., including computers, clothing, cosmetics, sports equipment, medical devices and product packaging. Metallic nanoparticles can be embedded in or coated on product surfaces to provide antimicrobial, deodorizing, and stain- resistant properties. Although these products have the potential to provide significant benefit to the user, the impact of these products on the environment remains largely unknown. The purpose of this project is to study the effect of metallic nanoparticles released to the environment on bacterial growth and viability. Inhibition of bacterial growth was tested by adding doses of suspended ZnO and Ag nanoparticles into luria broth prior to inoculation of Escherichia coli cells. ZnO particles (approximately 40 nm) were obtained commercially and Ag particles (12-14 nm) were fabricated by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride. Toxicity assays were performed to test the viability of E. coli cells exposed to both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen). Live cells stain green whereas cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying stain red. Cells were first grown, stained, and exposed to varying doses of metallic nanoparticles, and then bacterial viability was measured hourly using fluorescence microscopy. Results indicate that both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles inhibit the growth of E. coli in liquid media. Preliminary results from toxicity assays confirm the toxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on active cell cultures. Calculated death rates resulting from analyses of toxicity studies will be presented.

  19. Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin on human urothelial cell function and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Catherine; Chess-Williams, Russ; Grant, Gary D; Perkins, Anthony V; McFarland, Amelia J; Davey, Andrew K; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin on human urothelial cell viability and function in vitro. RT4 urothelial cells were treated with pyocyanin (1 to 100 μM) for 24 hours. After exposure the treatment effects were measured according to certain end points, including changes in urothelial cell viability, reactive oxygen species formation, caspase-3 activity, basal and stimulated adenosine triphosphate release, SA-β-gal activity and detection of acidic vesicular organelles. The 24-hour pyocyanin treatment resulted in a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability at concentrations of 25 μM or greater, and increases in reactive oxygen species formation and caspase-3 activity at 25 μM or greater. Basal adenosine triphosphate release was significantly decreased at all tested pyocyanin concentrations while stimulated adenosine triphosphate release was significantly inhibited at pyocyanin concentrations of 12.5 μM or greater with no significant stimulated release at 100 μM. Pyocyanin treated RT4 cells showed morphological characteristics associated with cellular senescence, including SA-β-gal expression. This effect was not evident at 100 μM pyocyanin and may have been due to apoptotic cell death, as indicated by increased caspase-3 activity. An increase in acridine orange stained vesicular-like organelles was observed in RT4 urothelial cells after pyocyanin treatment. Exposure to pyocyanin alters urothelial cell viability, reactive oxygen species production and caspase-3 activity. Treatment also results in cellular senescence, which may affect the ability of urothelium to repair during infection. The virulence factor depressed stimulated adenosine triphosphate release, which to our knowledge is a novel finding with implications for awareness of bladder filling in patients with P. aeruginosa urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  20. Viable cell yield from active dry yeast products and effects of storage temperature and diluent on yeast cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M L; Bradford, B J

    2011-01-01

    Active dry yeast (ADY) products are commonly fed in the dairy industry, but research regarding quality control for such products is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine yeast viability in field samples relative to manufacturers' guarantees (experiment 1), measure the effects of high-temperature storage on yeast viability (experiment 1), and determine the effect of vitamin-trace mineral (VTM) premix on yeast viability (experiment 2). Commercially available ADY products were acquired in triplicate through normal distribution channels and stored at 4°C upon receipt. Initial samples were evaluated for colony-forming units and compared with product label guarantees. Only 1 of the 6 products sampled in experiment 1 met product guarantees for all 3 samples. To determine effects of storage temperature and duration on viability, ADY samples were stored in an incubator at 40°C with ambient humidity for 1, 2, and 3 mo. High-temperature storage significantly decreased viability over the 3-mo period; approximately 90% of viable cells were lost each month. Three of the 5 products sampled in experiment 2 met product guarantees. Fresh samples of 4 of these 5 ADY products were mixed in duplicate with ground corn (GC) or a VTM premix to achieve a target concentration of 2.2×10(8) cfu/g. For each product, GC and VTM samples were stored at ambient temperature (22°C) and at an elevated temperature (40°C) for 2 wk. No differences in viable yeast count were observed between GC and VTM samples immediately after mixing or after storage at ambient temperature. Yeast viability in GC and VTM samples decreased during storage at an elevated temperature. There also was a significant interaction of diluent and storage temperature; VTM samples had higher cell viability than GC samples when subjected to high-temperature storage. Results suggest that (1) ADY products failed to consistently meet product guarantees; (2) viability of ADY products was greatly diminished during

  1. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  2. Shaft mode shape demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic response of a rotating machine is directly influenced by its geometric configuration and all aspects of the rotor construction. These determine two significant parameters, mass distribution and stiffness, which yield a spectrum of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The mode shapes can be presented as snapshots of the characteristic amplitude/phase reponse patterns of the shaft, due to the major forcing function of unbalance, at different rotative speeds. To demonstrate the three shaft mode shapes of the rotor rig using the Shaft Mode Demonstrator and oscilloscopes. The synchronous (1X) amplitude and phase of the rotor vibration in the vertical direction from several points along the shaft is displayed on corresponding points of the demonstrator. Unfiltered vibration from vertical and horizontal probe pairs is displayed on the oscilloscopes in orbit format for a dynamic presentation of the mode shape.

  3. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  4. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  5. MRI of ovarian torsion: Correlation of imaging features with the presence of perifollicular hemorrhage and ovarian viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovska, Iva, E-mail: dr.iva.petkovska@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Duke, Eugene; Martin, Diego R.; Irani, Zeenia [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Geffre, Christopher P. [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona College of Public Health, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cragun, Janiel M. [Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Costello, James R.; Arif-Tiwari, Hina; Czeyda-Pommersheim, Ferenc; Udayasankar, Unni [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Kalb, Bobby, E-mail: bkalb@radiology.arizona.edu [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to test for: (a) correlation between the presence of a perifollicular T2-hypointense rim on MRI with the presence of perifollicular hemorrhage on histology; and (b) correlation between this finding and diminished ovarian viability after intra-operative detorsion. Methods and materials: Our IRB-approved, retrospective study evaluated 780 patients between August 2012 and February 2016 with ovarian torsion as a diagnostic consideration on the emergency department note. Patients were included if they had preoperative MRI and intraoperatively confirmed case of ovarian torsion. MRIs were retrospectively reviewed for presence of perifollicular T2 hypointense rim in the torsed ovary. Two arms of analysis were performed: (a) assessment of perifollicular hemorrhage on histological exam; and (b) assessment of ovarian viability after intra-operative detorsion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for predicting ovarian viability in the setting of torsion was performed. κ test assessed level of agreement between readers. Results: 24 patients included in one of the two arms; 20 in viability analysis and 12 in perifollicular hemorrhage analysis (8 in both). The presence of T2-hypointense rim on MRI demonstrated 88.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity for the diagnosis of perifollicular hemorrhage on histology, and 91.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity for predicting intraoperative viability. Conclusion: The presence of a perifollicular T2 hypointense rim on MRI in the setting of ovarian torsion correlates with perifollicular hemorrhage on histopathologic exam, and may also be a useful predictor of ovarian viability in patients presenting with ovarian torsion.

  6. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  7. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  8. Vaginal Lactobacilli Reduce Neisseria gonorrhoeae Viability through Multiple Strategies: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Foschi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC underline the need of “antibiotic-free” strategies for the control of gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-gonococcal activity of 14 vaginal Lactobacillus strains, belonging to different species (L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. vaginalis, isolated from healthy pre-menopausal women. In particular, we performed “inhibition” experiments, evaluating the ability of both lactobacilli cells and culture supernatants in reducing GC viability, at two different contact times (7 and 60 min. First, we found that the acidic environment, associated to lactobacilli metabolism, is extremely effective in counteracting GC growth, in a pH- and time-dependent manner. Indeed, a complete abolishment of GC viability by lactobacilli supernatants was observed only for pH values < 4.0, even at short contact times. On the contrary, for higher pH values, no 100%-reduction of GC growth was reached at any contact time. Experiments with organic/inorganic acid solutions confirmed the strict correlation between the pH levels and the anti-gonococcal effect. In this context, the presence of lactate seemed to be crucial for the anti-gonococcal activity, especially for pH values in the range 4.4–5.3, indicating that the presence of H+ ions is necessary but not sufficient to kill gonococci. Moreover, experiments with buffered supernatants led to exclude a direct role in the GC killing by other bioactive molecules produced by lactobacilli. Second, we noticed that lactobacilli cells are able to reduce GC viability and to co-aggregate with gonococci. In this context, we demonstrated that released-surface components with biosurfactant properties, isolated from “highly-aggregating” lactobacilli, could affect GC viability. The antimicrobial potential of biosurfactants isolated from lactobacilli against pathogens has been largely investigated, but this is the first report about a

  9. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  10. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of

  11. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  12. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full-scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO and NO emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  13. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  14. SAMSON Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    hosting the security policy. 2. A custom logic-programming based solution using the XSB Prolog engine to made decisions based on predicate calculus ...that information is stored in a manner where is cannot be disclosed through malicious means or ex- filtration : o Cryptographic Transformation Service...that a policy engine based on a predicate calculus is a better approach to creating PDPs. A simple Prolog- based PDP was created and demonstrated

  15. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  16. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  17. VIABILITY OF THE PROBIOTIC BACTERIA L. ACIDOPHILUS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Koreňová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. However, many studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. This study cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria L. acidophilus in some dairy drinks. L. acidophilus was found in the range from 106 to 107 CFU.g-1 in five types of fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. Two investigated products were up to standard according to Regulation of Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic.doi: 10.5219/147

  18. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  19. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemic left ventricular (LV dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

  20. Care at the edge of viability: medical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse F; Kirshenbaum, Nancy W; Campbell, Deborah E

