WorldWideScience

Sample records for viability factor rdcvf

  1. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1988-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continuous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determining the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commissioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization. (author)

  2. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  3. Factors affecting viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum during spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Zahra; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Gilani, Kambiz

    2015-01-25

    There is substantial clinical data supporting the role of Bifidobacterium bifidum in human health particularly in benefiting the immune system and suppressing intestinal infections. Compared to the traditional lyophilization, spray-drying is an economical process for preparing large quantities of viable microorganisms. The technique offers high production rates and low operating costs but is not usually used for drying of substances prone to high temperature. The aim of this study was to establish the optimized environmental factors in spray drying of cultured bifidobacteria to obtain a viable and stable powder. The experiments were designed to test variables such as inlet air temperature, air pressure and also maltodextrin content. The combined effect of these variables on survival rateand moisture content of bacterial powder was studied using a central composite design (CCD). Sub-lethal heat-adaptation of a B. bifidum strain which was previously adapted to acid-bile-NaCl led to much more resistance to high outlet temperature during spray drying. The resistant B. bifidum was supplemented with cost friendly permeate, sucrose, yeast extract and different amount of maltodextrin before it was fed into a Buchi B-191 mini spray-dryer. Second-order polynomials were established to identify the relationship between the responses andthe three variables. Results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at 95% confidence interval. The optimal values of the variables for maximum survival and minimum moisture content of B. bifidum powder were as follows: inlet air temperature of 111.15°C, air pressure of 4.5 bar and maltodextrin concentration of 6%. Under optimum conditions, the maximum survival of 28.38% was achieved while moisture was maintained at 4.05%. Viable and cost effective spray drying of Bifidobacterium bifidum could be achieved by cultivating heat and acid adapted strain into the culture media containing

  4. Assessment of factors that impact on the viability of contract farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The farmer's scale, years of experience, availability of inputs, crop grown, production area and access to finances were all identified as the significant factors affecting contract farming viability. It was recommended that farmers refrain from side marketing and contractors stick to contractual agreements in terms of payments ...

  5. A key inactivation factor of HeLa cell viability by a plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Mayo [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    Recently, a plasma flow has been applied to medical treatment using effects of various kinds of stimuli such as chemical species, charged particles, heat, light, shock wave and electric fields. Among them, the chemical species are known to cause an inactivation of cell viability. However, the mechanisms and key factors of this event are not yet clear. In this study, we focused on the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in plasma-treated culture medium because it is generated in the culture medium and it is also chemically stable compared with free radicals generated by the plasma flow. To elucidate the significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we assessed the differences in the effects of plasma-treated medium and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium against inactivation of HeLa cell viability. These two media showed comparable effects on HeLa cells in terms of the survival ratios, morphological features of damage processes, permeations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the cells, response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition by catalase and comprehensive gene expression. The results supported that among chemical species generated in a plasma-treated culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the main factors responsible for inactivation of HeLa cell viability. (fast track communication)

  6. Influence of a range of extreme environmental factors on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental factors. These factors were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their interchange on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress factors explored on dry thalli.

  7. Critical Factors Influencing Viability of Wave Energy Converters in Off-Grid Luxury Resorts and Small Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Botne Sandberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines technical and non-technical factors that are critical to the viability of commercialization of wave energy converters in off-grid luxury resorts and small utilities. Critical factors are found by investigating Levelized Cost of Energy, and using the tools PESTEL and Porter’s five competitive forces. Identified factors are then applied on three business cases to investigate their impact on viability. The results show that one of the main challenges facing off-grid commercialization is the few wave energy converter units installed per location, negating the economy of scale that large wave energy farms count on to achieve competitive cost levels. In addition, factors like current cost of energy, available wave resources, distance from shore, infrastructure, supply chain logistics, and electricity demand are found to be deciding factors for viability. Despite these challenges, it is found that there are potentially viable off-grid business cases for commercialization of wave energy converters.

  8. Factors affecting embryo viability and uterine receptivity: insights from an analysis of the UK registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen A; Hann, Mark; Brison, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have identified prognostic factors for IVF treatment outcome; however, little information is available on the mechanism of their action. Embryo-uterus models have the potential to distinguish between factors acting on the embryo directly and those acting through the uterine environment. Here we apply embryo-uterus models to comprehensive UK registry data from two periods, 2000-2005 and 2007-2011, containing 139,444 and 226,542 embryo transfer cycles, respectively. Given this large dataset, the embryo-uterus model is capable of distinguishing between uterine and embryo effects. Maternal age is the predominant predictor of live birth and acts on both the embryo and uterine components, but with larger effects on the embryo. Prolonged embryo culture is associated with greater embryo viability, reflecting the greater degree of selection, but is also associated with greater uterine receptivity. Cryopreserved embryos are less viable and were associated with poorer uterine receptivity. This work suggests that, in addition to the direct effects of in-vitro culture on the embryonic environment during the first few days of the embryo's life, the delay in transfer after extended culture or cryopreservation can lead to an altered uterine environment for the embryo after transfer. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting settling, survival, and viability of black bears reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, B.J.; Eastridge, R.; Clark, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry and population modeling techniques to examine factors related to population establishment of black bears (Ursus americanus) reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Arkansas. Our objectives were to determine whether settling (i.e., establishment of a home range at or near the release site), survival, recruitment, and population viability were related to age class of reintroduced bears, presence of cubs, time since release, or number of translocated animals. We removed 23 adult female black bears with 56 cubs from their winter dens at White River NWR and transported them 160 km to man-made den structures at Felsenthal NWR during spring 2000–2002. Total movement and average circuity of adult females decreased from 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-emergence (F2,14 =19.7, P bears was 0.624 (SE = 0.110, SEinterannual = 0.144), and the survival rate of their cubs was 0.750 (SE = 0.088, SEinterannual = 0.109). The homing rate (i.e., the proportion of bears that returned to White River NWR) was 13%. Annual survival for female bears that remained at the release site and survived >1-year post-release increased to 0.909 (SE = 0.097, SEinterannual=0.067; Z=3.5, P bear population at Felsenthal NWR is at or above the number after which extinction risk declines dramatically, although additional releases of bears could significantly decrease time to population reestablishment. Poaching accounted for at least 3 of the 8 adult mortalities that we documented; illegal kills could be a significant impediment to population re-establishment at Felsenthal NWR should poaching rates escalate.

  10. The Effects of Imatinib Mesylate on Cellular Viability, Platelet Derived Growth Factor and Stem Cell Factor in Mouse Testicular Normal Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Hashemnia, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Valizadeh, Nasim; Roshan-Milani, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors play an essential role in the development of tumor and normal cells like testicular leydig cells. Treatment of cancer with anti-cancer agents like imatinib mesylate may interfere with normal leydig cell activity, growth and fertility through failure in growth factors' production or their signaling pathways. The purpose of the study was to determine cellular viability and the levels of, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in normal mouse leydig cells exposed to imatinib, and addressing the effect of imatinib on fertility potential. The mouse TM3 leydig cells were treated with 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μM imatinib for 2, 4 and 6 days. Each experiment was repeated three times (15 experiments in each day).The cellular viability and growth factors levels were assessed by MTT and ELISA methods, respectively. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. With increasing drug concentration, cellular viability decreased significantly (pcellular viability, PDGF and SCF levels. Imatinib may reduce fertility potential especially at higher concentrations in patients treated with this drug by decreasing cellular viability. The effect of imatinib on leydig cells is associated with PDGF stimulation. Of course future studies can be helpful in exploring the long term effects of this drug.

  11. Diesel exhaust particulate extracts inhibit transcription of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cell viability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Klinge, Carolyn M. [University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we tested the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulate extracts (DEPEs), prepared from a truck run at different speeds and engine loads, would inhibit genomic estrogen receptor activation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we examined how DEPEs affect NRF-1-regulated TFAM expression and, in turn, Tfam-regulated mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, MTCO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) expression as well as cell proliferation and viability. We report that 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), and raloxifene increased NRF-1 transcription in HUVECs in an ER-dependent manner. DEPEs inhibited NRF-1 transcription, and this suppression was not ablated by concomitant treatment with E{sub 2}, 4-OHT, or raloxifene, indicating that the effect was not due to inhibition of ER activity. While E{sub 2} increased HUVEC proliferation and viability, DEPEs inhibited viability but not proliferation. Resveratrol increased NRF-1 transcription in an ER-dependent manner in HUVECs, and ablated DEPE inhibition of basal NRF-1 expression. Given that NRF-1 is a key nuclear transcription factor regulating genes involved in mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, these data suggest that DEPEs may adversely affect mitochondrial function leading to endothelial dysfunction and resveratrol may block these effects. (orig.)

  12. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Vaziri, Shahram; Torshabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Anitua’s PRGF and Choukran’s PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-valuesPRGF treatment induced statistically significant (PPRGF than in PRF group (PPRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF. PMID:26877740

  13. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  14. Inhibitory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia CHEN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the mediation effect of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR in the effect of brainderived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons. Methods  Hippocampal neurons were obtained from p75NTR+/+ and p75NTR-/- 18-day mice and primarily cultured. For p75NTR+/+ neurons, three experimental groups were set, i.e. control, proBDNF (30ng/ml, and proBDNF (30ng/ml+p75/Fc (30µg/ml groups. For p75NTR-/- neurons, two experimental groups were set, i.e. control and proBDNF (30ng/ml groups. MTT assays were performed after 24h to examine the viability of neonatal primary neurons. Immunofluorescent staining was conducted after 72h to investigate the neurite length. Results With MAP2 and DAPI double fluorescent staining it was identified that the neonatal hippocampal neurons were successfully cultured in vitro with high purity. For viability assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the absorbance value at 570nm (A570 in proBDNF group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the neurite length in proBDNF group was significantly shorter than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR-/- neurons, no difference in neurite length was observed between proBDNF group and control group. Conclusion proBDNF may inhibit the neuronal viability and neurite growth via p75NTR. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.03

  15. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: Anitua's PRGF and Choukran's PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: PRGF treatment induced statistically significant (P<0.001 proliferation of HGF cells compared to the negative control (100% viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours in values of 123%±2.25%, 102%±2.8% and 101%±3.92%, respectively. The PRF membrane treatment of HGF cells had a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation (21%±1.73%, P<0.001 at 24 hours compared to the negative control. However, at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, PRF had a negative effect on HGF cell proliferation and caused 38% and 60% decrease in viability and proliferation compared to the negative control, respectively. The HGF cell proliferation was significantly higher in PRGF than in PRF group (P< 0.001.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that PRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF.

  16. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  17. Monitoring and economic factors affecting the economic viability of afforestation for carbon sequestration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Loza-Balbuena, Isabel; Ford-Robertson, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first step towards achieving the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and aims among others to promote 'the protection and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs'. To encourage afforestation for carbon sequestration a project must be economically viable. This study uses a model to analyse the impact on project viability of a range of carbon monitoring options, international carbon credit value and discount rate, applied to a Pinus radiata afforestation project in New Zealand. Monitoring carbon in conjunction with conventional forest inventory shows the highest return. Long-term average carbon accounting has lower accounting costs, compared to annual and 5 yearly accounting, as monitoring is only required every 5-10 years until the long-term average is attained. In this study we conclude that monitoring soil carbon stocks is not economically feasible using any of the accounting methods, when carbon is valued at US$ 10/t. This conclusion may be relevant to forest carbon sequestration projects elsewhere in the world and suggests care is needed in selecting the appropriate carbon monitoring options to avoid the risk that costs could be higher than any monetary benefits from terrestrial carbon sequestration. This would remove any commercial incentive to afforest for carbon sequestration reasons and severely limit the use of forest sinks as part of any package of measures addressing the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC

  18. Leucemia inhibitory factor; investigating the time-dependent effect on viability of vitrified bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, A; Cevik, M

    2017-12-01

    Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Factors affecting growth and viability of natural diatom populations in the meso-eutrophic Římov Reservoir (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znachor, Petr; Rychtecký, Pavel; Nedoma, Jiří; Visocká, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 762, č. 1 (2015), s. 253-265 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/2177; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/2182 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diatom * growth rate * viability * PDMPO * SYTOX green * reservoir Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2015

  20. An analysis of surgical and anaesthetic factors affecting skin graft viability in patients admitted to a Burns Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isitt, Catherine E; McCloskey, Kayleigh A; Caballo, Alvaro; Sharma, Pranev; Williams, Andrew; Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Vizcaychipi, Marcela P

    2016-01-01

    Skin graft failure is a recognised complication in the treatment of major burns. Little research to date has analysed the impact of the complex physiological management of burns patients on the success of skin grafting. We analysed surgical and anaesthetic variables to identify factors contributing to graft failure. Inclusion criteria were admission to our Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) between January 2009 and October 2013 with a major burn. After exclusion for death before hospital discharge or prior skin graft at a different hospital, 35 patients remained and were divided into those with successful autografts (n=16) and those with a failed autograft (n=19). For the purposes of this study, we defined poor autograft viability as requiring at least one additional skin graft to the same site. Logistic regression of variables was performed using SPSS (Version 22.0 IBMTM). Age, Sex, %Total Burn Surface Area or Belgian Outcome Burns Injury score did not significantly differ between groups. No differences were found in any surgical factor at logistic regression (graft site, harvest site, infection etc.). When all operations were analysed, the use of colloids was found to be significantly associated with graft failure (p=0.035, CI 95%) and this remained significant when only split thickness skin grafts (STSGs) and debridement operations were included (p=0.034, CI 95%). No differences were found in crystalloid use, intraoperative temperature, pre-operative haemoglobin and blood products or vasopressor use. This analysis highlights an independent association between colloids and graft failure which has not been previously documented.

  1. The use of population viability analysis to identify possible factors contributing to the decline of a rare ungulate population in south-eastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D. Capon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations that are vulnerable to decline are of particular concern to wildlife managers and uncovering the mechanisms responsible for downward trends is a crucial step towards developing future viable populations. The aims of this study were to better understand the mechanisms behind the historic decline of the sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, population at the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve (MWR, to assess its future viability and to use this analysis to determine key areas of breakdown in population growth and link these to potential limiting factors. VORTEX, a population viability model was used to assess the future viability of the sable antelope population and a sensitivity analysis was applied to identify the key areas of breakdown in growth. The sable population is currently viable, but remains highly vulnerable to changes in adult female survival, a factor which had the greatest influence on overall population fitness. Lion predation, impacting on the adult segment of the population, appeared to be the main factor responsible for the historic decline at the MWR.Conservation implications: Sable generally occur at low densities in the lowveld region of Zimbabwe and, as such, populations are vulnerable to increases in mortality rates. The role of lions in driving the decline at the MWR suggests a need to control their numbers and develop prey refuges through improved management of artificial water.

  2. Compositional and physicochemical factors governing the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG embedded in starch-protein based edible films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Singh, Poonam; Macnaughtan, William; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic incorporation in edible films and coatings has been shown recently to be an efficient strategy for the delivery of probiotics in foods. In the present work, the impact of the compositional, physicochemical and structural properties of binary starch-protein edible films on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG viability and stability was evaluated. Native rice and corn starch, as well as bovine skin gelatine, sodium caseinate and soy protein concentrate were used for the fabrication of the probiotic edible films. Starch and protein type both impacted the structural, mechanical, optical and thermal properties of the films, and the process loss of L. rhamnosus GG during evaporation-dehydration was significantly lower in the presence of proteins (0.91–1.07 log CFU/g) compared to solely starch based systems (1.71 log CFU/g). A synergistic action between rice starch and proteins was detected when monitoring the viability of L. rhamnosus GG over four weeks at fridge and room temperature conditions. In particular, a 3- to 7-fold increase in the viability of L. rhamnosus GG was observed in the presence of proteins, with sodium caseinate – rice starch based films offering the most enhanced stability. The film's shelf-life (as calculated using the FAO/WHO (2011) basis of 6 log viable CFU/g) ranged between 27-96 and 15–24 days for systems stored at fridge or room temperature conditions respectively. PMID:26726280

  3. MUTATION ON WD DIPEPTIDE MOTIFS OF THE p48 SUBUNIT OF CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 CAUSING VIABILITY AND GROWTH OF DT40 CHICKEN B CELL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyar Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1, a protein complex consisting of three subunits, p150, p60, and p48, is highly conserved from yeast to humans and facilitated nucleosome assembly of newly replicated DNA. The p48 subunit, CAF-1p48 (p48, with seven WD (Trp-Asp repeat motifs, is a member of the WD protein family. The immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that ß-propeller structure of p48 was less stringent for it's binding to HDAC-1, but more stringent for its binding to both histones H4 and CAF-1p60 but not to ASF-1, indicating that the proper ß-propeller structure of p48 is essential for the binding to these two proteins histone H4 and CAF-1p60. Complementation experiments, involving missense and truncated mutants of FLAG-tagged p48, revealed that mutations of every of seven WD dipeptide motifs, like both the N-terminal and C-terminal truncated mutations, could not rescue for the tet-induced lethality. These results indicate not only that p48 is essential for the viability of vertebrate cells, although the yeast p48 homolog is nonessential, but also that all the seven WD dipeptide motifs are necessary for the maintenance of the proper structure of p48 that is fundamentally important for cell viability.   Keywords: Chromatin assembly factor-1, complementation experiments, viability

  4. Human Factors in Coast Guard Computer Security - An Analysis of Current Awareness and Potential Techniques to Improve Security Program Viability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whalen, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    .... This thesis attempts to identify both the susceptibility of Coast Guard information systems to human factors-based security risks and possible means for increasing user awareness of those risks...

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor and not cyclooxygenase 2 promotes endothelial cell viability in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Desmond P

    2010-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), often coexpressed in cancer, are associated with poor prognosis. However, results from pancreatic cancer trials of their inhibitors were disappointing. This study delineated the role of COX-2 and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in angiogenesis and VEGF regulation.

  6. Impact of environmental factors on the culturability and viability of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions encountered in food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Jacques-André-Coquin, Joséphine; Ng, Patricia; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L. monocytogenes in pure-culture or dual-culture with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, application of a drying step after cleaning and disinfection (C&D) and comparison of two strains of L. monocytogenes. Bacterial survival was assessed by culture, qPCR to quantify total cells, and propidium monoazide coupled with qPCR to quantify viable cells and highlight viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Our results showed that failure to apply C&D causes cell persistence on surfaces. Moreover, the sanitation procedure leads only to a loss of culturability and appearance of VBNC populations. However, an additional daily drying step after C&D optimises the effectiveness of these procedures to reduce culturable populations. Our results reinforce the importance to use molecular tools to monitor viable pathogens in food processing plants to avoid underestimating the amounts of cells using only methods based on cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polysaccharide Hydrogels Support the Long-Term Viability of Encapsulated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Ability to Secrete Immunomodulatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Hached

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While therapeutically interesting, the injection of MSCs suffers major limitations including cell death upon injection and a massive leakage outside the injection site. We proposed to entrap MSCs within spherical particles derived from alginate, as a control, or from silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC. We developed water in an oil dispersion method to produce small Si-HPMC particles with an average size of about 68 μm. We evidenced a faster diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran in Si-HPMC particles than in alginate ones. Human adipose-derived MSCs (hASC were encapsulated either in alginate or in Si-HPMC, and the cellularized particles were cultured for up to 1 month. Both alginate and Si-HPMC particles supported cell survival, and the average number of encapsulated hASC per alginate and Si-HPMC particle (7102 and 5100, resp. did not significantly change. The stimulation of encapsulated hASC with proinflammatory cytokines resulted in the production of IDO, PGE2, and HGF whose concentration was always higher when cells were encapsulated in Si-HPMC particles than in alginate ones. We have demonstrated that Si-HPMC and alginate particles support hASC viability and the maintenance of their ability to secrete therapeutic factors.

  8. The Impact of Oxidative Stress Factors on the Viability, Senescence, and Methylation Status of Olfactory Bulb-Derived Glial Cells Isolated from Human Cadaver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Jakub; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Szarek, Dariusz; Kopacz, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is a unique structure in the central nervous system that retains the ability to create new neuronal connections. Glial cells isolated from the OB have been recently considered as a novel and promising tool to establish an effective therapy for central nervous system injuries. Due to the hindered access to autologous tissue for cell isolation, an allogeneic source of tissues obtained postmortem has been proposed. In this study, we focused on the morphological and molecular characteristics of human OB-derived glial cells isolated postmortem, at different time points after a donor's death. We evaluated the proliferative activity of the isolated cells, and investigated the ultrastructure of the mitochondria, the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the activity of superoxide dismutase. The data obtained clearly indicate that the duration of ischemia is crucial for the viability/senescence rate of OB-derived glial cells. The OB can be isolated during autopsy and still stand as a source of viable glial cells, but ischemia duration is a major factor limiting its potential usefulness in therapies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Outcomes and related factors in a cohort of infants born in Taiwan over a period of five years (2007–2011 with borderline viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hsing Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have increased the survival of extremely preterm infants, but the viability limit is still debated. Here we assess the survival, neonatal morbidity, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age of infants born at 22–26 weeks of gestation in Taiwan between 2007 and 2011. Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study on extremely preterm infants registered in the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group from 2007 to 2011, including 22 neonatal care centers. We extracted demographic and clinical data of infants born at 22–26 weeks, and obtained growth and developmental outcome data from the follow-up clinic at 24 months of corrected age. Multivariate analyses using a logistic regression model identified factors significantly impacting survival. Results: 647 of the 1098 infants included in the study (58.9% survived to discharge. Survival rates were 8% (4/50, 25% (27/108, 46.8% (117/250, 67.0% (211/315, and 76.8% (288/375 for infants born at 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks, respectively. Most survivors (567/647, 87.6% had major morbidities during hospitalization, and we identified factors that positively and negatively affected survival. 514 (79.4% patients received follow-up evaluation at 2 years, and 204 (39.7% of them had neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI with an incidence of 75%, 65.2%, 49.5%, 39.5%, and 32.8% for infants born at 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks, respectively. Conclusion: Infants born at 22 and 23 weeks have a very low likelihood of surviving with little or no impairment. These findings are valuable for parental counseling and perinatal care decisions. Keywords: Extremely preterm, Morbidity, Mortality, Outcomes

  10. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  11. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  12. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) uptake in melanoma cells. The role of proliferation rate, viability, glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Bisse, E.; Epting, T.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Using human (SK-MEL 23, SK-MEL 24 and G361) and murine (B16) melanoma cell lines, the coregulatory potential of the uptake of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been investigated in relationship to tumor characteristics. Comparative studies among the four melanoma cell lines demonstrated that the lowest FDG uptake in SK-MEL 24 corresponded strongly to the data for DT (population doubling time) and MTT (tetrazolium salt) cell viability as well as hexokinase (HK) activity, but was not related to the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) expression level. Furthermore, the FDG uptake in each melanoma cell line measured by cell cycle kinetics was significantly positively correlated to both the proliferation index (PI=S/G 2 M phase fractions) and the cell viability, though with one exception relating to the proliferation index (PI) of the lowest FDG uptake cell line, SK-MEL 24. No positive correlation was found between the expression of GLUT 1 and FDG uptake in any individual cell line. However, the HK activities in SK-MEL 23 and 24 showed considerable positive relationships with FDG uptake. Our present study suggests that both the proliferation rate and the cell viability of melanoma cells may be key factors for FDG uptake and that HK activity, rather than GLUT 1 expression, seems to be a major factor. (author)

  13. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) antioxidant response promotes melanocyte viability and reduces toxicity of the vitiligo-inducing phenol monobenzone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arowojolu, Omotayo A; Orlow, Seth J; Elbuluk, Nada; Manga, Prashiela

    2017-07-01

    Vitiligo, characterised by progressive melanocyte death, can be initiated by exposure to vitiligo-inducing phenols (VIPs). VIPs generate oxidative stress in melanocytes and activate the master antioxidant regulator NRF2. While NRF2-regulated antioxidants are reported to protect melanocytes from oxidative stress, the role of NRF2 in the melanocyte response to monobenzone, a clinically relevant VIP, has not been characterised. We hypothesised that activation of NRF2 may protect melanocytes from monobenzone-induced toxicity. We observed that knockdown of NRF2 or NRF2-regulated antioxidants NQO1 and PRDX6 reduced melanocyte viability, but not viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, suggesting that melanocytes were preferentially dependent upon NRF2 activity for growth compared to other cutaneous cells. Furthermore, melanocytes activated the NRF2 response following monobenzone exposure and constitutive NRF2 activation reduced monobenzone toxicity, supporting NRF2's role in the melanocyte stress response. In contrast, melanocytes from individuals with vitiligo (vitiligo melanocytes) did not activate the NRF2 response as efficiently. Dimethyl fumarate-mediated NRF2 activation protected normal and vitiligo melanocytes against monobenzone-induced toxicity. Given the contribution of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in vitiligo, modulation of this pathway may be of therapeutic interest. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  15. Human Breast Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Transfected with the Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Receptor CXCR4 Exhibit Enhanced Viability in Human Autologous Free Fat Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-tian Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main complication of autologous free fat tissue transplantation is fat resorption and calcification due to the ischemic necrosis of fat. The promotion of transplant neovascularization soon after autologous free fat grafts may reduce these outcomes. In adulthood, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its membrane receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4 are involved in the homing and migration of multiple stem cell types, neovascularization, and cell proliferation. We hypothesized that CXCR4 may improve the long-term survival of free fat tissue transplants by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and may therefore improve graft revascularization. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs transfected with the CXCR4 gene on the survival rate of human autologous free fat transplants in nude mice. Methods: Human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs were expanded ex vivo for 3 passages, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP and transfected with CXCR4 or left untransfected. Autologous fat tissues were mixed with the GFP-labeled, CXCR4-transfected HBASCs (group A, GFP-labeled HBASCs (group B, the known vascularization-promoting agent VEGF (group C, or medium (group D and then injected subcutaneously into 32 nude mice at 4 spots in a random fashion. Six months later, the transplanted tissue volume and histology were evaluated, and neo-vascularization was quantified by counting the capillaries. CXCR4 and SDF-1α mRNA expression in the transplants was determined using real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR. Results: The data revealed that the control (group D transplant volume survival was 28.3 ± 4.5%. Mixing CXCR4-transfected (group A and untransfected (group B HBASCs significantly increased transplant volume survival (79.5 ± 8.3% and 67.2 ± 5.9%, respectively, whereas VEGF-transfected HBASCs (group C were less effective (41.2 ± 5.1%. Histological

  16. Equine Metabolic Syndrome Affects Viability, Senescence, and Stress Factors of Equine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells: New Insight into EqASCs Isolated from EMS Horses in the Context of Their Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, equine metabolic syndrome (EMS, an endocrine disease linked to insulin resistance, affects an increasing number of horses. However, little is known about the effect of EMS on mesenchymal stem cells that reside in adipose tissue (ASC. Thus it is crucial to evaluate the viability and growth kinetics of these cells, particularly in terms of their application in regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated the proliferative capacity, morphological features, and accumulation of oxidative stress factors in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from healthy animals (ASCN and horses suffering from EMS (ASCEMS. ASCEMS displayed senescent phenotype associated with β-galactosidase accumulation, enlarged cell bodies and nuclei, increased apoptosis, and reduced heterochromatin architecture. Moreover, we observed increased amounts of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in these cells, accompanied by reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. We also found in ASCEMS an elevated number of impaired mitochondria, characterized by membrane raptures, disarrayed cristae, and vacuole formation. Our results suggest that the toxic compounds, accumulating in the mitochondria under oxidative stress, lead to alternations in their morphology and may be partially responsible for the senescent phenotype and decreased proliferation potential of ASCEMS.

  17. Viability Test Device for anisakid nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kroeger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the visual inspection of mobility of isolated anisakid larvae serves as a measure of viability and possible risk of infection. This paper presents a new method to rule out unreliability – caused by the temporary immobility of the larvae and by the human uncertainty factor of visual observation. By means of a Near infrared (NIR imaging method, elastic curvature energies and geometric shape parameters were determined from contours, and used as a measure of viability. It was based on the modelling of larvae as a cylindrical membrane system. The interaction between curvatures, contraction of the longitudinal muscles, and inner pressure enabled the derivation of viability from stationary form data. From series of spectrally signed images within a narrow wavelength range, curvature data of the larvae were determined. Possible mobility of larvae was taken into account in statistical error variables. Experiments on individual living larvae, long-term observations of Anisakis larvae, and comparative studies of the staining method and the VTD measurements of larvae from the tissue of products confirmed the effectiveness of this method. The VTD differentiated clearly between live and dead nematode larvae isolated from marinated, deep-frozen and salted products. The VTD has been proven as excellent method to detect living anisakid nematode larvae in fishery products and is seen as useful tool for fish processing industry and control authorities. Keywords: Biophysics

  18. Viability of infrared FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared FELs have broken important ground in optical science in the past decade. The rapid development of optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators, and THz sources, however, has changed the competitive landscape and compelled FEL facilities to identify and exploit their unique advantages. The viability of infrared FEL facilities depends on targeting unique world-class science and providing adequate experimental beam time at competitive costs

  19. Doctors' perspectives on the viability of rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J A; Humphreys, J S; Adena, M A

    2004-01-01

    Private practitioners play a vital role in meeting the health needs of rural communities. However, the prospect of operating a private practice business in rural Australia seems to be increasingly unattractive, because many communities are forced to recruit salaried or overseas-trained doctors. This study focuses on rural practices as businesses whose viability influences their attractiveness for the recruitment and retention of practitioners. The specific objectives are to ascertain which factors contribute to or threaten practice viability in rural areas, and whether they vary according to the degree of rurality or geographical remoteness. This study is based on data collected from a national study into the viability of rural general practice undertaken jointly by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia and Monash University School of Rural Health Bendigo. The Rural Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) classification was used as the indicator of rurality. The study surveyed all general practitioners practising in rural or remote regions of Australia (RRMAs 3 to 7). Only practitioners with some financial interest in the practice were selected for this analysis. Free-text responses to the two questions 'What are the key factors contributing to the viability of your practice?' and 'What factors would put the viability of your practice at risk?' were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Factors were derived iteratively through higher-level aggregation of responses. Chi-square tests were used to make comparisons across the RRMA categories. The national survey achieved a response rate of 35% of the entire population of GPs practising in RRMA 3 to 7 regions. Of these, 1050 respondents were relevant to this analysis. Seven major factors were identified by practitioners as the main contributors to practice viability. 'Practice characteristics' was nominated by 59% of respondents, followed by 'Income' (31%), 'Personal circumstances', 'Workforce' and 'Community

  20. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  1. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    .003) and cytokines. Yet, these systemic adaptations had no effect on breast cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p ... no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.......Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses...

  2. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  3. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon

    2016-01-01

    The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005) Dimension of Business Viability as its tool in order to create business operation initiatives. It provided a good framework for defining success factors in entrepreneurial operation initiatives in a specific business type – event management. This study utilized event organizers based i...

  4. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...

  5. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  6. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  7. Present assessment of myocardial viability by nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, G B; MacIntyre, W J; Brunken, R C; Go, R T; Raja, S; Wong, C O; Chen, E Q

    1996-10-01

    Prospective delineation of viable from nonviable myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease in an important factor in deciding whether a patient should be revascularized or treated medically. Two common techniques--single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron-emission computed tomography (PET)--are used in nuclear medicine using various radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of myocardial viability in patients. Thallium-201 (201Tl) and technetium-99m (99mTc)-sestamibi are the common radiopharmaceuticals used in different protocols using SPECT, whereas fluoride-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and rubidium-82 (82Rb) are most widely used in PET. The SPECT protocols involve stress/redistribution, stress/redistribution/reinjection, and rest/redistribution imaging techniques. Many studies have compared the results of 201Tl and (99mTc)-sestamibi SPECT with those of FDG PET; in some studies, concordant results have been found between delayed thallium and FDG results, indicating that 201Tl, although considered a perfusion agent, shows myocardial viability. Discordant results in a number of studies have been found between sestamibi and FDG, suggesting that the efficacy of sestamibi as a viability marker has yet to be established. Radiolabeled fatty acids such as iodine-123 (123I)-para-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid and carbon-11 (11C)-palmitic acid have been used for the assessment of myocardial viability with limited success. 11C-labeled acetate is a good marker of oxidative metabolism in the heart and has been used to predict the reversibility of wall motion abnormalities. (18F)-FDG is considered the marker of choice for myocardial viability, although variable results are obtained under different physiological conditions. Detection of myocardial viability can be greatly improved by developing new equipment and radiopharmaceuticals of better quality.

  8. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  9. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  10. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle Tympanotonus Fuscatus in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  11. Assessment of myocardial viability by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, Joern J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of myocardial viability after infarction focuses on the prediction of functional improvement of dysfunctional myocardium after revascularization therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging provides different approaches for the detection of myocardial viability. Measurement of end-diastolic wall thickness is easy to perform and has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity, and can only be used 4 months after myocardial infarction due to infarct healing processes. Low-dose dobutamine stress has a good sensitivity with a high specificity for the prediction of wall motion improvement, but this is only true for patients with a singular dysfunctional area and only slightly depressed cardiac function. Late enhancement allows for direct visualization of necrotic or scarred tissue. By measuring the transmural extent of late enhancement, the probability of mechanical improvement can precisely be given. Imaging of microvascular obstruction by first-pass perfusion or late enhancement gives additional information on viability and patient prognosis. Metabolic imaging techniques, such as 31 P-MR spectroscopy and 23 Na-MR imaging, provide further insights into the mechanisms of myocardial infarction and viability. In conclusion, cardiac MRI offers several clinically usable approaches for the assessment of myocardial viability and will probably become the method of choice in the near future. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of the technical viability of reactor options for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III.

    1996-01-01

    Various reactor concepts for the disposition of surplus Pu have been proposed by reactor vendors; not all have attained the same level of technical viability. Studies were performed to differentiate between reactor concepts by devising a quantitative index for technical viability. For a quantitative assessment, three issues required resolution: the definition of a technical maturity scale, the treatment of ''subjective'' factors which cannot be easily represented in a quantitative format, and the protocol for producing a single technical viability figure-of-merit for each alternative. Alternatives involving the use of foreign facilities were found to be the most technically viable

  13. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  14. An updated methodology to review developing-country vaccine manufacturer viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luter, Nicholas; Kumar, Ritu; Hozumi, Dai; Lorenson, Tina; Larsen, Shannon; Gowda, Bhavya; Batson, Amie

    2017-07-05

    In 1997, Milstien, Batson, and Meaney published "A Systematic Method for Evaluating the Potential Viability of Local Vaccine Producers." The paper identified characteristics of successful vaccine manufacturers and developed a viability framework to evaluate their performance. This paper revisits the original study after two decades to determine the ability of the framework to predict manufacturer success. By reconstructing much of the original dataset and conducting in-depth interviews, the authors developed informed views on the continued viability of manufacturers in low- and middle-income country markets. Considering the marked changes in the market and technology landscape since 1997, the authors find the viability framework to be predictive and a useful lens through which to evaluate manufacturer success or failure. Of particular interest is how incumbent and potentially new developing-country vaccine manufacturers enter and sustain production in competitive international markets and how they integrate (or fail to integrate) new technology into the production process. Ultimately, most manufacturers will need to meet global quality standards to be viable. As governments and donors consider investments in vaccine producers, the updated viability factors will be a useful tool in evaluating the prospects of manufacturers over the mid to long term. The paper emphasizes that while up-front investments are important, other critical factors-including investments in a national regulatory authority, manufacturer independence, and ability to adapt and adopt new technology-are necessary to ensure viability. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  16. Myocardial viability assessment using nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Hisada, Kinichi; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial assessment continues to be an issue in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Nuclear imaging has long played an important role in this field. In particular, PET imaging using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose is regarded as the metabolic gold standard of tissue viability, which has been supported by a wide clinical experience. Viability assessment using SPECT techniques has gained more wide-spread clinical acceptance than PET, because it is more widely available at lower cost. Moreover, technical advances in SPECT technology such as gated-SPECT further improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. However, other imaging techniques such as dobutamine echocardiography have recently emerged as competitors to nuclear imaging. It is also important to note that they sometimes may work in a complementary fashion to nuclear imaging, indicating that an appropriate use of these techniques may significantly improve their overall accuracy. In keeping these circumstances in mind, further efforts are necessary to further improve the diagnostic performance of nuclear imaging as a reliable viability test. (author) 107 refs

  17. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAKA DANIEL

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... E-mail: ndsaraka@yahoo.fr, ndsaraka@gmail.com. Tel: 225 ..... sample viability and control of contaminants that may mask the ... viability and composition of the Escherichia coli flora in faecal ... Microbiologie alimentaire, 8e.

  18. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes. ... This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Ovarian fragment sizes affect viability and morphology of preantral follicles during storage at 4°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient transportation of ovarian tissues is affected b various factors compromising their viability. We tested various ovarian sample sizes (whole ovary, biopsy, and transplantation size) during various transportation times....

  20. Factors in the economic viability of advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Bagnal, C.W.; Rohde, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power currently produces over 20% of the electricity generated in the United States, and a similar number for the entire world. Electricity generated from these nuclear power plants is typically some of the most economical of all sources, and is becoming even more economical with time as utilities focus on reducing production costs. Nevertheless, with the exception of the Asia Pacific region, no new nuclear orders have been placed in many years, and none are planned for the forseeable future. Two reasons for this demise for nuclear power in the western world are usually put forward: the current price of alternative means of electric power generation and the political climate, which tends to be anti-nuclear. The first of these reasons is founded in the low price of natural gas, which has been the preferred fuel for recent power generation additions. These additions have principally been used as peaking units, which are required only at the highest demand periods and not as base load units. The second reason stems from some bad experiences in the post-TMI era, when projects experienced a rapidly changing regulatory environment, long schedule stretchouts, and huge cost overruns. In spite of this relatively poor environment for new nuclear power plants, major programs to develop advanced light water reactors are continuing to keep the nuclear option alive, both in the United States and Europe. These programs are aimed at capturing the lessons learned from past experience, to ensure the success of future nuclear projects. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  2. Improvement on The Ellis and Roberts Viability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With data sets of germination percent and storage time of seed lot of wheat and sorghum stored at three different storage temperature(t, °C with three different water content (m, % of seeds, together with data set of buckwheat and lettuce reported in literatures, the possibility that seed survival curve were transformed into line by survival proportion and the relationship that logarithm of average viability period (logp50 and standard deviation of seed death distribution in time (δwith t, m and interaction between t and m were analysed. Result indicated that survival proportion transformed seed survival curve to line were much easier than the probability adopted by Ellis and Roberts, and the most important factor affecting logp50 and δ of seed lot was interaction between t and m. Thus, Ellis and Roberts viability model were suggested to be improved as Ki=Vi-p/10K-CWT (t×m to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent unknown, a new model of Gi/G0=A-P/10K-CWT(t×m was constructed to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent already known.

