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Sample records for viability assay eva

  1. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  2. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella ...

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    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could provide additional protection in chlorinated drinking water distribution systems. Copper-Silver (Cu-Ag) ionization treatment systems are commercially available for use in large building water systems to help control the risks from Legionella bacteria. The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize Legionella viability assays and use them to investigate the viability of Legionella bacteria after exposure to water treated with coppper and silver ions. Methods: Log phase L. pneumophila cells were used in all experiments and were generated by incubation at 35C for 48 hours in buffered yeast extract broth. Viability assays used included plating on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar to determine the number of culturable cells and treating cells with propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) followed by quantitative PCR targeting mip gene of L. pneumophila. The qPCR viability assays were optimized using L. pneumophila inactivated by heat treatment at 65C for 60 min. The effectiveness of Cu-Ag ionization treatment was studied by inoculating L. pneumonia at 105 CFU/mL in water collected directly from a building water system that employed this technology and incubat

  3. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalization assays: cell viability and radioligand integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sosabowski, Jane K; Nagra, Saeed Ahamad; Ishfaq, Malik M; Mather, Stephen J; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalization assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalized peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalized peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalisation assays: Cell viability and radioligand integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza Naqvi, Syed Ali; Sosabowski, Jane K.; Ahamad Nagra, Saeed; Ishfaq, Malik M.; Mather, Stephen J.; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalisation assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalised peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalised peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times.

  5. Molecular assays for determining Mycobacterium leprae viability in tissues of experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Grace L; Ray, Nashone A; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Gillis, Thomas P; Krahenbuhl, James L; Williams, Diana L; Adams, Linda B

    2013-01-01

    The inability of Mycobacterium leprae to grow on axenic media has necessitated specialized techniques in order to determine viability of this organism. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive molecular assay for determining M. leprae viability directly from infected tissues. Two M. leprae-specific quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays based on the expression levels of esxA, encoding the ESAT-6 protein, and hsp18, encoding the heat shock 18 kDa protein, were developed and tested using infected footpad (FP) tissues of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised (athymic nu/nu) mice. In addition, the ability of these assays to detect the effects of anti-leprosy drug treatment on M. leprae viability was determined using rifampin and rifapentine, each at 10 mg/kg for 1, 5, or 20 daily doses, in the athymic nu/nu FP model. Molecular enumeration (RLEP PCR) and viability determinations (qRT-PCR) were performed via Taqman methodology on DNA and RNA, respectively, purified from ethanol-fixed FP tissue and compared with conventional enumeration (microscopic counting of acid fast bacilli) and viability assays (radiorespirometry, viability staining) which utilized bacilli freshly harvested from the contralateral FP. Both molecular and conventional assays demonstrated growth and high viability of M. leprae in nu/nu FPs over a 4 month infection period. In contrast, viability was markedly decreased by 8 weeks in immunocompetent mice. Rifapentine significantly reduced bacterial viability after 5 treatments, whereas rifampin required up to 20 treatments for the same efficacy. Neither drug was effective after a single treatment. In addition, host gene expression was monitored with the same RNA preparations. hsp18 and esxA qRT-PCR are sensitive molecular indicators, reliably detecting viability of M. leprae in tissues without the need for bacterial isolation or immediate processing, making these assays applicable for in vivo drug screening and

  6. A rapid, sensitive, and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes.

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    van den Elsen, Sven; Ave, Maaike; Schoenmakers, Niels; Landeweert, Renske; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts, which can contain 200 to 500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor intensive or lack robustness. We present a robust and cost-efficient viability assay based on loss of membrane integrity upon death. This assay uses trehalose, a disaccharide present at a high concentration in the perivitelline fluid of PCN eggs, as a viability marker. Although this assay can detect a single viable egg, the limit of detection for regular field samples was higher, ≈10 viable eggs, due to background signals produced by other soil components. On the basis of 30 nonviable PCN samples from The Netherlands, a threshold level was defined (ΔA(trehalose) = 0.0094) below which the presence of >10 viable eggs is highly unlikely (true for ≈99.7% of the observations). This assay can easily be combined with a subsequent DNA-based species determination. The presence of trehalose is a general phenomenon among cyst nematodes; therefore, this method can probably be used for (for example) soybean, sugar beet, and cereal cyst nematodes as well.