    2011-09-01

    Decision-making for extremely immature preterm infants at the margins of viability is ethically, professionally, and emotionally complicated. A standard for prenatal consultation should be developed incorporating assessment of parental decision-making preferences and styles, a communication process involving a reciprocal exchange of information, and effective strategies for decisional deliberation, guided by and consistent with parental moral framework. Professional caregivers providing perinatal consultations or end-of-life counseling for extremely preterm infants should be sensitive to these issues and be taught flexibility in counseling techniques adhering to consistent guidelines. Emphasis must shift away from physician beliefs and behaviors about the boundaries of viability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of functional viability of SU-8-based microneedles for neural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Luis J.; Altuna, Ane; Tijero, Maria; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Rodríguez, Manuel J.; Batlle, Montse; Vilares, Roman; Berganzo, Javier; Blanco, F. J.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, packaging and first test results of SU-8-based microneedles for neural applications. By the use of photolithography, sputtering and bonding techniques, polymer needles with integrated microchannels and electrodes have been successfully fabricated. The use of photolithography for the patterning of the fluidic channel integrated in the needle allows the design of multiple outlet ports at the needle tip, minimizing the possibility of being blocked by the tissue. Furthermore, the flexibility of the polymer reduces the risk of fracture and tissue damage once the needle is inserted, while it is still rigid enough to allow a perfect insertion into the neural tissue. Fluidic and electric characterization of the microneedles has shown their viability for drug delivery and monitoring in neural applications. First drug delivery tests in ex vivo tissue demonstrated the functional viability of the needle to deliver drugs to precise points. Furthermore, in vivo experiments have demonstrated lower associated damages during insertion than those by stereotaxic standard needles.

  2. Protein Viability on Au Nanoparticles during an Electrospray and Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Mao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the protein viability on Au nanoparticles during an electrospray and electrostatic-force-directed assembly process, through which Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are assembled onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs to fabricate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET biosensors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and field-effect transistor (FET measurements have been used to investigate the antibody activity after the nanoparticle assembly. Upon the introduction of matching antigens, the colored reaction from the ELISA and the change in the electrical characteristic of the CNTFET device confirm that the antibody activity is preserved during the assembly process.

  3. The effect of spiritual healing on in vitro tumour cell proliferation and viability - an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Hojgaard, L.; Zachariae, C.

    2005-01-01

    of cells to five different doses of healing or control. Researchers conducting the assays and statistical analyses were blinded to the experimental conditions. Main outcome measures were MTT viability, 3H-thymidine incorporation and counts of an adherent human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7...... three experimental days, doses, assays, and cells, 34 (51.6%) of 66 independent comparisons showed differences in the hypothesised direction (P = 0.90). The average effect size across cell lines, days, assays, and doses approached zero (Cohen's d = -0.01). The results do not support previous reports...

  4. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and apoptosis of human leukemic cell lines. ... bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell ...

  5. Viability and Indication of Pathogenic Microbes in the Environment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    viability of parasitic microbes can be clarified corrently only with consideration of the interaction of the organism with the environment and...adaptation to it. According to this school of thought, the stability of a causative agent in the environment is determined by the specific mechanism through...mechanism of transfer of the contaminating principle, the shorter the period during which the parasitic microbe is in the environment - i.e., the

  6. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  7. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  8. MODERN TECHNIQUES OF CERVICAL INSTRUMENTATION IN IMMATURE SKELETON: VIABILITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Ayrana Soares; Silva, Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da; Barros, Alderico Girão Campos de; Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo de; Naves, Cleiton Dias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 2...

  9. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  10. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  11. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  12. Ca-Lignosulphonate and sclerotial viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTEO MONTANARI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignosulphonates, low cost by-products of the pulping process, have shown suppressive effects against some diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of 1.5% v/v calcium lignosulphonate (Ca-Ls amendment to two commercial potting mixes (peat + coconut fibres; PC; and municipal compost + peat + pumice; MCPP on the viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia was investigated. Sclerotia were buried in the Ca-Ls amended substrates for 30 days. Non-amended PC and MCPP, sterile sand and sterile PC with and without Ca-Ls were used as controls. The viability of sclerotia recovered from PC and MCPP amended with Ca-Ls was reduced by 50 and 42% respectively compared to control treatments. Ca-Ls amendment decreased sclerotial viability by enhancing the activity of the indigenous mycoparasitic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor spp. and Trichoderma spp. The biocontrol ability of Ca-Ls against sclerotia was due to the stimulation of microbial activity and is, therefore, strictly dependent on the microbial composition of the substrate.

  13. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slart, R H J A; Bax, J J; van der Wall, E E; van Veldhuisen, D J; Jager, P L; Dierckx, R A

    2005-11-01

    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification.

  14. Different effects of sonoporation on cell morphology and viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Zhen Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate changes in cell morphology and viability after sonoporation. Sonoportion was achieved by ultrasound (21 kHz exposure on adherent human prostate cancer DU145 cells in the cell culture dishes with the presence of microbubble contrast agents and calcein (a cell impermeant dye. We investigated changes in cell morphology immediately after sonoporation under scanning electron microscope (SEM and changes in cell viability immediately and 6 h after sonoporation under fluorescence microscope. It was shown that various levels of intracellular calcein uptake and changes in cell morphology can be caused immediately after sonoporation: smooth cell surface, pores in the membrane and irregular cell surface. Immediately after sonoporation, both groups of cells with high levels of calcein uptake and low levels of calcein uptake were viable; 6 h after sonoporation, group of cells with low levels of calcein uptake still remained viable, while group of cells with high levels of calcein uptake died. Sonoporation induces different effects on cell morphology, intracellular calcein uptake and cell viability.

  15. Viability of various weed seeds in anaerobic conditions (biogas plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.; Hansen, J.

    1983-04-01

    Seeds from different weeds, Urtica urens L. (nettle), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), Avena fatua L. (wild oat-grass), Brassica napus L. (rape), Chenopodium album L. (goose-foot), were put into small polyester net bags, which were placed in biogas reactors containing cattle manure. These ''biogas reactors'' were placed at different temperatures . Net bags were taken out after 4.5, 10.5, 21.5, 38 and 53 days, and the seeds were tested for their viability by germination tests and the tetrazolium method. Concerning all seeds it was manifested that the viability decreased very steeply at 35degC. Most of the seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 2-5 days; Chenopodium album L seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 16 days. After 4.5 days it was not possible to find living Avena fatua L seeds. The decrease in viability was less steep at 20degC and even less steep at 2degC.

  16. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  17. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  18. Viability And Conidial Production Of Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurariaty Agus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penicillium sp. order Eurotiales class Eurotiomycetes family Trichocomaceae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp. cultured in a liquid medium and then added chitin as treatment and others without chitin. The spora viability of fungi was observed on 12th and 24th hours while spora production on 3nd 6th 9th and 12th days after application.The results showed that conidial viability of the fungus Penicillium sp. at 24 hours after application was higher if the medium given chitin than without chitin. The conidial production was higher if given chitin than without chitin. It was highest on 12th day reached 143.4 x 106 conidiaml if media given chitin and on 6th day if without chitin 0.50 x 106 conidiaml.

  19. Cell Viability in Arthroscopic Versus Open Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biant, Leela C; Simons, Michiel; Gillespie, Trudi; McNicholas, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective method of repair of articular cartilage defects. It is a 2-stage operation, with the second stage most commonly performed via mini-arthrotomy. Arthroscopic ACI is gaining popularity, as it is less invasive and may accelerate early rehabilitation. However, handling and manipulation of the implant have been shown to cause chondrocyte cell death. To assess the number and viability of cells delivered via an open versus arthroscopic approach in ACI surgery. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen ACI surgeries were performed on young cadaveric knees by 2 experienced surgeons: 8 via mini-arthrotomy and 8 arthroscopically. Live and dead cells were stained and counted on implants after surgery. The cell number and viability were assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Surgery was timed from knife to skin until the end of cycling the knee 10 times after implantation of the cell-membrane construct. On receipt of cell membranes after transportation from the laboratory, ≥92% of the cells were viable. There were significantly more remaining cells (8.47E+07 arthroscopic vs 1.41E+08 open; P arthroscopic vs 37.34% open; P arthroscopic technique. Open surgery was of a significantly shorter duration (6 vs 32 minutes; P arthroscopic technique. The viability of cells delivered for ACI via an arthroscopic approach was 16 times less than via an open approach. The mini-arthrotomy approach is recommended until long-term clinical comparative data are available.

  20. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  1. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  2. Effect of lecithin content blend with poly (L-lactic acid) on viability and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhonghua [Cardiac Surgery, First Hospital of Tsinghua University, No.6 Jiuxianqiao 1st Road, Beijing (China); Wu Qingyu, E-mail: wuqingyu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Cardiac Surgery, First Hospital of Tsinghua University, No.6 Jiuxianqiao 1st Road, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-01

    Lecithin constitutes a natural mixture of phospholipids and neutral lipids and plays critical roles in cellular membrane structure and cellular signaling. In this study, lecithin was blended with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) for modifying the surface of PLLA because it might obtain appropriate hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modified PLLA films were manufactured using conventional solvent-casting technique. The hydrophilicity clearly increased with an increase of lecithin content in the polymer blends, as determined by measuring the water contact angle (WCA). The cytocompatibility and any potential cytotoxic effects were studied over 7 days by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the films of PLLA containing 0-15% lecithin (wt.%), in comparison with tissue culture plates (TCPs). Cell viability and proliferation were assessed using WST-8, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell morphology was studied by toluidine blue and propidium iodide staining. This results obtained above suggested that 5%lecithin-containing PLLA films could possess the optimal hydrophilicity, higher adhesion and proliferation of MSCs for a prolonged period and did not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells. The study showed that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the modified PLLA were markedly improved by directly introducing lecithin into the polymer without the use of multiple synthetic steps. The information obtained should be useful for future research in vascular tissue engineering (VTE).