  3. A Review: The Probiotic Bacteria Viability under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina CALINOIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized the current knowledge on probiotics and on the effects that different conditions have under this type of bacteria. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the survival rate/resistance or viability of different probiotic bacteria under several conditions, such as: processing, food composition, storage, freezing, thawing, refrigeration, temperature, oxygen, pH, gastrointestinal environment and package. Nowadays, the demand on probiotic functional foods is increasing rapidly, as the consumers became more aware about the potential health benefits, due to the fact that probiotics help in maintaining the balance and composition of intestinal flora and protect it from pathogens. A daily ingestion of 108–109 CFU ml−1 probiotic microorganisms is crucial in order to be able to demonstrate an effect in our organism, considering the dose and the effect of storage/gastrointestinal environments on the probiotic viability. Microencapsulation of probiotics in different polysaccharides was proven to be an ideal way to preserve and protect the cells from detrimental factors during processing, storage or resistance in the gastrointestinal transit, as many studies demonstrate it. There is a general interest in the improvement of the physical and mechanical stability of the polymers used in probiotics encapsulation, to ensure high population of probiotics not only in food during storage, but also after gastrointestinal digestion. Also, the carrier plays a very important role and should be carefully examined.

  4. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Myocardial Viability on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana Luiza Mansur; Souto, Rafael Mansur; Teixeira, Isabella Cristina Resende; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2017-05-01

    The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability. Resumo O estudo de viabilidade miocárdica é de grande importância para a orientação e manejo de pacientes que necessitam de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica ou angioplastia. A técnica de realce tardio (RT) é precisa e transformou o estudo de viabilidade em um teste fácil, não só para a detecção de fibrose, mas também como um modelo binário para a detecção do que é ou não é viável. Uma fibrose identificada pelo RT é considerada como não viável quando igual ou maior do que 50% da área segmentar e como viável quando menor que 50%. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) também pode lançar mão de outras técnicas para estudo funcional e de perfusão para uma avaliação global da doença isquêmica do coração no mesmo exame. Este estudo tem como objetivo destacar os conceitos atuais e enfatizar amplamente o uso da RMC como um método que nos últimos 20 anos se tornou referência na detecção de infarto e avaliação de viabilidade miocárdica.

  6. Survey of the Definition of Fetal Viability and the Availability, Indications, and Decision Making Processes for Post-Viability Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormalities and Health Conditions in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the definition of fetal viability and the availability, indications, and decision making processes for post-viability termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities and health conditions in Canada. An online survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists, and the Canadian Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine who provide direct counselling to, or management of, prenatal patients in Canada (total sample size 815). Results of this study showed that the majority of respondents indicated that their centre will offer post-viability termination of pregnancy (98/123; 80 %). Sixty-seven percent (68/101) of respondents reported the definition of fetal viability to be 24 weeks' gestation. Most respondents reported that a collaborative decision making process was used to determine if post-viability termination of pregnancy would be offered (136/170; 80 %). For conditions presumed to be lethal/likely lethal, the majority of respondents would "sometimes" or "always" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy, whereas for conditions presumed to have a mild effect, the majority of respondents would "rarely" or "never" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy. Ninety percent (77/86) of respondents reported that perinatal hospice is offered as an alternative to termination of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that although post-viability termination is available in many provinces in Canada, variation in the definition of fetal viability and indications appear to exist. While these variations may lead to unequal access to post-viability termination of pregnancy across Canada, they might also represent the complexity of the decision making process and the importance of examining individual factors to ensure that the most appropriate decision is made in each case.

  7. Viability staining and animal infectivity of Cryptosporidium andersoni oocysts after long-term storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Salát, Jiří; Ditrich, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2007), s. 213-217 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium and ersoni * viability * infectivity * long-term storage Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  8. Anticipating mismatches of HIT investments: Developing a viability-fit model for e-health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Albeit massive investments in the recent years, the impact of health information technology (HIT) has been controversial and strongly disputed by both research and practice. While many studies are concerned with the development of new or the refinement of existing measurement models for assessing the impact of HIT adoption (ex post), this study presents an initial attempt to better understand the factors affecting viability and fit of HIT and thereby underscores the importance of also having instruments for managing expectations (ex ante). We extend prior research by undertaking a more granular investigation into the theoretical assumptions of viability and fit constructs. In doing so, we use a mixed-methods approach, conducting qualitative focus group discussions and a quantitative field study to improve and validate a viability-fit measurement instrument. Our findings suggest two issues for research and practice. First, the results indicate that different stakeholders perceive HIT viability and fit of the same e-health services very unequally. Second, the analysis also demonstrates that there can be a great discrepancy between the organizational viability and individual fit of a particular e-health service. The findings of this study have a number of important implications such as for health policy making, HIT portfolios, and stakeholder communication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005 Dimension of Business Viability as its tool in order to create business operation initiatives. It provided a good framework for defining success factors in entrepreneurial operation initiatives in a specific business type – event management. This study utilized event organizers based in Batangas, a southern popular province, which also is a great popular destination for many types of events. Findings showed that the event management business in Batangas City is generally a personal event type of business whose year of operation ranges from one to three years, mostly link to church or reception venues and usually offers on the day coordination. In the assessment of its perceived viability, it was found out that this type of business is moderately viable in terms of market, technical, business model, management model, economic and financial, and exit strategy. Among all the dimensions tested, only market, management model, economic and financial, and exit strategy showed significant relationship with the profile variables of the event management business. From the enumerated problems encountered, those that got the highest rate were demanding clients, overbooking of reservation/exceeding number of guests and failure to meet spectators and/or competitors expectations. And, the recommended business operation initiatives were based on the weaknesses discovered using Thompson’s Dimension of Business Viability Model.

  10. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  11. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  12. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  13. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  14. Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-κB, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-α. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

  15. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  16. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  17. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  18. Comparison of methods used for assessing the viability and vitality of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2014-11-01

    Determination of cell viability is the most commonly used method for assessing the impact of various types of stressors in toxicity research and in industrial microbiology studies. Viability is defined as a percentage of live cells in a whole population. Although cell death is one of the consequences of toxicity, chemical or physical factors may exert their toxic effects through a number of cellular alterations that may compromise cell ability to divide without necessarily leading to cell death. This aspect represents the term 'cell vitality' defined as physiological capabilities of cells. It is important to note that cell viability and cell vitality represent two different aspects of cell functions, and both are required for the estimation of the physiological state of a cell after exposure to various types of stressors and chemical or physical factors. In this paper, we introduced a classification of available methods for estimating both viability and vitality in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells (wild-type and Δsod1 mutant) in which the effects of selected oxidants causing oxidative stress is evaluated. We present the advantages as well as disadvantages of the selected methods and assess their usefulness in different types of research. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  20. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a nu...

  1. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neuronal cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Vulto, P; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  2. Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Bloemen, K.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2001-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA

  3. Pollen Viability and Autogamy Fitness in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Camila Capitani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae occurs in many phytophysiognomies of southern Brazil, however its ecological relevance is not well understood. The present study was developed in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul and aimed to determine variations in pollen viability along flowering, ability to perform autogamy and dye efficiency for the viability test. Pollen viability was determined by colorimetry as well as the ability to perform autogamy by isolating floral buds, being evaluated in eleven matrices. Average pollen viability was 81.43%, with the highest average value obtained with the dye 2,3,5- Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC (84.11%. Safranin was not a good indicator at the tested concentration. No correlation was found between pollen viability and flowering time. The species demonstrated an inability to perform autogamy.

  4. Population viability analysis for endangered Roanoke logperch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul; Anderson, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy for recovering endangered species is ensuring that populations exceed the minimum viable population size (MVP), a demographic benchmark that theoretically ensures low long-term extinction risk. One method of establishing MVP is population viability analysis, a modeling technique that simulates population trajectories and forecasts extinction risk based on a series of biological, environmental, and management assumptions. Such models also help identify key uncertainties that have a large influence on extinction risk. We used stochastic count-based simulation models to explore extinction risk, MVP, and the possible benefits of alternative management strategies in populations of Roanoke logperch Percina rex, an endangered stream fish. Estimates of extinction risk were sensitive to the assumed population growth rate and model type, carrying capacity, and catastrophe regime (frequency and severity of anthropogenic fish kills), whereas demographic augmentation did little to reduce extinction risk. Under density-dependent growth, the estimated MVP for Roanoke logperch ranged from 200 to 4200 individuals, depending on the assumed severity of catastrophes. Thus, depending on the MVP threshold, anywhere from two to all five of the logperch populations we assessed were projected to be viable. Despite this uncertainty, these results help identify populations with the greatest relative extinction risk, as well as management strategies that might reduce this risk the most, such as increasing carrying capacity and reducing fish kills. Better estimates of population growth parameters and catastrophe regimes would facilitate the refinement of MVP and extinction-risk estimates, and they should be a high priority for future research on Roanoke logperch and other imperiled stream-fish species.

  5. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers.

  6. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  7. Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system’s structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of the link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of the link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. After a short recap of the original multiplex viability study, the distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up a proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and the controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different responses of networks under random removals of overlapping and non-overlapping links, respectively, as well as under several link-removal strategies. Our results show that the link overlap facilitates the viability and mutual percolation; at the same time, the presence of link overlap poses a challenge in analytical approaches to the problem

  8. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, Debajit; Malhotra, Ramit; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability from both project implementing agency (PIA) and the end-users need to be ensured. The minimum required prices of electricity from both PIA and end-user perspective have been estimated. While for PIA the cost recovery is the key for viability, the affordability to pay the electricity cost is crucial for the end users. Analysis carried out in this paper on the basis of data obtained from operational projects implemented in India reveal that it is essential to operate the system at a higher capacity utilization factor. While this can be achieved though creating convergence with locally relevant economic activity, it is also observed that micro-enterprises cannot pay beyond a certain price of electricity to keep it sustainable. This paper sets forth a case for developing a regulatory mechanism to extend the tariff fixation for the projects and providing cross-subsidies to ensure long term sustainability of off-grid project. - Highlights: → We design sustainable financial model for viability of biomass gasifier projects. → Analysis based on field data obtained from operational projects in India. Estimated electricity pricing from both implementing agency and end-users perspective. → A regulatory mechanism for tariff fixation and cross subsidization is recommended.

  9. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  10. A viability analysis for a stock/price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, Chakib; Raissi, Nadia

    2012-09-01

    We examine the conditions for the sustainability of a stock/price system based on the use of a marine renewable resource. Instead of studying the environmental and economic interactions in terms of optimal control, we focus on the viability of the system. These viability/crisis situations are defined by a set of economic state constraints. This constraints combine a guaranteed consumption and a minimum income for fishermen. Using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal that with only economics constraints we guarantee a perennial stock/price system.

  11. Effect of Storage Temperature on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Viability on Several Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukamto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the entomopatogenous fungus types commonly observed and showed potency as myco-insectiside is Beauveria bassiana(Bals. Vuill.In order to support effectiveness and patogenous activity of B. bassiana, it is necessary to add a carrying agent that protects its spores from ultra violet ray. This study aims to investigate the effect of storage temperature on viability of B. Bassianaspores on the carrier material. The observation was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design by three factors. The first factor was carrier (C, that consists of C1 = rice flour, C2 = maize flour and C3 = tapioca flour. The second factor was dosage (D, that consists of D1 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 1 g carrier; D2 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 5 g carrier and D3 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 10 g carrier. The third factor was temperature of the storage (T,that consists of T1 = 5oC; T2 = 23oC and T3 = 29oC. Viability of B. Bassiana spores was examined by observing development of 100 blastopores randomly and determined under light microscope with 400 times magnification. Observation was conducted in two replicates after the spores of B. bassiana were kept in the storage for 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The result showed that by adding 1 g tapioca flour and temperature of storage of 5oC was potentiall in keeping viability of B. bassianaspores at least for 2 months. It was due to that tapioca flour gave better effect than rice and maize flours in keeping the storage and appropriate low temperature. Viability of B. bassianaspores decreased with increasing carrier dosage, temperature and duration of the storage. Whereas, storage at 5oC was found to be a better condition in keeping viability of dry pure B. bassianaspores longer than conditions of 23o and 29oC. Key word:Beauveria bassiana, temperature, viability,carrier.

  12. Viability of osteocytes in bone autografts harvested for dental implantology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Bernard; Gaudin, Christine; Georgeault, Sonia; Mallet, Romain; Basle, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Bone autograft remains a very useful and popular way for filling bone defects. In maxillofacial surgery or implantology, it is used to increase the volume of the maxilla or mandible before placing dental implants. Because there is a noticeable delay between harvesting the graft and its insertion in the receiver site, we evaluated the morphologic changes at the light and transmission electron microscopy levels. Five patients having an autograft (bone harvested from the chin) were enrolled in the study. A small fragment of the graft was immediately fixed after harvesting and a second one was similarly processed at the end of the grafting period when bone has been stored at room temperature for a 20 min ± 33 s period in saline. A net increase in the number of osteocyte lacunae filled with cellular debris was observed (+41.5%). However no cytologic alteration could be observed in the remaining osteocytes. The viability of these cells is known to contribute to the success of autograft in association with other less well-identified factors.

  13. Determination of viability of preserved skin in low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong Chang; Hao Zheng Ming; Zao Xiao Chun

    1999-01-01

    The skin from fresh human cadavers was stored in 4-18 degree C refrigerator. Before it was grafted for treatment of burn patients, it was quickly put into 40 degree C water and bring back to a former condition. The survival rate of skin was related with time and temperature of store. We used oxygen consumption to observe the change of viability of preserved skin. Oxygen consumption of skin was observed with apparatus made in the 304th Hospital of Peoples Liberation Army. The operating temperature was 5 - 45 degree C. Determination range was 0 - 199 mm Hg, resolving power of digital display was I mm Hg, instrumental error < 0.5 s'. Fresh human cadavers skin was made into 0.3 - 0.4 mm thick piece. Cleaned with NaCl 0.9% for three time. Then it was kept in neomycin solution for fifteen minutes. Then cut into 0.5 x 0.5 cm slices and stored in neomycin (2mg/ml). The skin was stored in 4 degree C refrigerator for five different periods (1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days). Then the Oxygen consumption was determined immediately. The oxygen consumption was also determined before and after it was stored for 24 hours. After the skin was stored in 4 and -18 degree C for 24 hours the oxygen consumption was determined immediately. The prepared skin, which was stored in ordinary refrigerator, was useful and simple. The preserved skin was grafted onto the bum patient and survival rate was high and in short time. But the result showed the viability of preserved skin reduced with time. The result showed that the oxygen consumption of skin, which was stored at 4 degree C, on the fifth day was 62.23% and on day 7 was 30.5%. The study showed that the preserved skin which was stored at 4 degree C for five days was better while the vitality of skin evidently reduced after seven days and the survival rate was low. The oxygen consumption of preserved skin that was stored in -18 degree C refrigerator for 24 hours was 100%. But in 4 degree C refrigerator it was 89.1%. The result showed that the

  14. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed ... body size, slow average daily weight gain, decreased fertility, extended .... were determined by counting a total of 200 spermatozoa per each stained slide.

  15. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... by field artificial pollination were analyzed in this study. The maximum pollen viability .... the day before anthesis to avoid self-pollination. Subsequently, between ..... The Lagerstroemia handbook/checklist. Ameri. Association ...

  16. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... minor cross-incompatibilities and physiological studies of incompatibility ... campanula shape of the flowers attractive for insect. (bees are ..... irradiation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) pollen: Effect on pollen grain viability ...

  17. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees ..... their pollen characteristics to be used in cross breeding ... viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in.

  18. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  19. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Benniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  20. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  1. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  2. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes ... at the Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources Management farm, Ebonyi State University,. Abakaliki. ..... Roots, tuber, plantains and bananas in human nutrition. Rome,.

  3. Assessment of Viability Appraisal Practice by Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji Abiodun Kolawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital investment appraisal is a means of ensuring value for money. It is not meant to provide an indication of profit or loss, but rather a comparison of costs in relation to those areas where there is an opportunity or an inclination for change. The decision to invest in a project is based on the expectation of future returns since a rational investor does not expect to incur loss on his capital outlay. This decision making is usually hinged on advice obtained during pre-investment appraisal. This study is aimed at evaluating the mode of practicing investment viability appraisal by Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Lagos metropolis. The data for the study was obtained by randomly administering structured questionnaires on eighty-seven (87 practicing Estate Surveyors and Valuers in the study area and the findings were analyzed through descriptive statistical tools such as the Likert scale to present the result. Findings revealed that the payback period is the most adopted appraisal technique in practice as evidenced with a mean score of 3.57. The objective (s of the investor is also the most significant factor being considered while selecting appraisal technique with a mean score of 3.83 while the problems of actual return varying from the expected return and also difficulty in the repayment of loans always result when a wrong viability technique is employed. The success of any viability study goes beyond knowing the objective (s of the investor; therefore, it was recommended that appraisers should ensure that they are equipped with adequate knowledge required for the execution of feasibility and on viability studies because knowing the right viability criteria for a particular objective will help in advising an investor on a course of action that will best achieve the developer’s objective.

  4. Assessment of probiotic viability during Cheddar cheese manufacture and ripening using propidium monoazide-PCR quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eDesfossés-Foucault

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (four to six months by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA select only the living cells’ DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011 or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052 or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1, both lactobacilli strains (MC2 or all three strains (MC3. DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf or the transaldolase gene (tal. Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P<0.005, confirming that PMA did eliminate dead bacteria from PCR quantification. For both quantification methods, the addition of probiotic strains seemed to accelerate the loss of lactococci viability in comparison to control cheese samples, especially when L. helveticus RO052 was added. Viability of all three probiotic strains was also significantly reduced in mixed culture cheese samples (P<0.0001, B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 being the most sensitive to the presence of other strains. However, all probiotic strains did retain their viability (log nine cfu/g of cheese throughout ripening. This study was successful in monitoring living probiotic species in Cheddar cheese samples through PMA-qPCR.

  5. Preservation of seed viability during 25 years of storage under standard genebank conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Groot, de E.C.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining sufficient viability is critical to the sustainability of ex situ conserved seed collections. For this reason, accessions are regenerated when viability falls below a predefined threshold. Viability is monitored by determining the germination ability of accessions at predefined time

  6. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  7. Importance of Donor Chondrocyte Viability for Osteochondral Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Stannard, James P; Stoker, Aaron M; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation provides a biological treatment option for functional restoration of large articular cartilage defects in multiple joints. While successful outcomes after OCA transplantation have been linked to viable donor chondrocytes, the importance of donor cell viability has not been comprehensively validated. To use a canine model to determine the importance of donor chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation with respect to functional success of femoral condylar OCAs based on radiographic, gross, cell viability, histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical outcome measures. Controlled laboratory study. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, adult female dogs (N = 16) were implanted with 8-mm cylindrical OCAs from male dogs in the lateral and medial femoral condyles of 1 knee. OCAs were preserved for 28 or 60 days after procurement, and chondrocyte viability was quantified before implantation. Two different storage media, temperatures, and time points were used to obtain a spectrum of percentage chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation. A successful outcome was defined as an OCA that was associated with graft integration, maintenance of hyaline cartilage, lack of associated cartilage disorder, and lack of fibrillation, fissuring, or fibrous tissue infiltration of the allograft based on subjective radiographic, gross, and histologic assessments at 6 months after implantation. Chondrocyte viability ranged from 23% to 99% at the time of implantation. All successful grafts had >70% chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation, and no graft with chondrocyte viability <70% was associated with a successful outcome. Live-dead stained sections and histologic findings with respect to cell morphological features suggested that successful grafts were consistently composed of viable chondrocytes in lacunae, while grafts that were not successful were composed of nonviable

  8. Viability study of photodiodes utilization in determination of soil water content by gamma transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.A.P.; Khoury, H.; Carneiro, C.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to verify the viability of using silicon photodetectors in a sup(241)Am γ-ray spectroscopy system for measuring soil water content was carried out in disturbed soil cores. The good correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and the water content, r sup(2)=0.99, proves that the low efficiency of these detectors is not a limiting factor in measuring the water content. Furthermore, the small dimensions of the silicon photodetectors and associate electronic equipment are important characteristics that could permit the construction of a portable gammametry system to be used under field conditions. (author)

  9. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  10. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  11. Is the colour dimorphism in Dactylorhiza sambucina maintained by differential seed viability instead of frequency-dependent selection?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Kindlmann, Pavel; Renner, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 61-76 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6141302 Keywords : Dactylorhiza * flower colour polymorphism * frequency-dependent selection * pollinator discrimination * rewardless flowers * seed viability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  12. Viability of seeds of two representatives from Apocynaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Aviekin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability of some Apocynaceae seeds depending on the duration of storage under conditions of low temperature was studied. Extracted embryos from the seeds of Pachypodium lamerei Drake and Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. et Schult with different storage history were analyzed. Embryos were stained by acidic fuchsine what allows identification of viable and destructed cells. Destructed cells were stained much more intensively, while viable cells remained unstained. Observed results showed dependence of viability of P. lamerei and A. obesum seeds from term of storage. It was obtained that the seeds of investigated succulent species, just like in many other tropical plants, rapidly lost their viability and should be described as microbiotic.

  13. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined...... concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts...... the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third...

  14. The role of taxation policy and incentives in wind-based distributed generation projects viability. Ontario case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albadi, M.H.; El-Saadany, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Taxation policy and incentives play a vital role in wind-based distributed generation projects viability. In this paper, a thorough techno-economical evaluation of wind-based distributed generation projects is conducted to investigate the effect of taxes and incentives in the economic viability of investments in this sector. This paper considers the effects of Provincial income taxes, capital cost allowance (CCA), property taxes, and wind power production Federal incentives. The case study is conducted for different wind turbines and wind speed scenarios. Given turbine and wind speed data, the Capacity Factor (CF) of each turbine and wind speed scenario was calculated. Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for different scenarios were then used to assess the project's viability considering Ontario Standard Offer Program (SOP) for wind power. (author)

  15. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalization assays: cell viability and radioligand integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sosabowski, Jane K; Nagra, Saeed Ahamad; Ishfaq, Malik M; Mather, Stephen J; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalization assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalized peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalized peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalisation assays: Cell viability and radioligand integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza Naqvi, Syed Ali; Sosabowski, Jane K.; Ahamad Nagra, Saeed; Ishfaq, Malik M.; Mather, Stephen J.; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalisation assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalised peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalised peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times.

  17. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  18. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  19. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be part...

  20. Exogenous HGF Bypasses the Effects of ErbB Inhibition on Tumor Cell Viability in Medulloblastoma Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walderik W Zomerman

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials investigating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitors showed a limited clinical response in medulloblastoma. The present study investigated the role of micro-environmental growth factors expressed in the brain, such as HGF and EGF, in relation to the effects of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET and epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB1-4 inhibition in medulloblastoma cell lines. Medulloblastoma cell lines were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib or canertinib, targeting MET and ErbB1-4, respectively. Upon treatment, cells were stimulated with VEGF-A, PDGF-AB, HGF, FGF-2 or EGF. Subsequently, we measured cell viability and expression levels of growth factors and downstream signaling proteins. Addition of HGF or EGF phosphorylated MET or EGFR, respectively, and demonstrated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 as well as increased tumor cell viability. Crizotinib and canertinib both inhibited cell viability and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Specifically targeting MET using shRNA's resulted in decreased cell viability. Interestingly, addition of HGF to canertinib significantly enhanced cell viability as well as phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. The HGF-induced bypass of canertinib was reversed by addition of crizotinib. HGF protein was hardly released by medulloblastoma cells itself. Addition of canertinib did not affect RTK cell surface or growth factor expression levels. This manuscript points to the bypassing capacity of exogenous HGF in medulloblastoma cell lines. It might be of great interest to anticipate on these results in developing novel clinical trials with a combination of MET and EGFR inhibitors in medulloblastoma.

  1. The impact of the postharvest environment on the viability and virulence of decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Xie, Zhigang; Liu, Yiqing; You, Yuming; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenhua; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi

    2018-07-03

    Postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains by fungal pathogens causes significant economic losses. Infected produce presents a potential health risk since some decay fungi produce mycotoxins that are hazardous to human health. Infections are the result of the interplay between host resistance and pathogen virulence. Both of these processes, however, are significantly impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature, UV, oxidative stress, and water activity. In the present review, the impact of various physical postharvest treatments (e.g., heat and UV) on the viability and virulence of postharvest pathogens is reviewed and discussed. Oxidative injury, protein impairment, and cell wall degradation have all been proposed as the mechanisms by which these abiotic stresses reduce fungal viability and pathogenicity. The response of decay fungi to pH and the ability of pathogens to modulate the pH of the host environment also affect pathogenicity. The effects of the manipulation of the postharvest environment by ethylene, natural edible coatings, and controlled atmosphere storage on fungal viability are also discussed. Lastly, avenues of future research are proposed.

  2. Pollen viability of Salix myrtilloides L. – an endangered species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salix myrtilloides L. (swamp willow is the most endangered species among the boreal Salix species in Poland. The number and size of its population have been decreasing constantly since the 1990s. The main aim of the study was to determine the viability of collected S. myrtilloides pollen and optimal conditions for its in vitro germination. The pollen of S. myrtilloides was collected from 25 male individuals from a population growing in the mid-forest peat bog Dekowina (Sobibór Landscape Park in May 2014. Two methods were applied to estimate the viability of fresh and stored pollen: staining pollen with 2% acetocarmine solution and in vitro germinability. Various temperature (11°C, 23°C and light conditions as well as different concentrations of glucose (1%, 2.5%, 5%, or 7.5% were tested for the optimization of in vitro germination. We documented relatively high S. myrtilloides pollen viability. Pollen tube growth was found to be largely affected by both glucose content in the medium and thermal conditions during germination. Fresh pollen germinated most effectively on the medium with 2.5% glucose (stored pollen – in 5% glucose, at 23°C and in the presence of light. We conclude that pollen viability of S. myrtilloides does not seem to be a limiting factor for reproductive success. Moreover, the pollen is not sterile even after storage for 12 months. The S. myrtilloides individuals from the Dekowina peat bog produce viable pollen grains that are able to germinate and therefore it can be used to pollinate other populations present in the Polesie Lubelskie region for gene pool enrichment.

  3. The effect of Aloe vera gel on viability of dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholehvar, Fatemeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Vahdati, Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. Aloe vera L. (Liliaceae) contains the polysaccharide of acemannan that was shown to be a trigger factor for cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. This study sought to determine the viability of DPSCs in Aloe vera in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Twelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability. Aloe vera showed a significant higher viability than HBSS (74.74%). The 50% Aloe vera showed higher viability (97.73%) than other concentrations. PDT in 50% concentration was 35.1 h and for HBSS was 49.5 h. DPSCs were spindle shaped and were positive for CD73 and negative for CD34 and CD45. Karyotyping was normal. Aloe vera as an inexpensive and available herb can improve survival of avulsed or broken teeth in emergency cases as a transfer media. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could provide additional protection in chlorinated drinking water distribution systems. Copper-Silver (Cu-Ag) ionization treatment systems are commercially available for use in large building water systems to help control the risks from Legionella bacteria. The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize Legionella viability assays and use them to investigate the viability of Legionella bacteria after exposure to water treated with coppper and silver ions. Methods: Log phase L. pneumophila cells were used in all experiments and were generated by incubation at 35C for 48 hours in buffered yeast extract broth. Viability assays used included plating on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar to determine the number of culturable cells and treating cells with propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) followed by quantitative PCR targeting mip gene of L. pneumophila. The qPCR viability assays were optimized using L. pneumophila inactivated by heat treatment at 65C for 60 min. The effectiveness of Cu-Ag ionization treatment was studied by inoculating L. pneumonia at 105 CFU/mL in water collected directly from a building water system that employed this technology and incubat

  5. Assessment of bacterial endospore viability with fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, C; Lavigne, S; Ho, J; Duchaine, C

    2004-01-01

    To validate three fluorescence viability assays designed primarily for vegetative cells on pure Bacillus endospores. Purified fresh and gamma-irradiated Bacillus endospores (Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans and two strains of B. subtilis) were used. The viability assays were: 5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) to test respiratory activity and early germination, DiBAC4(3) and Live/Dead BacLight to measure membrane energization and permeabilization, respectively. Gamma irradiation treatment completely eliminated spore culturability and was used as negative control. The untreated spores showed respiratory activity after 1 h of incubation and this was characteristic of almost 100% of spores after 24 h. The membrane potential assessment gave no answer about spore viability. A lower proportion of untreated spores had permeabilized membrane compared with gamma-irradiated spores using Live/Dead BacLight (P plate count. This study shows that fluorescence tests could be applied to assess viability in potentially pathogenic Bacillus spore preparations within 1 h.

  6. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Visser, C.W.; Henke, S.J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  7. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  8. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  9. Comparison of Germination and Viability Tests for Southern Hardwood Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; J. L. Gammage

    1967-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 3-year evaluation of 10 methods for testing germinability and viability of the seed of six species of southern hardwood. In five of the methods, the seeds were germinated. In the others, visual, biochemical, or physical properties were the criteria. Cutting tests were best for sweetgum and Nuttall oak seed, while cutting or water germination...

  10. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae O: 1 ...

  11. Financial viability of district mutual health insurance schemes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since its implementation, unsubstantiated reports indicate increasing health care and administra-tive costs of the various DMHIS across the country without any corresponding increase in the premium level. We sought to assess the financial viability of the DMHIS in Lawra (LDMHIS) and Sissala East (SEDMHIS) districts, ...

  12. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  13. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  14. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and ... increase in germination potential (60%) of seeds treated with polyethylene .... Key: 60* = There was no germination 60 days after sowing; MC = Moisture content; Germ. ...... Paper presented at the pre-germplasm collection meeting on Irvingia.

  15. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  16. The viability of business data mining in the sports environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data mining can be viewed as the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases and utilising this information to make crucial business decisions (Simoudis, 1996: 26). This paper considers the viability of using data mining tools and techniques in sports, particularly with regard to mining the ...

  17. Potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicholaus family

    marginal (incremental) revenues from forest carbon stock as well as the conceptual trend of forest biomass indicates that, there is ... Key words: Carbon stock payments, community preferences and REDD+ project viability. INTRODUCTION .... following criteria were used in selecting respondents especially households: 1) ...

  18. PBMC and MDAMB-231 cellular viability after telecobalt irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy by gamma rays are used for cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation effects on cells has been investigated. Studies in vitro were developed using tumor cell lines and ionizing radiation. The aim of this research was to test the cellular viability response of two cell types through MTT assay: human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and human breast carcinoma cell line MDAMB-231. These cells were irradiated with 60 Co source Theratron 80 radiotherapy machine from Atomic Energy Canada Limited with 20 x 20 cm field at 136.4 cGy/min, surface source distance 70 cm. Culture flasks contained 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 cells were irradiated with 100 Gy, 25 Gy, and 50 Gy using non fractionated doses. Cellular viability were evaluated 1h, 24h, 48h and 72h after irradiation and samples were measured by optical density at 595nm. Our results show that PBMC cells present lower cellular viability post irradiation. On the other hand, MDAMB-231 cells maintain viability after 50 Gy irradiation at 72h indicating cellular radioresistance. (author)

  19. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  20. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  1. Heterozygous effects of irradiated chromosomes on viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Two large experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the heterozygous effects of irradiated chromosomes on viability. Mutations were accumulated on several hundred second chromosomes by delivering doses of 2,500R over either two or four generations for total x-ray exposures of 5,000R or 10,000R. Chromosomes treated with 5,000R were screened for lethals after the first treatment, and surviving nonlethals were used to generate families of fully treated chromosomes. The members of these families shared the effects of the first irradiation, but differed with respect to those of the second. The chromosomes treated with 10,000R were not grouped into families since mutations were accumulated independently on each chromosome in that experiment. Heterozygous effects on viability of the irradiated chromosomes were tested in both isogenic (homozygous) and nonisogenic (heterozygous) genetic backgrounds. In conjunction with these tests, homozygous viabilities were determined by the marked-inversion technique. This permitted a separation of the irradiated chromosomes into those which were drastic when made homozygous and those which were not. The results indicate that drastic chromosomes have deleterious effects in heterozygous condition, since viability was reduced by 2 to 4 percent in tests performed with the 10,000R chromosomes, and by 1 percent in those involving the 5,000R material. Within a series of tests, the effects were more pronounced when the genetic background was homozygous. These results suggest that the mutants induced by high doses of x-rays are principally drastic ones which show deleterious effects on viability in heterozygous condition

  2. The economic viability of nuclear power in a fossil-fuel-rich country: Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Anthony

    2010-09-15

    This paper assesses the economic viability of investment in nuclear power generation in Australia and factors which may influence government policy towards such investments. It argues that the structure of the grid in Eastern Australia and the nature of the existing generator mix require nuclear technology that has similar attributes to combined cycle gas technology; i.e. modular construction of generating units, load following capability, low unit capital cost, and a general acceptance by the Australian public. The paper concludes that it is only Generation IV nuclear technology that has the potential to be part of Australia's energy mix after 2030.

  3. Microtissues Enhance Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Cell Viability of hADSCs for Three Dimensional Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yipeng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle differentiated human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs provide a crucial stem cell source for urinary tissue engineering, but the induction of hADSCs for smooth muscle differentiation still has several issues to overcome, including a relatively long induction time and equipment dependence, which limits access to abundant stem cells within a short period of time for further application. Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting holds great promise in regenerative medicine due to its controllable construction of a designed 3D structure. When evenly mixed with bioink, stem cells can be spatially distributed within a bioprinted 3D structure, thus avoiding drawbacks such as, stem cell detachment in a conventional cell-scaffold strategy. Notwithstanding the advantages mentioned above, cell viability is often compromised during 3D bioprinting, which is often due to pressure during the bioprinting process. The objective of our study was to improve the efficiency of hADSC smooth muscle differentiation and cell viability of a 3D bioprinted structure. Here, we employed the hanging-drop method to generate hADSC microtissues in a smooth muscle inductive medium containing human transforming growth factor β1 and bioprinted the induced microtissues onto a 3D structure. After 3 days of smooth muscle induction, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and smoothelin was higher in microtissues than in their counterpart monolayer cultured hADSCs, as confirmed by immunofluorescence and western blotting analysis. The semi-quantitative assay showed that the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was 0.218 ± 0.077 in MTs and 0.082 ± 0.007 in Controls; smoothelin expression was 0.319 ± 0.02 in MTs and 0.178 ± 0.06 in Controls. Induced MTs maintained their phenotype after the bioprinting process. Live/dead and cell count kit 8 assays showed that cell viability and cell proliferation in the 3D structure printed with microtissues were higher at all time

  4. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  5. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  6. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  7. Cost viability of 3D printed house in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Omar, S. A.; Yehia, Z.; Al-Ojaili, S.; Hashim, A.; Orhan, O.

    2018-03-01

    UK has been facing housing crisis due to the rising price of the property on sale. This paper will look into the viability of 3D printing technology as an alternative way for house construction on UK. The analysis will be carried out based on the data until the year of 2014 due to limited resources availability. Details cost breakdown on average size house construction cost in UK were analysed and relate to the cost viability of 3D printing technology in reducing the house price in UK. It is found that the 3D printing generates saving of up to around 35% out of total house price in UK. This cost saving comes from the 3D printed construction of walls and foundations for material and labour cost.

  8. Usefulness of radionuclide scintiphotography to evaluate preserved kidney viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koshi; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    GAMMA imaging of the renal cortical microcirculation is a safe and non-invasive method for assessment of kidney viability before transplantation. We used trifluoperazine (TFP), urokinase and verapamil from 24 to 120 hour kidney preservation in dogs. For these preserved kidneys, we used radionuuclide scintiphotography to evaluate kidney viability. After preservation, these kidneys were perfused with technitium -99m labeled microspheres, and imaging of the renal vasculature was obtained by scintigraphy. The distribution of the microspheres was assessed visually and by computer analysis. Modified Collins' solution perfused kidneys show very poor cortical uptake with marked increase in uptake in the hilar region after preservation. In contrast, cortical flow remained relatively well preserved in kidneys perfused and preserved by use of modified Collins' solotion with TFP, urokinase and urokinase + verapamil. There was a direct correlation between these results and the capacity of kidneys treated in the same fashion to sustain life after retransplantation into the original host. (author)

  9. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  10. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Sims, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number

  11. Determination of intestinal viability by Doppler ultrasonography in venous infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, M; Martin, E W; Carey, L C

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in predicting the viability of ischemic intestine secondary to venous obstruction was assessed. Twenty loops of ischemic intestine were created in dogs by temporarily obstructing venous return from the bowel. Doppler arterial flow signals within the intestine quickly disappeared following venous occlusion. In ten segments, arterial signals promptly returned following release of venous occlusion. Nine of these ten segments were viable at reoperation 24 hours later. In ten segments, no arterial signals could be detected following release of venous occlusion, and only one segment proved to be viable. Doppler ultrasound findings were far more accurate in distinguishing between viable and nonviable intestine thatn were clinical guides to intestinal viability. PMID:7352777

  12. A flow cytometric method for assessing viability of intraerythrocytic hemoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, C R; Goff, W; Davis, W C

    1991-06-24

    We have developed a rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites. The assay involves the selective uptake and metabolic conversion of hydroethidine to ethidium by live parasites present in intact erythrocytes. The red fluorescence imparted by ethidium intercalated into the DNA of the parasite permits the use of flow cytometry to distinguish infected erythrocytes with viable parasites from uninfected erythrocytes and erythrocytes containing dead parasites. Comparison of the fluorochromasia technique of enumerating the number and viability of hemoparasites in cultured erythrocytes with enumeration in Giemsa-stained films and uptake of [3H]hypoxanthine demonstrated the fluorochromasia technique yields comparable results. Studies with the hemoparasite, Babesia bovis, have shown the fluorochromasia technique can also be used to monitor the effect of parasiticidal drugs on parasites in vitro. The cumulative studies with the fluorochromasia assay suggest the assay will also prove useful in investigations focused on analysis of the immune response to hemoparasites and growth in vitro.

  13. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  14. Effect of storage materials on viability and proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viability of the G. kola seeds stored in polyethylene bag (PB) was highest (100%) followed by that of the seeds stored in fresh plantain leaf (FPL) (86.67 ± 13.33%); cement bag paper (CBP) (73.33 ± 17.64%); dry plantain leaf (DPL) (60.00%) and the control which was exposed to the ambient temperature in the laboratory ...

  15. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  16. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  17. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  18. Incisional abdominal hernia repair with concomitant abdominoplasty: Maintaining umbilical viability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Phan; Elan Kaplan; Jemma K. Porrett; Yik-Hong Ho; Warren M. Rozen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominoplasty and abdominal hernia repair are often carried out in two-stage procedures, and those describing single-stage surgery require careful dissection to preserve often only partial blood supply to the umbilicus to maintain its viability. This paper aims to describe the surgical method of laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in association with abdominoplasty. Case presentation: A patient presents with an incisional hernia at a previous periumbilical port site of size 14...

  19. Economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, Z.F.

    1994-01-01

    Non conventional energy sources have begun to move from fringes of technological possibility towards commercial viability. Out of the four sources, i e. solar, wind, biogas and minimicro hydel the first two viz. wind and solar energy are of relevance for industries in western region of India. This has to be seen in the context of developments in technology and hence economics both worldwide and in India. (author)

  20. Sphingosine kinase activity is not required for tumor cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rex

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology.