  7. In vitro Cell Viability by CellProfiler® Software as Equivalent to MTT Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Luciana S; Macedo, Nayana D; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Fronza, Marcio; Junior, Valdemar L; Borges, Warley S; Cole, Eduardo R; Andrade, Tadeu U; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated in vitro cell viability by the colorimetric MTT stands for 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay compared to image analysis by CellProfiler ® software. Hepatoma (Hepa-1c1c7) and fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to isolated substances, camptothecin, lycorine, tazettine, albomaculine, 3-epimacronine, trispheridine, galanthine and Padina gymnospora , Sargassum sp. methanolic extract, and Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna ethyl acetate in different concentrations. After MTT assay, cells were stained with Panotic dye kit. Cell images were obtained with an inverted microscope equipped with a digital camera. The images were analyzed by CellProfiler ® . No cytotoxicity at the highest concentration analyzed for 3-epimacronine, albomaculine, galanthine, trispheridine, P. gymnospora extract and Sargassum sp. extract where detected. Tazettine offered cytotoxicity only against the Hepa1c1c7 cell line. Lycorine, camptothecin, and H. itaobinus extract exhibited cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. The viability methods tested were correlated demonstrated by Bland-Atman test with normal distribution with mean difference between the two methods close to zero, bias value 3.0263. The error was within the limits of the confidence intervals and these values had a narrow difference. The correlation between the two methods was demonstrated by the linear regression plotted as R 2 . CellProfiler ® image analysis presented similar results to the MTT assay in the identification of viable cells, and image analysis may assist part of biological analysis procedures. The presented methodology is inexpensive and reproducible. In vitro cell viability assessment with MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay may be replaced by image analysis by CellProfiler ® . The viability methods

  8. Testing a dual-fluorescence assay to monitor the viability of filamentous cyanobacteria.

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    Johnson, Tylor J; Hildreth, Michael B; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to produce long-chain organic compounds, including 3rd generation biofuels. Because of their filamentous morphology, standard methods to quantify viability (e.g., plate counts) are not possible. This study investigated a dual-fluorescence assay based upon the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit to quantify the percent viability of filamentous cyanobacteria using a microplate reader in a high throughput 96-well plate format. The manufacturer's protocol calls for an optical density normalization step to equalize the numbers of viable and non-viable cells used to generate calibration curves. Unfortunately, the isopropanol treatment used to generate non-viable cells released a blue pigment that altered absorbance readings of the non-viable cell solution, resulting in an inaccurate calibration curve. Thus we omitted this optical density normalization step, and carefully divided cell cultures into two equal fractions before the isopropanol treatment. While the resulting calibration curves had relatively high correlation coefficients, their use in various experiments resulted in viability estimates ranging from below 0% to far above 100%. We traced this to the apparent inaccuracy of the propidium iodide (PI) dye that was to stain only non-viable cells. Through further analysis via microplate reader, as well as confocal and wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy, we observed non-specific binding of PI in viable filamentous cyanobacteria. While PI will not work for filamentous cyanobacteria, it is possible that other fluorochrome dyes could be used to selectively stain non-viable cells. This will be essential in future studies for screening mutants and optimizing photobioreactor system performance for filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple method to measure cell viability in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carneiro Borra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resazurin dye has been broadly used as indicator of cell viability in several types of assays for evaluation of the biocompatibility of medical and dental materials. Mitochondrial enzymes, as carriers of diaphorase activities, are probably responsible for the transference of electrons from NADPH + H+ to resazurin, which is reduced to resorufin. The level of reduction can be quantified by spectrophotometers since resazurin exhibits an absorption peak at 600 ηm and resorufin at 570 ηm wavelengths. However, the requirement of a spectrophotometer and specific filters for the quantification could be a barrier to many laboratories. Digital cameras containing red, green and blue filters, which allow the capture of red (600 to 700 ηm and green (500 to 600 ηm light wavelengths in ranges bordering on resazurin and resorufin absorption bands, could be used as an alternative method for the assessment of resazurin and resorufin concentrations. Thus, our aim was to develop a simple, cheap and precise method based on a digital CCD camera to measure the reduction of resazurin. We compared the capability of the CCD-based method to distinguish different concentrations of L929 and normal Human buccal fibroblast cell lines with that of a conventional microplate reader. The correlation was analyzed through the Pearson coefficient. The results showed a strong association between the measurements of the method developed here and those made with the microplate reader (r² = 0.996; p < 0.01 and with the cellular concentrations (r² = 0.965; p < 0.01. We concluded that the developed Colorimetric Quantification System based on CCD Images allowed rapid assessment of the cultured cell concentrations with simple equipment at a reduced cost.