  3. The role of the boundary plasma in defining the viability of a magnetic fusion reactor: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. It is becoming clear that due to fundamental limits of plasma stability and material response the boundary will largely define the viability of an MFE reactor. However we face an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices and ITER towards a demonstration power plant. We review the boundary and plasma-material interaction (PMI) research required to address this deficit as well as related theoretical/scaling methods for extending present results to future devices. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed. Dimensionless parameters, often used to organized core plasma transport on similarity arguments, can be extended to the boundary plasma, plasma-surface interactions and material response. The scaling methodology suggests intriguing ways forward to prescribe and understand the boundary issues of an eventual reactor in intermediate size devices. Finally, proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the extreme PMI/boundary challenges of magnetic fusion energy will be reviewed.

  4. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    the situation. The concept of palpable computing, introduced by the PalCom project, denotes systems which support such understandability. In PalCom, a set of prototype scenarios provide input for an open software architecture and a conceptual framework for palpable computing. One of these prototype scenarios...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces....... Services on the tiles have been developed using the PalCom service framework that allows them to be combined into PalCom assemblies. The support for palpability is shown by examples of use scenarios from the work of the therapist who can inspect and alter the runtime state of the tiles to change...

  5. Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

  6. Trehalose preincubation increases mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells post-cryopreservation viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Kusuma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO is a common cryoprotective agent widely used in cell preservation system. Me2SO is currently known to cause epigenetic changes which are  critical in stem cells development and cellular differentiation. Therefore, it is imperative to develop cryopreservation techniques that protect cellular functions and avert Me2SO adverse effect. Trehalose was able to protect organism in extreme condition such as dehydration and cold. This study aimed to verify the protective effect of trehalose preincubation procedure in cryopreservation.Methods: The study was conducted using experimental design. Thawed mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells from YARSI biorepository were used for the experiment. Trehalose preincubation was performed for 1 hour, internalized trehalose was confirmed by FTIR-ATR measurement. Three groups consisted of (1 cryopreserved without trehalose preincubation, (2 cryopreserved with trehalose preincubation, and (3 did not undergo cryopreservation were evaluated after 24 hours in LN2 for viability in culture. The absorbance from each group was measured at 450 nm. The analysis performed using paired student t test.Results: Viability of thawed mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells that undergo trehalose preincubation prior cryopreservation was significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to group without trehalose preincubation. Higher viability observed between group with trehalose preincubation compared with controlled group suggests protection to trypsinization. Mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells incubated for 1 hour in 100 mM trehalose supplemented medium  results in 15%  trehalose loading efficiency.Conclusion: These findings confirm the protective effect of trehalose preincubation in cryopreservation. Future research should be directed to elucidate the trehalose internalization mechanism and eventually the protective mechanism of trehalose in mammalian cell cryopreservation.

  7. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  8. Viability of use of PVC tubes in solar collectors: an analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz Guillherme Meira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the inherent degradations of PVC tubes due to the thermal effect and ultraviolet solar radiation. The approach relates its causes and its effect of use of the PVC tubes as elements to absorption, forming a coil, in solar collectors for water heating. It is demonstrated that such degradations can be burst through the use of an outflow and an appropriate regimen of work, as well as of a protective layer for the tubes, in this case black ink used to magnify its absorption. The results of the properties of tubes that had been exposed to the degradation effect for up to five years are presented. The viability of use of this type of collector is demonstrated through comparative analysis of tubes exposed and not exposed to the sun, concluding for the low cost, easy assembly and maintenance of the system.

  9. Viability and resilience of complex systems concepts, methods and case studies from ecology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Deffuant, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    One common characteristic of a complex system is its ability to withstand major disturbances and the capacity to rebuild itself. Understanding how such systems demonstrate resilience by absorbing or recovering from major external perturbations requires both quantitative foundations and a multidisciplinary view of the topic. This book demonstrates how new methods can be used to identify the actions favouring the recovery from perturbations on a variety of examples including the dynamics of bacterial biofilms, grassland savannahs, language competition and Internet social networking sites. The reader is taken through an introduction to the idea of resilience and viability and shown the mathematical basis of the techniques used to analyse systems. The idea of individual or agent-based modelling of complex systems is introduced and related to analytically tractable approximations of such models. A set of case studies illustrates the use of the techniques in real applications, and the final section describes how on...

  10. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  11. Viability of human chondrocytes in an ex vivo model in relation to temperature and cartilage depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, M; Mars, T; Alibegović, A; Bole, V; Balazic, J; Grubic, Z; Brecelj, J

    2005-01-01

    Chondrocytes in human articular cartilage remain viable post-mortem. It has however not been established yet how the storage temperature affects their survival, which is essential information when post-mortem cartilage is used for toxicologic studies. Our aim was to construct a simple model of explanted knee cartilage and to test the influences of time and temperature on the viability of chondrocytes in the ex vivo conditions. Osteochondral cylinders were procured from the cadaveric femoral condyles. The cylinders were embedded in water-tight rubber tubes, which formed separate chondral and osteal compartments. Tubes were filled with normal saline, without additives, to keep chondrocytes under close-to-normal conditions. The samples were divided into two groups stored at 4 degrees C and 35 degrees C, respectively. Three samples of each of these two groups were analysed at the time of removal, and then three and nine days later. Images of Live-Dead staining were scanned by a confocal laser microscope. Count of viable chondrocytes in four regions, from surface to bone, was obtained using image analysis software. The regression model revealed that the number of viable chondrocytes decreased every day by 19% and that an increase in temperature by 1 degree C decreased their viability by 5.8%. The temperature effect fell by 0.2 percentage points for every 100 microm from the surface to the bone. Herein we demonstrate that chondrocytes remain viable in the ex vivo model of human knee cartilage long enough to be able to serve as a model for toxicologic studies. Their viability is, however, significantly influenced by time and temperature.

  12. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hung-Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsung-Pao [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tai, Nyan-Hwa, E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer f-MWCNTs conjugated with anti-HER2 antibody by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kill breast cancer cells by using low dose f-MWCNTs-ab due to photothermal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use EtBr fluorescent to prove that the cell membrane was broken by heated f-MWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell indicating the endocytosis effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necrosis may result from protein denaturation due to contact with the heated CNTs.

  13. Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

    2009-11-14

    The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

  14. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population’s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  15. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon

    2016-01-01

    The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005...

  16. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  17. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  18. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  19. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  20. The MAJORANA Demonstrator Radioassay Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan W.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, K.; Vorren, Kris R.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-05-03

    The Majorana collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are suffciently pure is described. The resulting measurements of the radioactiveisotope contamination for a number of materials studied for use in the detector are reported.

  1. Effects of a marine serine protease inhibitor on viability and morphology of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Nogueira, Natália Pereira; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Paes, Marcia Cristina; da Silva-López, Raquel Elisa

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that serine peptidase activities of Trypanosoma cruzi play crucial roles in parasite dissemination and host cell invasion and therefore their inhibition could affect the progress of Chagas disease. The present study investigates the interference of the Stichodactyla helianthus Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (ShPI-I), a 55-amino acid peptide, in T. cruzi serine peptidase activities, parasite viability, and parasite morphology. The effect of this peptide was also studied in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and it was proved to be a powerful inhibitor of serine proteases activities and the parasite viability. The ultrastructural alterations caused by ShPI-I included vesiculation of the flagellar pocket membrane and the appearance of a cytoplasmic vesicle that resembles an autophagic vacuole. ShPI-I, which showed itself to be an important T. cruzi serine peptidase inhibitor, reduced the parasite viability, in a dose and time dependent manner. The maximum effect of peptide on T. cruzi viability was observed when ShPI-I at 1×10(-5)M was incubated for 24 and 48h which killed completely both metacyclic trypomastigote and epimastigote forms. At 1×10(-6)M ShPI-I, in the same periods of time, reduced parasite viability about 91-95% respectively. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the formation of concentric membranar structures especially in the cytosol, involving organelles and small vesicles. Profiles of endoplasmic reticulum were also detected, surrounding cytosolic vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. These results suggest that serine peptidases are important in T. cruzi physiology since the inhibition of their activity killed parasites in vitro as well as inducing important morphological alterations. Protease inhibitors thus appear to have a potential role as anti-trypanosomatidal agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  3. Viability and membrane potential analysis of Bacillus megaterium cells by impedance flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, F; Hebeisen, M; Schade, G; Franco-Lara, E; Di Berardino, M

    2012-02-01

    Single cell analysis is an important tool to gain deeper insights into microbial physiology for the characterization and optimization of bioprocesses. In this study a novel single cell analysis technique was applied for estimating viability and membrane potential (MP) of Bacillus megaterium cells cultured in minimal medium. Its measurement principle is based on the analysis of the electrical cell properties and is called impedance flow cytometry (IFC). Comparatively, state-of-the-art fluorescence-based flow cytometry (FCM) was used to verify the results obtained by IFC. Viability and MP analyses were performed with cells at different well-defined growth stages, focusing mainly on exponential and stationary phase cells, as well as on dead cells. This was done by PI and DiOC(2)(3) staining assays in FCM and by impedance measurements at 0.5 and 10 MHz in IFC. In addition, transition growth stages of long-term cultures and agar plate colonies were characterized with both methods. FCM and IFC analyses of all experiments gave comparable results, quantitatively and qualitatively, indicating that IFC is an equivalent technique to FCM for the study of physiological cell states of bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  5. Evaluation and molecular characterization of human adenovirus in drinking water supplies: viral integrity and viability assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Nascimento, Mariana A do; Rigotto, Caroline; Ritterbusch, Giseli; da Silva, Alessandra D' A; Esteves, Paulo A; Barardi, Célia R M

    2013-05-28

    infectious viral particles in the environmental water samples. The molecular characterization studies indicated that HAdV-2 was the prevalent serotype. These results indicate a lack of proper public health measures. We suggest that HAdV can be efficiently used as a marker of environmental and drinking water contamination and ICC-RT-qPCR demonstrated greater sensitivity and speed of detection of infectious viral particles compared to PA.