  1. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  2. Effect of storage temperature on Streptococcus mutans viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lídia Soares COTA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Proper storage conditions and maintenance of viable biological material plays an important role in microbiological research, allowing for the opportunity to conduct future studies. Objective To evaluate the viability of Streptococcus mutans strains that were previously grown and stored under different temperatures for approximately eight years. Material and method In this study, we evaluated 393 bacterial isolates that were stored in a freezer at -80°C (G1 and 200 isolates stored in a freezer at -20°C (G2. Aliquots of each sample were plated on blood agar and mitis-salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar-solidified medium. After incubating under microaerophilic conditions in an incubator at 37°C for 72 hours, the presence, morphology and purity of bacterial growth was observed. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Result Microbial viability was observed in almost all samples (99.7% in G1, whereas all isolates stored at -20°C were considered inviable. Conclusion The viability of S. mutans is influenced by the storage temperature of the samples, and the strains remain viable when stored under ideal temperature conditions (-80°C, even when stored for a long period of time.

  3. Ca-Lignosulphonate and sclerotial viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTEO MONTANARI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignosulphonates, low cost by-products of the pulping process, have shown suppressive effects against some diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of 1.5% v/v calcium lignosulphonate (Ca-Ls amendment to two commercial potting mixes (peat + coconut fibres; PC; and municipal compost + peat + pumice; MCPP on the viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia was investigated. Sclerotia were buried in the Ca-Ls amended substrates for 30 days. Non-amended PC and MCPP, sterile sand and sterile PC with and without Ca-Ls were used as controls. The viability of sclerotia recovered from PC and MCPP amended with Ca-Ls was reduced by 50 and 42% respectively compared to control treatments. Ca-Ls amendment decreased sclerotial viability by enhancing the activity of the indigenous mycoparasitic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor spp. and Trichoderma spp. The biocontrol ability of Ca-Ls against sclerotia was due to the stimulation of microbial activity and is, therefore, strictly dependent on the microbial composition of the substrate.

  4. Turnover of Glycerolipid Metabolite Pool and Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydration–dehydration cycles can frequently cause stress to seeds, but can also be used to improve germination. However, the molecular basis of the stress caused is poorly understood. Herein, we examine the effects of hydration–dehydration cycles on seed viability and profile the membrane glycerolipid molecular species. We find that seed viability was not affected during the first two cycles, but significantly decreased as further cycles were applied, until all viability was lost. The abundances of seven glycerolipid classes increased and decreased through hydration and dehydration, respectively, but the phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol abundances changed in the opposite sense, while total glycerolipid contents remained constant. This suggests that during hydration–dehydration cycles, turnover of glycerolipid metabolite pools take place, while no significant lipid synthesis or degradation is involved. As further hydration–dehydration cycles occurred, lipid unsaturation increased, plastidic lipids decreased, and phosphatidylserine acyl chains lengthened. The latter two could be lethal for seeds. Our findings reveal a novel model of membrane lipid changes, and provide new insights into the responses of seeds to hydration–dehydration cycles.

  5. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  6. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M; Schelske, O [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y; Ndoh, M; Tacchini, C [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  8. Effects of corticosteroid on the expressions of neuropeptide and cytokine mRNA and on tenocyte viability in lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the reaction mechanism of corticosteroid by analyzing the expression patterns of neuropeptides (substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and of cytokines (interleukin (IL-1α, tumor growth factor (TGF-β after corticosteroid treatment in lateral epicondylitis. In addition, we also investigated whether corticosteroid influenced tenocyte viability. Methods The corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide (TAA was applied to cultured tenocytes of lateral epicondylitis, and the changes in the mRNA expressions of neuropeptides and cytokines and tenocyte viabilities were analyzed at seven time points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and an MTT assay were used. Results The expression of SP mRNA was maximally inhibited by TAA at 24 hours but recovered at 72 hours, and the expressions of CGRP mRNA and IL-1α mRNA were inhibited at 24 and 3 hours, respectively. The expression of TGF-β mRNA was not significant. Tenocyte viability was significantly reduced by TAA at 24 hours. Conclusions We postulate that the reaction mechanism predominantly responsible for symptomatic relief after a corticosteroid injection involves the inhibitions of neuropeptides and cytokines, such as, CGRP and IL-1α. However the tenocyte viability was compromised by a corticosteroid.

  9. Posttranslational Modifications in Spermatozoa and Effects on Male Fertility and Sperm Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohi, Rahim Dad; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its function depends on multiple physiological and genetic factors that are not fully understood. Notably, due to lack of transcriptional and translational activity in spermatozoa, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play key roles in determining their viability. PTMs not only confer structural changes in the proteome of the spermatozoa cells, but also increase the diversity of the proteome and introduce specific modifications that could be translated into functional changes in the affected spermatozoa. Multiple PTMs of active proteins have been identified in the developing spermatogonia. This review summarizes a diverse range of PTMs taking place in the developing spermatozoa, and analyzes their effects on male fertility and sperm viability. In particular, we discuss how SUMOylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, and disulphide bond formation in proteins play a role in spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, movement of maturing spermatozoa to epididymis, capacitation, hyperactivation, spermatozoa motility, subversion of immune detection by spermatozoa, sperm to egg recognition and fusion, and the fertilization process. When possible, the specific proteins involved in these processes are highlighted. We point to existing knowledge gaps in the field of proteomics, and provide suggestions for future research on sperm viability and male fertility. We discuss briefly, as an example, the observations in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, which provides both meat and milk, and therefore is a reliable source for energy and protein needs of human populations. In conclusions, understanding the ways in which PTMs impact mammalian fertility and reproduction is important to make significant strides for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the near future.

  10. Is there a viability-vulnerability tradeoff? Sex differences in fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Glynn, Laura M; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we evaluate the evidence for sex differences in fetal programming within the context of the proposed viability-vulnerability tradeoff. We briefly review the literature on the factors contributing to primary and secondary sex ratios. Sex differences in fetal programming are assessed by summarizing previously published sex difference findings from our group (6 studies) and also new analyses of previously published findings in which sex differences were not reported (6 studies). The review and reanalysis of studies from our group are consistent with the overwhelming evidence of increasing risk for viability among males exposed to environmental adversity early in life. New evidence reported here support the argument that females, despite their adaptive agility, also are influenced by exposure to early adversity. Two primary conclusions are (i) female fetal exposure to psychobiological stress selectively influences fear/anxiety, and (ii) the effects of female fetal exposure to stress persist into preadolescence. These persisting effects are reflected in increased levels of anxiety, impaired executive function and neurological markers associated with these behaviors. A tacit assumption is that females, with their adaptive flexibility early in gestation, escape the consequences of early life exposure to adversity. We argue that the consequences of male exposure to early adversity threaten their viability, effectively culling the weak and the frail and creating a surviving cohort of the fittest. Females adjust to early adversity with a variety of strategies, but their escape from the risk of early mortality and morbidity has a price of increased vulnerability expressed later in development. © 2013.

  11. A business model design framework for viability : a business ecosystem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Souza, Austin; Velthuijsen, Hugo; Wortmann, J.C.; Huitema, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the design of viable business models by proposing a novel business model design framework for viability. Design: A design science research method is adopted to develop a business model design framework for viability. The business model design framework for viability is

  12. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  13. Viability Tests for Fresh and Stored Haemopoietic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner, T. M. [Abteilung fuer klinische Physiologie, Zentrum fuer Klinische Grundlagenforschung, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-07-15

    This paper reviews current methods of measurement of the viability of fresh and stored haemopoietic cells. The life expectancy of granulocytes and monocytes after transfusion can be studied by in-vitro labelling with {sup 3}H-DFP and subsequent autoradiography. The evaluation of data in about 30 patients with various haemopoietic conditions indicates a wide variation of the disappearance half-time of granulocytes. {sup 3}H-cytidine labels essentially all lymphocytes in vitro, predominantly in their RNA. Transfusion of {sup 3}H-cytidine-labelled lymphocytes enables one to measure the lower limit of their life-expectancy as well as their rate of RNA metabolism. If bone-marrow cells are labelled in vitro with {sup 3}H-thymidine and subsequently transfused, their capability to circulate, to reach the haemopoietic tissue of the host, to proliferate and to mature can be demonstrated. However, the repopulating capacity of frozen and thawed marrow is independent of the ability of {sup 3}H-TDR-labelled marrow cells to circulate, proliferate and mature. It is assumed that bone-marrow cells capable of repopulating depleted haemopoietic tissue are resting under steady-state conditions and can be labelled by means of {sup 3}H-TDR only using special conditions. Thus the only viability tests for fresh and stored bone-marrow cells at present appear to be bioassay methods at the animal experimental level. The results indicate the need for the development of reliable viability tests for stem cells applicable in both experimental and clinical conditions. (author)

  14. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  15. Determination of donor corneal tissue viability by 35S incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatarev, G.; Golijski, P.; Mechkarski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of various storage conditions on corneal tissue viability have been studied comparatively using swine eyeballs and recording the rate of 35 S-labelled sodium sulphate binding to polysaccharides. With 6% dextran solution (Hemodex) injected into the anterior bulbus chamber of the donor, the rate of labelled compound binding remaines unaltered within the first five days, whereas with humid preservation techniques at 4 deg C binding ability is almost halved. Advantages of the proposed method of preservation are discussed with a view to clinical testing. (A.B.)

  16. Reduction of irradiated tumor cells viability under effect of hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Voloshina, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    On Ehrlich carcinoma cells adapted to growth in vivo and in vitro, cellular mechanisms of short-term hyperglycemia effect have been studied. It has been found that SH by itself leads to the loss of viability of a part of cells of ELD solid tumors manifesting during the first 24 hours upon irradiation according to the interphase death type. Tumor cell radiation injuries arising under the effect of irradiation, usually non realized up to the first division, under SH conditions potentiate its injury effect. The phenomena observed explain partially selective injury of tumoral cells in the course of irradiation under SH conditions which testifies to the prospects of its use in clinics

  17. Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeera Ujin; Kamran Shavarebi Ali; Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

    2016-01-01

    This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement....

  18. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  19. Financial viability of the Sonora-Baja California interconnection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ortega, G.

    2017-09-01

    In the Development Program of the National Electricity Sector 2015-2029, an electric interconnection line between Sonora and Baja California (Mexico) is proposed, this study analyzes the financial viability of this interconnection line based on the maximum hourly and seasonal energy demand between both regions and proposes alternatives for the supply of electric power that supports the economic convenience of this interconnection line. The results show that additional capacity is required in Sonora to cover the maximum demands of both regions since in the current condition of the National Electric System the interconnection line is not justified. (Author)

  20. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  1. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  2. The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L, constant high glucose (CHG (25 mmol/L, and IHG (rotation per 24 h in 11.1 or 25 mmol/L for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, xanthine oxidase (XOD level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG.

  3. Economic viability of the piauçu Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Leonardo Susumu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian fish farms presented an accelerated development during the early 90's, mainly because of the increase in fee-fishing operations. To meet the demand of this market, fish production and supply became excessive and, as a consequence, the number of fee-fishing operations, farmers and the final selling price, decreased. This study analyzes the technical aspects, production cost, profitability and economic viability of the production of piauçu (L. macrocephalus in ponds, based on information from a rural property. Feeding and fingerling costs amount to approximately 47.1% of the total production cost, representing together with the final selling price the most important factor affecting profitability. The payback period was 8.3 years, the liquid present value US$ 291.07, the internal return margin 9%, and the income-outcome ratio was 1.01, which represents an unattractive investment as a projection based on current conditions. The improvement in productive efficiency enhances the economic valuation index, and that the relative magnitude of cost and income are the most important points for the economic viability of the studied farm.

  4. Resuscitation at the limits of viability--an Irish perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, R A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in neonatal care continue to lower the limit of viability. Decision making in this grey zone remains a challenging process. OBJECTIVE: To explore the opinions of healthcare providers on resuscitation and outcome in the less than 28-week preterm newborn. DESIGN\\/METHODS: An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to health care providers working in maternity units in the Republic of Ireland. Questions related to neonatal management of the extreme preterm infant, and estimated survival and long-term outcome. RESULTS: The response rate was 55% (74% obstetricians and 70% neonatologists). Less than 1% would advocate resuscitation at 22 weeks, 10% of health care providers advocate resuscitation at 23 weeks gestation, 80% of all health care providers would resuscitate at 24 weeks gestation. 20% of all health care providers would advocate cessation of resuscitation efforts on 22-25 weeks gestation at 5 min of age. 65% of Neonatologists and 54% trainees in Paediatrics would cease resuscitation at 10 min of age. Obstetricians were more pessimistic about survival and long term outcome in newborns delivered between 23 and 27 weeks when compared with neonatologists. This difference was also observed in trainees in paediatrics and obstetrics. CONCLUSION: Neonatologists, trainees in paediatrics and neonatal nurses are generally more optimistic about outcome than their counterparts in obstetrical care and this is reflected in a greater willingness to provide resuscitation efforts at the limits of viability.

  5. New small molecules targeting apoptosis and cell viability in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Maugg

    Full Text Available Despite the option of multimodal therapy in the treatment strategies of osteosarcoma (OS, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, the standard therapy has not changed over the last decades and still involves multidrug chemotherapy and radical surgery. Although successfully applied in many patients a large number of patients eventually develop recurrent or metastatic disease in which current therapeutic regimens often lack efficacy. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we performed a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign using a 25,000 small-molecule diversity library to identify new small molecules selectively targeting osteosarcoma cells. We could identify two new small molecules that specifically reduced cell viability in OS cell lines U2OS and HOS, but affected neither hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 nor primary human osteoblasts (hOB. In addition, the two compounds induced caspase 3 and 7 activity in the U2OS cell line. Compared to conventional drugs generally used in OS treatment such as doxorubicin, we indeed observed a greater sensitivity of OS cell viability to the newly identified compounds compared to doxorubicin and staurosporine. The p53-negative OS cell line Saos-2 almost completely lacked sensitivity to compound treatment that could indicate a role of p53 in the drug response. Taken together, our data show potential implications for designing more efficient therapies in OS.

  6. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  7. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  8. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-11-06

    The development of an aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria (AptaVISens-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to live Salmonella typhimurium were selected via the cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against viable S. typhimurium and a negative selection step against heat killed S. typhimurium and a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii to ensure the species specificity of the selected aptamers. The DNA sequence showing the highest binding affinity to the bacteria was further integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNP-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. typhimurium down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 live cells in 30 μL of assay volume) and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. enteritidis and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based viability sensing of a variety of microorganisms, particularly viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  9. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by 15O-water-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with 15 O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author)

  10. Expert opinion on risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Camilla; Kenway, Steven; Hassall, Maureen; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-09-01

    The water sector needs to make efficient and prudent investment decisions by carefully considering the long-term viability of water infrastructure projects. To support the assessment and planning of residential recycled water schemes in Australia, we have sought to clarify scheme objectives and to further define the array of critical risks that can impact the long-term viability of schemes. Building on historical information, we conducted a national survey which elicited responses from 88 Australian expert practitioners, of which 64% have over 10 years of industry experience and 42% have experience with more than five residential recycled water schemes. On the basis of expert opinion, residential recycled water schemes are considered to be highly relevant for diversifying and improving water supply security, reducing wastewater effluent discharge and pollutant load to waterways and contributing to sustainable urban development. At present however, the inability to demonstrate an incontestable business case is posing a significant risk to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes. Political, regulatory, organisational and financial factors were also rated as critical risks, in addition to community risk perception and fall in demand. The survey results shed further light on the regulatory environment of residential recycled water schemes, with regulatory participants rating the level and impact of risk factors higher than other survey participants in most cases. The research outcomes provide a comprehensive understanding of the critical risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes, thereby enabling the specification of targeted risk management measures at the assessment and planning stage of a scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Edaravone enhances the viability of ischemia/reperfusion flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yi; Kang, Shen-Song; Zhang, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to study the efficacy of edaravone in enhancing flap viability after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) and its mechanism. Forty-eight adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (n=16), IR group (n=16), and edaravone-treated IR group (n=16). An island flap at left lower abdomen (6.0 cm×3.0 cm in size), fed by the superficial epigastric artery and vein, was created in each rat of all the three groups. The arterial blood flow of flaps in IR group and edaravone-treated IR group was blocked for 10 h, and then the blood perfusion was restored. From 15 min before reperfusion, rats in the edaravone-treated IR group were intraperitoneally injected with edaravone (10 mg/kg), once every 12 h, for 3 days. Rats in the IR group and control group were intraperitoneally injected with saline, with the same method and frequency as the rats in the edaravone-treated IR group. In IR group and edaravone-treated IR group, samples of flaps were harvested after reperfusion of the flaps for 24 h. In the control group, samples of flaps were harvested 34 h after creation of the flaps. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined, and changes in organizational structure and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, apoptotic cells of vascular wall were marked by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall was calculated. The ultrastructural changes of vascular endothelial cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Seven days after the operation, we calculated the flap viability of each group, and marked vessels of flaps by immunohistochemical staining for calculating the average number of subcutaneous vessels. The results showed that the content of MDA, the number of multicore inflammatory cells and apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall

  12. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  13. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude; Claudel, Christian G.; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  14. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  15. Microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Akiko; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use only which mandate that residual solution be discarded such as albumin and globulin preparations as blood products, preparations containing albumin (such as urokinase and interferon), fat emulsions, and a preparation containing fat emulsions (propofol). In most preparations, Serratia marcescens and Burkholderia cepacia proliferated rapidly at 30 degrees C. However, in globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine to prevent protein degradation (Gamma-Venin P, Venilon-I, Globulin Injection, and Ahlbulin), no growth of S. marcescens and B. cepacia was detected over 24 h at 30 degrees C. For globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine, the injunction to "Discard residual solution after the package has been used" in the package inserts can be revised to "It is possible to use residual solution within 24 h after the package has been used with storage in a cool place."

  16. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP.

  17. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  18. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  19. Phenomenological viability of orbifold models with three Higgs families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Nicolas; Munoz, Carlos; Teixeira, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenological viability of string multi-Higgs doublet models, namely a scenario of heterotic Z 3 orbifolds with two Wilson lines, which naturally predicts three supersymmetric families of matter and Higgs fields. We study the orbifold parameter space, and discuss the compatibility of the predicted Yukawa couplings with current experimental data. We address the implications of tree-level flavour changing neutral processes in constraining the Higgs sector of the model, finding that viable scenarios can be obtained for a reasonably light Higgs spectrum. We also take into account the tree-level contributions to indirect CP violation, showing that the experimental value of ε K can be accommodated in the present framework

  20. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  1. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  2. Cooperation of HIF- and NCAM-mediated mechanisms in cell viability of hippocampal cultures after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikova, Iryna; Nikandrova, Yelyzaveta; Skibo, Galyna

    2017-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases of different genesis are the result of cellular damages including those caused by oxygen and glucose deficit. Neuronal survival or death in brain pathologies depends on a variety of interrelated molecular mechanisms. A key role in modulation of neuron viability belongs to HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) and NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecules) signaling pathways. In this work, we used organotypic and dissociated hippocampal cultures to analyze cell viability and HIF-1α immunopositive (HIF-1α + ) signal after 30 min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 24 h of reoxygenation in the presence of FGL (synthetic NCAM-derived mimetic peptide). According to LDH- and MTS-assay of cell viability, FGL showed a neuroprotective effect, which was attributed to the association with FGFR. We showed that these effects correlated with changes of the HIF-1α + level suggesting the communications of HIF and NCAM signaling pathways. These data extend our knowledge of neurodegeneration mechanisms and open additional potential for the development of neuroprotection strategies. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. Extreme-Dipper Profile, Increased Aortic Stiffness, and Impaired Subendocardial Viability in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amah, Guy; Ouardani, Rahma; Pasteur-Rousseau, Adrien; Voicu, Sebastian; Safar, Michel E; Kubis, Nathalie; Bonnin, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    In treated hypertensives, extreme-dippers with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit more severe nighttime cardiac ischemia than dippers. After excluding confounding factors such as diabetes, CAD or chronic kidney disease (CKD), we assessed whether subendocardial viability, determined by the Buckberg index, was more significantly impaired in extreme-dippers than in dippers. Two hundred thirteen consecutive treated hypertensives (156 dippers, 57 extreme-dippers), were included. After 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, patients underwent radial applanation tonometry (with determination of: subendocardial viability ratio [SEVR], central augmentation index [AIx], and pulse pressure amplification [PPamp]), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement, and cycle ergometer stress testing. Extreme-dippers showed higher cfPWV (8.99 ± 2.16 vs. 8.29 ± 1.69 m/s, P = 0.014), higher AIx (29.7 ± 9.4 vs. 26.4 ± 10.4%, P = 0.042), lower PPamp (1.22 ± 0.14 vs. 1.30 ± 0.15, P < 0.001), lower SEVR (146 ± 23% vs. 157 ± 26%, P = 0.007), and lower nighttime diastolic BP (DBP) (70 ± 9 vs. 75 ± 9 mm Hg, P < 0.001) than dippers. SEVR and cfPWV were inversely correlated. Among extreme-dippers, women exhibited lower SEVR (138 ± 21% vs. 161 ± 23%, P = 0.004), PPamp (1.16 ± 0.10 vs. 1.31 ± 0.15, P < 0.001), and nighttime DBP (67 ± 8 mm Hg vs. 72 ± 8 mm Hg, P = 0.017) than men. Extreme-dipper treated hypertensives with no history of CAD, diabetes or CKD, present increased aortic stiffness and low PPamp. Furthermore, this is the first demonstration of the greater likelihood of these patients to exhibit impaired subendocardial viability compared to dippers. Extreme-dipper hypertensive patients, women in particular, may have a significantly higher risk of silent myocardial ischemia, thus justifying systematic screening. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakhamanesh Mostafavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of open questions in human evolutionary genetics would become tractable if we were able to directly measure evolutionary fitness. As a step towards this goal, we developed a method to examine whether individual genetic variants, or sets of genetic variants, currently influence viability. The approach consists in testing whether the frequency of an allele varies across ages, accounting for variation in ancestry. We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. Across the genome, we found only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3. These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. Testing viability effects of sets of genetic variants that jointly influence 1 of 42 traits, we detected a number of strong signals. In participants of the UK Biobank of British ancestry, we found that variants that delay puberty timing are associated with a longer parental life span (P~6.2 × 10-6 for fathers and P~2.0 × 10-3 for mothers, consistent with epidemiological studies. Similarly, variants associated with later age at first birth are associated with a longer maternal life span (P~1.4 × 10-3. Signals are also observed for variants influencing cholesterol levels, risk of coronary artery disease (CAD, body mass index, as well as risk of asthma. These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. We also found marked differences between males and females, most notably at the CHRNA3 locus, and variants associated with risk of CAD and cholesterol levels. Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans.

  5. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  6. Influence of low temperature and frost duration on Phytophthora alni subsp. alni viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, K.; Filipova, N.; Strnadova, V.

    2012-11-01

    Limits on the survival of P. alni subsp. alni (PAA) due to low temperature can be expected based on previously published laboratory and field studies. This study presents a laboratory experiment to test the influence of low temperature and frost duration on PAA viability. Ten PAA isolates were incubated at different temperatures (-0.1, -2.5, -5.0, -7.5, and -10.0 degree centigrade) and frost durations (0 - 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). A regression analysis confirmed the significant influence of both factors (low temperature and frost duration, and their interaction) on the survival of the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The survival and failure time analysis showed that the survival of the pathogen differs significantly after mild frost (all the isolates tested survived temperatures between -0.1 and -5.0 degree centigrade during the entire testing period) and heavy frost (the pathogen died after 21 days of incubation at -7.5 degree centigrade and after 2 days at -10.0 degree centigrade). Moreover, the viability of the pathogen decreased significantly if the temperature of -5.0 degree centigrade was maintained for at least 1 week and the temperature of -7.5 degree centigrade persisted in laboratory conditions for at least 4 days. The results of the study proved the pathogen to be very sensitive to heavy frost. The low-temperature limits for PAA occur regularly in Central Europe in January. It is probable that these temperatures can reduce PAA populations in diseased black alder stems. The climate change characterised by increases in the lowest minimum winter temperatures in Central Europe (as hypothesised by IPCC) may pose a significant risk for affected alder population in the area. (Author) 21 refs.

  7. Effect of proline rich 15-deficiency on trophoblast viability and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Gates

    Full Text Available Deviations from the normal program of gene expression during early pregnancy can lead to early embryonic loss as well as dysfunctional placentation, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Proline rich 15 (PRR15 is a low molecular weight nuclear protein expressed by the trophoblast during early gestation. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of PRR15 mRNA in ovine trophectoderm led to demise of the embryo by gestational day 15, providing compelling evidence that PRR15 expression is critical during this precarious window of development. Our objective was to determine the effect of PRR15 knockdown on trophoblast gene expression, proliferation, and survival. The first-trimester human trophoblast cell line, ACH-3P, was infected with control lentivirus or a lentivirus expressing a short hairpin (shRNA to target PRR15 mRNA for degradation, resulting in a 68% reduction in PRR15 mRNA. Microarray analysis of these cell lines revealed differential expression of genes related to cancer, focal adhesion, and p53 signaling. These changes included significant up-regulation of GDF15, a cytokine increased in pregnancies with preeclampsia. Viability and proliferation decreased in PRR15-deficient cells, which was consistent with down-regulation of cell cycle-related genes CCND1 and CDK6 and an up-regulation of CCNG2 and CDKN1A in the PRR15-deficient cells. TNFSF10, a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member known to induce apoptosis increased significantly in the PRR15-deficient cells. Migration through a basement membrane matrix decreased and an increased population of apoptotic cells was present when treated with shRNA to target PRR15. These results suggest that PRR15 enhances trophoblast viability and survival during early implantation and placentation.

  8. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Green

    Full Text Available Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies.

  9. Viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei in synbiotic mayonnaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieu, M.D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, whey protein, maltodextrin and GOS (Galacto-oligosaccharides used as microencapsulating agents to protect Lactobacillus casei during spray-drying and mayonnaise storage. The morphology of microcapsules, pH charges, the survival rate during mayonnaise storage as well as survival in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and intestinal fluid (SIF was tested in this study. The results indicated that whey protein showed a protective effect better than maltodextrin during spray-drying. The particles showed spherical shape and typical concavity of all samples and encapsulating agents were not affected by the size and surface structure of particles. The pH charges were not significantly different in all mayonnaise samples in this test. The viability of free cell L. casei after 6 weeks storage was significant decrease about 4 log CFU/g compared to 1.55 to 3.27 log CFU/g in the mayonnaise samples containing microcapsules in which maltodextrin showed the lowest of L. casei survival rate. In SGF and SIF conditions, maltodextrin act as prebiotic sufficiently which do not need adding GOS. The combination of whey protein and maltodextrin in which maltodextrin plays a role as supporting agents for the spray-drying process as well as prebiotic potential, while whey protein with high buffer property which enhancing the survival rate of L. casie in low pH.

  10. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  11. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Macdonald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to having access to the full course via a standard e-learning website. Mobile content was provided in a variety of forms, including text, audio and video files, a mobile multiple-choice quiz website, and links to streaming videos. Study participants who were regular users of mobile phones found the mobile learning materials to be user-friendly, offering increased convenience and flexibility. Use of the mobile content tended to increase as learners spent more time in their day away from locations where Internet-linked computers could be found. Video was found to be the most effective means of presenting content, followed by audio and text. The most promising role of mobile learning appears to be to augment rather than replace e-learning or blended learning.

  12. Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

  13. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  14. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, W.S.; Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  15. Demographic rates and population viability of black bears in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Hooker, Michael J.; Lowe, Carrie L.; O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Troxler, Jesse C.; Davidson, Maria M.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    observed 43 yearling litters for 33 females in the TRB and 21 yearling litters for 19 females in the TRC. The estimated number of cubs and number of yearlings produced per breeding adult female was 0.47 and 0.20, respectively, in the TRB and 0.32 and 0.18 in the TRC. On the basis of matrix projection models, asymptotic growth rates ranged from 1.053 to 1.078 for the TRB and from 1.005 to 1.062 for the TRC, depending on how we treated unresolved fates of adult females. Persistence probabilities estimated from stochastic population models based on telemetry data ranged from 0.997 to 0.998 for the TRC subpopulation depending on model assumptions and were >0.999 for the TRB regardless of model assumptions. We extracted DNA from hair collected at baited, barbed-wire enclosures in the TRB, UARB, and LARB to determine individual identities for capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis. We used those detection histories to estimate apparent survival (φ), per-capita recruitment (f), abundance (N), realized growth rate (λ), and long-term viability, based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods that allowed estimation of temporal process variance and parameter uncertainty. Based on 23,312 hair samples, annual N for females in the TRB ranged from 133 to 164 during 2006–2012, depending on year and how detection heterogeneity was modeled. Geometric mean of λ ranged from 0.996 to 1.002. In the UARB, we collected 11,643 hair samples from 2007 to 2012, from which estimates of N for females ranged from 23 to 43 during the study period, depending on detection heterogeneity model. The geometric mean of λ ranged from 1.038 to 1.059. Estimated N for females in LARB ranged from 69 to 96, and annual λ ranged from 0.80 to 1.11 based on 3,698 hair samples collected during 2010–2012, also depending on year and heterogeneity model. Probabilities of persistence over 100 years for the TRC and TRB based on stochastic matrix projection models that used vital rate estimates from telemetry data were

  16. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  17. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  18. Scaffold Architecture Controls Insulinoma Clustering, Viability, and Insulin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N.; Palmer, Andre F.; Rilo, Horacio R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, in vitro diagnostic tools have shifted focus toward personalized medicine by incorporating patient cells into traditional test beds. These cell-based platforms commonly utilize two-dimensional substrates that lack the ability to support three-dimensional cell structures seen in vivo. As monolayer cell cultures have previously been shown to function differently than cells in vivo, the results of such in vitro tests may not accurately reflect cell response in vivo. It is therefore of interest to determine the relationships between substrate architecture, cell structure, and cell function in 3D cell-based platforms. To investigate the effect of substrate architecture on insulinoma organization and function, insulinomas were seeded onto 2D gelatin substrates and 3D fibrous gelatin scaffolds with three distinct fiber diameters and fiber densities. Cell viability and clustering was assessed at culture days 3, 5, and 7 with baseline insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin production measured at day 7. Small, closely spaced gelatin fibers promoted the formation of large, rounded insulinoma clusters, whereas monolayer organization and large fibers prevented cell clustering and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin production. Taken together, these data show that scaffold properties can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing cells and may be useful as a 3D test bed for diabetes drug development. PMID:24410263

  19. A note on the viability of Gauss-Bonnet cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingangbam, R.; Sami, M.; Tretyakov, P.V.; Toporensky, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the viability of a vacuum Gauss-Bonnet cosmology by examining the dynamics of the homogeneous and anisotropic background in 4+1 dimensions. The trajectories of the system either originate from the standard singularity or from non-standard type, the later is characterized by the divergence of time derivative of the Hubble parameters for its finite value. At the onset, the system should relax to Einstein phase at late times as the effect of Gauss-Bonnet term becomes negligible in the low energy regime. However, we find that most of the trajectories emerging from the standard big-bang singularity lead to future re-collapse whereas the system beginning its evolution from the non-standard singularity enters the Kasner regime at late times. This leads to the conclusion that the measure of trajectories giving rise to a smooth evolution from a standard singularity to the Einstein phase is negligibly small for generic initial conditions

  20. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  1. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue viability monitoring: a multi-sensor wearable platform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Davidson, Alan; Buis, Arjan; Glesk, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient's health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  3. Mobile dental operations: capital budgeting and long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Oscar; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Lester, Harold; Skelton, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The University of Kentucky College of Dentistry (UKCD) runs a large mobile dental operation. Economic conditions dictate that as the mobile units age it will be harder to find donors willing or able to provide the financial resources for asset replacement. In order to maintain current levels of access for the underserved, consideration of replacement is paramount. A financial analysis for a new mobile unit was conducted to determine self-sustainability, return on investment (ROI), and feasibility of generating a cash reserve for its replacement in 12 years. Information on clinical income, operational and replacement costs, and capital costs was collected. A capital budgeting analysis (CBA) was conducted using the Net Present Value (NPV) methodology in four different scenarios. Depreciation funding was calculated by transferring funds from cash inflows and reinvested to offset depreciation at fixed compound interest. A positive ROI was obtained for two scenarios. He depreciation fund did not generate a cash reserve sufficient to replace the mobile unit. Mobile dental programs can play a vital role in providing access to care to underserved populations and ensuring their mission requires long-term planning. Careful financial viability and CBA based on sound assumptions are excellent decision-making tools.

  4. Agronomic viability of New Zealand spinach and kale intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Arthur B; Bianco, Matheus S; Tardivo, Caroline F; Pugina, Gabriel C M

    2017-01-01

    The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture. The spinach TY was influenced by the transplanting time, the earlier the transplanting, the higher the TY. The spinach YH was not influenced by the transplanting time, but rather by the cultivation system. In intercropping, the spinach YH was 13.5% lower than in monoculture. The intercropping was agronomically feasible, since the land use efficiency index, which was not influenced by the transplanting time, had an average value of 1.71, indicating that the intercropping produced 71% more kale and spinach than the same area in monoculture. Competitiveness coefficient, aggressiveness and yield loss values showed that kale is the dominating species and spinach is the dominated.

  5. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  6. More Pitfalls with Sperm Viability Staining and a Viability-Based Stress Test to Characterize Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Eckel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sperm viability (SV, the proportion of live sperm in a sample, is a widely applied measure of sperm quality but few studies test its robustness. At least three reasons make SV problematic as a surrogate for sperm quality. First, reviewing the ecological literature revealed that previously identified methodological pitfalls have not been overcome, including low cross-study standardization of protocols, inadequate statistical treatment, and unaccounted for within-sample heterogeneity. Second, SV is affected by biological variation such as between species, reproductive organs, or sperm age cohorts. Third, the proportion of live sperm extracted from males appears more related to male than to sperm quality in the sense of the future performance of sperm. We propose an alternative method to assess sperm quality by characterizing the temporal decrease of SV in a stressor medium and illustrate in two species, the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster how some common methodological pitfalls may be circumvented. Our data empirically support the well-known but little-considered facts that (i non-blind measurements may alter SV and (ii that SV frequently have non-significant repeatability within one sample. (iii Cross-sectional sampling of ejaculates showed that this heterogeneity even masked a biological pattern—the sperm stratification within males. We show (iv that this shortcoming can be overcome by following the temporal decline of SV of a sperm subsample in a stress test. Finally, (v comparing the staining pattern of sperm between Cimex and Drosophila, we found that in the latter, the visibility of sperm is substantially delayed (30 min when sperm density is high. We show that this delay in stained sperm visibility was, however, not biased toward dead or live sperm. To measure sperm quality, we advocate analyzing the temporal decline in SV in a stressor medium over current protocols that use SV per se and

  7. THE EFFECT OF SEMEN WASHING AND SOYBEAN LECITHIN LEVEL ON MOTILITY AND VIABILITY OF RAM SPERMATOZOA STORED AT 5⁰C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salmin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this reserarch were to study the effect of semen washing and soybean lecithinlevel on the motility and viability of ram spermatozoa stored at 5⁰C. Semen was collected from threemature rams by artificial vagina. Semen was evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic. Semen wasdivided into ten tubes, the semen of first five tubes was unwashed (W0 and diluted with extender 0%,1%, 2%, 3% and 4% soybean lecithin (L0, L1, L2, L3 and L4. Semen of another five tubes werewashed (W1 then each diluted with similar extender levels. The diluted semen samples were stored at5⁰C and the sperm motility and viability were evaluated each day. The interaction of the semen washingand soybean lecithin levels were no significant differences (P>0.05 but the single factor of soybeanlecithin level was significant differeNces (P<0.05 and the single factor of semen washing were nosignificant differences (P>0.05 on progressive motility and viability of ram sperm.The best extenderwas 3% soybean lecithin (L3 with the percentage of ram sperm progressive motility was 63.18 ± 3.61%and viability was 71.76±2.32%.

  8. Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Larson; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus)...

  9. 75 FR 42474 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability; Notice of... Transportation, announces the second meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability, which... recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry and...