  10. Identifying rapidly parasiticidal anti-malarial drugs using a simple and reliable in vitro parasite viability fast assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, María; Viera, Sara; Crespo, Benigno; Franco, Virginia; Gómez-Lorenzo, María G; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Angulo-Barturen, Íñigo; Sanz, Laura María; Gamo, Francisco-Javier

    2015-11-05

    The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins threatens to undermine the effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination anti-malarial therapy. Developing suitable drugs to replace artemisinins requires the identification of new compounds that display rapid parasite killing kinetics. However, no current methods fully meet the requirements to screen large compound libraries for candidates with such properties. This study describes the development and validation of an in vitro parasite viability fast assay for identifying rapidly parasiticidal anti-malarial drugs. Parasite killing kinetics were determined by first culturing unlabelled erythrocytes with P. falciparum in the presence of anti-malarial drugs for 24 or 48 h. After removing the drug, samples were added to erythrocytes pre-labelled with intracellular dye to allow their subsequent identification. The ability of viable parasites to re-establish infection in labelled erythrocytes could then be detected by two-colour flow cytometry after tagging of parasite DNA. Thus, double-stained erythrocytes (with the pre-labelled intracellular dye and the parasite DNA dye) result only after establishment of new infections by surviving parasites. The capacity of the test anti-malarial drugs to eliminate viable parasites within 24 or 48 h could, therefore, be determined. The parasite viability fast assay could be completed within 48 h following drug treatment and distinguished between rapidly parasiticidal anti-malarial drugs versus those acting more slowly. The assay was validated against ten standard anti-malarial agents with known properties and results correlated well with established methods. An abbreviated assay, suitable for adaption to medium-high throughput screening, was validated and applied against a set of 20 compounds retrieved from the publically available Medicines for Malaria Venture 'Malaria Box'. The quantification of new infections to determine parasite viability offers important

  11. A Comparison of Real-Time and Endpoint Cell Viability Assays for Improved Synthetic Lethal Drug Validation.

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    Single, Andrew; Beetham, Henry; Telford, Bryony J; Guilford, Parry; Chen, Augustine

    2015-12-01

    Cell viability assays fulfill a central role in drug discovery studies. It is therefore important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the wide variety of available assay methodologies. In this study, we compared the performance of three endpoint assays (resazurin reduction, CellTiter-Glo, and nuclei enumeration) and two real-time systems (IncuCyte and xCELLigence). Of the endpoint approaches, both the resazurin reduction and CellTiter-Glo assays showed higher cell viabilities when compared directly to stained nuclei counts. The IncuCyte and xCELLigence real-time systems were comparable, and both were particularly effective at tracking the effects of drug treatment on cell proliferation at sub-confluent growth. However, the real-time systems failed to evaluate contrasting cell densities between drug-treated and control-treated cells at full growth confluency. Here, we showed that using real-time systems in combination with endpoint assays alleviates the disadvantages posed by each approach alone, providing a more effective means to evaluate drug toxicity in monolayer cell cultures. Such approaches were shown to be effective in elucidating the toxicity of synthetic lethal drugs in an isogenic pair of MCF10A breast cell lines. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. A simple viability analysis for unicellular cyanobacteria using a new autofluorescence assay, automated microscopy, and ImageJ

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    Schulze Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently established methods to identify viable and non-viable cells of cyanobacteria are either time-consuming (eg. plating or preparation-intensive (eg. fluorescent staining. In this paper we present a new and fast viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria, which uses red chlorophyll fluorescence and an unspecific green autofluorescence for the differentiation of viable and non-viable cells without the need of sample preparation. Results The viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria using red and green autofluorescence was established and validated for the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Both autofluorescence signals could be observed simultaneously allowing a direct classification of viable and non-viable cells. The results were confirmed by plating/colony count, absorption spectra and chlorophyll measurements. The use of an automated fluorescence microscope and a novel ImageJ based image analysis plugin allow a semi-automated analysis. Conclusions The new method simplifies the process of viability analysis and allows a quick and accurate analysis. Furthermore results indicate that a combination of the new assay with absorption spectra or chlorophyll concentration measurements allows the estimation of the vitality of cells.