  6. Activin Receptor Signaling Regulates Prostatic Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Simon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutational changes coupled with endocrine, paracrine, and/or autocrine signals regulate cell division during carcinogenesis. The hormone signals remain undefined, although the absolute requirement in vitro for fetal serum indicates the necessity for a fetal serum factor(s in cell proliferation. Using prostatic cancer cell (PCC lines as a model of cancer cell proliferation, we have identified the fetal serum component activin A and its signaling through the activin receptor type II (ActRII, as necessary, although not sufficient, for PCC proliferation. Activin A induced Smad2 phosphorylation and PCC proliferation, but only in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conversely, activin A antibodies and inhibin A suppressed FBS-induced PCC proliferation confirming activin A as one of multiple serum components required for PCC proliferation. Basic fibroblast growth factor was subsequently shown to synergize activin A-induced PCC proliferation. Inhibition of ActRII signaling using a blocking antibody or antisense-P decreased mature ActRII expression, Smad2 phosphorylation, and the apparent viability of PCCs and neuroblastoma cells grown in FBS. Suppression of ActRII signaling in PCC and neuroblastoma cells did not induce apoptosis as indicated by the ratio of active/inactive caspase 3 but did correlate with increased cell detachment and ADAM-15 expression, a disintegrin whose expression is strongly correlated with prostatic metastasis. These findings indicate that ActRII signaling is required for PCC and neuroblastoma cell viability, with ActRII mediating cell fate via the regulation of cell adhesion. That ActRII signaling governs both cell viability and cell adhesion has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to regulate cancer growth and metastasis.

  7. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  8. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 in Rice Pudding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of two probiotic micro-organisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 in a rice pudding, the impact of these bacteria on hygienic quality, and to verify the perspectives of the product with regard to consumer sensorial acceptance. The products were monitored for the microbial population, pH, titratable acidity and consistency, during storage at 4±1 °C for up to 21 days. Sensory preference was also tested. Even though the viability of the probiotic bacteria was reduced over 21 days of storage, the viable cell concentrations were still sufficient to obtain the desired therapeutic impact. The counts of yeasts-moulds and Staphylococcus spp. decreased in samples with added probiotic bacteria. The sensorial properties of probiotic rice pudding demonstrated similar acceptability to the control up to 14 days and declined thereafter. Rice pudding was considered suitable food for the delivery of probiotic micro-organisms, with sufficient viability and acceptable sensory characteristics.

  9. The effect of temperature on the viability of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya E; Guo, Na; Wu, Li Ping

    2009-11-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are obligatory parasites of the pilosebaceous unit in humans and are cosmopolitan in terms of their distribution. This study was conducted to explore the effect of temperature on the viability of D. folliculorum and D. brevis. Both types of parasites were collected with the cellophane tape method, then randomly grouped and placed into separate moist cabinets. They were divided into 15 groups and exposed to experimental temperatures ranging from -15 degrees C to 60 degrees C. Curve diagrams and scatter plots on the relationship between temperature and the corresponding survival time were drawn and analyzed. It is demonstrated that temperature has a tremendous influence on the viability of D. folliculorum and D. brevis. Survival time and temperature are inversely correlated in the temperature range of 5-37 degrees C. Both D. folliculorum and D. brevis can survive better at low temperatures than at high temperatures. The most suitable maintenance temperature is 5 degrees C, and the optimal temperature for D. folliculorum and D. brevis to develop in vitro is 16-20 degrees C. Temperatures below 0 degrees C and above 37 degrees C are harmful to the mites. The lethal temperature is 54 degrees C, and the effective temperature that kills Demodex mites is 58 degrees C.

  10. Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability onMicroarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C.; Asphahani,Fareid; Zhang, Miqin

    2007-01-19

    Single cell patterning holds important implications forbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, medicine, and bioinformatics. Thechallenge for single cell patterning is to produce small islands hostingonly single cells and retaining their viability for a prolonged period oftime. This study demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses acovalently bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern cells withimproved single cell adhesion and prolonged cellular viabilityon goldpatterned SiO2 substrates. The underlying hypothesis is that celladhesion is regulated bythe type, availability, and stability ofeffective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound shortpeptides would promote cell spreading and, thus, single cell adhesion andviability. The effectiveness of this approach and the underlyingmechanism for the increased probability of single cell adhesion andprolonged cell viability by short peptides were studied by comparingcellular behavior of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells on threemodelsurfaces whose gold electrodes were immobilized with fibronectin,physically adsorbed Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, and covalently boundLys-Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, respectively. The surface chemistry and bindingproperties were characterized by reflectance Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy. Both short peptides were superior to fibronectin inproducing adhesion of only single cells, whereas the covalently boundpeptide also reduced apoptosis and necrosisof adhered cells. Controllingcell spreading by peptide binding domains to regulate apoptosis andviability represents a fundamental mechanism in cell-materialsinteraction and provides an effective strategy in engineering arrays ofsingle cells.

  11. Perfusion Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability — a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu Mirabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial viability plays an important role in preventing the development of left ventricular remodeling following an acute myocardial infarction. A preserved viability in the infarcted area has been demonstrated to be associated with a lower amplitude of the remodeling process, while the extent of the non-viable myocardium is directly correlated with the amplitude of the remodeling process. A number of methods are currently in use for the quantification of the viable myocardium, and some of them are based on the estimation of myocardial perfusion during pharmacologic stress. 64-slice Multi-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT during vasodilator stress test, associated with CT Coronary Angiography (CCTA has a high diagnostic accuracy in evaluating myocardial perfusion. In this article, we present a sequence of 3 clinical cases that presented with symptoms of myocardial ischemia, who underwent 64-slice MDCT imaging at rest and during adenosine stress test, in order to assess the extent of the hypoperfused myocardial areas. Coronary artery anatomy and the Coronary Calcium Score was assessed for all 3 patients by performing CT Coronary Angiography. The combination of CT Angiography and adenosine stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging can accurately detect atherosclerosic lesions that cause perfusion abnormalities, compared with the combination of invasive angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT.

  12. E2F function in muscle growth is necessary and sufficient for viability in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Maria Paula; Frolov, Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor is a key cell cycle regulator. However, the inactivation of the entire E2F family in Drosophila is permissive throughout most of animal development until pupation when lethality occurs. Here we show that E2F function in the adult skeletal muscle is essential for animal viability since providing E2F function in muscles rescues the lethality of the whole-body E2F-deficient animals. Muscle-specific loss of E2F results in a significant reduction in muscle mass and thinner myofibrils. We demonstrate that E2F is dispensable for proliferation of muscle progenitor cells, but is required during late myogenesis to directly control the expression of a set of muscle-specific genes. Interestingly, E2f1 provides a major contribution to the regulation of myogenic function, while E2f2 appears to be less important. These findings identify a key function of E2F in skeletal muscle required for animal viability, and illustrate how the cell cycle regulator is repurposed in post-mitotic cells. PMID:26823289

  13. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  14. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Delayed enhancement imaging of myocardial viability: low-dose high-pitch CT versus MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetti, Robert; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Stolzmann, Paul; Donati, Olivio F.; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wieser, Monika; Plass, Andre [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of high-pitch delayed enhancement (DE) CT for the assessment of myocardial viability with MRI as the reference standard. Twenty-four patients (mean age 66.9 {+-} 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease underwent DE imaging with 128-slice dual-source CT (prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggering) and MRI at 1.5 T. Two observers assessed DE transmurality per segment, and measured signal intensity (MRI) or attenuation (CT) in infarcted and healthy myocardium and noise in the left ventricular blood pool for calculating contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). 75/408 (18.4%) segments in 18/24 patients (75.0%) showed DE in MRI, of which 28 segments in 10/24 (41.7%) patients were non-viable (scar tissue transmurality >50%). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CT for diagnosis of non-viability were 60.7%, 96.8% and 94.4% per segment, and 90.0%, 92.9% and 91.7% per patient. CNR was significantly higher in MR (7.4 {+-} 3.0 vs. 4.6 {+-} 1.5; p = 0.018), and image noise significantly lower (11.6 {+-} 5.7 vs.15.0 {+-} 4.5; p = 0.019). Radiation dose of DECT was 0.89 {+-} 0.07 mSv. CTDE imaging in the high-pitch mode enables myocardial viability assessment at a low radiation dose and good accuracy compared with MR, although associated with a lower CNR and higher noise. (orig.)

  16. Cine viability magnetic resonance imaging of the heart without increased scan time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Azza S; Khalifa, Ayman M; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information about myocardial morphology, function, and viability from cine, tagged, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, respectively. While the cine and tagged images are acquired in a time-resolved fashion, the LGE images are acquired at a single timeframe. The purpose of this work is to develop a method for generating cine LGE images without additional scan time. The motion field is extracted from the tagged images, and is then used to guide the deformation of the infarcted region from the acquired LGE image at the acquired timeframe to any other timeframe. Major techniques for motion estimation, including harmonic phase (HARP) and optical flow analysis, are tested in this work for motion estimation. The proposed method is tested on numerical phantom and images from four human subjects. The generated cine LGE images showed both viability and wall motion information in the same set of images without additional scan time or image misregistration problems. The band-pass optical flow analysis resulted in the most accurate motion estimation compared to other methods, especially HARP, which fails to track points at the myocardial boundary. Infarct transmurality from the generated images showed good agreement with myocardial strain, and wall thickening showed good agreement with that measured from conventional cine images. In conclusion, the developed technique allows for generating cine LGE images that enable simultaneous display of wall motion and viability information. The generated images could be useful for estimating myocardial contractility reserve and for treatment prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell structure and percent viability by a slide centrifuge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M G; Hosking, C S

    1982-01-01

    It was found that a slide centrifuge (Cytospin) preparation of a cell suspension allowed a reliable assessment of not only cell structure but also the percentage of non-viable cells. The non-viable cells appeared as "smear" cells and paralleled in number the cells taking up trypan blue. Direct experiment showed the unstained viable cells in a trypan blue cell suspension remained intact in a Cytospin preparation while the cells taking up trypan blue were the "smear" cells. The non-viability of the "smear" cells was confirmed by their inability to survive in culture. Images PMID:7040483

  18. Law and ethics at the border of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, E F

    2006-06-01

    The Supreme Court of Texas in the case of Miller v. HCA announced a rule in 2003 (118 s.w. 3d 758) that a physician attending the delivery of a severely premature infant may provide life-sustaining treatment for that infant under 'emergent circumstances' as a matter of law without first obtaining parental consent. This paper examines issues of law and ethics relevant to decisions about infant resuscitation at the border of viability. It is argued that there is typically no emergency when infants are delivered at 23 weeks gestation, and parents should be asked for informed consent before resuscitation in the delivery room.