  10. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palit, D.; Malhotra, R.; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability

  11. Effect of chlorinated ethene conversion on viability and activity of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E.T.; Koning, Wim de; Janssen, Dick B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of transformation of chlorinated ethenes on the cell viability of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was investigated. A comparison of the loss of viability with the decrease in transformation rates shelved that for the monooxygenase-mediated transformation of all chlorinated ethenes except

  12. The GAN Exonuclease or the Flap Endonuclease Fen1 and RNase HII Are Necessary for Viability of Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Brett W; Cubonova, Lubomira; Heider, Margaret R; Kelman, Zvi; Reeve, John N; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    Many aspects of and factors required for DNA replication are conserved across all three domains of life, but there are some significant differences surrounding lagging-strand synthesis. In Archaea , a 5'-to-3' exonuclease, related to both bacterial RecJ and eukaryotic Cdc45, that associates with the replisome specifically through interactions with GINS was identified and designated GAN (for G INS- a ssociated n uclease). Despite the presence of a well-characterized flap endonuclease (Fen1), it was hypothesized that GAN might participate in primer removal during Okazaki fragment maturation, and as a Cdc45 homologue, GAN might also be a structural component of an archaeal CMG (Cdc45, MCM, and GINS) replication complex. We demonstrate here that, individually, either Fen1 or GAN can be deleted, with no discernible effects on viability and growth. However, deletion of both Fen1 and GAN was not possible, consistent with both enzymes catalyzing the same step in primer removal from Okazaki fragments in vivo RNase HII has also been proposed to participate in primer processing during Okazaki fragment maturation. Strains with both Fen1 and RNase HII deleted grew well. GAN activity is therefore sufficient for viability in the absence of both RNase HII and Fen1, but it was not possible to construct a strain with both RNase HII and GAN deleted. Fen1 alone is therefore insufficient for viability in the absence of both RNase HII and GAN. The ability to delete GAN demonstrates that GAN is not required for the activation or stability of the archaeal MCM replicative helicase. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms used to remove primer sequences from Okazaki fragments during lagging-strand DNA replication differ in the biological domains. Bacteria use the exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I, whereas eukaryotes and archaea encode a flap endonuclease (Fen1) that cleaves displaced primer sequences. RNase HII and the GINS-associated exonuclease GAN have also been hypothesized to assist in primer

  13. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  14. Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondol, Jayanta Deb; Yohanis, Yigzaw G; Norton, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The impact of photovoltaic (PV) array size, orientation, inclination, load profile, electricity buying price, feed-in tariffs, PV/inverter sizing ratio ('sizing ratio') and PV/inverter cost ratio ('cost ratio') on the economic viability of a grid-connected PV system was investigated using a validated TRNSYS simulation model. The results showed that the fractional load met directly by a PV system depends on matching between PV supply and building load profile, sizing ratio and PV inclination. The profitability of a grid-connected PV system increases if the PV system is sized to reduce excess PV electrical energy fed to the grid when the feed-in tariff is lower than electricity buying price. The effect of feed-in tariffs on PV saving for selected European countries has been shown. The cost of the PV electricity depends on sizing ratio, PV and inverter lifetimes, cost ratio, PV inclination and financial parameters. The effect of cost ratio on the optimum PV/inverter sizing ratio is less significant when the cost ratio lies within 7-11. The minimum PV electricity cost at low and high insolation conditions were obtained for sizing ratios of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively. The lowest PV electricity cost was found for surface slopes within 30-40 for the selected European locations. The PV electricity cost for cost ratio of 5 and 13 varied from 0.44-0.85 EURkWh -1 to 0.38-0.76 EURkWh -1 , respectively within high to low insolation conditions when the PV module unit cost, market discount rate, PV size, PV lifetime and inverter lifetime were assumed to be 6.5 EURW p -1 , 3%, 13 kW p , 20 years and 10 years, respectively. (author)

  15. Myocardial viability assessed by Tl-201 SPECT. Redistribution versus reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalela, William Azem; Pimentel, Flavio Ferrarini de Oliveira; Uchida, Augusto Hiroshi; Bottega, Augusto; Ramires, Jose Antonio Franchine; Izaki, Marisa; Moraes, Aguinaldo Pereira; Soares Junior, Jose; Giorgi, Maria C. Pinto; Moffa, Paulo Jorge; Bellotti, Giovanni; Giovanni Guido Cerri; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify if a third series of images acquired by reinjection thallium-201, 24 h after conventional myocardial perfusion with the radioisotope, improves the identification of myocardial viability segments. The methods: we studied 30 patients, mean age 57.7 ±9.4 years, with old myocardial infarction using thallium (Tl)-201 SPECT, and we obtained three series of images (stress, redistribution after 4 h and reinjection after 24 h. Cardiac images were divided in 5 segments (apical, lateral, anterior, septal and inferior) and each one received a value by a score system according to the Tl-201 myocardial uptake (0=normal uptake; 1=mild hypoperfusion; 2=moderate hypoperfusion; 3=severe hypoperfusion or no myocardial uptake). We considered viable myocardium when the uptake of Tl-201 in the segment related to te myocardial infarction increases at least 1 point in two different axis of Tl-201 SPECT. The results: seven (23,3%) patients demonstrated increase of Tl-201 uptake only at reinjection images, showing a high efficacy of the method. Nine (30%) patients showed persistent hypoperfusion at all series of images suggesting only fibrosis in the are related to the infarction. Fourteen (46,7%) patients showed increase of Tl-201 concentration at redistribution images; among these patients, six showed improvement of myocardial uptake at reinjection. This condition was interpreted as regional chronic ischemic process: hibernating myocardium. The conclusion was that Tl-201 hypoperfusion at redistribution images without significant changes in relation to the stress images do not represent fibrosis at all. The reinjection technic was better than conventional redistribution in the detection of viable myocardium. This data allows a better therapeutic orientation. (author)

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus viability drives allergic responses to inhaled conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Croston, Tara L; Lemons, Angela R; Goldsmith, W T; Marshall, Nikki B; Kashon, Michael L; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2018-04-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures). Control mice inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The influence of A. fumigatus conidial germination on the pulmonary immunopathological outcomes was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis of cellular infiltration in the airways, assessment of lung mRNA expression, and quantitative proteomics and histopathology of whole lung tissue. Repeated inhalation of viable conidia, but not HIC, resulted in allergic inflammation marked by vascular remodeling, extensive eosinophilia, and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in the murine airways. More specifically, mice that inhaled viable conidia resulted in a mixed TH1 and TH2 (IL-13) cytokine response. Recruitment of eosinophils corresponded with increased Ccl11 transcripts. Furthermore, genes associated with M2 or alternatively activated macrophage polarization (e.g. Arg1, Chil3 and Retnla) were significantly upregulated in viable A. fumigatus exposed mice. In mice inhaling HIC, CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ (TH1) dominated the lymphocytic infiltration. Quantitative proteomics of the lung revealed metabolic reprogramming accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulated by oxidative stress from repetitive microbial insult. Our studies demonstrate that A. fumigatus conidial viability in vivo is critical to the immunopathological presentation of chronic fungal allergic disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Lancaster

    1999-01-01

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars

  18. A model to determine the economic viability of water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Jeroen; van Wyk, Philippus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In view of concerns expressed by South African local authorities the aim of this study was to develop a model to determine whether water fluoridation is economically viable to reduce dental caries in South Africa. Microsoft Excel software was used to develop a model to determine economic viability of water fluoridation for 17 water providers from all nine South African provinces. Input variables for this model relate to chemical cost, labor cost, maintenance cost of infrastructure, opportunity cost, and capital depreciation. The following output variables were calculated to evaluate the cost of water fluoridation: per capita cost per year, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. In this model it is assumed that the introduction of community water fluoridation can reduce caries prevalence by an additional 15 percent and that the savings in cost of treatment will be equal to the average fee for a two surface restoration. Water providers included in the study serve 53.5 percent of the total population of South Africa. For all providers combined chemical cost contributes 64.5 percent to the total cost, per capita cost per year was $0.36, cost-effectiveness was calculated as $11.41 and cost-benefit of the implementation of water fluoridation was 0.34. This model confirmed that water fluoridation is an economically viable option to prevent dental caries in South African communities, as well as conclusions over the last 10 years that water fluoridation leads to significant cost savings and remains a cost-effective measure for reducing dental caries, even when the caries-preventive effectiveness is modest. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  20. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  1. Molecular assays for determining Mycobacterium leprae viability in tissues of experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Grace L; Ray, Nashone A; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Gillis, Thomas P; Krahenbuhl, James L; Williams, Diana L; Adams, Linda B

    2013-01-01

    The inability of Mycobacterium leprae to grow on axenic media has necessitated specialized techniques in order to determine viability of this organism. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive molecular assay for determining M. leprae viability directly from infected tissues. Two M. leprae-specific quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays based on the expression levels of esxA, encoding the ESAT-6 protein, and hsp18, encoding the heat shock 18 kDa protein, were developed and tested using infected footpad (FP) tissues of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised (athymic nu/nu) mice. In addition, the ability of these assays to detect the effects of anti-leprosy drug treatment on M. leprae viability was determined using rifampin and rifapentine, each at 10 mg/kg for 1, 5, or 20 daily doses, in the athymic nu/nu FP model. Molecular enumeration (RLEP PCR) and viability determinations (qRT-PCR) were performed via Taqman methodology on DNA and RNA, respectively, purified from ethanol-fixed FP tissue and compared with conventional enumeration (microscopic counting of acid fast bacilli) and viability assays (radiorespirometry, viability staining) which utilized bacilli freshly harvested from the contralateral FP. Both molecular and conventional assays demonstrated growth and high viability of M. leprae in nu/nu FPs over a 4 month infection period. In contrast, viability was markedly decreased by 8 weeks in immunocompetent mice. Rifapentine significantly reduced bacterial viability after 5 treatments, whereas rifampin required up to 20 treatments for the same efficacy. Neither drug was effective after a single treatment. In addition, host gene expression was monitored with the same RNA preparations. hsp18 and esxA qRT-PCR are sensitive molecular indicators, reliably detecting viability of M. leprae in tissues without the need for bacterial isolation or immediate processing, making these assays applicable for in vivo drug screening and

  2. Factors affecting culturability, viability, and filterability of Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-eight commercial Washington red wines suspected of Dekkera bruxellensis contamination, determined by winemakers, were donated for this work. Only eight out of 48 wines were confirmed to contain D. bruxellensis by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. Nine strains of D. bruxellensis, one Candida par...

  3. An Exploratory Study on Factors Affecting Private College Non-Viability in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Young

    2017-01-01

    Korean private colleges, especially institutions which depend largely on tuition revenue, are in danger due to the decrease in the college-aged population affecting their student enrollment. Given that private institutions become nonviable at different points in time, this study examines the effects of covariates on the occurrence as well as the…

  4. The perceived influence of financial risk factors on the viability of nurse anesthesia educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sonja J; Martin-Sheridan, Denise

    2002-10-01

    Monetary cutbacks have occurred in the healthcare industry with increasing incidence since the mid-1980s. Attempts at self-preservation through cost-constraint have been instituted by hospitals, Medicare and Medicaid, and private insurance companies. Curtailment of expenditures, as well as reestablishing profit, has taken many forms. These include managed care, mergers, changing profit status, and aggressive competition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether directors of nurse anesthesia programs (NAPs) perceived these items as being detrimental to their NAPs. Data were gathered by descriptive survey design by completing a survey tool. Findings identified directors perceived NAPs at moderate to high risk for closure because of the financial constraints hospitals are experiencing as a result of healthcare reimbursement cutbacks. We found it interesting that many directors were either unaware or considered the hospitals' financial burdens as not impacting their NAP. However, directors who had taken courses or seminars with a focus on issues affecting the financing and reimbursement of healthcare institutions perceived significantly greater risk than those who did not. Potential learning opportunities and strategies to ameliorate risk were identified. Additional education may provide the knowledge and insight to find alternatives to risk, develop strategies, and promote more successful and stable nurse anesthesia educational programs.

  5. A South African public-private partnership HIV treatment model: viability and success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumbor, Jude; Pascoe, Sophie; Rajap, Shuabe; Townsend, Wendy; Sargent, John; Darkoh, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of people requiring HIV treatment in South Africa calls for efficient use of its human resources for health in order to ensure optimum treatment coverage and outcomes. This paper describes an innovative public-private partnership model which uses private sector doctors to treat public sector patients and ascertains the model's ability to maintain treatment outcomes over time. The study used a retrospective design based on the electronic records of patients who were down-referred from government hospitals to selected private general medical practitioners (GPs) between November 2005 and October 2012. In total, 2535 unique patient records from 40 GPs were reviewed. The survival functions for mortality and attrition were calculated. Cumulative incidence of mortality for different time cohorts (defined by year of treatment initiation) was also established. The median number of patients per GP was 143 (IQR: 66-246). At the time of down-referral to private GPs, 13.8% of the patients had CD4 count private sector based programme can be effectively and efficiently used to either target specific health concerns, key populations or serve as a stop-gap measure to meet urgent health needs.

  6. Impact of age and diagnosis on viability during centrifugation and cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civriz Bozdag, S; Bay, M; Ayyıldız, E; Topcuoglu, P; Ilhan, O

    2012-08-01

    The viability of the hematopoietic stem cells infused to the patient is important for transplant outcome. We evaluated 31 peripheral blood stem cell product collected from 15 patients. We aimed to check the viabilities of the cells from patients with different age and diagnosis, in different stages of the cryopreservation procedure. We showed a markedly decreased viability rate after centrifugation and addition of DMSO. Percentages of viabilities were similar between young and old patients in each step. Type of hematological malignancy did not make a significant influence on the viability. High speed centrifugation has a negative impact on the viability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  9. Detecting viability transitions of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H; Chen, P; Fang, H; Lin, L; Tang, G Q; Mu, G G; Gong, W; Liu, Z P; Wu, H; Zhao, H; Han, Z C

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) can be promising candidates for cell-based therapy. Since large population and high viability are generally required, detecting viability transitions of these cells is crucial for their population expansion and quality control. Here, as a non-invasive method, Raman micro-spectroscopy is applied to examine hUC-MSCs with different viability. Using peak fitting and statistic t-test, the Raman peaks with obvious differences between the cells with high viability (> 90%) and low viability ( -1 , symmetric stretching of C–C in lipids at 877 cm -1 and CH deformation in proteins at 1342 cm -1 show the most significant changes (p < 0.001). When the cell viability decreases, the intensities of the former two peaks are both about doubled while that of the latter peak reduces by about 30%. Based on these results, we propose that the viability of hUC-MSCs can be characterized by these three peaks. And their intensity changes can be understood from the model of excessive reactive oxygen species interacting with the bio-macromolecules

  10. Punicalagin and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Rescue Cell Viability and Attenuate Inflammatory Responses of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed to Airborne Particulate Matter PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2018-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of < 10 µm (PM10) causes oxidative damage, inflammation, and premature skin aging. In this study, we evaluated whether polyphenolic antioxidants attenuate the inflammatory responses of PM10-exposed keratinocytes. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed in vitro to PM10 in the absence or presence of punicalagin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which are the major polyphenolic antioxidants found in pomegranate and green tea, respectively. Assays were performed to determine cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of NADPH oxidases (NOX), proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. PM10 decreased cell viability and increased ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. It also increased the expression levels of NOX-1, NOX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1. Punicalagin was not cytotoxic up to 300 μM, and (-)-EGCG was cytotoxic above 30 μM, respectively. Further, punicalagin (3-30 μM) and EGCG (3-10 μM) rescued the viability of PM10-exposed cells. They also attenuated ROS production and the expression of NOX-1, NOX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1 stimulated by PM10. This study demonstrates that polyphenolic antioxidants, such as punicalagin and (-)-EGCG, rescue keratinocyte viability and attenuate the inflammatory responses of these cells due to airborne particles. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Kaempferol nanoparticles achieve strong and selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haitao; Jiang, Bingbing; Li, Bingyun; Li, Zhaoliang; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women throughout the Western world. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has shown promise in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer. A common concern about using dietary supplements for chemoprevention is their bioavailability. Nanoparticles have shown promise in increasing the bioavailability of some chemicals. Here we developed five different types of nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol and tested their efficacy in the inhibition of viability of cancerous and normal ovarian cells. We found that positively charged nanoparticle formulations did not lead to a significant reduction in cancer cell viability, whereas nonionic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability. Among the nonionic polymeric nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol led to significant reduction in cell viability of both cancerous and normal cells. Poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability together with no significant reduction in cell viability of normal cells compared with kaempferol alone. Therefore, both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations were effective in reducing cancer cell viability, while PLGA nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol had selective toxicity against cancer cells and normal cells. A PLGA nanoparticle formulation could be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. On the other hand, PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol were more effective inhibitors of cancer cells, but they also significantly reduced the viability of normal cells. PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol may be suitable as a cancer-targeting strategy, which could limit the effects of the nanoparticles on normal cells while retaining their potency against cancer cells. We

  12. Pancreatic islet-cell viability, functionality and oxidative status ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, drugs, pollution and life style play an important ... Antibiotics seem to have a correlation with diabetes and pancreatic function. ... altogether have a different effect in vitro than what is seen.

  13. Study progress of cardiac MRI technology in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Hao

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most common diseases that cause disability and death around the world. Correctly and effectively assessing the myocardial viability after myocardial infarction can reduce the disabled rate and mortality rate. At present, many methods could be used to assess myocardial viability. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology has a lot of advantages compared to other methods. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of CMR in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction, and compared CMR with other technologies. (authors)

  14. Present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Garcia Barreto, David

    1999-01-01

    The myocardial viability diagnosis is important for those who will undergo myocardial revascularization whether by surgery or coronary angioplasty. Our purpose is to present some of the present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests. Emphasis is made on the estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake and the use of vasodilators in perfusion scintigraphy mainly with technetium-labeled compounds. Also, the current possibilities for a myocardial metabolism study using single-photon emission-computed tomography as well as some clinical implications of myocardial viability are set forth

  15. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

  16. The 11S Proteasomal Activator REGγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation and Motor Neuron Viability through Distinct Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Yersak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR. The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR aggregation and contributed to polyQ-expanded AR toxicity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. These effects of REGγ were independent of its association with the proteasome and may be due, in part, to the decreased binding of polyQ-expanded AR by the E3 ubiquitin-ligase MDM2. Unlike its effects in PC12 cells, REGγ overexpression rescued transgenic SBMA motor neurons from DHT-induced toxicity in a proteasome binding-dependent manner, suggesting that the degradation of a specific 11S proteasome substrate or substrates promotes motor neuron viability. One potential substrate that we found to play a role in mutant AR toxicity is the splicing factor SC35. These studies reveal that, depending on the cellular context, two biological roles for REGγ impact cell viability in the face of polyQ-expanded AR; a proteasome binding-independent mechanism directly promotes mutant AR aggregation while a proteasome binding-dependent mechanism promotes cell viability. The balance between these functions likely determines REGγ effects on polyQ-expanded AR-expressing cells.

  17. Effect of voltage-gated sodium channels blockers on motility and viability of human sperm in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ahmad Gakhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs blockers on the motility and viability of human sperm in-vitro and to evaluate the tested compounds as potential contact spermicidal.Methods: Sperm samples were obtained from healthy nonsmoking volunteers of age 25-30 years who had not taken any drug 3 months before and during the course of the study. The effect of VGSCs blockers evaluated from two pharmacological classes including antiarrhythmic (amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide and antiepileptic (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, and lamotrigine drugs. They were tested on the in-vitro motility and viability of human sperm using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer.Results: All tested drugs except oxcarbazepine showed dose dependent inhibition of total motility with significant reduction (P<0.05 at the maximum concentration of 200 μΜ when compared with the control. The concentrations of drugs that reduced total sperm motility to 50% of control (half maximal inhibitory concentration were 2.76, 14.16 and 20.29 μΜ for phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine, respectively; and 2.53, 5.32 and 0.37 μΜ for amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide, respectively. The anti-motility effects were reversible to various degrees. There was statistically insignificant difference in the inhibition of sperm viability among amiodarone, procainamide and disopyramide. Phenytoin demonstrated the most potent spermicidal action.Conclusions: VGSCs blockers have significant adverse effects on in-vitro motility of human spermatozoa. So in-vivo studies are required to determine their potential toxicological effects on human semen quality, which is an important factor regarding fertility. Moreover, these drugs have the potential to be developed into contact spermicidal.

  18. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Simos, George

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; → Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1α by impairing the MAPK pathway. → Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1α subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1α as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 = 5.16 μM). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1α protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC 50 = 4.75 μM). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 μΜ kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 μM) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  19. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece); Simos, George, E-mail: simos@med.uth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; {yields} Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1{alpha} by impairing the MAPK pathway. {yields} Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1{alpha} subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1{alpha} as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 5.16 {mu}M). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1{alpha} protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC{sub 50} = 4.75 {mu}M). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 {mu}{Mu} kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 {mu}M) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  20. S6Ks isoforms contribute to viability, migration, docetaxel resistance and tumor formation of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Camila L.; Freitas, Lidia B.; Tamura, Rodrigo E.; Tavares, Mariana R.; Pavan, Isadora C. B.; Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Simabuco, Fernando M.

    2016-01-01

    The S6 Kinase (S6K) proteins are some of the main downstream effectors of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) and act as key regulators of protein synthesis and cell growth. S6K is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and is correlated to poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Due to the current urgency to identify factors involved in prostate cancer progression, we aimed to reveal the cellular functions of three S6K isoforms–p70-S6K1, p85-S6K1 and p54-S6K2–in prostate cancer, as well as their potential as therapeutic targets. In this study we performed S6K knockdown and overexpression and investigated its role in prostate cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, viability, migration and resistance to docetaxel treatment. In addition, we measured tumor growth in Nude mice injected with PC3 cells overexpressing S6K isoforms and tested the efficacy of a new available S6K1 inhibitor in vitro. S6Ks overexpression enhanced PC3-luc cell line viability, migration, resistance to docetaxel and tumor formation in Nude mice. Only S6K2 knockdown rendered prostate cancer cells more sensitive to docetaxel. S6K1 inhibitor PF-4708671 was particularly effective for reducing migration and proliferation of PC3 cell line. These findings demonstrate that S6Ks play an important role in prostate cancer progression, enhancing cell viability, migration and chemotherapy resistance, and place both S6K1 and S6K2 as a potential targets in advanced prostate cancer. We also provide evidence that S6K1 inhibitor PF-4708671 may be considered as a potential drug for prostate cancer treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2629-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  1. Fenton mediated ultrasonic disintegration of sludge biomass: Biodegradability studies, energetic assessment, and its economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; IvinShaju, C D; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical disintegration of sludge through ultrasonication demands high energy and cost. Therefore, in the present study, a comprehensive investigation was performed to analyze the potential of a novel method, fenton mediated sonic disintegration (FSD). In FSD process, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of sludge was first removed via fenton treatment. It was subsequently disintegrated via ultrasonication. Energetic assessment and economic analysis were then performed using net energy and cost gain (spent) as key factor to evaluate the practical viability of the FSD process. FSD was found to be superior over sonic disintegration based on its higher sludge solubilization (34.4% vs. 23.2%) and methane production potential (0.3gCOD/gCOD vs. 0.2gCOD/gCOD). Both energy analysis and cost assessment of the present study revealed that FSD could reduce the energy demand of ultrasonication considerably with a positive net profit of about 44.93USD/Ton of sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic viability of geothermal energy usage in comparison to renewable and conventional energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaumann, G.

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive lecture given by Prof. Dr. Gunter Schaumann in Bad Duerkheim, Germany, discusses the use of geothermal energy in relationship to other forms of renewable energy sources and conventional energy technologies used to provide heat, power and motive force. The characteristics of geothermal energy from various sources and examples of its possible use are discussed. In particular, the paper deals with deep geothermal energy, which can provide heating energy for district heating schemes, if necessary with the help of heat pumps. The prospects of such a use of geothermal energy in the next 50 years in various suitable regions in Germany is discussed and the associated prerequisites are listed. The present situation concerning the use of geothermal energy in Germany is examined. An example of a geothermal heating power station that also features a gas-fired combined heat and power installation, a heat pump and a peak-load boiler is given. Also, the generation of electrical power using the Organic Rankine Cycle is discussed. The factors influencing the economic viability of geothermal power stations are discussed in detail and the resulting energy prices are compared with conventional plants. The paper gives details of the calculation of investment and energy costs for heat and power generation and presents figures based on exemplary installations

  3. Viability of dental implants in head and neck irradiated patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen Filho, Edson Virgílio; Tolentino, Elen de Souza; Santos, Paulo Sérgio Silva

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety of dental implants placed in irradiated bone and to discuss their viability when placed post-radiotherapy (RT). A systematic review was performed to answer the questions: "Are dental implants in irradiated bone viable?" and "What are the main factors that influence the loss of implants in irradiated patients?" The search strategy resulted in 8 publications. A total of 331 patients received 1237 implants, with an overall failure rate of 9.53%. The osseointegration success rates ranged between 62.5% and 100%. The optimal time interval between irradiation and dental implantation varied from 6 to 15 months. The interval time between RT and implant placement and the radiation doses are not associated with significant implant failure rates. The placement of implants in irradiated bone is viable, and head and neck RT should not be considered as a contraindication for dental rehabilitation with implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2229-E2240, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effects of beryllium metal particles on the viability and function of cultured rat alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lowther, W.T.; Hoover, M.D.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were exposed in vitro to beryllium metal particles. The particles used were relatively large (Be-II) and small (Be-V) size fractions of beryllium metal obtained from an aerosol cyclone, and a beryllium metal aerosol generated by laser vaporization of beryllium metal in an argon atmosphere (Be-L). Glass beads (GB) were used as a negative control particle. The endpoints examined included cell killing (trypan blue dye exclusion) and phagocytic ability (sheep red blood cell uptake). Phagocytic ability was inhibited by beryllium particles at concentrations that did not cause appreciable cell killing. Results based on the mass concentration of particles in culture medium were transformed by the amount of specific surface area of the particles to permit expression of toxicity on the basis of amount of surface area of particles per unit volume of culture medium. On a mass concentration basis, the order of cytotoxicity was Be-L > Be-V ∼ Be-II > GB; for inhibition of phagacytosis, the cytotoxicity order was Be-L ∼ Be-V > Be-II > GB. On a surface area concentration basis, the order of toxicity for viability was altered to Be-II > Be-L ∼ Be-V (with GB indeterminant) and to Be-V > Be-II ∼ Be-L > GB for inhibition of phagocytosis. We conclude that there are factors in addition to specific surface area that influence the expression of toxic effects in cultured PAM. (author)

  5. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmontel, M.; Humphrey, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 carcasses obtained throughout Florida from 1976–1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate (−0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over 1000 years. The main factors affecting population projections were adult survival and fecundity. A 10% increase in adult mortality would drive the population to extinction over a 1000-year time scale, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. A 10% decrease in reproduction would also result in extinction. We conclude that management must focus on retaining and improving the conditions under which manatee demography operates. The major identified agent of mortality is boat-manatee collisions, and rapidly increasing numbers of humans and registered boats portend an increase in manatee mortality. Zoning of manatee-occupied waters for reductions in boating activity and speed is essential to safeguard the manatee population. If boating regulations being implemented by the state of Florida in each of 13 key coastal counties are completed, enforced, and effective, manatees and human recreation could coexist indefinitely. If regulation is unsuccessful, the Florida manatee population is likely to decline slowly toward extinction.

  6. Age effect on post freezing sperm viability of Bali cattle (Bos javanicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, R. D.; Khalifah, Y.; Widyas, N.; Pramono, A.; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Post freezing sperm viability is one of factors which determine artificial insemination success. In the other side, bull’s or sire age influences the semen quality through sperm membrane constituent. It is known that freezing process change the sperm membrane during the processing stage. This research aims to know the effect of sire age on post freezing sperm viability of Bali cattle. The samples were collected in Singosari Artificial Insemination Centre, Malang, East Java, Indonesia on September - November 2016. Eight Bali cattle (4 and 7 y.o, 4 heads in each group) were used as semen source. Semen was collected using artificial vagina, 10 times spanning for 5 weeks (2 times per week, interval 3 and 4 days) in a row. The samples were then evaluated at fresh, chill and frozen stage. Fresh semen was diluted in Tris-citrate-egg yolk 20% (v/v) followed with chilling and freezing. Semen qualities were observed as sperm % motility (MOT), % live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining (EOS) and % sperm membrane integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Variable comparisons between age groups were done using t-test. On the average, 4 y.o bulls showed higher semen quality at fresh, chill and frozen compared to 7 y.o in MOT (68.00±6.39 vs 65.9±7.62 56.40±3.71 vs 54.33±5.83 44.25±3.52 vs 40.40±7.06), EOS (72.08±6.63 vs 71.82±7.38 57.81±3.83 vs 57.41±6.32 53.16 ±8.41 vs 46.49±9.13) and HOS (60.85±13.91 vs 54.84±13.43 53.16 ±8.41 vs 46.49±9.13 44.6±9.39 vs 33.8±10.70) respectively. Statistical analysis results showed that age was significantly (PBali cattle (4 y.o) have more viable post freezing sperm compared to the older ones (7 y.o).

  7. Population Viability of Avian Endangered Species: the PVAvES Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melton, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... The program is designed to assess the viability of endangered bird species populations on U.S. Army lands. It also facilitates the comparison of alternative ecological scenarios based on different assumptions about the effects of natural or human...

  8. Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philippi, Therese M

    2002-01-01

    The DoD Defense Production (DPA) Act Title III program sponsored this project in response to a critical supply base issue with the objective of strengthening the supplier base to ensure it's future viability...

  9. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  10. NPP Cernavoda unit 2 economic viability: The challenge for an advanced financing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condu, M.; Popescu, D.

    1999-01-01

    The completion of Cernavoda Unit-2 being no doubt, the viability of the project was analyzed and strengthened. Economic justification of the decision to complete Unit-2 is described, including assessment of its safety design guides, design requirements and engineering design solutions in the light of changes in codes, guideline, standards and actual regulatory requirements. Cost-benefit analysis demonstrates the economic viability of the project

  11. Determination of Complement-Mediated Killing of Bacteria by Viability Staining and Bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Virta, Marko; Lineri, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Pasi; Karp, Matti; Peltonen, Karita; Nuutila, Jari; Lilius, Esa-Matti

    1998-01-01

    Complement-mediated killing of bacteria was monitored by flow cytometric, luminometric, and conventional plate counting methods. A flow cytometric determination of bacterial viability was carried out by using dual staining with a LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. In addition to the viable cell population, several other populations emerged in the fluorescence histogram, and there was a dramatic decrease in the total cell count in the light-scattering histogram in the course of the co...

  12. The Effect of Method and Germination Paper Substrate on Viability of Eucalyptus Pellita F. Mull Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti, Naning; Megawati, Megawati; Leksono, Budi

    2017-01-01

    Improper seed handling of Eucalyptus pellita will reduce seed quality, so as to improve the viability of the seed proper handling techniques are needed. To investigate the seed germination potency as a result of seed handling germination seed tests are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of germination method and paper substrate on the viability of E. pellita seeds. Seeds used in this study were from seedling seed orchard in South Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Riau. ...

  13. Hospital board effectiveness: relationships between board training and hospital financial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, C; Morlock, L; Alexander, J; Lyles, C A

    1992-01-01

    This study examined whether hospital governing boards that invest in board education and training are more informed and effective decision-making bodies. Measures of hospital financial viability (i.e., selected financial ratios and outcomes) are used as indicators of hospital board effectiveness. Board participation in educational programs was significantly associated with improved profitability, liquidity, and occupancy levels, suggesting that investment in the education of directors is likely to enhance hospital viability and thus increase board effectiveness.

  14. ATM Is Required for the Prolactin-Induced HSP90-Mediated Increase in Cellular Viability and Clonogenic Growth After DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayazi Atici, Ödül; Urbanska, Anna; Gopinathan, Sesha Gopal; Boutillon, Florence; Goffin, Vincent; Shemanko, Carrie S

    2018-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) acts as a survival factor for breast cancer cells, but the PRL signaling pathway and the mechanism are unknown. Previously, we identified the master chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) α, as a prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) target gene involved in survival, and here we investigated the role of HSP90 in the mechanism of PRL-induced viability in response to DNA damage. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) protein plays a critical role in the cellular response to double-strand DNA damage. We observed that PRL increased viability of breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin or etoposide. The increase in cellular resistance is specific to the PRL receptor, because the PRL receptor antagonist, Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, prevented the increase in viability. Two different HSP90 inhibitors, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and BIIB021, reduced the PRL-mediated increase in cell viability of doxorubicin-treated cells and led to a decrease in JAK2, ATM, and phosphorylated ATM protein levels. Inhibitors of JAK2 (G6) and ATM (KU55933) abolished the PRL-mediated increase in cell viability of DNA-damaged cells, supporting the involvement of each, as well as the crosstalk of ATM with the PRL pathway in the context of DNA damage. Drug synergism was detected between the ATM inhibitor (KU55933) and doxorubicin and between the HSP90 inhibitor (BIIB021) and doxorubicin. Short interfering RNA directed against ATM prevented the PRL-mediated increase in cell survival in two-dimensional cell culture, three-dimensional collagen gel cultures, and clonogenic cell survival, after doxorubicin treatment. Our results indicate that ATM contributes to the PRL-JAK2-STAT5-HSP90 pathway in mediating cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  15. Pancreatic islet-cell viability, functionality and oxidative status ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, drugs, pollution and life style play an important role in the progression and/or precipitation of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disorders. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics to combat infectious diseases is one of the commonest forms of ...

  16. The Effect of Histone Hyperacetylation on Viability of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Rahimian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Basal-Like breast cancer, is always known for lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and as well, absence of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 gene amplification. Improper expression pattern of ER, PR, and Her2, makes Basal-Like breast tumors resistant to the current hormonal and anti HER2 treatments. In recent decades, several studies have been conducted to investigate the regulatory role of chemical modifications of core histones in gene expression. Their results have shown that histone acetylation is involved in regulation of cell survival. Acetylation of core histones is regulated by the epigenetic-modifying enzymes named Histone Deacetylases (HDACs. As a new approach to control the viability of breast tumor cells resistant to the hormonal and anti-HER2 treatments, we have targeted the HDACs. Using Trichostatin A (TSA as a known HDACs inhibitor, we have tried to hyperacetylate the core histones of MDA-MB-231 cells as an in vitro model of Basal-Like breast tumors. Then we have investigated the effect of histone hyperacetylation on viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and were incubated at 37°C, in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 atmosphere. Then cells were treated with different concentrations of TSA including: 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 nM or control (1% DMSO. After 24 and 48 hours, viability of cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Results After 24 and 48h exposure to different concentrations of TSA, MDA-MB-231 cells showed a maximum tolerable dose. At higher concentrations, TSA decreased the percentage of cell viability through a time-dose dependent manner. IC50 value for 48h treatment was 600 nM. Conclusions Our results indicate that HDACs inhibition and subsequently hyperacetylation of histones, leads to cytotoxic effects on breast tumor cells resistant to the current treatments. Following

  17. Noninvasive Real-Time Assessment of Cell Viability in a Three-Dimensional Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Seyed Hossein; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Doryab, Ali; Safiabadi-Tali, Seyed Hamid; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2018-04-01

    Maintaining cell viability within 3D tissue engineering scaffolds is an essential step toward a functional tissue or organ. Assessment of cell viability in 3D scaffolds is necessary to control and optimize tissue culture process. Monitoring systems based on respiration activity of cells (e.g., oxygen consumption) have been used in various cell cultures. In this research, an online monitoring system based on respiration activity was developed to monitor cell viability within acellular lung scaffolds. First, acellular lung scaffolds were recellularized with human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells, and then, cell viability was monitored during a 5-day period. The real-time monitoring system generated a cell growth profile representing invaluable information on cell viability and proliferative states during the culture period. The cell growth profile obtained by the monitoring system was consistent with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide analysis and glucose consumption measurement. This system provided a means for noninvasive, real-time, and repetitive investigation of cell viability. Also, we showed the applicability of this monitoring system by introducing shaking as an operating parameter in a long-term culture.

  18. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk products during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighswonger, B D; Brashears, M M; Gilliland, S E

    1996-02-01

    The viability was investigated of five strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and one strain of Lactobacillus casei that were added as adjuncts to yogurt and cultured buttermilk during 28 d of refrigerated storage at 5 to 7 degrees C. A modification of LBS (Lactobacillus selection) agar was used for the enumeration of L. acidophilus and L. casei. The medium allowed the colony formation of the adjunct bacteria while preventing colony formation of the traditional yogurt or buttermilk starter cultures. At each sampling period, colonies from the selective agar medium were isolated for confirmation of identity to confirm that only L. acidophilus and L. casei were enumerated, that their characteristics did not change during storage, or both. The strains of L. acidophilus varied in both cultured products. In buttermilk, L. acidophilus MUH-41, O-16, and L-1 exhibited no significant loss in viability, but strains 43121 and La-5 did. No significant loss in viability of L. acidophilus MUH-41 and L-1 occurred in yogurt prepared using culture CM2; however, strains 43121, O-16, and La-5 lost viability. In the yogurt prepared using culture YC-4, L. acidophilus 43121 exhibited no significant loss in viability, but MUH-41, O-16, L-1, and La-5 did. There was no loss in viability of L. casei GG during storage of any of the cultured products.

  19. Towards risk stratification in systemic atherosclerosis: value of myocardial function and viability imaging as an adjunct to MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Achim; Fenchel, Michael; Kramer, Ulrich; Bretschneider, Christiane; Grimm, Florian; Klumpp, Bernhard; Claussen, Claus D.; Miller, Stephan [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Scheule, Albertus [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department for Thorax, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Tuebingen (Germany); Balletshofer, Bernd [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    To longitudinally assess the value of cardiac functional and viability imaging as a supplement to MR angiography in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Cardiac MRI was performed in 195 consecutive patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Of these, 186 patients were followed for 22 {+-} 5 months for the presence of cardiac events (cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and hospitalisation as a result of congestive heart failure). Myocardial viability imaging showed a high prevalence of known (n = 31) and occult myocardial infarctions (MI) (n = 26). Cardiac events occurred more often in patients with reduced ventricular function (ejection fraction (EF) less than 40%, cardiac event in 4/8 patients; EF 40-55%, cardiac event in 10/40 patients; EF greater than 55%, cardiac event in 15/138 patients) as well as in patients with occult MI (8/25 patients) and known MI (11/30 patients). In patients with normal function, the detection of a previous MI was of high relevance to prognosis. Both reduced EF and the presence of MI influence patients' prognoses. Performing cardiac MRI in this patient population may influence further patient management including intensified risk factor intervention. (orig.)

  20. Towards risk stratification in systemic atherosclerosis: value of myocardial function and viability imaging as an adjunct to MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, Achim; Fenchel, Michael; Kramer, Ulrich; Bretschneider, Christiane; Grimm, Florian; Klumpp, Bernhard; Claussen, Claus D.; Miller, Stephan; Scheule, Albertus; Balletshofer, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    To longitudinally assess the value of cardiac functional and viability imaging as a supplement to MR angiography in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Cardiac MRI was performed in 195 consecutive patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Of these, 186 patients were followed for 22 ± 5 months for the presence of cardiac events (cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and hospitalisation as a result of congestive heart failure). Myocardial viability imaging showed a high prevalence of known (n = 31) and occult myocardial infarctions (MI) (n = 26). Cardiac events occurred more often in patients with reduced ventricular function (ejection fraction (EF) less than 40%, cardiac event in 4/8 patients; EF 40-55%, cardiac event in 10/40 patients; EF greater than 55%, cardiac event in 15/138 patients) as well as in patients with occult MI (8/25 patients) and known MI (11/30 patients). In patients with normal function, the detection of a previous MI was of high relevance to prognosis. Both reduced EF and the presence of MI influence patients' prognoses. Performing cardiac MRI in this patient population may influence further patient management including intensified risk factor intervention. (orig.)

  1. Aerobic kinetoplastid flagellate Phytomonas does not require heme for viability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořený, Luděk; Sobotka, Roman; Kovářová, Julie; Gnipová, Anna; Flegontov, Pavel; Horváth, A.; Oborník, Miroslav; Ayala, F. J.; Lukeš, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 10 (2012), s. 3808-3813 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA ČR GA206/08/1423; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cytochromes * respiration * sterols * protist Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012 http://www.pnas.org/content/109/10/3808.full.pdf+html

  2. Examination of viability and quality of ovarian tissue after cryopreservation using simple laboratory methods in ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerin Jean F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study is to assess viability tests and to evaluate follicle ovarian tissue quality after freezing-thawing procedures. Methods Ewe's ovaries were harvested at the slaughterhouse, after dissection each ovarian specimen was divided into two groups: fresh tissue (control group and frozen tissue. In the first part of the study, the follicles viability was assessed by trypan blue staining, calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining (LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, Molecular Probes and morphology in the two groups. In the second part of the study the quality of the whole ovarian tissue was evaluated by the quantification of the release of lactate dehydrogenase measurement (Cytotoxicity Detection kit ROCHE, DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL in primordial and primary follicles (ApopDETEK Kit system Enzo and morphology in the two groups. 100 Follicles (primordial and primary were counted on both fresh and frozen hemiovary to assess this various tests. Results Ovarian follicle viability assessment was similar using trypan blue or calcein/ethidium staining. Follicles showed a decreased viability after freezing-thawing. After cryopreservation, a significant correlation between the percentage of normal follicles and viability rate was found using trypan blue (r = 0.82, p Conclusion We suggest the use of trypan blue staining for the histological assessment of viability, the use of LDH assay for the cytotoxicity assessement and finally the use of DNA fragmentation assessment to valid different freezing-thawing protocols.