  13. A rapid, sensitive and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den S.J.J.; Ave, M.; Schoenmakers, N.; Landeweert, R.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    2012-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts which can contain 200-500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor

  14. Neutral Red versus MTT assay of cell viability in the presence of copper compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Perez, Mariela; Fourcade, Lyvia; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru; Paquin, Joanne

    2017-10-15

    Copper is essential for numerous physiological functions, and copper compounds may display therapeutic as well as cytotoxic effects. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay is a standard test largely used in cytotoxicity studies. This report shows that low micromolar levels of copper compounds such as Cu(II)Urea 2 , Cu(II)Ser 2 and CuCl 2 can interfere with the MTT assay making improper the detection of formazan product of MTT reduction. Comparatively, the Neutral Red assay appears to be sensitive and showing no interference with these compounds. The lactate dehydrogenase alternative assay cannot be used because of inhibitory effect of these copper compounds on the enzyme activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Viability-qPCR for detecting Legionella: Comparison of two assays based on different amplicon lengths.

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    Ditommaso, Savina; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Ricciardi, Elisa; Zotti, Carla M

    2015-08-01

    Two different real-time quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) assays were applied for quantification of Legionella spp. by targeting a long amplicon (approx 400 bp) of 16S rRNA gene and a short amplicon (approx. 100 bp) of 5S rRNA gene. Purified DNA extracts from pure cultures of Legionella spp. and from environmental water samples were quantified. Application of the two assays to quantify Legionella in artificially contaminated water achieved that both assays were able to detect Legionella over a linear range of 10 to 10(5) cells ml(-1). A statistical analysis of the standard curves showed that both assays were linear with a good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.99) between the Ct and the copy number. Amplification with the reference assay was the most effective for detecting low copy numbers (1 bacterium per PCR mixture). Using selective quantification of viable Legionella by the PMA-qPCR method we obtained a greater inhibition of the amplification of the 400-bp 16S gene fragment (Δlog(10) = 3.74 ± 0.39 log(10) GU ml(-1)). A complete inhibition of the PCR signal was obtained when heat-killed cells in a concentration below 1 × 10(5) cells ml(-1) were pretreated with PMA. Analysing short amplicon sizes led to only 2.08 log reductions in the Legionella dead-cell signal. When we tested environmental water samples, the two qPCR assays were in good agreement according to the kappa index (0.741). Applying qPCR combined with PMA treatment, we also obtained a good agreement (kappa index 0.615). The comparison of quantitative results shows that both assays yielded the same quantification sensitivity (mean log = 4.59 vs mean log = 4.31). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig B; Iline, Ilia I; Richards, Nicola K; Novoselov, Max; McNeill, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    Quickly, accurately, and easily assessing the efficacy of treatments to control sessile arthropods (e.g., scale insects) and stationary immature life stages (e.g., eggs and pupae) is problematic because it is difficult to tell whether treated organisms are alive or dead. Current approaches usually involve either maintaining organisms in the laboratory to observe them for development, gauging their response to physical stimulation, or assessing morphological characters such as turgidity and color. These can be slow, technically difficult, or subjective, and the validity of methods other than laboratory rearing has seldom been tested. Here, we describe development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical colorimetric assay for measuring the viability of arthropods that is sufficiently sensitive to test even very small organisms such as white fly eggs. The assay was adapted from a technique for staining the enzyme hexokinase to signal the presence of adenosine triphosphate in viable specimens by reducing a tetrazolium salt to formazan. Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Dynamic Cell Viability, Migration and Invasion Assessments by Novel Real-Time Technology and Classic Endpoint Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limame, Ridha; Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Fransen, Erik; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip; De Wever, Olivier; Pauwels, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (patho)biological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964). Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0–100 nM) correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95) with similar IC50 values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90) and optical density (OD) measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95). Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95). Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. Conclusions/Significance The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on different

  18. Comparative analysis of dynamic cell viability, migration and invasion assessments by novel real-time technology and classic endpoint assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Limame

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (pathobiological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer and A549 (lung cancer cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964. Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0-100 nM correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95 with similar IC(50 values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90 and optical density (OD measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95. Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95. Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on

  19. A Spectrophotometric Assay for Robust Viability Testing of Seed Batches Using 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride: Using Hordeum vulgare L. as a Model

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    Laura Lopez Del Egido

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was carried out of published methods to assess seed viability using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC based assays of seed batches. The tests were carried out on seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic as a model. We established that 10% [w/v] trichloroacetic acid (TCA/methanol is superior to the acetone and methanol-only based methods: allowing the highest recovery of formazan and the lowest background optical density (OD readings, across seed lots comprising different ratios of viable and dead seeds. The method allowed a linear-model to accurately capture the statistically significant relationship between the quantity of formazan that could be extracted using the method we developed and the seed temperature-response, and seed viability as a function of artificially aged seed lots. Other quality control steps are defined to help ensure the assay is robust and these are reported in a Standard Operating Procedure.