  19. The Viability of Small Banks in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alton Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Small banks have an important role in financing economic activity through their financial services for small businesses. There has been a sharp decline in the number of small banking organizations in the U.S. since the early 1980s. A continuation of this trend would raise important issues about access to financial services for small businesses. Data on the number of banks, their profits, and the distribution of consistent high and low earning banks tend to tell the same story about the viabil...

  20. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  1. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the fir...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  2. Radiation-induced glioblastoma signaling cascade regulates viability, apoptosis and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2014-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alone or in combination with chemotherapy is the main treatment modality for brain tumors including glioblastoma. Adult neurons and astrocytes demonstrate substantial radioresistance; in contrast, human neural stem cells (NSC) are highly sensitive to radiation via induction of apoptosis. Irradiation of tumor cells has the potential risk of affecting the viability and function of NSC. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of irradiated glioblastoma cells on viability, proliferation and differentiation potential of non-irradiated (bystander) NSC through radiation-induced signaling cascades. Using media transfer experiments, we demonstrated significant effects of the U87MG glioblastoma secretome after gamma-irradiation on apoptosis in non-irradiated NSC. Addition of anti-TRAIL antibody to the transferred media partially suppressed apoptosis in NSC. Furthermore, we observed a dramatic increase in the production and secretion of IL8, TGFβ1 and IL6 by irradiated glioblastoma cells, which could promote glioblastoma cell survival and modify the effects of death factors in bystander NSC. While differentiation of NSC into neurons and astrocytes occurred efficiently with the corresponding differentiation media, pretreatment of NSC for 8 h with medium from irradiated glioblastoma cells selectively suppressed the differentiation of NSC into neurons, but not into astrocytes. Exogenous IL8 and TGFβ1 increased NSC/NPC survival, but also suppressed neuronal differentiation. On the other hand, IL6 was known to positively affect survival and differentiation of astrocyte progenitors. We established a U87MG neurosphere culture that was substantially enriched by SOX2(+) and CD133(+) glioma stem-like cells (GSC). Gamma-irradiation up-regulated apoptotic death in GSC via the FasL/Fas pathway. Media transfer experiments from irradiated GSC to non-targeted NSC again demonstrated induction of apoptosis and suppression of neuronal differentiation of NSC. In

  3. Loss of viability and induction of apoptosis in human keratinocytes exposed to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Kelly R; Secor, Patrick R; James, Garth A; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E; Stewart, Philip S

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria colonizing chronic wounds are believed to exist as polymicrobial, biofilm communities; however, there are few studies demonstrating the role of biofilms in chronic wound pathogenesis. This study establishes a novel method for studying the effect of biofilms on the cell types involved in wound healing. Cocultures of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and human keratinocytes (HK) were created by initially growing S. aureus biofilms on tissue culture inserts then transferring the inserts to existing HK cultures. Biofilm-conditioned medium (BCM) was prepared by culturing the insert-supported biofilm in cell culture medium. As a control planktonic-conditioned medium (PCM) was also prepared. Biofilm, BCM, and PCM were used in migration, cell viability, and apoptosis assays. Changes in HK morphology were followed by brightfield and confocal microscopy. After only 3 hours exposure to BCM, but not PCM, HK formed dendrite-like extensions and displayed reduced viability. After 9 hours, there was an increase in apoptosis (pPCM-exposed HK all exhibited reduced scratch closure (p< or =0.0001). The results demonstrated that soluble products of both S. aureus planktonic cells and biofilms inhibit scratch closure. Furthermore, S. aureus biofilms significantly reduced HK viability and significantly increased HK apoptosis compared with planktonic S. aureus.

  4. Low Concentration of Sodium Nitroprusside Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell Viability and Proliferation Through Elevation of Metabolic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP releases nitric oxide which has signaling role. Objectives: This study was conducted to understand the role of low concentration of SNP on viability, proliferation and biochemical properties of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Materials and Methods: MSCs were used to evaluate the viability and morphology in presence of SNP (1 to 100 µM at 12, 24 and 36 hours. Then 10, 50 and 100 µM of SNP as well as 24 hours were selected for further study. Cell proliferation was investigated by colony forming assay and population doubling number (PDN. Calcium (Ca2+ potassium (K+ and sodium (Na+ level as well as activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured. Results: The MSCs viability increased when treatment with 1 and 10 µM at all the treatment periods while 90 and 100 µM caused significant reduction after 24 and 36 hours. Also 10 µM caused elevation whereas 50 and 100 µM showed reduction of proliferation ability. We observed morphological changes and significant reduction of all the investigated enzymes with 100 µM. Activity of ALT and AST were elevated with 10 µM after 24 hours, whereas LDH and ALP activities were not changed. Na+, K+ and Ca2+ was not changed due to 10 and 50 µM treatments, whereas 100 µM only elevated the level of calcium and sodium ions. Conclusions: Low concentration of SNP caused increase of viability and proliferation due to metabolic activity elevation. But the high concentration of SNP induced cell viability and proliferation reduction caused by metabolic and ionic imbalance as well as infrastructure alteration.

  5. Resuscitation at the limits of viability--an Irish perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, R A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in neonatal care continue to lower the limit of viability. Decision making in this grey zone remains a challenging process. OBJECTIVE: To explore the opinions of healthcare providers on resuscitation and outcome in the less than 28-week preterm newborn. DESIGN\\/METHODS: An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to health care providers working in maternity units in the Republic of Ireland. Questions related to neonatal management of the extreme preterm infant, and estimated survival and long-term outcome. RESULTS: The response rate was 55% (74% obstetricians and 70% neonatologists). Less than 1% would advocate resuscitation at 22 weeks, 10% of health care providers advocate resuscitation at 23 weeks gestation, 80% of all health care providers would resuscitate at 24 weeks gestation. 20% of all health care providers would advocate cessation of resuscitation efforts on 22-25 weeks gestation at 5 min of age. 65% of Neonatologists and 54% trainees in Paediatrics would cease resuscitation at 10 min of age. Obstetricians were more pessimistic about survival and long term outcome in newborns delivered between 23 and 27 weeks when compared with neonatologists. This difference was also observed in trainees in paediatrics and obstetrics. CONCLUSION: Neonatologists, trainees in paediatrics and neonatal nurses are generally more optimistic about outcome than their counterparts in obstetrical care and this is reflected in a greater willingness to provide resuscitation efforts at the limits of viability.

  6. Improvement on The Ellis and Roberts Viability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With data sets of germination percent and storage time of seed lot of wheat and sorghum stored at three different storage temperature(t, °C with three different water content (m, % of seeds, together with data set of buckwheat and lettuce reported in literatures, the possibility that seed survival curve were transformed into line by survival proportion and the relationship that logarithm of average viability period (logp50 and standard deviation of seed death distribution in time (δwith t, m and interaction between t and m were analysed. Result indicated that survival proportion transformed seed survival curve to line were much easier than the probability adopted by Ellis and Roberts, and the most important factor affecting logp50 and δ of seed lot was interaction between t and m. Thus, Ellis and Roberts viability model were suggested to be improved as Ki=Vi-p/10K-CWT (t×m to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent unknown, a new model of Gi/G0=A-P/10K-CWT(t×m was constructed to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent already known.

  7. A New Methodology for Evaluation of Nematode Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Rodrigo Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes infections are responsible for debilitating conditions and economic losses in domestic animals as well as livestock and are considered an important public health problem due to the high prevalence in humans. The nematode resistance for drugs has been reported for livestock, highlighting the importance for development of new anthelmintic compounds. The aim of the current study was to apply and compare fluorimetric techniques using Sytox and propidium iodide for evaluating the viability of C. elegans larvae after treatment with anthelmintic drugs. These fluorescent markers were efficient to stain larvae treated with ivermectin and albendazole sulfoxide. We observed that densitometric values were proportional to the concentration of dead larvae stained with both markers. Furthermore, data on motility test presented an inverse correlation with fluorimetric data when ivermectin was used. Our results showed that lower concentrations of drugs were effective to interfere in the processes of cellular transport while higher drugs concentrations were necessary in order to result in any damage to cell integrity. The methodology described in this work might be useful for studies that aim to evaluate the viability of nematodes, particularly for testing of new anthelminthic compounds using an easy, economic, reproducible, and no time-consuming technique.