  3. Firm value creation and viability between product and process innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fedele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and characteristics of the innovation process have undergone changes throughout the history of industrial capitalism. In the contest of an emerging systemic complexity, technological innovation is able to generate a positive impact on the economic performances of companies by improving their internal efficiency, which allows to increase the market competitiveness. Innovation is, in fact, the leverage to gain competitive advantages that are the source of value creation and sustainable growth, to preserve and celebrate as one of the key components of the intangible assets of companies. Starting from Schumpeter's process of creative destruction, which considers innovation as “the engine of economic development” and “a continuous process of change and accumulation of knowledge”. The paper analyzes the variables at the center of innovation studies, the innovative approach and the impact of technological positioning as early-mover or follower in the market. Peculiarities will be described related to the definition of the project portfolio mix, the process of designing and developing of a new product, as well as the relationship between innovation and competitive advantage. Further attention will be placed on the targets of innovation and on the factors, objective and context, which hinder the willingness by the entrepreneur to „break‟ the stationary balance by introducing new combinations production factors as an essential condition for the maintenance of competitive advantage and the creation of value. The research approach is based on a qualitative methodology. The data retrieval was carried out through secondary sources.

  4. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  5. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on viability of isolated Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Bornman, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of viability as measured by vital straining with fluorescein diacetate were carried out on freshly isolated and partially aged (16-hour-old) Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare mesophyll protoplasts following irradiation with UV-B. Damage to the photosynthetic system by UV-B was determined by delayed light emission (DLE). In the case of freshly isolated Protoplasts Beta was approximately 30% more susceptible than Hordeum following 3h irradiation, with viability decreasing from 90% to 40%. After storage of protoplasts on ice for 16 h UV-B radiation markedly depressed viability in both species, but in the case of Hordeum there was a substantial initial loss of nearly 70% in viability over the first hour of irradiation. The first 10 min of UV-B radiation decreased the intensity of DLE by 40% without appreciably affecting the decay rate. Longer treatment times did not give a proportional effect so that even after 60 min of UV-B the inhibition did not exceed 60%. This suggested that although the enzyme system responsible for FDA hydrolysis may be partially inactivated (viability was 75-80% as compared with 90% in the control), the UV-B did not penetrate the innermost parts of the chloroplasts, but left some thylakoids undamaged. (orig.)

  7. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of myocardial perfusion and metabolism for assessment of myocardial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.

    1996-01-01

    Identifying preserved myocardial viability in the presence of severe regional left ventricular dysfunction is becoming increasingly more important for clinical decision-making to better select those patients with coronary artery disease who will benefit most from revascularization. 201 Tl remains the most commonly employed radionuclide for detecting both ischemia and viability. A severe persistent defect with 201 Tl uptake compared to peak to improved perfusion and corresponding improved function after revascularisation. Detection of defect reversibility on 201 Tl imaging is enhanced by 'reinjection' of a second 201 Tl dose after acquisition of redistribution images. Initial and 4-hour rest/redistribution imaging has proven most usefull for detection of viability in the resting state in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The greater the extent of preoperative viability, the greater is the improvement in regional and global function after revascularisation. 99 Tc sestamibi has also been demonstrated to be extracted by myocardial cells in proportion to regional blood flow in the presence of viable myocities. Although this agrnt does not redistribute after intravenous injection, its >50% uptake of the tracer implies viablility and predicts improved regional function after revascularisation. Finally positron emission tomography with 18 F fluorodeoxoglucose (FDG) is perhaps the most sensitive noninvasive imaging technique for detection of viability in stunned or hibernating myocardium. A mismatch pattern between regional flow and FDG uptake as approximately an 80-85% positive preicted value for predicting improved function in asynergic myocardial regions after revascualarisation

  9. Encapsulation in alginate-skim milk microspheres improves viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in stimulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Xia; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Yu, Zhen; Xin, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Lu-E; Tang, Zhen-Xing

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) was encapsulated in alginate-skim milk microspheres. Characteristics of encapsulated L. bulgaricus, such as pH stability, bile stability, storage stability and release property, were studied in this paper. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was not observed after 1 min in simulated gastric fluids (SGF) at pH 2.5 or 2.0. Compared with that of free L. bulgaricus, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus only decreased 0.7 log CFU/g and 2 log CFU/g after 2.0 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.5 and pH 2.0, respectively. L. bulgaricus was also sensitive to bile solution. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was fully lost after 1 h incubation in 1 and 2% bile solution, while the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus was only lost 2 log CFU/g and 2.6 log CFU/g in 1 and 2% bile solution at the same time, respectively. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus could be completely released from microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) within 2 h. The viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained around 8 log CFU/g when stored at 4°C for 30 days. The current encapsulation technique enables a large proportion of L. bulgaricus to remain good bioactive in a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment.

  10. Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qingyu; Kou, Dongquan; Ying, Xiaozhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Yu, Ziming; Peng, Lei; Lu, Chuanzhu

    2013-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.

  11. Prolonging the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum through the addition of prebiotics into the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2011-08-01

    This article reports on the effects of prebiotics on the growth/death kinetics, metabolism, and biomass production by 2 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (c19 and DSMZ 2601, isolated from table olives and purchased from a Public Collection, respectively). The research was divided into 3 different steps, in order to highlight the optimal combination for cell viability and experiments were performed under the conditions of an accelerated shelf life test; thus, 3 combinations were pointed out (fructooligosaccharides [FOS], 5 g/L; glucose + inulin, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L; glucose + FOS, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L). A sample containing only glucose was used as control. The results highlighted that the 3 combinations aforementioned prolonged cell viability over the time both under low and high inoculum conditions (3 and 9 log CFU/mL, respectively); however, FOS alone caused a reduction of biomass production, even if cell number was not affected by this compound. Therefore, as a final result of this research, the combination glucose + FOS could be proposed as a suitable mean to achieve an optimal production of biomass and prolong cell viability over the time. Food producers require a prolonged viability of probiotic bacteria in functional foods; this goal is usually achieved by refrigeration. In this article, the prolongation of cell viability through the addition of prebiotics was proposed. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Mechanism of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress regulating viability and biocontrol ability of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2015-01-16

    The use of antagonistic yeasts to control postharvest pathogens is a promising alternative to fungicides. The effectiveness of the antagonists against fungal pathogens is greatly dependent on their viability, which is usually mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effects of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula glutinis and, using flow cytometric analysis, observed the changes of ROS accumulation and apoptosis in the yeast cells with or without H₂O₂ treatment. We found that the viability of R. glutinis decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress. Compared to the control, yeast cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited more accumulation of ROS and higher levels of protein oxidative damage, but showed lower efficacy for biocontrol of Penicillium expansum causing blue mold rot on peach fruit. The results indicate that apoptosis is a main cause of the cell viability loss in R. glutinis, which is attributed to ROS accumulation under oxidative stress. These findings offer a plausible explanation that oxidative stress affects biocontrol efficacy of R. glutinis via regulating its viability and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards an understanding of the influence of national culture on organisational viability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awuzie Bankole O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Viability connotes a system’s ability to become ultra-stable through effective self-regulation of its internal processes and information processing among its subsystems. Applying this to an infrastructure delivery system (IDS context, this study proposes that an IDS can successfully deliver on client requirements only if they attain and maintain viability. Research into the influence of National Culture (NC on an IDS’s viability appears to be lacking; hence this study. Adopting a multi-case study, qualitative research design, this study explores three IDSs involved in the delivery of infrastructure projects in two different NC contexts; Nigeria and the United Kingdom. 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted across the cases to provide for an in-depth understanding of existing interactions between participants in these delivery systems: client/project sponsor; main contractor and sub-contractors and to understand the influence of the prevailing national culture on such interactions, if any. Findings indicate that NC in project delivery environments influence the ability of IDSs to attain viability, especially as it pertains to the sustenance of Team Quality Attributes (TWQ within the system. Based on these findings, it is expected that in modelling IDSs for viability, adequate consideration should be given to the prevailing NC by project managers and planners.

  14. Detection of viability by percent thallium uptake with conventional thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kamon; Araki, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Kou-ichi; Yumikura, Sei; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Kan-matsuse, Katsuo; Hagiwara, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Thallium myocardial scintigraphy (TMS) is used for diagnosis of viability in infarcted myocardium before coronary revascularization. Underestimation of viability by TMS has been reported by many investigators. To evaluate viability precisely, thallium re-injection method or 24 hour delayed imaging is performed. However, these techniques are not convenient and are difficult to perform in clinical practice. Percent T1-uptake method was developed for predicting myocardial viability. To evaluate usefulness of this method, TMS was performed before and after PTCA in 23 patients with myocardial infarction. Left ventricle was divided into 3 layers, then each layer was divided into 4 segments (12 segments in total). Forth three segments showed recovery of perfusion on TMS after PTCA. Viability in infarcted myocardium is predicted by 1) redistribution (RD), 2) %T1-uptake≥45% on the image immediately after exercise (TE), and 3) %T1-uptake≥45% on delayed image (TD). Sensitivity was RD: 60%, TE: 90% and TD: 95% (p<0.001 vs. RD). Specificity was RD: 74%, TE: 68%, and TD: 60% (NS). Predictive accuracy (PA) was RD: 69%, TE: 77%, TD: 73% (NS). Compared with RD, %T1-uptake, either TE or TD, increased sensitivity with slightly improved PA, but decreased specificity slightly. Therefore %T1-uptake would be a sensitive and useful predictor to find patients who are most likely to benefit from re-vascularization. (author)

  15. The Viability of the Lactobacillus Rhamnosus IL4.2 Strain in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability maintenance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IL4.2 strain in gastrointestinal conditions represents one of the most important characteristics regarding its use for obtaining probiotic products. The tests were performed with a cell suspension kept in 0.5% NaCl. The influence of pepsin (3 g/l at pH of 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3, as well as of pancreatin (1 g/l in the presence of bile salts (1.5, 2, 3 and 5 mg/ml were determined. The influence of casein and mucin, in a concentration of 1 g/l, was also established in the aforementioned conditions. It was observed that mucin presented a longer viability maintenance, fact also confirmed by the calculation of the mathematical parameters of viability and mortality, when mucin was either used or not, especially in the case of gastric transit. The results proved that the tested strain maintained its viability even at pH between 1.8 - 2 and at an even higher concentration, of 2 mg/ml of bile salts, but up to two hours as of the exposure to the conditions of the simulated small intestinal juice. Such results were also confirmed by the cumulated effect of the simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, the strain thus increasing its viability with an average of 10% in the presence of mucin.

  16. Space mutagenic effects on cistanche deserticola seed viability and parasitic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rong; Zhou Feng; Yu Jing; Chen Jun; Sun Suqin; Liu Yougang; Liu Tongning

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Cistanche deserticola which from a single plant with fine properties were carried to the space by the recoverable experiment satellite 'Shijian No.8'. After space loading, the seed viability and characters of infrared spectroscopy were analyzed and then planted to observe and investigate the variation and heredity. The results showed that compared to the control group, the seed viability and germination rate increased observably after space loading. As well, the plants grew much healthier at the seedling stage. The results indicated that space loading has obvious promote effects on the seed viability, germination rate and disease resistance of Cistanche deserticola. The analysis results of infrared spectroscopy showed the contents of protein and carbohydrate were increased distinctly and the contents of oil or fat reduced somewhat in the seeds after space loading. The intensity ratio between characteristic absorption peak of protein and characteristic absorption peak of fat (I 1625 /I 1745 ) were increased from 1.07 to 1.16, which could be related to the enhancement of seed viability and the reduction of germination restraint substances. It could be concluded that microgravity and intense radiation in the space caused seed viability and material metabolism change. (authors)

  17. Sirtuin-1 regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and supports cancer cell viability in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Elke; Sanchez-Arévalo Lobo, Victor J; Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Herranz, Daniel; Wu, Jianmin; Cowley, Mark J; Colvin, Emily K; Njicop, Erna Ngwayi; Sutherland, Rob L; Liu, Tao; Serrano, Manuel; Bouwens, Luc; Real, Francisco X; Biankin, Andrew V; Rooman, Ilse

    2013-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), as in the case of pancreatitis where precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can arise. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis with dual roles depending on its subcellular localization. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of Sirt1 in different stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, i.e. ADM models and established PDAC. In addition, we analyzed the expression of KIAA1967, a key mediator of Sirt1 function, along with potential Sirt1 downstream targets. Sirt1 was co-expressed with KIAA1967 in the nuclei of normal pancreatic acinar cells. In ADM, Sirt1 underwent a transient nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling. Experiments where during ADM, we enforced repression of Sirt1 shuttling, inhibition of Sirt1 activity or modulation of its expression, all underscore that the temporary decrease of nuclear and increase of cytoplasmic Sirt1 stimulate ADM. Our results further underscore that important transcriptional regulators of acinar differentiation, that is, Pancreatic transcription factor-1a and β-catenin can be deacetylated by Sirt1. Inhibition of Sirt1 is effective in suppression of ADM and in reducing cell viability in established PDAC tumors. KIAA1967 expression is differentially downregulated in PDAC and impacts on the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the Sirt1/2 inhibitor Tenovin-6. In PDAC, acetylation of β-catenin is not affected, unlike p53, a well-characterized Sirt1-regulated protein in tumor cells. Our results reveal that Sirt1 is an important regulator and potential therapeutic target in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ©2012 AACR.

  18. Autocrine VEGF-VEGFR2-Neuropilin-1 signaling promotes glioma stem-like cell viability and tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Petra; Lathia, Justin D; Rasmussen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is traditionally regarded as an endothelial cell protein, evidence suggests that VEGFRs may be expressed by cancer cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer characterized by florid vascularization and aberrantly...... elevated VEGF. Antiangiogenic therapy with the humanized VEGF antibody bevacizumab reduces GBM tumor growth; however, the clinical benefits are transient and invariably followed by tumor recurrence. In this study, we show that VEGFR2 is preferentially expressed on the cell surface of the CD133(+) human......, which is associated with VEGFR2-NRP1 recycling and a pool of active VEGFR2 within a cytosolic compartment of a subset of human GBM cells. Whereas bevacizumab failed to inhibit prosurvival effects of VEGFR2-mediated signaling, GSC viability under unperturbed or radiation-evoked stress conditions...

  19. Viability of Controlling Prosthetic Hand Utilizing Electroencephalograph (EEG) Dataset Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Raihan Mazlan, Mohd; Mohd Haziq Azhar, Satria; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the development of an artificial hand controlled by Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal datasets for the prosthetic application. The EEG signal datasets were used as to improvise the way to control the prosthetic hand compared to the Electromyograph (EMG). The EMG has disadvantages to a person, who has not used the muscle for a long time and also to person with degenerative issues due to age factor. Thus, the EEG datasets found to be an alternative for EMG. The datasets used in this work were taken from Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Project. The datasets were already classified for open, close and combined movement operations. It served the purpose as an input to control the prosthetic hand by using an Interface system between Microsoft Visual Studio and Arduino. The obtained results reveal the prosthetic hand to be more efficient and faster in response to the EEG datasets with an additional LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery attached to the prosthetic. Some limitations were also identified in terms of the hand movements, weight of the prosthetic, and the suggestions to improve were concluded in this paper. Overall, the objective of this paper were achieved when the prosthetic hand found to be feasible in operation utilizing the EEG datasets.

  20. The Viability of the “Responsibility to Prevent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Hehir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of the Responsibility to Prevent suffers from two key problems; causal indeterminacy, and a dependence on the political will of states, particularly the permanent five members of the Security Council. The vast array of factors which can be cited as potentially contributing to the outbreak of conflict and atrocity crimes mitigates against the determination of definite “conflict triggers”. This does not mean prevention is impossible but does limit the efficacy of “early warning systems”. The dynamics of the “four crimes” within R2P’s purview further limits the efficacy of prevention as the decision to engage in mass atrocities is taken in response to a perceived existential crisis. This significantly limits the scope for leveraging the “internal” aspect of R2P as the decision to commit these acts is invariably born from a belief that no other option is available to the potential aggressors. Thus the specifics of atrocity crime prevention places great emphasis on the operationalisation of the external dimension of R2P, namely the role of the international community. So long as the response of the “international community” is predicated on the political will of states, however, the efficacy of prevention in these areas will be limited, as the “international” response is prey to narrowly defined national interests.

  1. Economic viability and commercial experience with shihoro potato irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.

    1985-01-01

    A commercial potato irradiation plant was established in 1973 at Shihoro in Hokkaido, Japan, with a capacity of about 10,000 tons per month using large baskets containing 1.5 tons of potatoes. For twelve seasons potatoes have been irradiated and marketed by the plant. The paper will discuss the experience with the Shihoro potato irradiator from the technical and economic viewpoints. From the technical viewpoint, the following are the main factors that have contributed to the success of potato irradiation. First, the Japanese government initiated research on food irradiation as a national project and provided financial support. Second, the presence of the Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association which handles a large amount of potatoes; and third, the mock-up test for the conceptual design of irradiation was conducted using large baskets for storage and transportation. The cost of the irradiation plant was about 389 million yen, of which 253 million yen was provided by the government. The irradiation plant processes about 15,000 tons of potatoes a year and the costs are 2,000 to 4,500 yen per ton. This accounts for 2 to 3% of the potato price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price fluctuations during the off-season

  2. Assessing Technical and Programmatic Viability of Nuclear Waste and Material Stream Disposition Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. S. Hill; B. Griebenow

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) has responsibility for cleanup and disposition of nuclear wastes and excess materials that are a legacy of the nuclear arms race. In fulfilling this responsibility, EM applies a systems engineering approach to identify baseline disposition plans for the wastes and materials (storage, stabilization, treatment, and disposal), assess the path viability, and develop integration opportunities to improve the disposition viability or to combine, eliminate, and/or simplify activities, technologies, and facilities across the DOE Complex, evaluate the baseline and alternatives to make informed decisions, and implement and track selected opportunities. This paper focuses on processes used to assess the disposition path viability - the likelihood that current planning for disposition of nuclear waste and materials can be implemented

  3. Influence of electrospun scaffolds prepared from distinct polymers on proliferation and viability of endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, V. G., E-mail: matveeva-vg@mail.ru; Antonova, L. V., E-mail: antonova.la@mail.ru; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, 650002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    We compared electrospun nonwoven scaffolds from polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PHBV/PCL). The surface of PHBV/PCL and PCL scaffolds was highly porous and consisted of randomly distributed fibers, whilst the surface of PLA scaffolds consisted of thin straight fibers, which located more sparsely, forming large pores. Culture of EA.hy 926 endothelial cells on these scaffolds during 7 days and further fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the surface of PHBV/PCL scaffolds was most favorable for efficient adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. The lowest proliferation rate and cell viability were detected on PLA scaffolds. Therefore, PHBV/PCL electrospun nonwoven scaffolds demonstrated the best results regarding endothelial cell proliferation and viability as compared to PCL and PLA scaffolds.

  4. Efficacy of propidium iodide and FUN-1 stains for assessing viability in basidiospores of Rhizopogon roseolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Elena; Majada, Juan; Casares, Abelardo

    2017-01-01

    The use of spores in applications of ectomycorrhizal fungi requires information regarding spore viability and germination, especially in genera such as Rhizopogon with high rates of spore dormancy. The authors developed a protocol to assess spore viability of Rhizopogon roseolus using four vital stains to quantify spore viability and germination and to optimize storage procedures. They showed that propidium iodide is an excellent stain for quantifying nonviable spores. Observing red fluorescent intravacuolar structures following staining with 2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide (FUN-1) can help identify viable spores that are activated. At 6 mo and 1 y, the spores kept in a water suspension survived better than those left within intact, dry gasterocarps. Our work highlights the importance of temperature, nutrients, and vitamins for maturation and germination of spores of R. roseolus during 1 y of storage.

  5. Study of wettability and cell viability of H implanted stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Ahmad, Riaz; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of hydrogen ion implantation on surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel is investigated. Hydrogen ions are implanted in the near-surface of stainless steel to facilitate hydrogen bonding at different doses with constant energy of 500 KeV, which consequently improve the surface wettability. Treated and untreated sample are characterized for surface wettability, incubation of hydroxyapatite and cell viability. Contact angle (CA) study reveals that surface wettability increases with increasing H-ion dose. Raman spectroscopy shows that precipitation of hydroxyapatite over the surface increase with increasing dose of H-ions. Cell viability study using MTT assay describes improved cell viability in treated samples as compared to the untreated sample. It is found that low dose of H-ions is more effective for cell proliferation and the cell count decreases with increasing ion dose. Our study demonstrates that H ion implantation improves the surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel.

  6. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide on the viability of Botryococcus braunii algae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Ilhan-Ayisigi, Esra; Togtema, Arnoud; Gouveia, Joao; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2018-05-01

    In bio-based industries, Botryococcus braunii is identified as a potential resource for production of hydrocarbons having a wide range of applications in chemical and biopolymer industries. For a sustainable production platform, the algae cultivation should be integrated with downstream processes. Ideally the algae are not harvested, but the product is isolated while cultivation and growth is continued especially if the doubling time is slow. Consequently, hydrocarbons can be extracted while keeping the algae viable. In this study, the effects of pressure on the viability of B. braunii cells were tested hydrostatically and under supercritical CO 2 conditions. Viability was determined by light microscopy, methylene blue uptake and by re-cultivation of the algae after treatments to follow the growth. It was concluded that supercritical CO 2 was lethal to the algae, whereas hydrostatic pressure treatments up to 150 bar have not affected cell viability and recultivation was successful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is cell viability always directly related to corrosion resistance of stainless steels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahinejad, E.; Ghaffari, M.; Vashaee, D.; Tayebi, L.

    2016-01-01

    It has been frequently reported that cell viability on stainless steels is improved by increasing their corrosion resistance. The question that arises is whether human cell viability is always directly related to corrosion resistance in these biostable alloys. In this work, the microstructure and in vitro corrosion behavior of a new class of medical-grade stainless steels were correlated with adult human mesenchymal stem cell viability. The samples were produced by a powder metallurgy route, consisting of mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering with a sintering aid of a eutectic Mn–Si alloy at 1050 °C for 30 and 60 min, leading to nanostructures. In accordance with transmission electron microscopic studies, the additive particles for the sintering time of 30 min were not completely melted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments suggested the higher corrosion resistance for the sample sintered for 60 min; however, a better cell viability on the surface of the less corrosion-resistant sample was unexpectedly found. This behavior is explained by considering the higher ion release rate of the Mn–Si additive material, as preferred sites to corrosion attack based on scanning electron microscopic observations, which is advantageous to the cells in vitro. In conclusion, cell viability is not always directly related to corrosion resistance in stainless steels. Typically, the introduction of biodegradable and biocompatible phases to biostable alloys, which are conventionally anticipated to be corrosion-resistant, can be advantageous to human cell responses similar to biodegradable metals. - Highlights: • Cell viability vs. corrosion resistance for medical-grade stainless steels • The stainless steel samples were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Unpenetrated additive played a critical role in the correlation.

  8. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  9. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, B A; Al-Ammari, B S

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species ( Moringa peregrina , Abrus precatorius , Arthrocnemum macrostachyum , Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis ) from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96-72% at 25/15 °C, 94-70% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (100-80%) test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (8%, 4%) tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min), and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (96%) tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis , were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ). Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  11. Is cell viability always directly related to corrosion resistance of stainless steels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahinejad, E., E-mail: salahinejad@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Bruker AXS Inc., 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Vashaee, D. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Tayebi, L. [Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that cell viability on stainless steels is improved by increasing their corrosion resistance. The question that arises is whether human cell viability is always directly related to corrosion resistance in these biostable alloys. In this work, the microstructure and in vitro corrosion behavior of a new class of medical-grade stainless steels were correlated with adult human mesenchymal stem cell viability. The samples were produced by a powder metallurgy route, consisting of mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering with a sintering aid of a eutectic Mn–Si alloy at 1050 °C for 30 and 60 min, leading to nanostructures. In accordance with transmission electron microscopic studies, the additive particles for the sintering time of 30 min were not completely melted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments suggested the higher corrosion resistance for the sample sintered for 60 min; however, a better cell viability on the surface of the less corrosion-resistant sample was unexpectedly found. This behavior is explained by considering the higher ion release rate of the Mn–Si additive material, as preferred sites to corrosion attack based on scanning electron microscopic observations, which is advantageous to the cells in vitro. In conclusion, cell viability is not always directly related to corrosion resistance in stainless steels. Typically, the introduction of biodegradable and biocompatible phases to biostable alloys, which are conventionally anticipated to be corrosion-resistant, can be advantageous to human cell responses similar to biodegradable metals. - Highlights: • Cell viability vs. corrosion resistance for medical-grade stainless steels • The stainless steel samples were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Unpenetrated additive played a critical role in the correlation.

  12. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Al-Hammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species (Moringa peregrina, Abrus precatorius, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96–72% at 25/15 °C, 94–70% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (100–80% test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (8%, 4% tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min, and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (96% tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis, were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ. Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  13. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  14. Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong; Jiang, Feng; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Kalina; Zheng, Xuguang; Cai, Yizhong; Katakowski, Mark; Chopp, Michael; To, Shing-Shun Tony

    2010-01-01

    Gallic acid, an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is cytotoxic against certain cancer cells, without harming normal cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether gallic acid can inhibit glioma cell viability, proliferation, invasion and reduce glioma cell mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of U87 and U251n glioma cells with gallic acid inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BrdU and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid sign...

  15. From "Gut Feeling" to Objectivity: Machine Preservation of the Liver as a Tool to Assess Organ Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J E; Jochmans, Ina

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise how machine perfusion could contribute to viability assessment of donor livers. In both hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion, perfusate transaminase measurement has allowed pretransplant assessment of hepatocellular damage. Hypothermic perfusion permits transplantation of marginal grafts but as yet has not permitted formal viability assessment. Livers undergoing normothermic perfusion have been investigated using parameters similar to those used to evaluate the liver in vivo. Lactate clearance, glucose evolution and pH regulation during normothermic perfusion seem promising measures of viability. In addition, bile chemistry might inform on cholangiocyte viability and the likelihood of post-transplant cholangiopathy. While the use of machine perfusion technology has the potential to reduce and even remove uncertainty regarding liver graft viability, analysis of large datasets, such as those derived from large multicenter trials of machine perfusion, are needed to provide sufficient information to enable viability parameters to be defined and validated .

  16. Sperm viability and gene expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) following exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Veeranan; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping; Jackson, Caitlin; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2016-06-01

    Honey bee population declines are of global concern. Numerous factors appear to cause these declines including parasites, pathogens, malnutrition and pesticides. Residues of the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, widely used to combat Varroa mites and for crop protection in agriculture, respectively, have been detected in wax, pollen and comb samples. Here, we assess the effects of these compounds at different doses on the viability of sperm stored in the honey bee queens' spermatheca. Our results demonstrate that sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid (0.02ppm) decreased sperm viability by 50%, 7days after treatment. Sperm viability was a downward trend (about 33%) in queens treated with high doses of coumaphos (100ppm), but there was not significant difference. The expression of genes that are involved in development, immune responses and detoxification in honey bee queens and workers exposed to chemicals was measured by qPCR analysis. The data showed that expression levels of specific genes were triggered 1day after treatment. The expression levels of P450 subfamily genes, CYP306A1, CYP4G11 and CYP6AS14 were decreased in honey bee queens treated with low doses of coumaphos (5ppm) and imidacloprid (0.02ppm). Moreover, these two compounds suppressed the expression of genes related to antioxidation, immunity and development in queens at day 1. Up-regulation of antioxidants by these compounds in worker bees was observed at day 1. Coumaphos also caused a repression of CYP306A1 and CYP4G11 in workers. Antioxidants appear to prevent chemical damage to honey bees. We also found that DWV replication increased in workers treated with imidacloprid. This research clearly demonstrates that chemical exposure can affect sperm viability in queen honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and antioxidants were less extended after the oxidative

  18. Relevance of control theory to design and maintenance problems in time-variant reliability: The case of stochastic viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is twofold: (1) to show that time-variant reliability and a branch of control theory called stochastic viability address similar problems with different points of view, and (2) to demonstrate the relevance of concepts and methods from stochastic viability in reliability problems. On the one hand, reliability aims at evaluating the probability of failure of a system subjected to uncertainty and stochasticity. On the other hand, viability aims at maintaining a controlled dynamical system within a survival set. When the dynamical system is stochastic, this work shows that a viability problem belongs to a specific class of design and maintenance problems in time-variant reliability. Dynamic programming, which is used for solving Markovian stochastic viability problems, then yields the set of design states for which there exists a maintenance strategy which guarantees reliability with a confidence level β for a given period of time T. Besides, it leads to a straightforward computation of the date of the first outcrossing, informing on when the system is most likely to fail. We illustrate this approach with a simple example of population dynamics, including a case where load increases with time. - Highlights: • Time-variant reliability tools cannot devise complex maintenance strategies. • Stochastic viability is a control theory that computes a probability of failure. • Some design and maintenance problems are stochastic viability problems. • Used in viability, dynamic programming can find reliable maintenance actions. • Confronting reliability and control theories such as viability is promising

  19. A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couse, Leslie J.; Chen, Dora W.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability of tablet computers in early education by investigating preschool children's ease in acclimating to tablet technology and its defectiveness in engaging them to draw. A total of 41 three- to six-year-old children were videotaped while they used the tablets. The study found significant differences in level of tablet…

  20. Availability of elements for heterogeneous catalysis: Predicting the industrial viability of novel catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Sehested, Jens; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2018-01-01

    Growing concern regarding the sustainability of the chemical industry has driven the development of more efficient catalytic reactions. First-generation estimates of catalyst viability are based on crustal abundance, which has severe limitations. Herein, we propose a second-generation approach to...

  1. [Performance of Thallium 201 rest-redistribution spect to predict viability in recent myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Claudia; González, Patricio; Massardo, Teresa; Sierralta, Paulina; Humeres, Pamela; Jofré, Josefina; Yovanovich, Jorge; Aramburú, Ivonne; Brugère, Solange; Chamorro, Hernán; Ramírez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; López, Héctor

    2002-03-01

    The detection of viability after acute myocardial infarction is primordial to select the most appropriate therapy, to decrease cardiac events and abnormal remodeling. Thallium201 SPECT is one of the radionuclide techniques used to detect viability. To evaluate the use of Thallium201 rest-redistribution SPECT to detect myocardial viability in reperfused patients after a recent myocardial infarction. Forty one patients with up to of 24 days of evolution of a myocardial infarction were studied. All had angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease and were subjected to a successful thrombolysis, angioplasty or bypass grafting. SPECT Thallium201 images were acquired at rest and after 4 h of redistribution. These results were compared with variations in wall motion score, studied at baseline and after 3 or 4 months with echocardiography. The sensitivity of rest-redistribution Thallium201 SPECT, to predict recovery of wall motion was 91% when patient analysis was performed and 79% when segmental analysis was done in the culprit region. The figures for specificity were 56 and 73% respectively. Rest-distribution Thallium201 SPECT has an excellent sensitivity to predict myocardial viability in recent myocardial infarction. The data obtained in this study is similar to that reported for chronic coronary artery disease.

  2. Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjing; Kanno, Chihiro; Oshima, Eiki; Kuzuma, Yukiko; Kim, Sung Woo; Bai, Hanako; Takahashi, Masashi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Nagano, Masashi; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups - controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  4. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  5. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton T Laidlaw

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs, or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs. Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  6. Explorations of the Viability of ARM and Xeon Phi for Physics Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bendavid, Josh; Boccali, Tommaso; Cooperman, Gene; Dotti, Andrea; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Giacomini, Francesco; Jones, Christopher D.; Manzali, Matteo; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    We report on our investigations into the viability of the ARM processor and the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor for scientific computing. We describe our experience porting software to these processors and running benchmarks using real physics applications to explore the potential of these processors for production physics processing.

  7. Viability and Management Targets of Mediterranean Demersal Fisheries: The Case of the Aegean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tserpes

    Full Text Available Management of the Mediterranean demersal stocks has proven challenging mainly due to the multi-species character of the fisheries. In the present work, we focus on the multi-species demersal fisheries of the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean aiming to study the effects of different management measures on the main commercial stocks, as well as to explore the economic viability of the fisheries depending upon these resources, by means of simulated projections. Utilizing the limited available data, our results demonstrated that, under the current exploitation pattern, the economic viability of the fleets is threatened, particularly if fuel prices increase. Additionally, the biological targets set for the most exploited species, such as hake, will not be met under the current management regime. The projections also showed that the only management scenario under which both resource sustainability and economic viability of the fisheries are ensured is the decrease of fleet capacity in terms of vessel numbers. In this case, however, measures to support the fisheries-dependent communities need to be implemented to prevent the collapse of local economies due to employment decrease. Scenarios assuming selectivity improvements would be also beneficial for the stocks but they showed low economic performance and their application would threaten the viability of the fleets, particularly that of the trawlers.

  8. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  9. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, RHJA; Bax, JJ; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van der Wall, EE; Dierckx, RAJO; Jager, PL

    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be

  10. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  11. Explorations of the viability of ARM and Xeon Phi for physics processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Arya, Kapil; Cooperman, Gene; Bendavid, Josh; Boccali, Tommaso; Dotti, Andrea; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Jones, Christopher D; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Giacomini, Francesco; Manzali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We report on our investigations into the viability of the ARM processor and the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor for scientific computing. We describe our experience porting software to these processors and running benchmarks using real physics applications to explore the potential of these processors for production physics processing.

  12. Transcriptional activity around bacterial cell death reveals molecular biomarkers for cell viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, R.; Keijser, B.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Schuren, F.H.; Montijn, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In bacteriology, the ability to grow in selective media and to form colonies on nutrient agar plates is routinely used as a retrospective criterion for the detection of living bacteria. However, the utilization of indicators for bacterial viability-such as the presence of specific

  13. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  14. Life history, population viability, and the potential for local adaptation in isolated trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; Y. Vindenes; L. A. Eby; C. Barfoot; L. A. Vollestad

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation have caused population decline across taxa through impacts on life history diversity, dispersal patterns, and gene flow. Yet, intentional isolation of native fish populations is a frequently used management strategy to protect against negative interactions with invasive fish species. We evaluated the population viability and genetic...

  15. Noninvasive assessment of tissue-engineered graft viability by oxygen-17 magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Samuel A; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Papas, Klearchos K; Garwood, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Transplantation of macroencapsulated tissue-engineered grafts (TEGs) is being investigated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes, but there is a critical need to measure TEG viability both in vitro and in vivo. Oxygen deficiency is the most critical issue preventing widespread implementation of TEG transplantation and delivery of supplemental oxygen (DSO) has been shown to enhance TEG survival and function in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate the first use of oxygen-17 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 17 O-MRS) to measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of TEGs and show that in addition to providing therapeutic benefits to TEGs, DSO with 17 O 2 can also enable measurements of TEG viability. Macroencapsulated TEGs containing βTC3 murine insulinoma cells were prepared with three fractional viabilities and provided with 17 O 2 . Cellular metabolism of 17 O 2 into nascent mitochondrial water (H 2 17 O) was monitored by 17 O-MRS and, from the measured data, OCR was calculated. For comparison, OCR was simultaneously measured on a separate, but equivalent sample of cells with a well-established stirred microchamber technique. OCR measured by 17 O-MRS agreed well with measurements made in the stirred microchamber device. These studies confirm that 17 O-MRS can quantify TEG viability noninvasively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1118-1121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Allium White Rot Suppression with Composts and Trichoderma viride in Relation to Sclerotia Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, E; Noble, R; Mead, A; Marin, F R; Perez, J A; Whipps, J M

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Allium white rot (AWR) is a serious disease of Allium spp. caused by the sclerotium-forming fungus Sclerotium cepivorum. This work has examined the effects of onion waste compost (OWC) and spent mushroom compost (SMC), with and without Trichoderma viride S17A, on sclerotia viability and AWR in glasshouse and field experiments. Incorporation of OWC into soil reduced the viability of sclerotia and the incidence of AWR on onion plants in glasshouse pot bioassays, whereas SMC or T. viride S17A only reduced incidence of AWR. In two field trials, OWC reduced sclerotia viability and was as effective in reducing AWR as a fungicide (Folicur, a.i. tebuconazole). Field application of SMC had no effect on sclerotia viability and did not control AWR. However, the addition of T. viride S17A to SMC facilitated proliferation of T. viride S17A in the soil and increased the healthy onion bulb yield. The results indicate two mechanisms for the suppression of AWR: (i) reduction in the soil population of viable sclerotia, which may be due to volatile sulfur compounds detected in OWC but absent in SMC, and (ii) prevention of infection of onion plants from sclerotia following amendment of soil with OWC, SMC, or T. viride S17A.

  17. Multidrug resistance-associated proteins are crucial for the viability of activated rat hepatic stellate cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannivoort, Rebekka A.; Dunning, Sandra; Borght, Sara Vander; Schroyen, Ben; Woudenberg, Jannes; Oakley, Fiona; Buist-Homan, Manon; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Geuken, Mariska; Geerts, Albert; Roskams, Tania; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) survive and proliferate in the chronically injured liver. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in cell viability by transporting toxic metabolites or xenobiotics out of the cell. ABC transporter expression in HSCs and its relevance to cell

  18. A rapid, sensitive and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den S.J.J.; Ave, M.; Schoenmakers, N.; Landeweert, R.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    2012-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts which can contain 200-500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor

  19. 75 FR 34202 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability... advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S...

  20. 75 FR 67163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability... provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the...

  1. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on

  2. Comparison of the effect of three autogenous bone harvesting methods on cell viability in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Haghgoo, Janet; Arabi, Seyed Reza; Hosseinipanah, Seyyed Mohammad; Solgi, Ghasem; Rastegarfard, Neda; Farhadian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to compare the viability of autogenous bone grafts, harvested using different methods, in order to determine the best harvesting technique with respect to more viable cells. Methods. In this animal experimental study, three harvesting methods, including manual instrument (chisel), rotary device and piezosurgery, were used for harvesting bone grafts from the lateral body of the mandible on the left and right sides of 10 rabbits. In each group, 20 bone samples were collected and their viability was assessed using MTS kit. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests, were used for evaluating significant differences between the groups. Results. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between all the groups (P=0.000). Data analysis using post hoc Tukey tests indicated that manual instrument and piezosurgery had no significant differences with regard to cell viability (P=0.749) and the cell viability in both groups was higher than that with the use of a rotary instrument (P=0.000). Conclusion. Autogenous bone grafts harvested with a manual instrument and piezosurgery had more viable cells in comparison to the bone chips harvested with a rotary device. PMID:28748046

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cell Viability Immediately After Osteotomy for Implants With Drills and Piezosurgery: Immunohistochemistry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Batista, Fábio Roberto de Souza; Jacob, Ricardo Garcia Mureb; Nogueira, Lamis Meorin; Carvalho, Abrahão Cavalcante Gomes de Souza; Gealh, Walter Cristiano; Garcia-Júnior, Idelmo Rangel; Okamoto, Roberta

    2018-05-08

    To evaluate the effect of reusing drills and piezosurgery tips during implant osteotomy on immediate bone cell viability through immunohistochemical analysis. Six male rabbits were divided into 2 groups and then divided into 5 subgroups-correspond to drills and tips used 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 times, respectively. All animals received 10 osteotomies in each tibia, by use of the classic drilling procedure in one group (G1) and the piezosurgery device in the other group (G2). For immunohistochemical technique were utilized the osteoprotegerin, RANKL, osteocalcin, and caspase 3. Control procedures were performed by omitting the primary antibodies (negative control). Bone formation and resorption responses presented in more intense way during the piezosurgery. The expression of osteocalcin had become quite intense in piezosurgery groups, but with reduced immunostaining from the 30th osteotomy. The caspase 3 showed the viability of the osteoblast from the 20th osteotomy with piezosurgery and remained constant until the 50th. Piezosurgery provides greater osteoblastic cell viability than the system of conventional drilling. This study will provide data so that the authors can recycle the drills and tips for implant placement, thus enabling a better cell viability for osseointegration.