  20. Enzymatic and viability RT-qPCR assays for evaluation of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus and norovirus inactivation: Implications for public health risk assessment.

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    Monteiro, S; Santos, R

    2018-04-01

    To assess the potential of a viability dye and an enzymatic reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) pretreatment to discriminate between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses. Enterovirus (EntV), norovirus (NoV) GII.4 and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were inactivated at 95°C for 10 min, and four methods were used to compare the efficiency of inactivation: (i) cell culture plaque assay for HAV and EntV, (ii) RT-qPCR alone, (iii) RT-qPCR assay preceded by RNase treatment, and (iv) pretreatment with a viability dye (reagent D (RD)) followed by RT-qPCR. In addition, heat-inactivated NoV was treated with RD coupled with surfactants to increase the efficiency of the viability dye. No treatment was able to completely discriminate infectious from noninfectious viruses. RD-RT-qPCR reduced more efficiently the detection of noninfectious viruses with little to no removal observed with RNase. RD-RT-qPCR method was the closest to cell culture assay. The combination of surfactants and RD did not show relevant improvements on the removal of inactivated viruses signal compared with viability RT-qPCR, with the exception of Triton X-100. The use of surfactant/RD-RT-qPCR, although not being able to completely remove the signal from noninfectious viral particles, yielded a better estimation of viral infectivity. Surfactant/RD-RT-qPCR may be an advantageous tool for a better detection of infectious viruses with potential significant impact in the risk assessment of the presence of enteric viruses. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Distinction of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts with a selection medium.

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    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Higuchi, Tomoko; Shiga, Masanobu; Noguchi, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria are fundamentally divided into two groups: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Although the Gram stain and other techniques can be used to differentiate these groups, some issues exist with traditional approaches. In this study, we developed a method for differentiating Gram-positive and -negative bacteria using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt} (WST-8) via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone with a selection medium. We optimized the composition of the selection medium to allow the growth of Gram-negative bacteria while inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. When the colorimetric viability assay was carried out in a selection medium containing 0.5µg/ml crystal violet, 5.0 µg/ml daptomycin, and 5.0µg/ml vancomycin, the reduction in WST-8 by Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited. On the other hand, Gram-negative bacteria produced WST-8-formazan in the selection medium. The proposed method was also applied to determine the Gram staining characteristics of bacteria isolated from various foodstuffs. There was good agreement between the results obtained using the present method and those obtained using a conventional staining method. These results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay with selection medium is a useful technique for accurately differentiating Gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

  2. Bioluminescence-based cytotoxicity assay for simultaneous evaluation of cell viability and membrane damage in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

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    Uno, Katsuhiro; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a bioluminescence-based non-destructive cytotoxicity assay in which cell viability and membrane damage are simultaneously evaluated using Emerald luciferase (ELuc) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted copepod luciferase (GLuc-KDEL), respectively, by using multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome (MI-MAC) vector. We have demonstrated that the time-dependent concentration response curves of ELuc luminescence intensity and WST-1 assay, and GLuc-KDEL luminescence intensity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture medium accompanied by cytotoxicity show good agreement in toxicant-treated ELuc- and GLuc-KDEL-expressing HepG2 stable cell lines. We have clarified that the increase of GLuc-KDEL luminescence intensity in the culture medium reflects the type of cell death, including necrosis and late apoptosis, but not early apoptosis. We have also uncovered a strong correlation between GLuc-KDEL luminescence intensity in the culture medium and the extracellular release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a representative damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule. The bioluminescence measurement assay using ELuc and GLuc-KDEL developed in this study can simultaneously monitor cell viability and membrane damage, respectively, and the increase of GLuc-KDEL luminescence intensity in the culture medium accompanied by the increase of cytotoxicity is an index of necrosis and late apoptosis associated with the extracellular release of DAMP molecules. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A High-Content Live-Cell Viability Assay and Its Validation on a Diverse 12K Compound Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Glickman, J Fraser

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a new high-content cytotoxicity assay using live cells, called "ImageTOX." We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscope system, image segmentation software, and the combination of Hoechst 33342 and SYTO 17 to simultaneously score the relative size and the intensity of the nuclei, the nuclear membrane permeability, and the cell number in a 384-well microplate format. We then performed a screen of 12,668 diverse compounds and compared the results to a standard cytotoxicity assay. The ImageTOX assay identified similar sets of compounds to the standard cytotoxicity assay, while identifying more compounds having adverse effects on cell structure, earlier in treatment time. The ImageTOX assay uses inexpensive commercially available reagents and facilitates the use of live cells in toxicity screens. Furthermore, we show that we can measure the kinetic profile of compound toxicity in a high-content, high-throughput format, following the same set of cells over an extended period of time.