  8. Economic viability of cerrado vegetation management under conditions of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Corrêa da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is Brazil’s second largest biome, comprising about 388 municipalities in Minas Gerais state alone and serving as an important source of natural resources. A large share of the wood charcoal produced in Minas Gerais is sourced from Cerrado vegetation. The objective of this work is to assess the economic viability of Cerrado vegetation management for wood charcoal production, under conditions of risk. The study site is a fragment of Cerrado subjected to five levels of intervention as to basal area removal. For risk analysis, the Monte Carlo method was applied, using charcoal price, interest rate and land value as input variables, and using Net Present Value as output variable over an infinite planning horizon. It was concluded that introducing risk in the economic analysis of the various Cerrado management regimes helped provide additional information to that obtained by deterministic analysis, improving understanding and ensuring safety in decision-making about the economic viability of such regimes. For all treatments, the probability of VPL being negative increases with increasing cutting cycle lengths. For all treatments, the optimal cutting cycle is ten years. Treatments where a larger volume of wood was removed proved less prone to risks of economic inviability since they secure more revenue than treatments where less wood was removed.

  9. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  10. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers.

  11. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2010-02-23

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These "thermal fingerprints" vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of "virtual pea seeds," that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such "cooling" compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development.

  13. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  15. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A

    2005-06-01

    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment.

  16. Effect of magnetic nanoparticle heating on cortical neuron viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher J; Yuan, Yuan; Gilbert, Ryan J; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2014-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are currently approved for use as an adjunctive treatment to glioblastoma multiforme radiotherapy. Radio frequency stimulation of the nanoparticles generates localised hyperthermia, which sensitises the tumour to the effects of radiotherapy. Clinical trials reported thus far are promising, with an increase in patient survival rate; however, what are left unaddressed are the implications of this technology on the surrounding healthy tissue. Aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles suspended in culture medium were applied to chick embryonic cortical neuron cultures. Cultures were heated to 37 °C or 45 °C by an induction coil system for 2 h. The latter regime emulates the therapeutic conditions of the adjunctive therapy. Cellular viability and neurite retraction was quantified 24 h after exposure to the hyperthermic events. The hyperthermic load inflicted little damage to the neuron cultures, as determined by calcein-AM, propidium iodide, and alamarBlue® assays. Fluorescence imaging was used to assess the extent of neurite retraction which was found to be negligible. Retention of chick, embryonic cortical neuron viability was confirmed under the thermal conditions produced by radiofrequency stimulation of iron oxide nanoparticles. While these results are not directly applicable to clinical applications of hyperthermia, the thermotolerance of chick embryonic cortical neurons is promising and calls for further studies employing human cultures of neurons and glial cells.

  17. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  18. Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy W; Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; McClements, David J; Sela, David A

    2016-04-01

    Probiotics are beneficial microbes often added to food products to enhance the health and wellness of consumers. A major limitation to producing efficacious functional foods containing probiotic cells is their tendency to lose viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit. In this study, the impact of encapsulating probiotics within food-grade hydrogel particles to mitigate sensitivity to environmental stresses was examined. Confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Lactococcus lactis were trapped within calcium alginate beads formed by dripping a probiotic-alginate mixture into a calcium solution. Encapsulation improved the viability of the probiotics during aerobic storage: after seven days, less than a two-log reduction was observed in encapsulated cells stored at room temperature, demonstrating that a high concentration of cells survived relative to non-encapsulated bacteria. These hydrogel beads may have applications for improving the stability and efficacy of probiotics in functional foods.

  19. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  20. Direct In Situ Viability Assessment of Bacteria in Probiotic Dairy Products Using Viability Staining in Conjunction with Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, M. A. E.; Gardiner, G. E.; McBrearty, S. J.; O'Sullivan, E. O.; Mulvihill, D. M.; Collins, J. K.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.; Ross, R. P.

    2001-01-01

    The viability of the human probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 in reconstituted skim milk was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability stain. The technique was rapid (diluent. PMID:11133474

  1. Low radon-dose effect on fecundity and egg-to-adult viability of Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, E. E-mail: aepp@nuclear.inin.mx; Tavera, L.; Cruces, M.P.; Balcazar, M.; Rosa, M.E. de la

    2003-06-01

    Uncertainties exist on the extrapolation of induction radiation damage curves from high to low doses. This work presents experimental data on the effects of low radon doses to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae (48 h old) of D. melanogaster (Canton-S) were exposed during 72 h to nine different radon concentrations (6{+-}2;12{+-}2;14{+-}2;25{+-}7;30{+-}7;43{+-}5;58{+-}5;74{+-}7 and 78{+-}7 kBq/m{sup 3}); estimated doses: 0.03,0.1,0.156,0.869,1.209,2.088,2.12,2.878,3.18 mGy (Mutat. Res. 354 (1996) 139). Egg yield and their viability from the adult hatched was measured. The fecundity of treated flies was significantly lower than that of the control ones (p<0.0001), except for the 25{+-}7 (0.869);43{+-}5 (2.088);58{+-}5 (2.12) and 78{+-}7 (3.18) kBq/m{sup 3} (mGy) radon treatment. However, the viability for the treated flies was slightly higher; considering all data, a significant difference was found (p<0.02). This suggests that exposure to radon induces lethal damage in D. melanogaster during gametogenesis, and provides an improvement to the viable gametes through the treatment. Based on the low dose used; data are in agreement with the hormesis hypothesis.

  2. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: study of bacterial recovery viability and potential development of resistance after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Anabela; Carvalho, Carla M B; Faustino, Maria A; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, João P C; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Gomes, Newton C M; Alves, Eliana; Almeida, Adelaide

    2010-01-20

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF) was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF (5.0 microM) was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m(-2)) for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes), in presence of 5.0 microM of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation) and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process.

  3. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy: Study of Bacterial Recovery Viability and Potential Development of Resistance after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl-20-(pentafluorophenyl-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py+-Me-PF (5.0 µM was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m-2 for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes, in presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py+-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process.

  4. Severity of peripheral arterial disease is associated with aortic pressure augmentation and subendocardial viability ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, Kathrin; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Thalhammer, Christoph; Meier, Thomas O; Kohler, Malcolm; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Husmann, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality that correlates with peripheral perfusion impairment as assessed by the ankle-brachial arterial pressure index (ABI). Furthermore, PAD is associated with arterial stiffness and elevated aortic augmentation index (AIx). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ABI impairment correlates with AIx and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a measure of cardiac perfusion during diastole. AIx and SEVR were assessed by radial applanation tonometry in 65 patients with stable PAD (Rutherford stage I-III) at a tertiary referral center. AIx corrected for heart rate and SEVR were tested in a multivariate linear and logistic regression model to determine the association with ABI. Mean ABI was 0.8±0.2, AIx 31%±7%, and SEVR 141%±26%. Multiple linear regression with AIx as a dependent variable revealed that AIx was significantly negatively associated with ABI (β=-11.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18.6 to -4.5; P=.002). Other variables that were associated with AIx were diastolic blood pressure (β=0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.4; Psubendocardial viability ratio. This may be a potential pathophysiologic link that impacts cardiac prognosis in patients with PAD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessment in human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Youn, Hyun-Yi; McCanna, David J; Sivak, Jacob G; Mikkelsen, Susan R

    2013-05-01

    The application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessments of human corneal epithelial cells has been investigated. Electrochemical measurements have been compared in PBS containing 5.0 mM glucose and minimal essential growth medium. Three different lipophilic mediators including dichlorophenol indophenol, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (also called menadione or vitamin K3) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine have been evaluated for shuttling electrons across the cell membrane to the external medium. Transfer of these electrons to ferricyanide in the extra cellular medium results in the accumulation of ferrocyanide. The amount of ferrocyanide is then determined using cyclic biamperometry and is related to the extent of cell metabolic activity and therefore cell viability. To illustrate cytotoxicity assessment of chemicals, hydrogen peroxide, benzalkonium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate have been chosen as sample toxins, the cytotoxicities of which have been evaluated and compared to values reported in the literature. Similar values have been reported using colorimetric assays; however, the simplicity of this electrochemical assay can, in principle, open the way to miniaturization onto lab-on-chip devices and its incorporation into tiered-testing approaches for cytotoxicity assessment.

  6. Redefining the effect of salt on thermophilic starter cell viability, culturability and metabolic activity in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, C D; Fallico, V; Wilkinson, M G; Sheehan, J J

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the differential effect of salt concentration in the outside and inside layers of brine salted cheeses on viability, culturability and enzyme activity of starter bacteria. The high-salt environment of the outside layer caused a sharp decrease in L. helveticus viability as measured by traditional plate counts. Remarkably, this was associated with lower release of intracellular enzymes (LDH), reduced levels of proteolysis and larger membrane integrity as measured by flow cytometry (FC) following classical Live/Dead staining. FC analysis of light scattering properties highlighted a significant reduction in size and granularity of the microbiota located in the cheese surface, suggestive of cell shrinkage and condensation of internal macromolecules probably due to hyperosmotic stress. The microbiota of the cheese surface were found to experience greater oxidative stress, as measured by FC analysis of the total levels of reactive oxygen species, compared to that of the interior layer. These results lead us to postulate that the physiology and health status of the microbiota were significantly different in the outer and inner layers of the cheese. The hyperosmotic environment of the outer layer resulted in reduced cell lysis, as measurable by assays based upon membrane integrity, but rather triggered cell death via mechanisms involving cell shrinkage and ROS-mediated damage of vital intracellular components. This study challenges the current thinking on how salt controls microbial activity in ripening cheese, especially in cheeses which are brine salted as local variations in biochemical ripening indices can differ significantly from the outside to the inside of a ripening cheese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Geranylgeranyl Transferase-I Decreases Cell Viability of HTLV-1-Transformed Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Pise-Masison

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, an aggressive and highly chemoresistant malignancy. Rho family GTPases regulate multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis: cytoskeletal organization, transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Geranylgeranylation of Rho family GTPases is essential for cell membrane localization and activation of these proteins. It is currently unknown whether HTLV-1-transformed cells are preferentially sensitive to geranylgeranylation inhibitors, such as GGTI-298. In this report, we demonstrate that GGTI-298 decreased cell viability and induced G2/M phase accumulation of HTLV-1-transformed cells, independent of p53 reactivation. HTLV-1-LTR transcriptional activity was inhibited and Tax protein levels decreased following treatment with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 decreased activation of NF-κB, a downstream target of Rho family GTPases. These studies suggest that protein geranylgeranylation contributes to dysregulation of cell survival pathways in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