  4. Understanding Financial Viability of Urban Consolidation Centres: Regent Street (London), Bristol/Bath & Nijmegen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, Ron; van Dam, T; Wiegmans, B.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of an urban consolidation centre (UCC) has been extensively researched. Despite the potential positive environmental and social impact, the main obstacle remains the lack of a sustainable business model. The goal of this paper is to understand how to organize UCC viability as a concept

  5. Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Frick; E.F. Baerwald; J.F. Pollock; R.M.R. Barclay; J.A. Szymanski; Ted Weller; A.L. Russell; Susan Loeb; R.A. Medellin; L.P. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Large numbers of migratory bats are killed every year at wind energy facilities. However, population-level impacts are unknown as we lack basic demographic information about these species. We investigated whether fatalities at wind turbines could impact population viability of migratory bats, focusing on the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus),...

  6. The viability of sustained growth by India's MNEs: India's dual economy and constraints from location assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narula, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the longer-term viability of the internationalization and success of Indian MNEs. We apply the 'dual economy' concept (Lewis 1954), to reconcile the contradictions of the typical emerging economy, where a 'modern' knowledge-intensive economy exists alongside a 'traditional'

  7. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Clinton T; Condon, Jacob M; Belk, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs), or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs). Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  8. Commercial viability of medical devices using Headroom and return on investment calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; van Til, Janine Astrid; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2016-01-01

    The market success of a medical product depends on its commercial viability, yet this may be hard to predict during the development process of medical devices. This paper aims to determine if applying the Headroom method combined with return on investment (ROI) analysis allows for estimation of the

  9. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  10. Development and viability of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Baveco, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored survival, reproduction and emigration of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands for five years and used a stochastic model to assess its viability. Between 1988 and 1991, 42 beavers were released in the Biesbosch National Park. The mortality was initially high

  11. Assessment of viability in the bacterial standing stock of the Antarctic Sea from the Indian side

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Chandramohan, D.

    designated as section 2 they were one order higher and ranged from 10 sup(9-10) L sup(-1). The percentage of viability in the region was high corresponding to the generally high chlorophyll and primary productivity encountered in the eastern Agulhas bank...

  12. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  13. Leading Change in Tissue Viability Best Practice: An Action Learning Programme for Link Nurse Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Jean; Henderson, Eileen; Milsom, Brian; Crawley, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice reports on an action learning initiative designed and implemented in partnership between a regional NHS Acute Trust and a UK Business School. The central initiative was the implementation of an action learning programme entitled "Leading change in tissue viability best practice: a development programme for Link Nurse…

  14. ABC of the cardiac magnetic resonance. Part 1: perfusion, viability and coronary anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Ricardo; Rached, Heron; Castro, Claudio C.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Favaro, Daniele; Baptista, Luciana; Andrade, Joalbo; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Parga Filho, Jose; Avila, Luiz F.; Piva, Rosa M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the fundamental concepts, the basic sequences and the clinical and potential applications of cardiac magnetic resonance as a diagnostic technique in updated radiology and cardiology practices. In this second part, we present basic aspects of the cardiac magnetic resonance application in the coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion and viability. (author)

  15. Landscape-based population viability models demonstrate importance of strategic conservation planning for birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...

  16. THE SHELF LIFE OF BIRD EGGS: TESTING EGG VIABILITY USING A TROPICAL CLIMATE GRADIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVEN R. BEISSINGER; MARK I. COOK; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    Avian parents influence the onset of development, hatching synchrony, and likelihood of brood reduction through the onset of incubation. Studies testing adaptive functions of brood reduction assume that eggs are protected by their shells and waiting for parents to initiate incubation in a manner that creates optimal hatching patterns, but the viability of early laid...

  17. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  18. A method to analyze, sort, and retain viability of obligate anaerobic microorganisms from complex microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne W; Crow, Matthew J; Wadey, Brian; Arens, Christina; Turkarslan, Serdar; Stolyar, Sergey; Elliott, Nicholas; Petersen, Timothy W; van den Engh, Ger; Stahl, David A; Baliga, Nitin S

    2015-10-01

    A high speed flow cytometric cell sorter was modified to maintain a controlled anaerobic environment. This technology enabled coupling of the precise high-throughput analytical and cell separation capabilities of flow cytometry to the assessment of cell viability of evolved lineages of obligate anaerobic organisms from cocultures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. In Vivo Tes of Dicofol on Cocoon Production and Viability of Earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, N. K.; Yuniarti, E.

    2018-04-01

    The uncontrol using of pesticides, harmful to the environment, health, and it would have impact to non-target animal as earthworm. This study describes the effect of the Dicofol to cocoon production and viability of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull., has been done in-July - Augustus 2016 at the zoology laboratory of Biology Department of Universitas Negeri Padang. The experiment used the Completely Randomized Design (4 treatments 6 replications). The treatments are with 0 g / l (P1), 0.002 g / L (P2), 0.004 g / L (P3), and 0.006 g / L (P4) and 0.008 g / L of Dicofol that diluted to water. The Data of production and viability of earthworm cocoons Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull collected during 30 days in alternate day. Data analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan New Multiple Range Test at p <0.05. The results Showed that the average number of cocoons production at P1 30 cocoons (the highest), 16 cocoons P2, P3 7 cocoons, and the P4 and P5 0 cocoons (the Lowest). The average percentage of cocoons viability were highest in P1, and P2 (100%); P3 (10%) and the cancel at P4 and P5 (0%). It can conclude that the pesticide Dicofol decreased the production and viability of the earthworm cocoons Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull.

  20. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  1. Profitability and viability of catfish enterprises in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to analyze profitability and viability of catfish farming in Abia State of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 50 catfish farmers that provided the data used for the study. The primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, administered through ...

  2. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.

  3. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A case study of bats and white-nose syndrome demonstrating how to model population viability with evolutionary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslo, Brooke; Fefferman, Nina H

    2015-08-01

    Ecological factors generally affect population viability on rapid time scales. Traditional population viability analyses (PVA) therefore focus on alleviating ecological pressures, discounting potential evolutionary impacts on individual phenotypes. Recent studies of evolutionary rescue (ER) focus on cases in which severe, environmentally induced population bottlenecks trigger a rapid evolutionary response that can potentially reverse demographic threats. ER models have focused on shifting genetics and resulting population recovery, but no one has explored how to incorporate those findings into PVA. We integrated ER into PVA to identify the critical decision interval for evolutionary rescue (DIER) under which targeted conservation action should be applied to buffer populations undergoing ER against extinction from stochastic events and to determine the most appropriate vital rate to target to promote population recovery. We applied this model to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) affected by white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing massive declines in several North American bat populations. Under the ER scenario, the model predicted that the DIER period for little brown bats was within 11 years of initial WNS emergence, after which they stabilized at a positive growth rate (λ = 1.05). By comparing our model results with population trajectories of multiple infected hibernacula across the WNS range, we concluded that ER is a potential explanation of observed little brown bat population trajectories across multiple hibernacula within the affected range. Our approach provides a tool that can be used by all managers to provide testable hypotheses regarding the occurrence of ER in declining populations, suggest empirical studies to better parameterize the population genetics and conservation-relevant vital rates, and identify the DIER period during which management strategies will be most effective for species conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation

  5. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Simos, George

    2010-07-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1alpha subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1alpha as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=5.16microM). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1alpha protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC(50)=4.75microM). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10microM kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10microM) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using population viability analysis, genomics, and habitat suitability to forecast future population patterns of Little Owl Athene noctua across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Line Holm; Sunde, Peter; Pellegrino, Irene; Loeschcke, Volker; Pertoldi, Cino

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural scene has changed over the past decades, resulting in a declining population trend in many species. It is therefore important to determine the factors that the individual species depend on in order to understand their decline. The landscape changes have also resulted in habitat fragmentation, turning once continuous populations into metapopulations. It is thus increasingly important to estimate both the number of individuals it takes to create a genetically viable population and the population trend. Here, population viability analysis and habitat suitability modeling were used to estimate population viability and future prospects across Europe of the Little Owl Athene noctua , a widespread species associated with agricultural landscapes. The results show a high risk of population declines over the coming 100 years, especially toward the north of Europe, whereas populations toward the southeastern part of Europe have a greater probability of persistence. In order to be considered genetically viable, individual populations must count 1,000-30,000 individuals. As Little Owl populations of several countries count <30,000, and many isolated populations in northern Europe count <1,000 individuals, management actions resulting in exchange of individuals between populations or even countries are probably necessary to prevent losing <1% genetic diversity over a 100-year period. At a continental scale, a habitat suitability analysis suggested Little Owl to be affected positively by increasing temperatures and urban areas, whereas an increased tree cover, an increasing annual rainfall, grassland, and sparsely vegetated areas affect the presence of the owl negatively. However, the low predictive power of the habitat suitability model suggests that habitat suitability might be better explained at a smaller scale.

  7. Laser solder welding of articular cartilage: tensile strength and chondrocyte viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züger, B J; Ott, B; Mainil-Varlet, P; Schaffner, T; Clémence, J F; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    The surgical treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability but also on a lateral integration of the implant. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cartilage welding by using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808-nm laser diode irradiation. Conventional histology of light microscopy was compared with a viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding. Indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced albumin solder (25% albumin, 0.5% HA, 0.1% ICG) was used for articular cartilage welding. For coagulation, the solder was irradiated through the cartilage implant by 808-nm laser light and the tensile strength of the weld was measured. Viability staining revealed a thermal damage of typically 500 m in depth at an irradiance of approximately 10 W/cm(2) for 8 seconds, whereas conventional histologies showed only half of the extent found by the viability test. Heat-bath investigations revealed a threshold temperature of minimum 54 degrees C for thermal damage of chondrocytes. Efficient cartilage bonding was obtained by using bovine albumin solder as adhesive. Maximum tensile strength of more than 10 N/cm(2) was achieved. Viability tests revealed that the thermal damage is much greater (up to twice) than expected after light microscopic characterization. This study shows the feasibility to strongly laser weld cartilage on cartilage by use of a dye-enhanced albumin solder. Possibilities to reduce the range of damage are suggested. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Yeast viability and concentration analysis using lens-free computational microscopy and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Research laboratories and the industry rely on yeast viability and concentration measurements to adjust fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature, and pressure. Beer-brewing processes as well as biofuel production can especially utilize a cost-effective and portable way of obtaining data on cell viability and concentration. However, current methods of analysis are relatively costly and tedious. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, portable, and cost-effective platform for imaging and measuring viability and concentration of yeast cells. Our platform features a lens-free microscope that weighs 70 g and has dimensions of 12 × 4 × 4 cm. A partially-coherent illumination source (a light-emitting-diode), a band-pass optical filter, and a multimode optical fiber are used to illuminate the sample. The yeast sample is directly placed on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor chip, which captures an in-line hologram of the sample over a large field-of-view of >20 mm2. The hologram is transferred to a touch-screen interface, where a trained Support Vector Machine model classifies yeast cells stained with methylene blue as live or dead and measures cell viability as well as concentration. We tested the accuracy of our platform against manual counting of live and dead cells using fluorescent exclusion staining and a bench-top fluorescence microscope. Our regression analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells/mL. This compact and cost-effective yeast analysis platform will enable automatic quantification of yeast viability and concentration in field settings and resource-limited environments.

  9. Usefulness of myocardial parametric imaging to evaluate myocardial viability in experimental and in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosoglou, G; Hansen, A; Bekeredjian, R; Filusch, A; Hardt, S; Wolf, D; Schellberg, D; Katus, H A; Kuecherer, H

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate whether myocardial parametric imaging (MPI) is superior to visual assessment for the evaluation of myocardial viability. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was assessed in 11 pigs before, during, and after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and in 32 patients with ischaemic heart disease by using intravenous SonoVue administration. In experimental studies perfusion defect area assessment by MPI was compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry. Histological assessment of necrotic tissue was the standard reference. In clinical studies viability was assessed on a segmental level by (1) visual analysis of myocardial opacification; (2) quantitative estimation of myocardial blood flow in regions of interest; and (3) MPI. Functional recovery between three and six months after revascularisation was the standard reference. In experimental studies, compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry, planimetric assessment of infarct size by MPI correlated more significantly with histology (r2 = 0.92 versus r2 = 0.56) and had a lower intraobserver variability (4% v 15%, p < 0.05). In clinical studies, MPI had higher specificity (66% v 43%, p < 0.05) than visual MCE and good accuracy (81%) for viability detection. It was less time consuming (3.4 (1.6) v 9.2 (2.4) minutes per image, p < 0.05) than quantitative blood flow estimation by regions of interest and increased the agreement between observers interpreting myocardial perfusion (kappa = 0.87 v kappa = 0.75, p < 0.05). MPI is useful for the evaluation of myocardial viability both in animals and in patients. It is less time consuming than quantification analysis by regions of interest and less observer dependent than visual analysis. Thus, strategies incorporating this technique may be valuable for the evaluation of myocardial viability in clinical routine.

  10. Is cell viability always directly related to corrosion resistance of stainless steels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahinejad, E; Ghaffari, M; Vashaee, D; Tayebi, L

    2016-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that cell viability on stainless steels is improved by increasing their corrosion resistance. The question that arises is whether human cell viability is always directly related to corrosion resistance in these biostable alloys. In this work, the microstructure and in vitro corrosion behavior of a new class of medical-grade stainless steels were correlated with adult human mesenchymal stem cell viability. The samples were produced by a powder metallurgy route, consisting of mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering with a sintering aid of a eutectic Mn-Si alloy at 1050 °C for 30 and 60 min, leading to nanostructures. In accordance with transmission electron microscopic studies, the additive particles for the sintering time of 30 min were not completely melted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments suggested the higher corrosion resistance for the sample sintered for 60 min; however, a better cell viability on the surface of the less corrosion-resistant sample was unexpectedly found. This behavior is explained by considering the higher ion release rate of the Mn-Si additive material, as preferred sites to corrosion attack based on scanning electron microscopic observations, which is advantageous to the cells in vitro. In conclusion, cell viability is not always directly related to corrosion resistance in stainless steels. Typically, the introduction of biodegradable and biocompatible phases to biostable alloys, which are conventionally anticipated to be corrosion-resistant, can be advantageous to human cell responses similar to biodegradable metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of zeolite addition on viability of paddy straw mushroom spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to increase the viability of the paddy straw mushroom spawn by adding natural stone on the media’s composition for the paddy straw mushroom spawn. Mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom was take from the pure development of the paddy straw mushroom which was planted on the various treatment for media e.i. 100% cotton media and rice bran + 0% zeolite (A, 75% cotton media and rice bran + 25% zeolite (B, 50% cotton media and rice bran + 50% zeolite (C, 25% cotton and rice bran + 75% zeolite (D, 0% cotton media and rice bran + 100% rice bran (E. Each treatment was observed for the length of mycelium, the concentration of reduced sugar, total carbon and water content, spawn media weight, pH and temperature. Results demonstrated that there is a positive effect of zeolite added to the paddy straw mushroom media. The zeolite able to adsorbed nutrient through its pores, so the mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom able to use the nutrient gradually and equally appropriate with its growth. Therefore the viability of the paddy straw mushroom is increase. Result showed that the B is the best viability in the Potetos Dectrose Agar (PDA media, that has viability power up to 50 days after inoculation and the temperature are 29,6 0C, then followed by treatment C, D, A and E, each has viability power up to 42; 38; 34; 22 days after inoculation and the maximum length of each mycelium are 17.5; 9.2; 0.9; 0.5 cm, but in the treatment D being contaminated by Aspergillus sp.

  12. In vitro germination and viability of pollen grain of coconut accessions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrine Regina Feitosa Moura

    Full Text Available Storage as a means of maintaining the pollen viability is important for the preservation of the genetic variability, facilitates the exchange of germplasm and greatly contributes to the generation of variability obtained from artificial crosses, increasing the efficiency of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to select different culture media for the in vitro germination of pollen grain of dwarf and tall coconut accessions, as well as to determine the viability of pollen grain at room temperature conditions. For this purpose, Brazil Green Dwarf (BGD and Brazilian Tall (BRA pollen grains derived from the Coconut Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Coastal Tablelands Sergipe were used. To evaluate the effect of different culture media on the in vitro germination of pollen grains of anão verde do Brasil de Jiqui (AVeBrJ and gigante do Brasil Praia do Forte (GBrPF accessions, they were inoculated on to Petri dishes containing 2 ml of culture media. The pollen viability was assessed by staining with 1% acetic carmine and in vitro germination at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The culture medium of Lora is suitable to assess the in vitrogermination of pollen grain of the AVeBrJ and GBrPF accessions. The pollen grain of the AVeBrJ accession showed intermediate viability (66.87% at room temperature up to 23.14 hours by in vitro germination. The pollen grain of the GBrPF accession showed high viability, above 70%, at room temperature up to 120 hours by in vitro germination.

  13. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  14. Nanodiamonds on tetrahedral amorphous carbon significantly enhance dopamine detection and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Emilia; Wester, Niklas; Holt, Katherine B; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jari; Myllymäki, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi

    2017-02-15

    We hypothesize that by using integrated carbon nanostructures on tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), it is possible to take the performance and characteristics of these bioelectrodes to a completely new level. The integrated carbon electrodes were realized by combining nanodiamonds (NDs) with ta-C thin films coated on Ti-coated Si-substrates. NDs were functionalized with mixture of carboxyl and amine groups ND andante or amine ND amine , carboxyl ND vox or hydroxyl groups ND H and drop-casted or spray-coated onto substrate. By utilizing these novel structures we show that (i) the detection limit for dopamine can be improved by two orders of magnitude [from 10µM to 50nM] in comparison to ta-C thin film electrodes and (ii) the coating method significantly affects electrochemical properties of NDs and (iii) the ND coatings selectively promote cell viability. ND andante and ND H showed most promising electrochemical properties. The viability of human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was increased on all ND surfaces, whereas the viability of mouse neural stem cells and rat neuroblastic cells was improved on ND andante and ND H and reduced on ND amine and ND vox. The viability of C6 cells remained unchanged, indicating that these surfaces will not cause excess gliosis. In summary, we demonstrated here that by using functionalized NDs on ta-C thin films we can significantly improve sensitivity towards dopamine as well as selectively promote cell viability. Thus, these novel carbon nanostructures provide an interesting concept for development of various in vivo targeted sensor solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  16. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung; Yoo, Eun-Sun; Chan Ra, Jeong; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. ► Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. ► AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. ► AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-α, G-CSF, and TGF-β. ► AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-α, G-CSF, and TGF-β. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  17. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung [Department of Microbiology, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Eun-Sun [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chan Ra, Jeong [Stem Cell Research Center, RNL BIO, Seoul 153-768 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung-Ha, E-mail: ykh@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-{alpha}, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  18. Essential role of the N-terminal region of TFII-I in viability and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Nuno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GTF2I codes for a general intrinsic transcription factor and calcium channel regulator TFII-I, with high and ubiquitous expression, and a strong candidate for involvement in the morphological and neuro-developmental anomalies of the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS. WBS is a genetic disorder due to a recurring deletion of about 1,55-1,83 Mb containing 25-28 genes in chromosome band 7q11.23 including GTF2I. Completed homozygous loss of either the Gtf2i or Gtf2ird1 function in mice provided additional evidence for the involvement of both genes in the craniofacial and cognitive phenotype. Unfortunately nothing is now about the behavioral characterization of heterozygous mice. Methods By gene targeting we have generated a mutant mice with a deletion of the first 140 amino-acids of TFII-I. mRNA and protein expression analysis were used to document the effect of the study deletion. We performed behavioral characterization of heterozygous mutant mice to document in vivo implications of TFII-I in the cognitive profile of WBS patients. Results Homozygous and heterozygous mutant mice exhibit craniofacial alterations, most clearly represented in homozygous condition. Behavioral test demonstrate that heterozygous mutant mice exhibit some neurobehavioral alterations and hyperacusis or odynacusis that could be associated with specific features of WBS phenotype. Homozygous mutant mice present highly compromised embryonic viability and fertility. Regarding cellular model, we documented a retarded growth in heterozygous MEFs respect to homozygous or wild-type MEFs. Conclusion Our data confirm that, although additive effects of haploinsufficiency at several genes may contribute to the full craniofacial or neurocognitive features of WBS, correct expression of GTF2I is one of the main players. In addition, these findings show that the deletion of the fist 140 amino-acids of TFII-I altered it correct function leading to a clear phenotype, at both

  19. Pleomorphism and Viability of the Lyme Disease Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi Exposed to Physiological Stress Conditions: A Correlative Cryo-Fluorescence and Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Rudenko, Natalia; Vaněček, Jiří; Golovchenko, Maryna; Strnad, Martin; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Tichá, Lucie; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, 11 April (2017), č. článku 596. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cryo-fluorescence * cryo-scanning electron microscopy * Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease * round body * pleomorphism * viability staining Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  20. The effectiveness of preplant seed bio-invigoration techniques using Bacillus sp. CKD061 to improving seed viability and vigor of several local upland rice cultivars of Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariati, G. A. K.; Bande, L. O. S.; Khaeruni, A.; Muhidin; Mudi, L.; Savitri, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Research was aimed to evaluate the bio-invigoration techniques using Bacillus sp. CKD061 in improving seed viability and vigor of local upland rice. The research is arranged in factorial with completely randomized design (CRD). The different upland rice cultivars as first factor that consists of 11 cultivars, namely: Pae Tinangge, Pae Rowu, Pae Uwa, Pae Tanta, Pae Waburi-Buri, Pae Mornene, Pae Indalibana, Pae Lawarangka, Pae Huko, Pae Wagamba and Pae Momea. The second factor is the seed bio-invigoration technique, consists of 5 treatments, namely: without seed bio-invigoration (B0), NaCl + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B1), KNO3 + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B2), Ground burned-rice husk + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B3), and Ground brick + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B4). The results showed that seed bio-invigoration using Bacillus sp. CKD061 gave effect on the seed viability and vigor. Interaction of the seed bio-invigoration and upland rice cultivars were able to improve seed viability and vigor. Seed bio-invigoration ttreatment using ground brick + Bacillus sp. CKD061 was the best treatment, which could improve the viability and vigor of Pae Waburi-Buri, Pae Mornene and Pae Indalibana. The treatment increased vigor index by 133% in Pae Waburi-Buri and 127% in Pae Mornene, and Pae Indalibana compared with control.

  1. Analytical Research to Determine the effects of the Components of ONGABO on the Viability of HepG2 Cancer Cells by Using the Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier Principle ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jun, Seung-Lyul; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun; Ahn, Seong-Hun

    2012-12-01

    This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle () to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. Single and mixed extracts of the component of ONGABO were prepared by lypohilizing powder of Red Ginseng (6-year root from Kanghwa), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen, Curcumae Tuber (from Omniherb Co., Ltd., Korea) at the laboratory of herbal medicine in Woosuk University and were eluted after being macerated with 100% ethanol for three days. The cell viability of HepG2 was determined by using an absorptiometric analysis with PrestoBlue (Invitrogen) reagent after the plate had been incubated for 48 hours. All of the experiments were repeated three times to obtain the average value and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was done and the correlation factor was obtained by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Origin 6.0 software. Although Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) and Schisandrae Fructus did not enhance the viability of HepG2 cells, they were shown to provide protection of those cells. On the other hand, Angelica Gigantis Radix decreased the viability of HepG2 cells significantly, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber had a small or no effect on the viability of HepG2 cells. In the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (), Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) corresponds to the sovereign component because it provides cell protection effects, Angelica Gigantis Radix corresponds to minister medicinal because it kills cells, Schisandrae Fructus corresponds to the assistant medicinal to help red ginseng having cell protect effects. Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber correspond to the courier medicinal having no effect in cell viability in HepG2. We hope this study provides motivation for advanced research

  2. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by [sup 15]O-water-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by [sup 15]O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with [sup 15]O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author).

  3. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  4. Viability Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Vital Dyes: Dry Mounts Overestimate the Number of “Ghost” Oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2017-01-01

    Viability assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts is crucial for evaluation of the public health significance of this important zoonotic protozoon. Viability is commonly assessed in wet mounts after acid pretreatmentand staining with fluorogenic vital dyes. However, in some studies, oocyst v...

  5. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability: a consensus statement from the ESHRE early pregnancy special interest group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolte, A. M.; Bernardi, L. A.; Christiansen, O. B.; Quenby, S.; Farquharson, R. G.; Goddijn, M.; Stephenson, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from

  6. An easy 'one tube' method to estimate viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts using real-time qPCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paziewska-Harris, A.; Schoone, G.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Viability estimation of the highly resistant oocysts of Cryptosporidium remains a key issue for the monitoring and control of this pathogen. We present here a simple 'one tube' quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol for viability estimation using a DNA extraction protocol which preferentially solubilizes

  7. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  8. Effect of climate change on halophytic grasslands loss and its impact in the viability of Gopherus flavomarginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Becerra-López

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the habitat is one of the main factors that affect the survival of G. flavomarginatus. This study assesses the halophytic grasslands loss over a period of 30 years in the distribution area of the Bolson tortoise and the effects of climate change on the habitat suitability of these grasslands and its possible impact on this tortoise. Grassland loss was assessed by an analysis of symmetric differences and the habitat suitability model was carried out by the method of overlapping layers raster. Our results showed a grassland loss of 63.7%; however, our current habitat suitability model points out that much of the grassland loss has occurred where the environmental conditions are suitable. These results suggest that anthropic activity is a main factor in the habitat disturbance in the study area. Likewise, the models for years 2050 and 2070 under the criteria RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, suggest that anthropic activity will continue be the main cause of the grassland loss. Therefore, considering the association between the Bolson tortoise and grassland halophyte Hilaria mutica, which comprises around 60% of its diet, the viability of the Bolson tortoise depends largely on strategies aimed at protecting the soil that allow the presence of this grassland.

  9. Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Decoy Hyper Binding Sites Targeting Oncogenic HMGA1 Reduces Pancreatic and Liver Cancer Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Faizule; Ni, Shuisong; Arnett, Tyler C; McKell, Melanie C; Kennedy, Michael A

    2018-03-30

    High mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) protein is an oncogenic architectural transcription factor that plays an essential role in early development, but it is also implicated in many human cancers. Elevated levels of HMGA1 in cancer cells cause misregulation of gene expression and are associated with increased cancer cell proliferation and increased chemotherapy resistance. We have devised a strategy of using engineered viruses to deliver decoy hyper binding sites for HMGA1 to the nucleus of cancer cells with the goal of sequestering excess HMGA1 at the decoy hyper binding sites due to binding competition. Sequestration of excess HMGA1 at the decoy binding sites is intended to reduce HMGA1 binding at the naturally occurring genomic HMGA1 binding sites, which should result in normalized gene expression and restored sensitivity to chemotherapy. As proof of principle, we engineered the replication defective adenovirus serotype 5 genome to contain hyper binding sites for HMGA1 composed of six copies of an individual HMGA1 binding site, referred to as HMGA-6. A 70%-80% reduction in cell viability and increased sensitivity to gemcitabine was observed in five different pancreatic and liver cancer cell lines 72 hr after infection with replication defective engineered adenovirus serotype 5 virus containing the HMGA-6 decoy hyper binding sites. The decoy hyper binding site strategy should be general for targeting overexpression of any double-stranded DNA-binding oncogenic transcription factor responsible for cancer cell proliferation.

  10. Technical Viability of Battery Second Life: A Study from the Ageing Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Sarasketa-Zabala, Elixabet; Villareal, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Reusing electric vehicle batteries once they have been retired from the automotive application is stated as one of the possible solutions to reduce electric vehicle costs. Many publications in literature have analysed the economic viability of such a solution, and some car manufacturers have...... of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) NMC/C battery State of Health (SOH) and ageing history over the second life performance, on two different applications: a residential demand management application and a power smoothing renewable integration application. The performance and degradation of second life batteries...... recently started running several projects to demonstrate the technical viability of the so-called battery second life. Nevertheless, the degradation behaviour of second life batteries remains unknown and represents one of the biggest gaps in the literature. The present work aims at evaluating the effects...

  11. Influence of bromouracil density labelling on viability of UV irradiated Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozmanova, J [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Vyskumny Ustav Onkologicky

    1976-01-01

    Influence of 5-bromouracil cultivation on cell viability and DNA synthesis in the Escherichia coli B/r thy/sup -/ trp/sup -/ Hcr/sup +/ and Escherichia coli C thy-321 strains was followed. It was found that a 120 min cultivation in the bromouracil medium (unirradiated cells) does not essentially influence the viability of the two investigated strains but has an inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis in cells of the E. coli B/r Hcr/sup +/ strain. However, cultivation with bromouracil after ultraviolet irradiation leads to a decreased surviving ability of the irradiated cells of both investigated strains. Repair of damage induced by ultraviolet radiation probably exhausts a considerable proportion of repair activity, so that additional injury produced by bromouracil cultivation cannot be liquidated immediately.

  12. Anthropogenic Impacts on Mortality and Population Viability of the Monarch Butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stephen B

    2018-01-07

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are familiar herbivores of milkweeds of the genus Asclepias, and most monarchs migrate each year to locate these host plants across North American ecosystems now dominated by agriculture. Eastern migrants overwinter in high-elevation forests in Mexico, and western monarchs overwinter in trees on the coast of California. Both populations face three primary threats to their viability: (a) loss of milkweed resources for larvae due to genetically modified crops, pesticides, and fertilizers; (b) loss of nectar resources from flowering plants; and (c) degraded overwintering forest habitats due to commercially motivated deforestation and other economic activities. Secondary threats to population viability include (d) climate change effects on milkweed host plants and the dynamics of breeding, overwintering, and migration; (e) the influence of invasive plants and natural enemies; (f) habitat fragmentation and coalescence that promote homogeneous, species-depleted landscapes; and (g) deliberate culture and release of monarchs and invasive milkweeds.

  13. Diagnostic value of dobutamine echocardiography in myocardial viability of about 85 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hammami, El Mondher

    2009-01-01

    Stress echocardiography in low-dose dobutamine is part of the proposed techniques for the identification of viable myocardium. Unlike isotopic techniques that analyze the viability in terms of perfusion and membrane integrity, the echo dobutamine studying the functional aspect of sustain ability is - to - say the existence of a reservation contraction in segments asynergic. To establish the diagnostic value of echo dobutamine in search of sustain ability we conducted a prospective study to nearly 85 patients all presented with a recent myocardial infarction whose average age is 55 years and the sex ratio is 0.95. The examination was performed for all our patients on average twelfth day of myocardial infarction, improved segmental kinetics at least one grade in at least two adjacent segments relative to the ground state is considered as ultrasound test of the viability.

  14. Alternating current electric field effects on neural stem cell viability and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marvi A; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2010-01-01

    Methods utilizing stem cells hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering applications; however, many issues must be worked out before these therapies can be routinely applied. Utilization of external cues for preimplantation expansion and differentiation offers a potentially viable approach to the use of stem cells in tissue engineering. The studies reported here focus on the response of murine neural stem cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogel beads to alternating current electric fields. Cell viability and differentiation was studied as a function of electric field magnitude and frequency. We applied fields of frequency (0.1-10) Hz, and found a marked peak in neural stem cell viability under oscillatory electric fields with a frequency of 1 Hz. We also found an enhanced propensity for astrocyte differentiation over neuronal differentiation in the 1 Hz cultures, as compared to the other field frequencies we studied. Published 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  15. Economic viability of crude glycerin in diets for lambs finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia Costa Carvalho Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the economic viability of increasing levels of crude glycerin (CG in diets for finishing lambs. The trial was carried out at Southwest State University of Bahia, Itapetinga-BA. Twenty five crossbred, Santa Inês x Dorper, with 24 ± 2,0 kg, were housed in individual pens. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of increasing levels of dietary CG (0, 2.65, 5.33, 8.06 and 10.84% and the roughage used was the Tifton 85 hay. Diets were formulated to meet the nutritional requeriments, aiming a gain of 200 g day-1. The analysis was based on use of economic indicators Net Present Value (NPV and Internal Rate of Return (IRR. The animals dry matter intake decreased linearly (P0.05 on performance and meat production results. None of the treatments showed economic viability.

  16. Use of fluorescent redox indicators to evaluate cell proliferation and viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of two cell viability test kits based on the use of redox indicators yielding fluorescent products, the AlamarBlue assay and a resazurin-based in vitro toxicology assay kit from Sigma, was compared in the present study. Cultures of human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts were exposed...... for 168 h of continuous exposure, but showed equal levels of cytostatic effects in cultures with a low initial cell density after 72 h of exposure. Similar characteristics of the dye solutions were observed by high-performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and UV spectroscopy, and the major...... components were tentatively identified as resazurin and resorufin. The AlamarBlue assay has gained wide application as a cell viability indicator that allows continuous monitoring of cell proliferation or cytotoxicity in human and animal cells, bacteria, and fungi, but no studies with the deliberate use...

  17. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cell Viability and PGE2 Production in Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castiblanco, Gina A.; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Roos, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that probiotic therapy can play a role in the prevention and management of oral inflammatory diseases through immunomodulation and down-regulation of the inflammatory cascade. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the viability of human gingival fibroblasts...... (HGF) and its production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), when exposed to supernatants of two mixed Lactobacillus reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 5289 and DSM 17938). The experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. L. reuteri strains were grown and the bacterial...... immune assay kits. Our findings showed that none of the L. reuteri supernatants were cytotoxic or affected the viability of HGF. The most concentrated bacterial supernatant stimulated the production of PGE2 by the gingival cells in a significant way in the presence of IL-1β (p

  18. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  19. The Economic Viability of Renewable Portfolio Standard Support for Offshore Wind Farm Projects in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Min

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm (WF projects have been promoted by support schemes as part of the expansion of renewable energy resources in Korea. This paper examines in detail how the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS, which was adopted post the Feed-in-Tariff scheme in 2012, has had a profound impact on the economic benefits of offshore WFs in Korea. A framework for analyzing the economic viability of RPS is presented and applied to the sixth basic plan for long-term electricity supply and demand in Korea. The electricity market price is forecast using a reformulated probabilistic production cost (PPC model, and the renewable energy certificate (REC price is calculated using its determination rule. The results show that the existing RPS will be ineffective in increasing the penetration of offshore WFs in Korea; however, they also indicate that the economic viability of offshore WFs could be improved by adjusting the existing RPS.

  20. Reduced pollen viability and achene development in Solidago ×niederederi Khek from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Migdałek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollen and achene characters of natural interspecific hybrid Solidago ×niederederi Khek were analyzed and compared with putative parental species S. virgaurea L. and S. canadensis L. to estimate the level of disturbances in generative reproduction resulting from its hybrid nature. Pollen viability (stainability of Solidago ×niederederi from one newly discovered locality in NE Poland was evidently reduced to ~65% in both viability tests (acetocarmine and Alexander. The diameter of viable pollen (median 21.11 µm fell between S. canadensis (median 19.52 µm and S. virgaurea (median 23.48 µm. Both parental species produced normally developed achenes with high frequency (~90% whereas in the hybrid, the seed set was dramatically low (6%. The results clearly indicated that sexual reproduction of hybridogenous taxon S. ×niederederi is disturbed, and its potential impact as an invasive species depends mainly on vegetative propagation.

  1. Effect of methotrexate conjugated PAMAM dendrimers on the viability of MES-SA uterine cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Khatri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to synthesize methotrexate (MTX-polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendritic nanoconjugates and to study their effect on cell viability in uterine sarcoma cells. The amide-bonded PAMAM dendrimer-MTX conjugates were prepared by conjugation between the amine-terminated G5 dendrimer and the carboxylic groups of the MTX using a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide coupling reaction. The formation of conjugates was evaluated by ultraviolet (UV and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR spectroscopy studies. The cell survival of MES-SA cells, a uterine sarcoma cell line, was evaluated in the presence of the dendrimer-MTX nanoconjugate, using appropriate controls. The UV and 1 H NMR study confirmed the formation of covalent bonds between the drug and the dendrimer. The cell viability study indicated that the nanoconjugates had significantly improved cell killing compared to the free MTX.

  2. Adjustment of tetrazolium methodology for the evaluation of Melanoxylon brauna seeds viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adjust the tetrazolium test methodology to Melanoxylon brauna seeds. The seeds werepre-conditioned by immersion in distilled water at 25ºC for 24 hours. The tegument of the seeds were removed and the embryos weresubmerged in the tetrazolium solution (pH 6.5 at concentration of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3%, and were kept in the dark at 25ºC temperaturefor 10 and 24 hours. The embryos were evaluated for the intensity of color, presence of milky areas, aspect of the tissues, and locationof the color. The embryos were individually classified into nine viability classes. They were also submitted to the germination andseedling emergence tests. The best correlations between the standard tests of seed germination of Melanoxylon brauna were those with0.3% concentration for 10 hours. The viability is represented by classes 1, 2 and 3.

  3. Effect of alcohols on filamentation, growth, viability and biofilm development in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-12-01

    In this study we report the potential of alcohols as morphogenetic regulators in Candida albicans. All the alcohols tested influenced various modes of growth like planktonic as well as biofilm forms. Viability was affected at high concentrations. Among the alcohols, the response of C. albicans to amyl alcohol (pentanol) was noteworthy. Amyl alcohol at a concentration 0.5% which was not inhibitory to growth and viability specifically inhibited morphogenetic switching from yeast to hyphal forms. It also inhibited normal biofilm development favoring yeast dominated biofilms. Based on this study we hypothesize that alcohols produced under anaerobic conditions may not favor biofilm development and support dissemination of yeast cells. Since anaerobic conditions are not found to favor production of quorum sensing molecules like farnesol, the alcohols may play a role in morphogenetic regulation.