  8. Inhibition of geranylgeranyl transferase-I decreases cell viability of HTLV-1-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dustin C; McKinnon, Katherine M; Fenizia, Claudio; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Brady, John N; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A

    2011-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive and highly chemoresistant malignancy. Rho family GTPases regulate multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis: cytoskeletal organization, transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Geranylgeranylation of Rho family GTPases is essential for cell membrane localization and activation of these proteins. It is currently unknown whether HTLV-1-transformed cells are preferentially sensitive to geranylgeranylation inhibitors, such as GGTI-298. In this report, we demonstrate that GGTI-298 decreased cell viability and induced G(2)/M phase accumulation of HTLV-1-transformed cells, independent of p53 reactivation. HTLV-1-LTR transcriptional activity was inhibited and Tax protein levels decreased following treatment with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 decreased activation of NF-κB, a downstream target of Rho family GTPases. These studies suggest that protein geranylgeranylation contributes to dysregulation of cell survival pathways in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

  9. Mycolic Acid Cyclopropanation is Essential for Viability, Drug Resistance, and Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Daniel; Liu, Zhen; Sacchettini, James C.; Glickman, Michael S.; (MSKCC); (TAM)

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection remains a major global health problem complicated by escalating rates of antibiotic resistance. Despite the established role of mycolic acid cyclopropane modification in pathogenesis, the feasibility of targeting this enzyme family for antibiotic development is unknown. We show through genetics and chemical biology that mycolic acid methyltransferases are essential for M. tuberculosis viability, cell wall structure, and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. The tool compound dioctylamine, which we show acts as a substrate mimic, directly inhibits the function of multiple mycolic acid methyltransferases, resulting in loss of cyclopropanation, cell death, loss of acid fastness, and synergistic killing with isoniazid and ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that mycolic acid methyltransferases are a promising antibiotic target and that a family of virulence factors can be chemically inhibited with effects not anticipated from studies of each individual enzyme.

  10. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  11. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.

  12. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  13. Ponatinib reduces viability, migration, and functionality of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover-Proaktor, Ayala; Granot, Galit; Shapira, Saar; Raz, Oshrat; Pasvolsky, Oren; Nagler, Arnon; Lev, Dorit L; Inbal, Aida; Lubin, Ido; Raanani, Pia; Leader, Avi

    2017-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. With the advent of highly efficacious therapy, the focus has shifted toward managing TKI adverse effects, such as vascular adverse events (VAEs). We used an in vitro angiogenesis model to investigate the TKI-associated VAEs. Our data show that imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib reduce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) viability. Pharmacological concentrations of ponatinib induced apoptosis, reduced migration, inhibited tube formation of HUVECs, and had a negative effect on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function. Furthermore, in HUVECs transfected with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the effect of ponatinib on tube formation and on all parameters representing normal endothelial cell function was less prominent than in control cells. This is the first report regarding the pathogenesis of ponatinib-associated VAEs. The antiangiogenic effect of ponatinib, possibly mediated by VEGFR2 inhibition, as shown in our study, is another piece in the intricate puzzle of TKI-associated VAEs.

  14. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  15. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  16. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  17. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  18. A simple viability analysis for unicellular cyanobacteria using a new autofluorescence assay, automated microscopy, and ImageJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently established methods to identify viable and non-viable cells of cyanobacteria are either time-consuming (eg. plating or preparation-intensive (eg. fluorescent staining. In this paper we present a new and fast viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria, which uses red chlorophyll fluorescence and an unspecific green autofluorescence for the differentiation of viable and non-viable cells without the need of sample preparation. Results The viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria using red and green autofluorescence was established and validated for the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Both autofluorescence signals could be observed simultaneously allowing a direct classification of viable and non-viable cells. The results were confirmed by plating/colony count, absorption spectra and chlorophyll measurements. The use of an automated fluorescence microscope and a novel ImageJ based image analysis plugin allow a semi-automated analysis. Conclusions The new method simplifies the process of viability analysis and allows a quick and accurate analysis. Furthermore results indicate that a combination of the new assay with absorption spectra or chlorophyll concentration measurements allows the estimation of the vitality of cells.

  19. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  20. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...

  1. Medicare Demonstration Projects and Evaluation Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conducts and sponsors a number of innovative demonstration projects to test and measure the effect of potential...

  2. Effect of microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum 25 into alginate/chitosan/alginate microcapsules on viability and cytokine induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Kim, You-Kyoung; Singh, Bijay; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum 25 (LP25) encapsulated into alginate/chitosan/alginate (ACA) microcapsules (LP25-ACA MCs) prepared by an extrusion methods were characterized to assess their efficacy in oral delivery. The particle sizes of LP25-ACA MCs were 1.11 +/- 0.32 mm. The loading content of LP25 was 1.11 x 10(7) colony forming unit (cfu)/microcapsule and encapsulation efficiency was above 98%. The viability of LP25 in ACA MCs was more than 65% in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2.0) and 75% in simulated small intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2) up to 2 h. Encapsulated LP25 were completely released from LP25-ACA MCs in SIF and simulated colon fluid (SCF, pH 6.0) within 12 h and 8 h respectively. The viability of LP25 in ACA MCs till 5 weeks was above 58%, whereas viability of free LP25 stored at room temperature up to 5 weeks was zero. Besides, LP25-ACA MCs induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from macrophages and dendritic cells showing the immunomodulatory effect of LP25. These findings demonstrate that the encapsulation of LP25 by ACA is a suitable strategy for oral delivery of probiotics.

  3. Diagnostic value of Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT to assess viability in a patient after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambye, A S; Van Den Branden, F; Vandevivere, J

    1996-01-01

    The case of a 56-year-old woman who was admitted with an acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction showed severely decreased left ventricular function and regional wall motion abnormalities on planar Tc-99m gated blood pool imaging. Tc-99m sestamibi stress SPECT imaging demonstrated residual peri-infarct ischemia. At angiography, a solitary severe proximal left anterior descending stenosis was successfully dilated. Later, because of recurrent chest pain, a second Tc-99m sestamibi stress-rest SPECT was performed to exclude restenosis. Because the question of viability within the infarct region had also been asked, a gated protocol was applied and compared to TI-201 rest-redistribution SPECT. Both tests pointed to the existence of tissue viability in the septal region, without evidence for stress ischemia. The patient was then medically treated. One year later, because of angina, Tc-99m gated SPECT blood pool imaging showed a spectacular increase in left ventricular function and a dramatic improvement in regional wall motion. Angiographic data confirmed these findings and there was no significant restenosis. Thus, Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT may be helpful in predicting viability and recovery of function in patients with severely impaired left ventricular regional wall motion after acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Maltose-binding protein isolated from Escherichia coli induces Toll-like receptor 2-mediated viability in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Zhao; Weihua, Ni; Qingyong, Zhang; Fengli, Wang; Yingying, Li; Xiaxia, Sun; Zhonghui, Liu; Guixiang, Tai

    2011-07-01

    Stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by microbial products has been utilised to potentiate immune responses against haematologic malignancies. The maltose-binding protein (MBP) of Escherichia coli could induce the activation of immune cells via TLR4. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TLRs mediated the biological effects of MBP on U937 and Jurkat cells in vitro. METHODS We observed the effect of MBP on U937 and Jurkat cells by using the WST, cell cycle analysis and morphological observation. Further, cells were stimulated with MBP for indicated times and doses, and detected by RT-PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining to investigate the mechanisms involved in cell viability. MBP enhanced the viability of U937 and Jurkat cells, and the effects were blocked by anti-TLR2, but not anti-TLR4 in U937 cells. Further studies confirmed that MBP was able to directly bind to U937 and Jurkat cells and modulate TLR expression. The effects of MBP depended on the activation of NF-κB and MAP kinase in U937 and Jurkat cells. Our results demonstrated that MBP could directly promote U937 cell viability via TLR2. It suggested that MBP may be used as an adjuvant for participating in the immunotherapy of haematologic malignancies.

  5. Flow Cytometry Is a Powerful Tool for Assessment of the Viability of Fungal Conidia in Metalworking Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, D; Demeyere, K; Callaert, N; Boelaert, A; Haesaert, G; Audenaert, K; Meyer, E

    2017-08-15

    Fungal contamination of metalworking fluids (MWF) is a dual problem in automated processing plants because resulting fungal biofilms obstruct cutting, drilling, and polishing machines. Moreover, some fungal species of MWF comprise pathogens such as Fusarium solani Therefore, the development of an accurate analytical tool to evaluate conidial viability in MWF is important. We developed a flow cytometric method to measure fungal viability in MWF using F. solani as the model organism. To validate this method, viable and dead conidia were mixed in several proportions and flow was cytometrically analyzed. Subsequently, we assessed the fungicidal activity of two commercial MWF using flow cytometry (FCM) and compared it with microscopic analyses and plating experiments. We evaluated the fungal growth in both MWF after 7 days using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the predictive value of FCM. Our results showed that FCM distinguishes live from dead conidia as early as 5 h after exposure to MWF, whereas the microscopic germination approach detected conidial viability much later and less accurately. At 24 h, microscopic analyses of germinating conidia and live/dead analyses by FCM correlated well, although the former consistently underestimated the proportion of viable conidia. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the flow cytometric method were high and allowed assessment of the fungicidal properties of two commercial MWF. Importantly, the obtained flow cytometric results on viability of F. solani conidia at both early time points (5 h and 24 h) correlated well with fungal biomass measurements assessed via a qPCR methodology 7 days after the start of the experiment. IMPORTANCE This result shows the predictive power of flow cytometry (FCM) in assessing the fungicidal capacity of MWF formulations. It also implies that FCM can be implemented as a rapid detection tool to estimate the viable fungal load in an industrial processing matrix (MWF). Copyright © 2017