  4. Viability of bacteria (starter and probiotics in beverages made with yogurt and mango pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Paula Menezes Barbosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop two formulations (F1 and F2 of probiotic mango smoothie with fermented milk, and to evaluate the microbiological viability and physicochemical (pH, acidity and desorption characteristics under refrigerated storage. The formulation F1 was prepared with addition of 30% of mango pulp and 10% of sugar, and in F2 was added 40% of pulp and 8% of sugar. The hygienic sanitary quality was satisfactory, and the samples were safe for consumption. The samples did not differ in pH, titratable acidity, syneresis and viability of the microorganisms along the refrigerated storage, therefore, the sugar and pulp levels did not significantly influence the formulations. Probiotic levels remained within the dose considered therapeutic. Therefore, these beverages F1 and F2 may be considered appropriate vehicles for incorporation of probiotics and a new functional product may be made available to the market.

  5. Efficacy of SYBR 14/propidium iodide viability stain for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, M P; Clulow, J; Mahony, M J

    2010-01-25

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently described pathogen that has been implicated as a causal agent in the global decline in amphibians. Research into its biology and epidemiology has frequently involved in vitro experimentation. However, this research is currently limited by the inability to differentiate between viable and inviable zoospores. Stains are frequently used to determine cell viability, and this study tested a 2-colour fluorescence assay for the detection and quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis zoospores. The results show that the nucleic acid stains SYBR 14 and propidium iodide are effective in distinguishing live from dead zoospores, and a protocol has been optimized for their use. This viability assay provides an efficient and reliable tool that will have applications in B. dendrobatidis challenge and amphibian exposure experiments.

  6. Study on human chondrocyte culture viability for autologous transplantation in clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Lombello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The limited regenerative capacity of the cartilage tissuemakes the treatment of chondral lesions difficult. The techniquescurrently available to treat cartilage lesions may relieve symptoms,but do not regenerate the injured tissue. Autologous chondrocytetransplantation uses cell biology and cell culture techniques toregenerate the hyaline cartilage. Methods: In this study, we analyzechondrocyte biopsy collection and culture for autologoustransplantation. Ultrastructural analyses of hyaline cartilage biopsieswere performed 0, 6, 24 and 48 hours after collection. The tissue evenafter 48 hours. Eleven cell culture assays were performed to evaluateisolation, viability, morphology, proliferation and absence ofcontaminants. Results: The cell culture techniques used allowedchondrocyte proliferation. Rates on cell viability were maintained abovethe acceptable patterns (above 90. Control of cell culture laboratoryconditions showed absence of contaminants, assuring safety of theprocess. The chondrocytes obtained presented the morphology typicalof cultured cell monolayers. Conclusion: The results indicate viabilityof chondrocyte culture technique for clinical application in autologoustransplantation.

  7. Accounting for water : institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kloezen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the institutional viability and the local impact on irrigation performance of two such institutional intervention programs. This is done in the context of the Alto Río Lerma irrigation district (ARLID),...

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Viability of Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei Using Two Different Methods of Microencapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Smilkov, Katarina; Zivikj, Zoran; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Microencapsulation using two different methods, spray- drying and emulsion technique were applied to preserve the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei during manufacture and refrigerated storage. As coating materials to encapsulate the probiotic by spray-drying method, compatible biopolymers alginate and chitosan were utilized, while as a cross-linking agent, CaCl2 was used. In addition to the probiotic, oligofructose enriched inulin (Synergy 1®) as prebiotic was added to the medium...

  9. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  10. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real...

  11. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  12. Evolutionarily costly courtship displays in a wolf spider: a test of viability indicator theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chad D. Hoefler; Matthew H. Persons; Ann L. Rypstra

    2008-01-01

    The costs of secondary sexual traits are crucial to our understanding of sexual selection. Although it is broadly accepted that sexual traits are indirectly or directly costly to express, few studies have quantified such costs. Thus, it is unclear if costs are evolutionarily meaningful and to what degree. Costs play a key role in viability indicator models, which assume that 1) the expression of sexual traits reduces the fitness of the trait bearer, 2) sexual trait expression is dependent on ...

  13. A Comparison of Three Methods for the Analysis of Skin Flap Viability: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Carla Roberta; Martignago, Cintia Cristina Santi; da Silva, Viviane Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Estefany Camila Bonfim; Vieira, Fabiana Nascimento; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Liebano, Richard Eloin

    2018-05-01

    Objective: Technological advances have provided new alternatives to the analysis of skin flap viability in animal models; however, the interrater validity and reliability of these techniques have yet to be analyzed. The present study aimed to evaluate the interrater validity and reliability of three different methods: weight of paper template (WPT), paper template area (PTA), and photographic analysis. Approach: Sixteen male Wistar rats had their cranially based dorsal skin flap elevated. On the seventh postoperative day, the viable tissue area and the necrotic area of the skin flap were recorded using the paper template method and photo image. The evaluation of the percentage of viable tissue was performed using three methods, simultaneously and independently by two raters. The analysis of interrater reliability and viability was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland Altman Plot Analysis was used to visualize the presence or absence of systematic bias in the evaluations of data validity. Results: The results showed that interrater reliability for WPT, measurement of PTA, and photographic analysis were 0.995, 0.990, and 0.982, respectively. For data validity, a correlation >0.90 was observed for all comparisons made between the three methods. In addition, Bland Altman Plot Analysis showed agreement between the comparisons of the methods and the presence of systematic bias was not observed. Innovation: Digital methods are an excellent choice for assessing skin flap viability; moreover, they make data use and storage easier. Conclusion: Independently from the method used, the interrater reliability and validity proved to be excellent for the analysis of skin flaps' viability.

  14. Influence of boundary-layer dynamics on pollen dispersion and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Viner, Brian J.; Westgate, Mark E.

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns that GM traits can accidentally cross into conventional crops or wild relatives through the transport of wind-borne pollen. In order to evaluate this risk it is necessary to account both for dispersion of the pollen grains and environmental influences on pollen viability. The Lagrangian approach is suited to this problem because it allows tracking the environmental temperature and moisture that pollen grains experience as they travel. Taking advantage of this capability we have combined a high-resolution version of the WRF meteorological model with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to predict maize pollen dispersion and viability. WRF is used to obtain fields of wind, turbulence kinetic energy, temperature, and humidity which are then used as input to the Lagrangian dispersion model. The dispersion model in turn predicts transport of a statistical sample of a pollen cloud from source plants to receptors. We also use the three-dimensional temperature and moisture fields from WRF to diagnose changes in moisture content of the pollen grains and consequent loss of viability. Results show that turbulent motions in the convective boundary layer counteract the large terminal velocity of maize pollen grains and lift them to heights of several hundred meters, so that they can be transported long distances before settling to the ground. We also found that pollen lifted into the upper part of the boundary layer remains more viable than has been inferred using surface observations of temperature and humidity. This is attributed to the thermal and moisture structure that typifies the daytime atmospheric boundary layer, producing an environment of low vapor pressure deficit in the upper boundary layer which helps maintain pollen viability.

  15. Amyloid-beta aggregates cause alterations of astrocytic metabolic phenotype: impact on neuronal viability

    OpenAIRE

    Allaman, Igor; Gavillet, Mathilde; Bélanger, Mireille; Laroche, Thierry; Viertl, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and exert various toxic effects on neurons; however, relatively little is known about their influence on glial cells. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in brain homeostasis, contributing to the regulation of local energy metabolism and oxidative stress defense, two aspects of importance for neuronal viability and function. In the present study, we explored the effects of Abeta peptides on glucose metabolism ...

  16. Amyloid-beta aggregates cause alterations of astrocytic metabolic phenotype: impact on neuronal viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaman, Igor; Gavillet, Mathilde; Bélanger, Mireille; Laroche, Thierry; Viertl, David; Lashuel, Hilal A; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2010-03-03

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and exert various toxic effects on neurons; however, relatively little is known about their influence on glial cells. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in brain homeostasis, contributing to the regulation of local energy metabolism and oxidative stress defense, two aspects of importance for neuronal viability and function. In the present study, we explored the effects of Abeta peptides on glucose metabolism in cultured astrocytes. Following Abeta(25-35) exposure, we observed an increase in glucose uptake and its various metabolic fates, i.e., glycolysis (coupled to lactate release), tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, and incorporation into glycogen. Abeta increased hydrogen peroxide production as well as glutathione release into the extracellular space without affecting intracellular glutathione content. A causal link between the effects of Abeta on glucose metabolism and its aggregation and internalization into astrocytes through binding to members of the class A scavenger receptor family could be demonstrated. Using astrocyte-neuron cocultures, we observed that the overall modifications of astrocyte metabolism induced by Abeta impair neuronal viability. The effects of the Abeta(25-35) fragment were reproduced by Abeta(1-42) but not by Abeta(1-40). Finally, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathway appears to be crucial in these events since both the changes in glucose utilization and the decrease in neuronal viability are prevented by LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor. This set of observations indicates that Abeta aggregation and internalization into astrocytes profoundly alter their metabolic phenotype with deleterious consequences for neuronal viability.

  17. The effect of oestradiol-17β on the motility, viability and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of oestradiol-17β (E2) on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm in vitro. Pooled semen from Holstein bulls were incubated in the presence of 2, 4, and 8 μg E2/mL for 24 h. Semen was also incubated in media without E2. During the incubation, the number of ...

  18. The economic and financing viability of the OPR-1000 construction at Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch Djoko Birmano; Mochamad Nasrullah

    2005-01-01

    The study of the economic and financing viability of the OPR-1000 construction at Muria Peninsula have been done. This study is carried out with steps as follows: updating of newest OPR-1000 technical and economic data; survey of financing sources; the calculation of electricity generation cost, electricity tariff, construction cost of OPR-1000; and calculation of OPR-1000 financing viability by using feasibility criteria such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and capital payback period. The calculation of generation cost, electricity tariff, construction cost and financing viability criteria (IRR, NPV, Payback Period)by using KEPCO Spread Sheet. From the results of calculations how that the electricity generation cost is 4.0866 cent/kWh, while the electricity tariff is 6.6399 cent/kWh(after Value Added Tax). The total construction cost of OPR-1000 is US $4,092.09 million (included interest and financial fee, excluded initial nuclear fuel). The calculation of financing viability in base case obtained that value of IRR, NPV and Payback Period for total investment is 10.37%. US$90.52 million and 12.11 years respectively. From these results can be concluded that with the electricity tariff of 6.640 cent/kWh or 0.0664 US$/kWh, basically this project of OPR-1000 construction is very feasible and beneficial. From investment side, this project can attract investor because the rate of capital return is high enough, profit in the end of economic life is big enough and payback period is short. (author)

  19. 75 FR 60492 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability is charged with examining..., from 10 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held in the New Press... taking place on October 15, 2010, at 10 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time, in the New Press Room...

  20. Storage effect on viability and biofunctionality of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Mizied; Rayan, Anwar; Srouji, Samer

    2015-09-01

    In our recent studies, the transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has shown promise for treatment of diseases related to bone and joint disorders. For the current clinical applications, ASCs were formulated and suspended in PlasmaLyte A supplemented with heparin, glucose and human serum albumin, balanced to pH 7.4 with sodium bicarbonate. This cell solution constitutes 20% of the overall transplanted mixture and is supplemented with hyaluronic acid (60%) and OraGraft particles (20%). We intended to investigate the effect of this transplantation mixture on the viability and biofunctionality of ASCs in bone formation. Freshly harvested cells were resuspended and incubated in the indicated mixture for up to 48 h at 4°C. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue and AlamarBlue, and cell functionality was determined by quantifying their adhesion rate in vitro and bone formation in an ectopic mouse model. More than 80% of the ASCs stored in the transplantation mixture were viable for up to 24 h. Cell viability beyond 24 h in storage decreased to approximately 50%. In addition, an equal degree of bone formation was observed between the cells transplanted following incubation in transplantation mixture for up to 24 h and zero-time non-incubated cells (control). The viability and functionality of ASCs stored in the presented formulation will make such cell therapy accessible to larger and more remote populations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparision the value of detecting myocardial viability between low dose dobutamine stress MRI and echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yi; Zhang Zhaoqi; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Zhao Yike; Yan Zixu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To Compare the diagnostic value between low dose dobutamine stress transthrotic echocardiography and low dose dobutamine stress MRI in detecting myocardial viability of chronic myocardial infarction. Methods: Rest and low dose dobutamine (5, 10 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) stress transthrotic echocardiography and cine-MRI were performed in 30 patients with chronic myocardial infarction. 24 patients underwent successful revascularization and 10 of them underwent another rest cine-MRI study to assess segmental myocardial functional recovery. Left ventricular were divided into 16 segments, the criteria of viability in different techniques is: MRI: dobutamine induced systolic wall thickening was ≥2 mm in akinetic or diskinetic segments at rest; Echocardiography: wall motion score reduced at least 1 after dobutamine stress in akinetic or' diskinetic segments at rest. Results: One hundren and eight segments showed wall motion abnormalities of 30 patients, 65 and 56 segments shows positive reaction, 43 and 52 segments shows negativereaction in MRI and echocardiography after dobutamine stress respectively. Kappa value of the two techniques is 0.75, concordance in both techniques is 88%. Twenty-four segments showed functional recovery, 14 segments remained dysfunction 3-6 months after revascularization, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting myocardial viability in chronic myocardial infarction in MRI and echocardiography is 95.8% vs 79.2% (P>0.05), 85.7% vs 85.7% (P>0.05), 92.1% vs 81.6% (P>0.05) respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of MRI is a little higher. Conclusion: The ability of detecting myocardial viability by both low dose dobutamine stress transthrotic echocardiography and low dose dobutamine stress MRI is similer, the sensitivity and accuracy of MRI is a little higher. (authors)

  2. Seminar on economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, Z.F.

    1994-01-01

    While the viability of non conventional (renewable) energy usage has received a setback in 80's due to a drop in crude oil prices, developments in technology of these energy sources as well as India's own compulsions of import of petroleum products for other uses like transport would make it worthwhile to review and expedite commercial exploitation by industry, both for current needs and for the coming years. (author). 4 tabs

  3. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie L Laurin

    Full Text Available Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12 as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants.

  4. The effect of 'allergenic' and 'nonallergenic' antibiotics on dog keratinocyte viability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voie, Katrine L; Lucas, Benjamin E; Schaeffer, David; Kim, Dewey; Campbell, Karen L; Lavergne, Sidonie N

    2013-10-01

    Immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (drug hypersensitivity) are relatively common in veterinary medicine, but their pathogenesis is not well understood. For an unknown reason, delayed drug hypersensitivity often targets the skin. Antibiotics, especially β-lactams and sulfonamides, are commonly associated with these adverse events. The 'danger theory' hypothesizes that 'danger' signals, such as drug-induced cell death, might be part of the pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions. The goal of this study was to determine whether antibiotics that are commonly associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity (allergenic) decrease canine keratinocyte viability in vitro more than antibiotics that rarely cause such reactions (nonallergenic). Immortalized canine keratinocytes (CPEK cells) were exposed to a therapeutic range of drug concentrations of four 'allergenic' antibiotics (two β-lactams, i.e. amoxicillin and cefalexin, and two sulfonamides, i.e. sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimethoxine) or two 'nonallergenic' antibiotics (enrofloxacin and amikacin) over 48 h (2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h). The reactive nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole was also tested. Cefalexin (2 mmol/L) significantly decreased cell viability after 48 h (28 ± 7%; P = 0.035). The nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole (100 μmol/L) decreased cell viability after 2 h (21 ± 7%; P = 0.049), but cell numbers were increased after 8 h (22 ± 6%; P = 0.018). In addition, enrofloxacin (500 μmol/L) also significantly decreased cell viability by 37% (±6%; P = 0.0035) at 24 h and by 70% (±8%; P good predictor of the 'allergenic' potential of an antibiotic. Further work is required to investigate other drug-induced 'danger' signals in dog keratinocytes exposed to 'allergenic' antibiotics in vitro. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Testing a dual-fluorescence assay to monitor the viability of filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J; Hildreth, Michael B; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to produce long-chain organic compounds, including 3rd generation biofuels. Because of their filamentous morphology, standard methods to quantify viability (e.g., plate counts) are not possible. This study investigated a dual-fluorescence assay based upon the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit to quantify the percent viability of filamentous cyanobacteria using a microplate reader in a high throughput 96-well plate format. The manufacturer's protocol calls for an optical density normalization step to equalize the numbers of viable and non-viable cells used to generate calibration curves. Unfortunately, the isopropanol treatment used to generate non-viable cells released a blue pigment that altered absorbance readings of the non-viable cell solution, resulting in an inaccurate calibration curve. Thus we omitted this optical density normalization step, and carefully divided cell cultures into two equal fractions before the isopropanol treatment. While the resulting calibration curves had relatively high correlation coefficients, their use in various experiments resulted in viability estimates ranging from below 0% to far above 100%. We traced this to the apparent inaccuracy of the propidium iodide (PI) dye that was to stain only non-viable cells. Through further analysis via microplate reader, as well as confocal and wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy, we observed non-specific binding of PI in viable filamentous cyanobacteria. While PI will not work for filamentous cyanobacteria, it is possible that other fluorochrome dyes could be used to selectively stain non-viable cells. This will be essential in future studies for screening mutants and optimizing photobioreactor system performance for filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D3 regulates cell viability in gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Sungmin; Lee, Young-Suk; Shim, Hye-Eun; Yoon, Sik; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2011-01-01

    A low serum level of vitamin D has been associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal tract cancers. However, the effects of vitamin D3 have not been investigated in gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. In the present study, we found that vitamin D3 treatment significantly suppressed the viability of gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, vitamin D3 had a synergistic effect with other anti-cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, adriamycin, and vinblastine, for suppre...

  7. Technical Viability of Battery Second Life: A Study from the Ageing Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Sarasketa-Zabala, Elixabet; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) NMC/C battery State of Health (SOH) and ageing history over the second life performance, on two different applications: a residential demand management application and a power smoothing renewable integration application. The performance and degradation of second life batteries...... ageing history upon the second life battery performance and degradation. Thereby, proper monitoring and battery selection appears crucial to certify the technical viability of battery second life....

  8. Cannabinoids as modulators of cancer cell viability, neuronal differentiation, and embryonal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) are compounds that activate the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB receptors mediate many different physiological functions, and cannabinoids have been reported to decrease tumor cell viability, proliferation, migration, as well as to modulate metastasis. In this thesis, the effects of cannabinoids on human colorectal carcinoma Caco-2 cells (Paper I) and mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells (Paper III) were studied.  In both cell lines, the compounds examined produced a concentr...

  9. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.

  10. Study of pentoxifylline effects on motility and viability of spermatozoa from infertile asthenozoospermic males

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemzadeh, Aliye; Karkon-Shayan, Farid; Yousefzadeh, Solmaz; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Hamdi, Kobra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quality of semen is one of the major parameters in male infertility. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, is an agent primarily used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and other vascular disorders. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline enhances the quality and quantity of sperms. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of pentoxifylline on viability and motility of spermatozoa in samples of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males. Materials ...

  11. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Baral; Kyung Chun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal ef...

  12. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA, hyaluronan (HA, and gelatin (Gn. These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs embedded in 2% (w/v PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins.

  13. [Knockdown of PRDX6 in microglia reduces neuron viability after OGD/R injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Beibei; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Objective To observe the effects of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) knockdown in the microglia on neuron viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Methods Microglia was treated with lentivirus PRDX6-siRNA and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethgl)-sn-glycerol-2 phosphomethanol (MJ33). Twenty-four hours later, it was co-cultured with primary neuron to establish the microglia-neuron co-culture OGD/R model. According to the different treatment of microglia, the cells were divided into normal group, OGD/R group, negative control-siRNA treated OGD/R group, PRDX6-siRNA treated OGD/R group and PRDX6-siRNA combined with MJ33 treated OGD/R group. Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR were respectively performed to detect PRDX6 protein and mRNA levels after knockdown of PRDX6 in microglia. The iPLA2 activity was measured by ELISA. MTS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to measure neuron viability and cell damage. The oxidative stress level of neuron was determined by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. Results In PRDX6-siRNA group, neuron viability was inhibited and oxidative stress damage was aggravated compared with OGD/R group. In PRDX6-siRNA combined with MJ33 group, cell viability was promoted and oxidative stress damage was alleviated compared with PRDX6-siRNA group. Conclusion PRDX6 in microglia protects neuron against OGD/R-induced injury, and iPLA2 activity has an effect on PRDX6.

  14. Viability of a New Road Infrastructure with Heterogeneous Users in Madrid Access

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cantos-Sanchez; Rafael Moner-Colonques; Jose J. Sempere-Monerris; Oscar Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of heterogeneity in value of time when assessing the viability of a new road infrastructure to alleviate congestion problems. The Spanish government has developed a congestion pricing demonstration entering Madrid city centre, where road users have to choose between a free but highly congested road and a priced free-flowing road. We consider a continuum of users who differ in their value of time. Users dislike congestion and this is more so the more a user v...

  15. Fluorescein diacetate for determination of cell viability in tissue-engineered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Alexis D; Powell, Heather M; Boyce, Steven T

    2008-03-01

    Assurance of the quality of cultured skin substitutes (CSSs) currently relies on representative histology and determination of surface hydration, which provide limited sampling at selected points. To evaluate uniformity of cell density on the collagen matrices before clinical use, a field assessment of cell viability is advantageous. This study aimed to develop a field measure of cell viability in CSSs in vitro using fluorescein diacetate (FdA). CSSs were stained 3 days after keratinocyte inoculation using 0.04 mg/mL FdA followed by exposure to 366 nm of ultraviolet light. CSS fluorescence quantified using Metamorph image analysis was correlated with inoculation density, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) values and histology of corresponding biopsies. CSS fluorescence correlated significantly with inoculation density (p < 0.001) and MTT values (p < 0.001) of biopsies collected immediately after FdA staining. Fluorescence at day 3 also predicted day 10 MTT values. No toxicity was detected in CSSs, and normal in vitro and in vivo histology was demonstrated after FdA exposure. In conclusion, measurement of intracellular fluorescence with FdA allows for the early, comprehensive measurement of cellular distributions and viability in engineered skin and may therefore facilitate quality assurance.

  16. [New valvular homografts. Prospects and limits of their viability. Report of 42 implantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, G; Mesnildrey, P; Hanotel, M C; Heurtematte, Y; Cachera, J P; Paul, M; Astier, A; Beaujean, F; Dubertret, L; Galle, P

    1990-10-01

    The regain of interest in aortic homograft bioprostheses is related to the prospects of improved viability resulting from explanation from organ donors, preservation in rich tissue culture media, together with the progress made in techniques of cryopreservation. Viability studies examining morphology of electron microscopy and tests of tissue culture confirm this notion of longer viability. These properties raise hopes of satisfactory long-term results while acknowledging outstanding antigenic problems which require strict A-B-O system compatibility. The results of a preliminary series of 42 valve homografts implanted at Henri Mondor Hospital over the last 5 years are reported. Twenty-one bioprostheses were implanted on the right side in congenital heart disease with good results in every case. Twenty-one were implanted in the aortic position in children and show no signs of degeneration as yet. One poor result was related to a technical error in calibration. The rebirth of this technique raises certain hopes, especially in aortic valve replacement.

  17. Variation of weigh and viability of seeds of Pinus tropicalis from different populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bonilla Vichot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus tropicalis Morelet is endemic in the province of Pinar del Rio and Isla de la Juventud. In this paper the variation is evaluated in weight and viability of seeds from 4 seed areas of the province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, which were harvested in July and stored for five months at room temperature until They were made to the corresponding analysis. Samples of each of the sources weretaken to determine the weight of 1000 seeds, as established methodology ISTA (1993. Viability was also determined from the tetrazolium Test. It was observed that the individual weight of the seeds of Pinus tropicalis has 0,0051g values to 0,050g, while the average weight of 1000 seeds shows variation by origin, showing the greatest weight to the seeds from the seed mass Ceja del Negro (orchard seedling genetically enhanced trees, which directly influences the quality of seeds. The viability was also superior in the origin of Ceja del Negro.

  18. Methodological Aspects of Modeling Development and Viability of Systems and Counterparties in the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitlinskyy Valdemar V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study and generalize methodological approaches to modeling economic development and viability of economic systems with consideration for risk, changing their goals, status, and behavior in the digital economy. The definition of categories of economic development and viability is offered, the directions of their research by means of mathematical modeling are grounded. The system of characteristics and markers of the external economic environment under conditions of digitalization of economic activity is analyzed. The theoretical foundations and methodology for mathematical modeling of development of economic systems as well as ensuring their viability and security under conditions of introducing infrastructure of information society and digital economy on the principles of the information and knowledge approach are considered. It is proved that in an information society, predictive model technologies are a growing safety resource. There studied prerequisites for replacing the traditional integration concept of evaluation, analysis, modeling, management, and administration of economic development based on a threat-oriented approach to the definition of security protectors, information, and knowledge. There proposed a concept of creating a database of models for examining trends and patterns of economic development, which, unlike traditional trend models of dynamics, identifies and iteratively conceptualizes processes based on a set of knowledgeable predictors based on the use of data mining and machine learning tools, including in-depth training.

  19. Effects of biosurfactants on the viability and proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristina; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Lima, Cristovao F; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are molecules with surface activity produced by microorganisms that can be used in many biomedical applications. The anti-tumour potential of these molecules is being studied, although results are still scarce and few data are available regarding the mechanisms underlying such activity. In this work, the anti-tumour activity of a surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis 573 and a glycoprotein (BioEG) produced by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei A20 was evaluated. Both biosurfactants were tested against two breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MDA-MB-231, and a non-tumour fibroblast cell line (MC-3 T3-E1), specifically regarding cell viability and proliferation. Surfactin was found to decrease viability of both breast cancer cell lines studied. A 24 h exposure to 0.05 g l(-1) surfactin led to inhibition of cell proliferation as shown by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Similarly, exposure of cells to 0.15 g l(-1) BioEG for 48 h decreased cancer cells' viability, without affecting normal fibroblasts. Moreover, BioEG induced the cell cycle arrest at G1 for both breast cancer cell lines. The biosurfactant BioEG was shown to be more active than surfactin against the studied breast cancer cells. The results gathered in this work are very promising regarding the biosurfactants potential for breast cancer treatment and encourage further work with the BioEG glycoprotein.

  20. Determination of pollen grain viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in Aydin /Turkey ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunver-Dalkilic, G.; Dayi-Dogru, O.

    2011-01-01

    With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Aydin Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after fourth day, in the refrigerator from tenth day and in the deep freezer from second month was decreased to zero. (author)

  1. EFFECT OF SILICATE ON GRAM STAINING AND VIABILITY OF PNEUMOCOCCI AND OTHER BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin M.; Roe, Amy S.

    1956-01-01

    Application of silicate solutions to living or heat-killed pneumococci and to certain "viridans" streptococci causes their conversion from a Gram-positive to a Gram-negative state. The original staining properties can be restored by suspending the silicate-treated bacteria in alkaline solutions of various salts but not by simple washing in water. Living pneumococci and the strains of streptococci whose staining properties are similarly affected are killed when suspended in silicate solutions. In other Gram-positive species silicate causes conversion to Gram negativity but restoration to positivity occurs upon washing in water. In a third group of Gram-positive organisms silicate has no effect on the Gram reaction. The viability of organisms in these two groups is unaffected by silicate under the conditions employed. No effect on staining or viability of Gram-negative bacteria has been observed. The effects of silicate on staining and viability are inhibited by nutrient broth or whole serum but not by purified serum albumin. Lecithin, choline, and other substituted ammonium compounds also inhibit the effects of silicate on pneumococci. PMID:13306854

  2. Determination of pollen grain viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in Aydin /Turkey ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunver-Dalkilic, G; Dayi-Dogru, O

    2011-04-15

    With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Aydin Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after fourth day, in the refrigerator from tenth day and in the deep freezer from second month was decreased to zero. (author)

  3. A rapid, sensitive, and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Sven; Ave, Maaike; Schoenmakers, Niels; Landeweert, Renske; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts, which can contain 200 to 500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor intensive or lack robustness. We present a robust and cost-efficient viability assay based on loss of membrane integrity upon death. This assay uses trehalose, a disaccharide present at a high concentration in the perivitelline fluid of PCN eggs, as a viability marker. Although this assay can detect a single viable egg, the limit of detection for regular field samples was higher, ≈10 viable eggs, due to background signals produced by other soil components. On the basis of 30 nonviable PCN samples from The Netherlands, a threshold level was defined (ΔA(trehalose) = 0.0094) below which the presence of >10 viable eggs is highly unlikely (true for ≈99.7% of the observations). This assay can easily be combined with a subsequent DNA-based species determination. The presence of trehalose is a general phenomenon among cyst nematodes; therefore, this method can probably be used for (for example) soybean, sugar beet, and cereal cyst nematodes as well.

  4. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O 3 ) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O 3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O 3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O 3 , determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O 3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: → O 3 reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. → ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O 3 exposure. → O 3 enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. → O 3 increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  5. Viability and growth characteristics of Lactobacillus in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-02-01

    Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli.

  6. Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

    2010-12-23

    The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-β-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion's leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  8. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  9. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 ± 7, 12 ± 2, 43 ± 5, 25 ± 7, 14 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 78 ± 1, 58 ± 5 and 74 ± 7 k B/m 3 with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors

  10. Serum-dependent effects of tamoxifen and cannabinoids upon C6 glioma cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, S O; Rongård, E; Stridh, M; Tiger, G; Fowler, C J

    2000-12-15

    In the present study, the effects of the combination of tamoxifen ((Z)-2[p-(1,2-diphenyl-1-butenyl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylamine citrate) and three cannabinoids (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [Delta(9)-THC], cannabidiol, and anandamide [AEA]) upon the viability of C6 rat glioma cells was assessed at different incubation times and using different culturing concentrations of foetal bovine serum (FBS). Consistent with previous data for human glioblastoma cells, the tamoxifen sensitivity of the cells was increased as the FBS content of the culture medium was reduced from 10 to 0.4 and 0%. The cells expressed protein kinase C alpha and calmodulin (the concentration of which did not change significantly as the FBS concentration was reduced), but did not express estrogen receptors. Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol, but not AEA, produced a modest reduction in cell viability after 6 days of incubation in serum-free medium, whereas no effects were seen in 10% FBS-containing medium. There was no observed synergy between the effects of tamoxifen and the cannabinoids upon cell viability.

  11. Nucleic acid stains as indicators of Giardia muris viability following cyst inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi-Kilani, R; Gyürék, L L; Millard, P J; Finch, G R; Belosevic, M

    1996-06-01

    A reliable viability assay for Giardia is required for the development of disinfection process design criteria and pathogen monitoring by water treatment utilities. Surveys of single-staining nucleic acid dyes (stain dead parasites only), and double-staining vital dye kits from Molecular Probes (stain live and dead parasites) were conducted to assess the viability of untreated, heat-killed, and chemically inactivated Giardia muris cysts. Nucleic acid staining results were compared to those of in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Nucleic acid stain, designated as SYTO-9, was considered the best among the single-staining dyes for its ability to stain dead cysts brightly and its relatively slow decay rate of visible light emission following DNA binding. SYTO-9 staining was correlated to animal infectivity. A Live/Dead BacLight was found to be the better of 2 double-staining viability kits tested. Logarithmic survival ratios based on SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight were compared to excystation and infectivity results for G. muris cysts exposed to ozone or free chlorine. The results indicate that SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight staining is stable following treatment of cysts with chemical disinfectants.

  12. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Titanium Implant Surfaces: Microgroove-Structures Improve Cellular Adhesion and Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Philip; Hoffmann, Alexia; Henningsen, Anders; Barbeck, Mike; Kopp, Alexander; Kluwe, Lan; Precht, Clarissa; Quatela, Olivia; Gaudin, Robert; Heiland, Max; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Knipfer, Christian; Grubeanu, Daniel; Smeets, Ralf; Jung, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an established electrochemical treatment technique that can be used for surface modifications of metal implants. In this study we to treated titanium implants with PEO, to examine the resulting microstructure and to characterize adhesion and viability of cells on the treated surfaces. Our aim was to identify an optimal surface-modification for titanium implants in order to improve soft-tissue integration. Three surface-variants were generated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by PEO-treatment. The elemental composition and the microstructures of the surfaces were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. In vitro cytocompatibility of the surfaces was assessed by seeding L929 fibroblasts onto them and measuring the adhesion, viability and cytotoxicity of cells by means of live/dead staining, XTT assay and LDH assay. Electron microscopy and profilometry revealed that the PEO-surface variants differed largely in microstructure/topography, porosity and roughness from the untreated control material as well as from one another. Roughness was generally increased after PEO-treatment. In vitro, PEO-treatment led to improved cellular adhesion and viability of cells accompanied by decreased cytotoxicity. PEO-treatment provides a promising strategy to improve the integration of titanium implants with surrounding tissues. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín,

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cell Viability and PGE2 Production in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Castiblanco, Gina; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Roos, Stefan; Twetman, Svante

    2017-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that probiotic therapy can play a role in the prevention and management of oral inflammatory diseases through immunomodulation and down-regulation of the inflammatory cascade. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and its production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), when exposed to supernatants of two mixed Lactobacillus reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 5289 and DSM 17938). The experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. L. reuteri strains were grown and the bacterial supernatant was collected. The cell-free supernatant was diluted to concentrations equivalent to the ones produced by 0.5 to 5.0 × 10 7  CFU/mL bacteria. Cell viability was assessed with the MTT colorimetric assay and the amount of PGE 2 in the cell culture medium was determined using the monoclonal enzyme immune assay kits. Our findings showed that none of the L. reuteri supernatants were cytotoxic or affected the viability of HGF. The most concentrated bacterial supernatant stimulated the production of PGE 2 by the gingival cells in a significant way in the presence of IL-1β (p reuteri might play a role in the resolution of inflammation in HGF. Thus, our findings justify further investigations on the influence of probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammatory reactions.

  15. The reducibility of heLa cell viability by Sargassum polycystum extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, M.; Setijawati, D.; Islam, I.; Nursyam, H.; Kartikaningsih, H.; Yufidasari, H. S.; Prihanto, A. A.; Nurdiani, R.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death-related cancer in women. The efficacy of cancer drugs is still low. Bioactive of brown seaweed has been studied by in vitro and in vivo as anticancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Sargassum polycystum extracts on HeLa cell, to recognize bioactive on extract and estimate the interaction between the bioactive and target protein. S. polycystum was found from Talango Island waters and HeLa cell was obtained from Indonesian Science Institute. Sample was extracted by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane, concentrated and finally, extracts were assayed on HeLa cell. The viability of this cell was quantified on ELISA-Reader. The bioactive compounds of the extract were elucidated by GC-MS. The interaction between bioactive and target protein was evaluated by using in silico method. The result showed that the lowest viability of HeLa cell on n-hexane extracts treatment. The n-hexane extract of this seaweed contained benzenepropanoic acid. This compound reduced HeLa cell viability by reducing of thrombin concentration. In conclusion, the benzene propanoic acid of S. polycystum was the cytotoxic agent and it is potential agent for anti-cervical cancer.

  16. The effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on motility and viability of human sperms after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadmobini, Atefeh; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Khaleghi, Sara; Esmaeili, Farzaneh; Mostafaei, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Semen cryopreservation produces significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to impairment of sperm morphology, function, and ultimately, male fertility. Since Tribulus terrestris has antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties, this study aims to reveal the effect of the Tribulus terrestris extract on motility and vitality of human sperms after cryopreservation. Semen specimens from 80 healthy volunteers were divided into eight groups: fresh control (group I), freeze control (group II), groups III, IV, and V, which had 20, 40, and 50 μg/mL doses of Tribulus terrestris extract added before cryopreservation, and groups VI, VII, and VIII, which were supplemented by these extract doses after the freeze-thaw process. To evaluate the effects of the Tribulus terrestris extract, the semen samples were incubated with the extract and evaluated with a light microscope for motility and viability. After cryopreservation, a significant improvement in spermatozoa viability was observed in group VII. In groups VII and VIII, motility, according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, increased considerably (p Tribulus terrestris, which improves human sperm motility and viability, may be due to its antioxidant properties. On the basis of the results, the researchers concluded that Tribulus terrestris can be used as a safe therapeutic alternative to current modalities for the management of motility dysfunction in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollen viability, physiology, and production of maize plants exposed to pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Verônica Barbosa; Costa, Alan Carlos; Boff, Tatiana; Müller, Caroline; Mendonça, Maria Andréia Corrêa; Batista, Priscila Ferreira

    2017-04-01

    The use of fungicides in maize has been more frequent due to an increase in the incidence of diseases and also the possible physiological benefits that some of these products may cause. However, some of these products (e.g., strobilurins and triazoles) may interfere with physiological processes and the formation of reproductive organs. Therefore, the effect of these products on plants at different developmental stages needs to be better understood to reduce losses and maximize production. The effect of the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole (P+E) was evaluated at different growth stages in meiosis, pollen grain viability and germination, physiology, and production of maize plants in the absence of disease. An experiment was carried out with the hybrid DKB390 PROII and the application of pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole at the recommended dose and an untreated control at 3 different timings (S1 - V10; S2 - V14; S3 - R1) with 5 replications. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, pollen viability and germination, as well as the hundred-grain weight were evaluated. Anthers were collected from plants of S1 for cytogenetic analysis. The fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole reduced the viability of pollen grains (1.4%), but this was not enough to reduce production. Moreover, no differences were observed in any of the other parameters analyzed, suggesting that P+E at the recommended dose and the tested stages does not cause toxic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L

    2004-09-01

    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P extenders, except on Day 2, when Androhep Plus maintained better viability. Differences in the percentage of motile (total) sperm due to extender were evident on Days 2, 4, 5, and 6, when Androhep Plus was superior to BTS (P extender as early as Day 2; storage in Androhep Plus induced higher levels of pattern B sperm (P extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  19. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L., is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i. Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.

  20. Biochemical Characteristics and Viability of Probiotic and Yogurt Bacteria in Yogurt during the Fermentation and Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sarvari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the viability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in yogurt during the fermentation, immediately after fermentation and during refrigerated storage (21 d, 4˚C. Also the biochemical characteristics of milk as affected by the commercial 4-strain mixed starter culture were investigated. Storage time affected the viability of all bacterial species. The concentration of lactic acid during the fermentation increased in parallel with the titrable acidity, and the concentration of acetic acid was proportional to the viability of Bifidobacterium lactis. The acetaldehyde level was decreased in the yogurt from day 0 up to the end of the storage. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were multiplied considerably during the fermentation. Streptococcus thermophilus could maintain its viability to the highest level, but Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus lost its viability rapidly during the cold storage compared to Streptococcus thermophilus. The multiplication and viability of probiotic bacteria were also influenced by the associative strains and species of yogurt organisms. Bifidobacteria counts were satisfactory. The loss of viability for bifidobacteria was gradual and steady during the storage, and they showed good stability during the storage as compared to Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  1. Seca da semente de café ao sol Effect of sunlight on coffee seed viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho diz respeito a estudos realizados com o objetivo de observar a influência da luz solar sôbre a capacidade germinativa da semente despolpada de café e verificar, portanto, a possibilidade de se efetuar a seca desta semente exclusivamente ao sol. Além de um ensaio preliminar, foram efetuados mais outros dois, compreendendo, ao todo, duas secas ao sol, duas em um secador a baixa temperatura (±28°C, uma a sombra e uma em um secador a alta temperatura (±40°C. Pelas correlações entre as porcentagens de germinação e de umidade, que foram estabelecidas após diferentes períodos de secagem, foram tiradas as duas seguintes conclusões, que são as principais com relação ao objetivo dêstes ensaios : 1 Os raios solares são prejudiciais à capacidade germinativa da semente de café; sua nocividade acha-se, porém, intimamente ligada ao teor de umidade na semente. 2 À vista da conclusão acima, verifica-se que a semente despolpada de café e, muito provavelmente, também a não despolpada, podem ser perfeitamente sêcas a pleno sol sem que haja prejuízo para sua vitalidade, uma vez que sejam recolhidas antes que o seu teor de umidade caia abaixo do ponto crítico de 8% - 9%.In this paper the author deals with the question related to the coffee seed drying, with special attention to the effect of the sun radiations on seed viability. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn : (a The sun rays have no specific influence on the viability of hulled coffee seed ; their effect is indirect and related to loss of moisture by the seed. (b Coffee seed can be dried in the sunlight without loss of viability if the water content does not drop under 8% to 9%. Below this critical level seed germination falls rapidly. (c The moisture content of coffee seed dried „in the sun may fall to about 7% in a short time with the consequent injury to viability. (d Under most conditions in the state of São Paulo

  2. Viability Study for an Unattended UF_6 Cylinder Verification Station: Phase I Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon E.; Miller, Karen A.; Garner, James R.; Branney, Sean; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Nordquist, Heather; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Stewart, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) that could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, "2"3"5U mass, total uranium mass and identification for all declared UF_6 cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The US Support Program team consisted of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL, lead), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savanah River National Laboratory (SRNL). At the core of the viability study is a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a Westinghouse fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study is a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This report provides context for the UCVS concept and the field trial: potential UCVS implementation concepts at an enrichment facility; an overview of UCVS prototype design; field trial objectives and activities. Field trial results and interpretation are presented, with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 ''typical'' Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an ''NDA Fingerprint'' concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that the contents of a given cylinder are consistent with previous scans. A modeling study, combined with field-measured instrument

  3. Vaginal Lactobacilli Reduce Neisseria gonorrhoeae Viability through Multiple Strategies: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Foschi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC underline the need of “antibiotic-free” strategies for the control of gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-gonococcal activity of 14 vaginal Lactobacillus strains, belonging to different species (L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. vaginalis, isolated from healthy pre-menopausal women. In particular, we performed “inhibition” experiments, evaluating the ability of both lactobacilli cells and culture supernatants in reducing GC viability, at two different contact times (7 and 60 min. First, we found that the acidic environment, associated to lactobacilli metabolism, is extremely effective in counteracting GC growth, in a pH- and time-dependent manner. Indeed, a complete abolishment of GC viability by lactobacilli supernatants was observed only for pH values < 4.0, even at short contact times. On the contrary, for higher pH values, no 100%-reduction of GC growth was reached at any contact time. Experiments with organic/inorganic acid solutions confirmed the strict correlation between the pH levels and the anti-gonococcal effect. In this context, the presence of lactate seemed to be crucial for the anti-gonococcal activity, especially for pH values in the range 4.4–5.3, indicating that the presence of H+ ions is necessary but not sufficient to kill gonococci. Moreover, experiments with buffered supernatants led to exclude a direct role in the GC killing by other bioactive molecules produced by lactobacilli. Second, we noticed that lactobacilli cells are able to reduce GC viability and to co-aggregate with gonococci. In this context, we demonstrated that released-surface components with biosurfactant properties, isolated from “highly-aggregating” lactobacilli, could affect GC viability. The antimicrobial potential of biosurfactants isolated from lactobacilli against pathogens has been largely investigated, but this is the first report about a

  4. Effect of radiation dosage changes on the cell viability and the apoptosis induction on normal and tumorigenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Woo; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to detect the differences in the cell viability and the apoptosis induction after irradiation on normal and tumorigenic cells. The study, that was generated for two human normal cells (RHEK, HGF-1) and two human tumor cells (KB, HT-1080), was tested using MTT assay at 1 day and 3 day after irradiation and TUNEL assay under confocal laser scanning microscope at 1 day after irradiation. Single irradiation of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 Gy were applied to the cells. The two fractions of 1, 2, 4, and 8 Gy were separated with a 4 hour time interval. The irradiation was done with 5.38 Gy/min dose rate using Cs-137 irradiator at room temperature. 1. In 3-day group, the cell viability of HGF-1 cell was significantly decreased at 2, 4 and 8 Gy irradiation, the cell viability of KB cell was significantly decreased at 8 Gy irradiation and the cell viability of HT-1080 cell was significantly decreased at 4 and 8 Gy irradiation. 2. There was significant difference between RHEK and KB cell line in the cell viability of 3-day group at 8 Gy irradiation. There was significant difference between RHEK and HGF-1 cell line in the cell viability of 3-day group at 4 and 8 Gy irradiation. 3. There was a significantly decreased cell viability in 3-day group than those in 1-day group at 2, 4 and 8 Gy on HGF-1 cell, at 4 and 8 Gy on HT-1080 cell, at 8 Gy on KB cell.4. We could detect DNA fragmented cells only on KB cell. Number of apoptotic cells of KB cell was significantly increased at 4 and 8 Gy irradiation. However, there was no correlation between cell viability and apoptosis.5. On all 4 cell lines, there were no differences between single and split irradiation method in cell viability and apoptosis.

  5. Trends in Overall Mortality, and Timing and Cause of Death among Extremely Preterm Infants near the Limit of Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sein; Ahn, So Yoon; Park, Won Soon

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trends in mortality, as well as in the timing and cause of death, among extremely preterm infants at the limit of viability, and thus to identify the clinical factors that contribute to decreased mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 382 infants born at 23–26 weeks’ gestation; 124 of the infants were born between 2001 and 2005 (period I) and 258 were born between 2006 and 2011 (period II). We stratified the infants into two subgroups–“23–24 weeks” and “25–26 weeks”–and retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and mortality in each group, as well as the timing and cause of death. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify the clinical factors associated with mortality. Results The overall mortality rate in period II was 16.7% (43/258), which was significantly lower than that in period I (30.6%; 38/124). For overall cause of death, there were significantly fewer deaths due to sepsis (2.4% [6/258] vs. 8.1% [10/124], respectively) and air-leak syndrome (0.8% [2/258] vs. 4.8% (6/124), respectively) during period II than during period I. Among the clinical factors of time period, 1-and 5-min Apgar score, antenatal steroid identified significant by univariate analyses. 5-min Apgar score and antenatal steroid use were significantly associated with mortality in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Improved mortality rate attributable to fewer deaths due to sepsis and air leak syndrome in the infants with 23–26 weeks’ gestation was associated with higher 5-minute Apgar score and more antenatal steroid use. PMID:28114330

  6. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    . Similarly, between the groups, there were no differences in pregnancy adaptation with similar trends in cardiovascular function changes from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. Whilst this is the first study to investigate preconception and early pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function in relation to viability, the relatively modest number of miscarriages may not be sufficient to show subtle differences in haemodynamic changes if these were present. This study suggests that pre-pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function is unlikely to be the causal link between miscarriages and future cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggests that factors other than the presence of a viable embryo drive cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy. This study raises new questions about miscarriages as an independent risk event which predisposes women to increased cardiovascular risk later in life. The investigators are funded by NIHR Imperial BRC, NIHR Cambridge BRC, Action Medical Research, Imperial College Healthcare Charity and Tommy's Charity. We acknowledge the loan of ultrasound equipment from Samsung Medison (South Korea)/MIS Ltd and provision of fertility monitors from SPD Development Company Ltd (Bedford, UK). There are no competing interests. C.C.L. is supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust and Imperial College London. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Population and habitat viability assessments for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos: Usefulness to Partners in Flight Conservation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, C.J.; Hatfield, J.S.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos are Neotropical migratory birds that are federally listed as endangered. Recovery plans for both species advise the use of viability modeling as a tool for setting specific recovery and management targets. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment workshops were conducted to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for these species. Results of the workshops were based on modeling demographic and environmental factors, as well as discussions of management issues, management options, and public outreach strategies. The approach is intended to be iterative, and to be tracked by research and monitoring efforts. This paper discusses the consensus-building workshop process and how the approach could be useful to Partners in Flight. Population and Habitat Viability Assessments (PHVA) were used to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for Golden-cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) and Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapillus). This paper explains what PHVAs are, discusses how they are conducted, describes the general results that are produced, and suggests how Partners in Flight (PIF) might use a similar process for bird conservation planning. Detailed results of the assessments are not discussed here; however they can be found elsewhere (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). PHVAs were considered for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos because they are controversial, endangered species, and the species? recovery plans list PHVAs as tools to develop recovery recommendations. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) realized that the data needed to perform PHVAs for these species is limited, but that various conservation efforts, such as the Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan and other endeavors, were proceeding without benefit of the biological summarization and guidance that a PHVA could provide.

  8. Viability of probiotic micro-organism Lactobacillus acidophilus in dairy chocolate dessert and its action against foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Justo Beserra Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The ability to produce antimicrobial factors is considered an important feature of probiotic microorganisms. Bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and lactic acid are examples of these substances. The present research aimed to develop probiotic dairy desserts (DD with Lactobacillus acidophilusand evaluate the viability of this strain, as well as its action on food pathogens. Treatments with and without interactions between L. acidophilusand pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonellasp. andEscherichiacoli O157:H7 and Gram positive (Bacillus cereusand Staphylococcus aureus were produced. The products were stored at a temperature of 8°C and analyzed at the times 24, 48, 72 hours, 7 days and 28 days (at 28 days, only T1 was analyzed because the other products were deteriorated. In an analysis of the potential for development of new products, the dairy dessert with L. acidophiluswas considered a probiotic product. Assessment of the counts of pathogens in dairy desserts with or without L. acidophilusshowed different behaviors of these products in response to pathogens, which could be justified by a possible action of bacteriocins or microbial competition, but there has been no overall reduction or reduction up to a safe level. It is concluded that the probiotic products developed reduced significant food pathogens, but not up to safe levels. Thus, we emphasize the importance of the use of quality tools in the development and monitoring of dairy desserts.

  9. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and its effects on microtubule integrity and cell viability in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, Paraskevi, E-mail: malea@bio.auth.gr [Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. [Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kevrekidis, Theodoros [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Education, Democritus University of Thrace, Nea Hili, GR-68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Cd effect on microtubules and viability of seagrass leaf cells was assessed. •The Michaelis–Menten equation satisfactorily dercribed the kinetics of Cd uptake. •Cd depolymerized MTs after 3–9 d of exposure, cell death occurred at later time. •Toxicity appeared to depend on Cd uptake rate rather than on tissue Cd content. •MTs can be used as biomarker of Cd stress and uptake rate for predicting effects. -- Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium accumulation and its effects on microtubule cytoskeleton and cell viability in leaf blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were investigated under laboratory conditions in exposure concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 40 mg L{sup −1}. An initial rapid accumulation of cadmium was followed by a steady state. The Michaelis–Menten model adequately described metal accumulation; equilibrium concentration and uptake velocity tended to increase, whereas bioconcentration factor at equilibrium to decrease, as the exposure concentration increased. Cadmium depolymerized microtubules after 3–9 d of exposure, depending on trace metal concentration, indicating that microtubules could be used as an early biomarker of cadmium stress; cell death, occurring at later time than microtubule disturbance, was also observed. Microtubule depolymerization expressed as percentage of reduction of fluorescence intensity and cell mortality expressed as percentage of live cells increased with time. The lowest experimental tissue concentration associated with the onset of microtubule depolymerization and cell death (98.5–128.9 μg g{sup −1} dry wt, 0.5 mg L{sup −1} treatment, 7th and 9th d) was within the wide range of reported cadmium concentrations in leaves of seagrass species from various geographical areas. This lowest tissue concentration was exceeded up to the 3rd d at higher exposure concentrations, but toxic effects were generally detected at later time. The time periods required for the onset of depolymerization and

  10. Viability of probiotic bacteria and some chemical and sensory characteristics in cornelian cherry juice during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Nematollahi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that low pH and presence of inhibitor phenolic compounds of cornelian cherry juice have negative effect on viability of probiotics, especially industrial strains during refrigerated storage.

  11. Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

    2013-09-01

    Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five

  12. Trehalose preincubation increases mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells post-cryopreservation viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Kusuma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO is a common cryoprotective agent widely used in cell preservation system. Me2SO is currently known to cause epigenetic changes which are  critical in stem cells development and cellular differentiation. Therefore, it is imperative to develop cryopreservation techniques that protect cellular functions and avert Me2SO adverse effect. Trehalose was able to protect organism in extreme condition such as dehydration and cold. This study aimed to verify the protective effect of trehalose preincubation procedure in cryopreservation.Methods: The study was conducted using experimental design. Thawed mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells from YARSI biorepository were used for the experiment. Trehalose preincubation was performed for 1 hour, internalized trehalose was confirmed by FTIR-ATR measurement. Three groups consisted of (1 cryopreserved without trehalose preincubation, (2 cryopreserved with trehalose preincubation, and (3 did not undergo cryopreservation were evaluated after 24 hours in LN2 for viability in culture. The absorbance from each group was measured at 450 nm. The analysis performed using paired student t test.Results: Viability of thawed mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells that undergo trehalose preincubation prior cryopreservation was significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to group without trehalose preincubation. Higher viability observed between group with trehalose preincubation compared with controlled group suggests protection to trypsinization. Mesenchymal (CD271+ stem cells incubated for 1 hour in 100 mM trehalose supplemented medium  results in 15%  trehalose loading efficiency.Conclusion: These findings confirm the protective effect of trehalose preincubation in cryopreservation. Future research should be directed to elucidate the trehalose internalization mechanism and eventually the protective mechanism of trehalose in mammalian cell cryopreservation.

  13. Cine viability magnetic resonance imaging of the heart without increased scan time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Azza S; Khalifa, Ayman M; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information about myocardial morphology, function, and viability from cine, tagged, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, respectively. While the cine and tagged images are acquired in a time-resolved fashion, the LGE images are acquired at a single timeframe. The purpose of this work is to develop a method for generating cine LGE images without additional scan time. The motion field is extracted from the tagged images, and is then used to guide the deformation of the infarcted region from the acquired LGE image at the acquired timeframe to any other timeframe. Major techniques for motion estimation, including harmonic phase (HARP) and optical flow analysis, are tested in this work for motion estimation. The proposed method is tested on numerical phantom and images from four human subjects. The generated cine LGE images showed both viability and wall motion information in the same set of images without additional scan time or image misregistration problems. The band-pass optical flow analysis resulted in the most accurate motion estimation compared to other methods, especially HARP, which fails to track points at the myocardial boundary. Infarct transmurality from the generated images showed good agreement with myocardial strain, and wall thickening showed good agreement with that measured from conventional cine images. In conclusion, the developed technique allows for generating cine LGE images that enable simultaneous display of wall motion and viability information. The generated images could be useful for estimating myocardial contractility reserve and for treatment prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of myocardial viability in the infarct area on regional left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Takeshi; Usui, Mikio; Nagai, Yoshikazu

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), regional LVEF of infarct myocardium, and the viability of the myocardium due to the development of collaterals in the infarct area. Each was evaluated by exercise thallium-201 myocardial SPECT, multigated blood pool scintigraphy and coronary angiography. A total of 68 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 23 normal persons were studied. The patients were found to have septal defect on exercise thallium images. According to the appearance of redistribution (RD) on delayed images, the patients were classified as having positive RD (n=42, 62%) or negative RD (n=26, 38%). The global LVEF was compared with regional LVEF of the basal, middle and apical areas within septum, as calculated by multigated blood pool scintigraphy. There was no significant difference in global LVEF between the groups of positive and negative RD patients. However, regional LVEF of the basal and middle areas was significantly larger in the group of positive RD than the group of negative RD. Collaterals were significantly observed in the group of positive RD, as compared with the group of negative RD (53% vs 25%). It was more frequent in cases of higher degree of stenosis. In the group of negative RD, none of the patients had collaterals when coronary stenosis was 90% or less. Redistribution may reflect myocardial viability. Myocardial viability within the infarct area had favorable influences on the regional left ventricular function. Therefore, not only global but also regional left ventricular function is necessary for better understanding of pathophysiology of myocardial infarction.(N.K.)

  15. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Hung-Tao; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Hwan-You

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Highlights: ► f-MWCNTs conjugated with anti-HER2 antibody by chemical method. ► Kill breast cancer cells by using low dose f-MWCNTs-ab due to photothermal effect. ► Use EtBr fluorescent to prove that the cell membrane was broken by heated f-MWCNTs. ► Few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell indicating the endocytosis effect. ► Necrosis may result from protein denaturation due to contact with the heated CNTs.

  16. Viability of calcifying bacterial formulations in fly ash for applications in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-12-01

    Evidence of bacterial involvement in precipitation of calcium carbonates has brought a revolution in the field of applied microbiology, geotechnical sciences, environmental and civil engineering with its marked success in restoration of various building materials. For applications of these calcite binder-producing bacterial cultures, different expensive carrier materials have been used but their high costs have come in the way of their successful commercialization. In the present study, we have explored the potential of cheap industrial by-product fly ash as a carrier material for bacterial cells and investigated the viability of calcifying bacterial isolates: Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, and Lysinibacillus fusiformis in fly ash carrier at varying temperatures and moisture conditions along with biomineralization efficacy of these formulations. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to analyze the viability of bacteria by florescent dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) along with the plate count method. Results revealed that fly ash successfully served as an effective carrier material and bacterial formulations stored at 4 °C provided longer shelf life than those stored at higher temperatures. Up to 10(6) cfu/g was found to sustain in all formulations at 4 °C compared to 10(4)-10(5) cfu/g in case of higher temperatures up to 1 year. For 4 °C, higher moistures (50 %) were found to provide better survivability while for higher temperatures, lower moistures (30 %) favored higher viability. The biomineralization capability of fresh and formulated bacterial cells was compared on the basis of precipitation of carbonates and it was found that carbonate precipitation efficacy of formulated bacterial cells was comparable to fresh bacterial cells.

  17. Human islet viability and function is maintained during high density shipment in silicone rubber membrane vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Pepper, Andrew R; Lopez, Boris G; Pawlick, Rena; Kin, Tatsuya; O’Gorman, Doug; Mueller, Kathryn R; Gruessner, Angelika C; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Karatzas, Theodore; Szot, Greg L; Posselt, Andrew M; Stock, Peter G; Wilson, John R; Shapiro, AM; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    The shipment of human islets from processing centers to distant laboratories is beneficial for both research and clinical applications. The maintenance of islet viability and function in transit is critically important. Gas-permeable silicone rubber membrane (SRM) vessels reduce the risk of hypoxia-induced death or dysfunction during high-density islet culture or shipment. SRM vessels may offer additional advantages: they are cost-effective (fewer flasks, less labor needed), safer (lower contamination risk), and simpler (culture vessel can also be used for shipment). Human islets(IE) were isolated from two manufacturing centers and shipped in 10cm2 surface area SRM vessels in temperature and pressure controlled containers to a distant center following at least two days of culture (n = 6). Three conditions were examined: low density (LD), high density (HD), and a micro centrifuge tube negative control (NC). LD was designed to mimic the standard culture density for human islet preparations (200 IE/cm2), while HD was designed to have a 20-fold higher tissue density, which would enable the culture of an entire human isolation in 1–3 vessels. Upon receipt, islets were assessed for viability, measured by oxygen consumption rate normalized to DNA content (OCR/DNA), and quantity, measured by DNA, and, when possible, potency and function with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) measurements and transplants in immunodeficient B6 rag mice. Post-shipment OCR/DNA was not reduced in HD versus LD, and was substantially reduced in the NC condition. HD islets exhibited normal function post-shipment. Based on the data we conclude that entire islet isolations (up to 400,000 IE) may be shipped using a single, larger SRM vessel with no negative effect on viability and ex vivo and in vivo function. PMID:25131090

  18. Viability and Stress Response of Putative Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains in Honey Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Bemmo Kamdem Ulrich; François, Zambou Ngoufack; Wang, Rui-Yan; Taicheng, Zhu; Li, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Due to problem of preservation of dairy products which serve as a matrix for probiotics, it is challenging to use these probiotics as food supplements in many developing countries. To determine the suitability of the Lactobacillus strains for exploitation as probiotics in honey, we investigated the effect of their storage on the viability, functionality, and the mechanism associated with their protective effect. Three isolates obtained from our laboratory collection were identified through amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. The viability of the strains in honey at different storage conditions was studied. Three genes (hdc, gtf, and clpL) responsible for the resistance of bacteria in acidic environments were screened. SDS-PAGE analysis of total protein was performed to observe protein profile changes of the strains after exposure to honey. All the three isolates, namely, GGU, GLA51, and GLP56, were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum strains. After 28 days of storage in honey at 4 °C, viable cell concentrations of the three strains were higher than 2.04 × 10 6  CFU/ml. During the same period at room temperature, only the Lactobacillus plantarum GLP56 strain remained viable with a cell concentration of 1.86 × 10 4  CFU/ml. The clpL gene coding for ATPase was detected in all the three strains. The protein of molecular weight ~ 50 kDa was absent in the protein profile of Lactobacillus plantarum GGU after 60 days of storage in honey at 4 °C. The Lactobacillus plantarum GLP56, Lactobacillus plantarum GLA51, and Lactobacillus plantarum GGU strains exposed to honey can withstand acidic environmental stress but their viability declines over time.

  19. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  20. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  1. Study of pentoxifylline effects on motility and viability of spermatozoa from infertile asthenozoospermic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Aliye; Karkon-Shayan, Farid; Yousefzadeh, Solmaz; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Hamdi, Kobra

    2016-01-01

    The quality of semen is one of the major parameters in male infertility. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, is an agent primarily used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and other vascular disorders. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline enhances the quality and quantity of sperms. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of pentoxifylline on viability and motility of spermatozoa in samples of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males. In this observer-blinded clinical trial, semen samples of 25 infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males were collected in Alzahra Educational Medical Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from August 2010 to August 2012. After the isolation of spermatozoa by the swim-up method, they were randomized into four groups in ISM1 environment: The controls treated normally: Group 1 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 50 μg/ml, Group 2 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 100 μg/ml, and Group 3 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 200 μg/ml. Sperm viability and motility were compared among the groups on 45 min, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h intervals. Mean percentages of live sperms were 98.40%, 51.40%, 20.60%, and 6.00% in control group and 98.40%, 69.20%, 38.60%, and 14.60% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. This mean percentage decrease of live sperms was significantly lower in Group 3 comparing with that of other groups ( P = 0.01). Mean percentages of motile sperms were 54%, 8.40%, 2.80%, and 0% in control group; and 54%, 16%, 4.80%, and 1.40% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. There was not a significant difference between the four groups in this regard ( P = 0.19). Pentoxifylline can enhance the viability of sperm of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males with no significant effect on its motility.

  2. Expression of angiotensin II receptors in the caprine ovary and improvement of follicular viability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J B; Lima-Verde, I B; Celestino, J J H; Lima, L F; Matos, M H T; Faustino, L R; Donato, M A M; Peixoto, C A; Campello, C C; Silva, J R V; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate mRNA levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors (AGTR1 and AGTR2) in caprine follicles and to investigate the influence of ANG II on the viability and in vitro growth of preantral follicles. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantify AGTR1 and AGTR2 mRNA levels in the different follicular stages. For culture, caprine ovaries were collected, cut into 13 fragments and then either directly fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis (fresh control) or placed in culture for 1 or 7 days in α-minumum essential medium plus (α-MEM+) with 0, 1, 5, 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml ANG II. Then, the fragments were destined to morphological, viability and ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that primordial follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 and AGTR2 mRNA than secondary follicles. Granulosa/theca cells from antral follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 mRNA than their respective cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs). After 7 days of culture, ANG II (10 or 50 ng/ml) maintained the percentages of normal follicles compared with α-MEM+. Fluorescence and ultrastructural microscopy confirmed follicular integrity in ANG II (10 ng/ml). In conclusion, a high expression of AGTR1 and AGTR2 is observed in primordial follicles. Granulosa/theca cells from antral follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 mRNA. Finally, 10 ng/ml ANG II maintained the viability of caprine preantral follicles after in vitro culture.

  3. Effect of exogenous melatonin on embryo viability and uterine environment in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M I; Forcada, F; Sosa, C; Casao, A; Sartore, I; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A; Abecia, J A

    2013-09-01

    The effect of exogenous melatonin on embryo viability in undernourished ewes was investigated. At lambing, 24 ewes were treated (+MEL) or not (-MEL) with a melatonin implant. After 45 days, both groups were fed to provide 1.5 (Control, C) or 0.5 (Low, L) times daily maintenance requirements, so that experimental groups were: C-MEL, C+MEL, L-MEL and L+MEL. Ewes were mated (Day 0) and on Day 5 embryos were recovered and classified according to their developmental stage and morphology. Ovaries were used for in vitro fertilization and uterine horns were processed to study progesterone and oestrogen receptor (PR and ERα) expression by inmunohistochemistry. After 21 days, groups L-MEL and L+MEL had an average weight loss of 10kg (Pmelatonin effect was particularly evident in undernourished ewes, increasing both viability (L+MEL: 65%; L-MEL: 25%; Ppregnancy rates (L+MEL: 66.6%; L-MEL: 16.6%; Pmelatonin nor their interaction had a significant effect on the in vitro oocyte development. Melatonin treatment tended to increase the percentage of positive cells to PR in deep glandular epithelium, independently of diet (P=0.09), and the greatest staining intensity of PR was observed in the luminal and superficial glandular epithelia (Pmelatonin implants at lambing during the breeding season improve the viability of embryos recovered from undernourished ewes, although this effect seems not to be mediated at the oocyte competence level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hung-Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsung-Pao [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tai, Nyan-Hwa, E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer f-MWCNTs conjugated with anti-HER2 antibody by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kill breast cancer cells by using low dose f-MWCNTs-ab due to photothermal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use EtBr fluorescent to prove that the cell membrane was broken by heated f-MWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell indicating the endocytosis effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necrosis may result from protein denaturation due to contact with the heated CNTs.

  6. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez AS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambar S Jimenez,1 Francesca Jaramillo,1 Usha D Hemraz,2 Yaman Boluk,3 Karina Ckless,1 Rajesh Sunasee1 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA; 2National Research Council, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta and National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin, a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide], and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study. Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, surface coating, cell viability, MTT, LDH

  7. Ebselen alters mitochondrial physiology and reduces viability of rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) have been extensively employed as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective compound. However, its glutathione peroxidase activity at the expense of cellular thiols groups could underlie certain deleterious actions of the compound on cell physiology. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular viability, the intracellular free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), the mitochondrial free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m), and mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm) were analyzed. The caspase-3 activity was also assayed. Our results show that cell viability was reduced by treatment of cells with ebselen, depending on the concentration employed. In the presence of ebselen, we observed an initial transient increase in [Ca(2+)]c that was then followed by a progressive increase to an elevated plateau. We also observed a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]m in the presence of ebselen that returned toward a value over the prestimulation level. The compound induced depolarization of ψm and altered the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane. Additionally, a disruption of the mitochondrial network was observed. Finally, we did not detect changes in caspase-3 activation in response to ebselen treatment. Collectively, these data support the likelihood of ebselen, depending on the concentration employed, reduces viability of rat hippocampal astrocytes via its action on the mitochondrial activity. These may be early effects that do not involve caspase-3 activation. We conclude that, depending on the concentration used, ebselen might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise cell function.

  8. Assessing Viability and Sustainability: a Systems-based Approach for Deriving Comprehensive Indicator Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Bossel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessment in holistic approaches such as integrated natural resource management has to deal with a complex set of interacting and self-organizing natural and human systems and agents, all pursuing their own "interests" while also contributing to the development of the total system. Performance indicators must therefore reflect the viability of essential component systems as well as their contributions to the viability and performance of other component systems and the total system under study. A systems-based derivation of a comprehensive set of performance indicators first requires the identification of essential component systems, their mutual (often hierarchical or reciprocal relationships, and their contributions to the performance of other component systems and the total system. The second step consists of identifying the indicators that represent the viability states of the component systems and the contributions of these component systems to the performance of the total system. The search for performance indicators is guided by the realization that essential interests (orientations or orientors of systems and actors are shaped by both their characteristic functions and the fundamental and general properties of their system environments (e.g., normal environmental state, scarcity of resources, variety, variability, change, other coexisting systems. To be viable, a system must devote an essential minimum amount of attention to satisfying the "basic orientors" that respond to the properties of its environment. This fact can be used to define comprehensive and system-specific sets of performance indicators that reflect all important concerns. Often, qualitative indicators and the study of qualitative systems are sufficient for reliable performance assessments. However, this approach can also be formalized for quantitative computer-assisted assessment. Examples are presented of indicator sets for the sustainable development of

  9. Measurement of the viability of stored red cells by the single-isotope technique using 51Cr. Analysis of validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, E.; West, C.

    1984-01-01

    A single-isotope 51 Cr method often is used to evaluate the viability of stored red cells. In this technique, the red cell mass is measured by back-extrapolation to time zero (t0) of the radioactivity of the blood between 5 and 20 minutes after infusion of the sample. If there is early destruction of stored cells, this method provides an overestimate of the red cell mass and, hence, of the viability of the stored cells. Freshly drawn red cells from normal donors were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc, and cells from the same donor which had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine-one (CPDA-1) for periods ranging from 7 to 49 days were labeled with 51 Cr. A comparison of the ''true red cell mass'' as determined with /sup 99m/Tc with the back-extrapolated red cell mass from stored 51 Cr-labeled cells has made it possible to define the magnitude of error introduced by early loss of red cells. The overestimation of red cell mass and viability was diminished if only the 51 Cr radioactivity between 5 and 15 minutes after infusion was used in back-extrapolating to t0. The degree of overestimation of red cell mass was greatest when the red cell viability had declined to very low levels. However, in the entire range of 10 to 80 percent viability, the overestimate of viability was usually less than 4 percent. The overestimate of viability proved to be quite similar for all samples and may be taken into account when using the single-isotope technique for measurement of red cell viability

  10. Rapid, radiolabeled-microculture method that uses macrophages for in vitro evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae viability and drug susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Sathish, M; Seshadri, P S; Nath, I

    1983-04-01

    This paper describes a microculture rapid assay using radiolabeling and mouse macrophages to determine the viability and the drug susceptibility or resistance of Mycobacterium leprae. Comparison of M. leprae resident macrophage cultures maintained in 96-well flat-bottomed plates showed results for viability and susceptibility or resistance to dapsone that were similar to results for concurrent cultures in Leighton tubes with greater numbers of bacilli and macrophages.

  11. Rapid, Radiolabeled-Microculture Method That Uses Macrophages for In Vitro Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae Viability and Drug Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, A.; Sathish, M.; Seshadri, P. S.; Nath, Indira

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a microculture rapid assay using radiolabeling and mouse macrophages to determine the viability and the drug susceptibility or resistance of Mycobacterium leprae. Comparison of M. leprae resident macrophage cultures maintained in 96-well flat-bottomed plates showed results for viability and susceptibility or resistance to dapsone that were similar to results for concurrent cultures in Leighton tubes with greater numbers of bacilli and macrophages.

  12. Coconut milk and probiotic milk as storage media to maintain periodontal ligament cell viability: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Divya; Gadicherla, Prahlad; Chandra, Prakash; Anandakrishna, Latha

    2017-06-01

    The viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is a significant determinant of the long-term prognosis of replanted avulsed teeth. A storage medium is often required to maintain the viability of these cells during the extra-alveolar period. Many studies have been carried out to search for the most suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth, but an ideal solution has not yet been found. The purpose of the study was to compare and analyze the ability of coconut milk and probiotic milk to maintain PDL cell viability. In an in vitro setting, 69 caries free human premolars with normal periodontium that had been extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into two experimental groups on the basis of storage media used (i.e., coconut milk or probiotic milk) and a Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) control group (23 samples per group). Immediately after extraction, the teeth were stored dry for 20 min and then immersed for 30 min in one of the storage media. The teeth were then subjected to collagenase-dispase assay and labeled with 0.5% trypan blue staining solution for determination of cell viability. The number of viable cells was counted under a light microscope and statistically analyzed using anova and post hoc Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). Statistical analysis demonstrated there was a significant difference (P coconut milk and probiotic milk as well as HBSS in maintaining cell viability. However, there was no significant difference between probiotic milk and HBSS in ability to maintain PDL cell viability (P > 0.05). Coconut milk may not be suitable as an interim transport media due to poor maintenance of cell viability. However, probiotic milk was able to maintain PDL cell viability as well as HBSS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. In vitro Cell Viability by CellProfiler® Software as Equivalent to MTT Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Luciana S; Macedo, Nayana D; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Fronza, Marcio; Junior, Valdemar L; Borges, Warley S; Cole, Eduardo R; Andrade, Tadeu U; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated in vitro cell viability by the colorimetric MTT stands for 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay compared to image analysis by CellProfiler ® software. Hepatoma (Hepa-1c1c7) and fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to isolated substances, camptothecin, lycorine, tazettine, albomaculine, 3-epimacronine, trispheridine, galanthine and Padina gymnospora , Sargassum sp. methanolic extract, and Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna ethyl acetate in different concentrations. After MTT assay, cells were stained with Panotic dye kit. Cell images were obtained with an inverted microscope equipped with a digital camera. The images were analyzed by CellProfiler ® . No cytotoxicity at the highest concentration analyzed for 3-epimacronine, albomaculine, galanthine, trispheridine, P. gymnospora extract and Sargassum sp. extract where detected. Tazettine offered cytotoxicity only against the Hepa1c1c7 cell line. Lycorine, camptothecin, and H. itaobinus extract exhibited cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. The viability methods tested were correlated demonstrated by Bland-Atman test with normal distribution with mean difference between the two methods close to zero, bias value 3.0263. The error was within the limits of the confidence intervals and these values had a narrow difference. The correlation between the two methods was demonstrated by the linear regression plotted as R 2 . CellProfiler ® image analysis presented similar results to the MTT assay in the identification of viable cells, and image analysis may assist part of biological analysis procedures. The presented methodology is inexpensive and reproducible. In vitro cell viability assessment with MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay may be replaced by image analysis by CellProfiler ® . The viability methods

  14. Viability in holder of irradiated cells: distinguish between repair and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    In experiments in which liquid holding recovery (LHR) was measured, the majority of cellular population is formed by non-viable cells and cell multiplication may be important for LHR expression. In order to distinguish between recuperation of viability (true LHR) and cell multiplication, it was necessary to employ improved plating techniques and a fluctuation test based on Poisson distribution. Our results are an indication that this fluctuation test, used together with the traditional method, is a good tool to distinguish repair from cell multiplication. (author)

  15. Assessment of follicle viability using fluorescence microscopy before and after ovarian thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofoudis, C; Zervomanolakis, I; Galani, I; Grigoriou, V; Botsis, D; Vlahos, N

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of young women diagnosed with cancer has been globally increasing. In many cases the surgical approach followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormonal therapy could lead to infertility or premature ovarian failure. Several options are available in order to preserve fertility and increase the future gestation rate. Among embryo cryopreservation and oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents an ideal option, especially for premenopausal women and for those who cannot delay the start of chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the follicle viability using fluorescence microscope before and after ovarian thawing.

  16. Design measures in evolutionary water cooled reactors to optimize for economic viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.J.; Yu, S.K.W.; Appell, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, there have been various efforts to develop evolutionary water cooled reactors based on the current operating plant experience. To sustain and improve the economic viability, particular attention has been paid to the following aspects in developing evolutionary water cooled reactors: design simplification and increased operating margins, standardization in design as well as construction and operation, integration of operating plant insights, and consideration of safety, operability and constructability during the design stage. This paper reviews each item and discusses several examples from some of the evolutionary water cooled reactors being developed. (author)

  17. Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminates bacteria of alcoholic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobre, Thais de Paula

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products, in reduction of cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when in mixed culture of yeast and active and treated bacteria. Also was to evaluated an alternative medium (MCC) for the cultivation of bacteria and yeast, constituted of sugarcane juice diluted to 5 deg Brix and supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Y-904) for 72 h on 32 deg C, under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. cerevisiae, the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture were determined from 0, 24, 48 e 72 h of mixed culture. Also were determined the initial and final of microorganism population across the pour plate method, in traditional culture medium (PCA for Bacillus, MRS-agar for Lactobacillus and YEPD-agar for yeast S. cerevisiae) and in medium constituted of sugarcane juice. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization (120 deg C for 20 minutes), antibacterial agent (Kamoran HJ in concentration 3,0 ppm) or irradiation (radiation gamma, with doses of 5,0 kGy for Lactobacillus and 15,0 kGy for Bacillus). The results of the present research showed that just the culture mediums more acids (with higher concentrations of total and volatile acidity, and smaller values of pH), contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused reduction on yeast cellular viability. Except the bacteria B. subtilis treated with radiation, the others bacteria treated by different procedures (heat, radiation e antibacterial) did not cause reduction on yeast cellular viability and population, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of theses bacteria was not enough to reduce the

  18. Immunological studies of amphistomiasis in sheep and goats. II Viability of amphistome metacercariae after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Md.; Rao, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    The viability of gamma-irradiated (2 krad) amphistome metacercariae (C.indicae XXV1) was determined in lambs and kids. After storing the irradiated metacercariae at 4 0 C for 21 days, a mean of 1024 and 965 flukes were recovered in lambs and kids respectively 50 days after infection compared to 1724 and 1689 flukes respectively in control animals. Increasing the storage time of the irradiated metacercariae to 35 days resulted in no flukes being recovered 50 days after infection compared to 1567 and 1482 flukes in the control lambs and kids respectively. (U.K.)

  19. Conservation and viability of refrigerated platelet-rich plasma from New Zealand rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Vilela Perroni Silva; Duvaldo Eurides; Marina Greco Magalhães Guerra de Andrade; Marcelo Carrijo da Costa; Vinicius Candido Ferreira; Marina de Oliveira Silva; Ednaldo Carvalho Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen male New Zealand rabbits were used in this study, with the aim of storing their platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for 30 days at 4-6 °C to investigate its conservation and viability during this period. Thirty samples of PRP were prepared and sorted into three equal groups (G1, G2, and G3), and every three days a sample was taken out for evaluationof the number of platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), pH of the plasma, aggregation post addition of calcium thromboplastin, and for the presence...

  20. Analyze the economic and environmental viability in distributed generation of electric power from renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantim Neto, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper brings a brief of economical and social environmental analysis about distributed electric's energy generation, based on a comparison to centralized generation. The motivation of the proposed analysis has its origin on a reflection about politics and scheming directed to Brazilian's energy sector. This study has renewable energy resources as setting, represented for Belo Monte generation's plant and undertaking registered on the Reservation's Energy Auction 2010. The study took into account economics and technical aspects, whereas the viability analysis was formed from benefits got from different forms of electric's generation. The conclusions of this shows that distributed electric's energy generation may have economics and socio environment benefits over centralized generation. (author)