  6. Targeting melanoma growth and viability reveals dualistic functionality of the phosphonothionate analogue of carba cyclic phosphatidic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestwich Glenn D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the incidence of melanoma in the U.S. is rising faster than any other cancer, the FDA-approved chemotherapies lack efficacy for advanced disease, which results in poor overall survival. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, autotaxin (ATX, the enzyme that produces LPA, and the LPA receptors represent an emerging group of therapeutic targets in cancer, although it is not known which of these is most effective. Results Herein we demonstrate that thio-ccPA 18:1, a stabilized phosphonothionate analogue of carba cyclic phosphatidic acid, ATX inhibitor and LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, induced a marked reduction in the viability of B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells compared with PBS-treated control by 80-100%. Exogenous LPA 18:1 or D-sn-1-O-oleoyl-2-O-methylglyceryl-3-phosphothioate did not reverse the effect of thio-ccPA 18:1. The reduction in viability mediated by thio-ccPA 18:1 was also observed in A375 and MeWo melanoma cell lines, suggesting that the effects are generalizable. Interestingly, siRNA to LPA3 (siLPA3 but not other LPA receptors recapitulated the effects of thio-ccPA 18:1 on viability, suggesting that inhibition of the LPA3 receptor is an important dualistic function of the compound. In addition, siLPA3 reduced proliferation, plasma membrane integrity and altered morphology of A375 cells. Another experimental compound designed to antagonize the LPA1/3 receptors significantly reduced viability in MeWo cells, which predominantly express the LPA3 receptor. Conclusions Thus the ability of thio-ccPA 18:1 to inhibit the LPA3 receptor and ATX are key to its molecular mechanism, particularly in melanoma cells that predominantly express the LPA3 receptor. These observations necessitate further exploration and exploitation of these targets in melanoma.

  7. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Bio-Ink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity during Drop-On-Demand Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Long; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win

    2017-02-16

    Drop-on-demand (DOD) bioprinting has attracted huge attention for numerous biological applications due to its precise control over material volume and deposition pattern in a contactless printing approach. 3D bioprinting is still an emerging field and more work is required to improve the viability and homogeneity of printed cells during the printing process. Here, a general purpose bio-ink was developed using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) macromolecules. Different PVP-based bio-inks (0%-3% w/v) were prepared and evaluated for their printability; the short-term and long-term viability of the printed cells were first investigated. The Z value of a bio-ink determines its printability; it is the inverse of the Ohnesorge number (Oh), which is the ratio between the Reynolds number and a square root of the Weber number, and is independent of the bio-ink velocity. The viability of printed cells is dependent on the Z values of the bio-inks; the results indicated that the cells can be printed without any significant impairment using a bio-ink with a threshold Z value of ≤9.30 (2% and 2.5% w/v). Next, the cell output was evaluated over a period of 30 min. The results indicated that PVP molecules mitigate the cell adhesion and sedimentation during the printing process; the 2.5% w/v PVP bio-ink demonstrated the most consistent cell output over a period of 30 min. Hence, PVP macromolecules can play a critical role in improving the cell viability and homogeneity during the bioprinting process.

  8. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Bio-Ink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity during Drop-On-Demand Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Long; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win

    2017-01-01

    Drop-on-demand (DOD) bioprinting has attracted huge attention for numerous biological applications due to its precise control over material volume and deposition pattern in a contactless printing approach. 3D bioprinting is still an emerging field and more work is required to improve the viability and homogeneity of printed cells during the printing process. Here, a general purpose bio-ink was developed using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) macromolecules. Different PVP-based bio-inks (0%–3% w/v) were prepared and evaluated for their printability; the short-term and long-term viability of the printed cells were first investigated. The Z value of a bio-ink determines its printability; it is the inverse of the Ohnesorge number (Oh), which is the ratio between the Reynolds number and a square root of the Weber number, and is independent of the bio-ink velocity. The viability of printed cells is dependent on the Z values of the bio-inks; the results indicated that the cells can be printed without any significant impairment using a bio-ink with a threshold Z value of ≤9.30 (2% and 2.5% w/v). Next, the cell output was evaluated over a period of 30 min. The results indicated that PVP molecules mitigate the cell adhesion and sedimentation during the printing process; the 2.5% w/v PVP bio-ink demonstrated the most consistent cell output over a period of 30 min. Hence, PVP macromolecules can play a critical role in improving the cell viability and homogeneity during the bioprinting process. PMID:28772551

  9. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Bio-Ink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity during Drop-On-Demand Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long Ng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Drop-on-demand (DOD bioprinting has attracted huge attention for numerous biological applications due to its precise control over material volume and deposition pattern in a contactless printing approach. 3D bioprinting is still an emerging field and more work is required to improve the viability and homogeneity of printed cells during the printing process. Here, a general purpose bio-ink was developed using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP macromolecules. Different PVP-based bio-inks (0%–3% w/v were prepared and evaluated for their printability; the short-term and long-term viability of the printed cells were first investigated. The Z value of a bio-ink determines its printability; it is the inverse of the Ohnesorge number (Oh, which is the ratio between the Reynolds number and a square root of the Weber number, and is independent of the bio-ink velocity. The viability of printed cells is dependent on the Z values of the bio-inks; the results indicated that the cells can be printed without any significant impairment using a bio-ink with a threshold Z value of ≤9.30 (2% and 2.5% w/v. Next, the cell output was evaluated over a period of 30 min. The results indicated that PVP molecules mitigate the cell adhesion and sedimentation during the printing process; the 2.5% w/v PVP bio-ink demonstrated the most consistent cell output over a period of 30 min. Hence, PVP macromolecules can play a critical role in improving the cell viability and homogeneity during the bioprinting process.

  10. Fetal liver cell-containing hybrid organoids improve cell viability and albumin production upon transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingjia; Shirakigawa, Nana; Ijima, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Cell transplantation is a potential alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation because of the chronic donor shortage. Functional liver tissue is needed for cell transplantations. However, large functional liver tissue is difficult to construct because of the high oxygen consumption of hepatocytes. In our previous study, we developed a novel method to generate hybrid organoids. In this study, we used fetal liver cells (FLCs) to construct a hybrid organoid. Nucleus numbers, angiogenesis, and albumin production were measured in transplanted samples. Higher cell viability and larger liver tissue was found in FLC-containing samples than in hepatocyte-containing samples. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficiency of FLC-containing samples was evaluated by transplantation into Nagase analbuminemia rats. As a result, an increase in albumin concentration was found in rat blood. In summary, transplantation of a FLC-containing hybrid organoid is a potential approach for cell transplantation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detached leaf culture: viability to evaluate 2,4-D toxicity symptoms in cotton apex leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da C Centurion, Maria Aparecida P; Correia, Núbia M; Sanches, Vivaldo César R

    2005-01-01

    To study the viability of detached leaf culture technique, studies were carried out with detached leaves from cotton apex (true trilobed leaves). The prepared leaves were sprayed with 2,4-D amine and ester, at rates of 10, 30, 70, and 100% of the recommended doses. Detached leaves without herbicide spray were used as controls. Simultaneously, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with the same treatments as used for the detached leaves experiment. Toxicity was measured through a 0-to-5 grading according to the percentage of affected leaf area in the detached leaves experiment or examining the affected rate of whole plant as indicated in the greenhouse. Results showed that the ester form of the herbicide induced earlier and more severe toxicity symptoms in detached leaves and greenhouse grown plants. Positive and significant correlations (p cotton plants grown in the greenhouse (r= - 0.92 and -0.92, respectively).

  12. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korich, D G; Mead, J R; Madore, M S; Sinclair, N A; Sterling, C R

    1990-01-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water. PMID:2339894

  13. Determination of Metabolic Viability and Cell Mass Using a Tandem Resazurin/Sulforhodamine B Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena S G; Starostina, Irina G; Ivanova, Vilena V; Rizvanov, Albert A; Oliveira, Paulo J; Pereira, Susana P

    2016-05-04

    The identification of rapid, reliable, and highly reproducible biological assays that can be standardized and routinely used in preclinical tests constitutes a promising approach to reducing drug discovery costs and time. This unit details a tandem, rapid, and reliable cell viability method for preliminary screening of chemical compounds. This assay measures metabolic activity and cell mass in the same cell sample using a dual resazurin/sulforhodamine B assay, eliminating the variation associated with cell seeding and excessive manipulations in assays that test different cell samples across plates. The procedure also reduces the amount of cells, test compound, and reagents required, as well as the time expended in conventional tests, thus resulting in a more confident prediction of toxic thresholds for the tested compounds. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  15. Variation of Pollen Viability and Storability in Asparagus (Asparagus offcinalis L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ozaki, Yukio; Tashiro, Tomoko; Kurahashi, Tomoko; Okubo, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The optimal culture condition for evaluating pollen viability of asparagus was studied. Sucrose was an effective constituent of the media for raising pollen germination rate. The medium containing 30% sucrose, 0.01% borate and 3% agar was found to be optimum for assessing pollen viability. Effects of temperature and light conditions during in vitro culture on pollen germination rate were not recognized in the range of 20-30℃ in this investigation. Varietal difference of pollen viability and s...

  16. Hesperidin inhibits ovarian cancer cell viability through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yali; Gao, Jinfang; De, Yinshan

    2017-01-01

    Hesperidin is a vitamin P flavonoid compound primarily present in citrus fruits. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hesperidin inhibits ovarian cancer cell viability via endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways. A2780 cells were treated with various doses of hesperidin for 6, 12 or 24 h, and the viability of A2780 cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Hesperidin decreased the viability of A2780 cells and increased cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner...

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  18. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  19. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  20. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny A Becker

    Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.