  4. A luciferase-based assay for rapid assessment of drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis including monitoring of macrophage viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie C; Lerm, Maria; Ängeby, Kristian; Nordvall, Michaela; Juréen, Pontus; Schön, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The intracellular (IC) effect of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is not well established but increasingly important to consider when combining current and future multidrug regimens into the best possible treatment strategies. For this purpose, we developed an IC model based on a genetically modified Mtb H37Rv strain, expressing the Vibrio harvei luciferase (H37Rv-lux) infecting the human macrophage like cell line THP-1. Cells were infected at a low multiplicity of infection (1:1) and subsequently exposed to isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin (AMI) or levofloxacin (LEV) for 5days in a 96-well format. Cell viability was evaluated by Calcein AM and was maintained throughout the experiment. The number of viable H37Rv-lux was determined by luminescence and verified by a colony forming unit analysis. The results were compared to the effects of the same drugs in broth cultures. AMI, EMB and LEV were significantly less effective intracellularly (MIC90: >4mg/L, 8mg/L and 2mg/L, respectively) compared to extracellularly (MIC90: 0.5mg/L for AMI and EMB; 0.25mg/L for LEV). The reverse was the case for INH (IC: 0.064mg/L vs EC: 0.25mg/L). In conclusion, this luciferase based method, in which monitoring of cell viability is included, has the potential to become a useful tool while evaluating the intracellular effects of anti-mycobacterial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies Relating to EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  6. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM. By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  7. Determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-15

    A method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8)} via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone (NQ) was developed. Measurement conditions were optimized for the microbiological determination of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B(6), biotin, folic acid, niacin, and pantothenic acid, using microorganisms that have a water-soluble vitamin requirement. A linear relationship between absorbance and water-soluble vitamin concentration was obtained. The proposed method was applied to determine the concentration of vitamin B(6) in various foodstuffs. There was good agreement between vitamin B(6) concentrations determined after 24h using the WST-8 colorimetric method and those obtained after 48h using a conventional method. The results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay is a useful method for the rapid determination of water-soluble vitamins in a 96-well microtiter plate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of human blood plasma cell-free DNA fragment size distribution using EvaGreen chemistry based droplet digital PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2018-04-12

    Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragment size distribution provides important information required for diagnostic assay development. We have developed and optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays that quantify short and long DNA fragments. These assays were used to analyze plasma cfDNA fragment size distribution in human blood. Assays were designed to amplify 76,135, 490 and 905 base pair fragments of human β-actin gene. These assays were used for fragment size analysis of plasma cell-free, exosome and apoptotic body DNA obtained from normal and pregnant donors. The relative percentages for 76, 135, 490 and 905 bp fragments from non-pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 39%, 18%, 5.6% and 100%, 40%, 18%,3.3%, respectively. The relative percentages for pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 34%, 14%, 23%, and 100%, 30%, 12%, 18%, respectively. The relative percentages for non-pregnant plasma pellet (obtained after 2nd centrifugation step) were 100%, 100%, 87% and 83%, respectively. Non-pregnant Plasma cell-free and exosome DNA share a unique fragment distribution pattern which is different from pregnant donor plasma and exosome DNA fragment distribution indicating the effect of physiological status on cfDNA fragment size distribution. Fragment distribution pattern for plasma pellet that includes apoptotic bodies and nuclear DNA was greatly different from plasma cell-free and exosome DNA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EVA Training and Development Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Overview: Vast majority of US EVA (ExtraVehicular Activity) training and EVA hardware development occurs at JSC; EVA training facilities used to develop and refine procedures and improve skills; EVA hardware development facilities test hardware to evaluate performance and certify requirement compliance; Environmental chambers enable testing of hardware from as large as suits to as small as individual components in thermal vacuum conditions.

  10. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  11. Curcumin and Viscum album Extract Decrease Proliferation and Cell Viability of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Cells: An In Vitro Analysis of Eight Cell Lines Using Real-Time Monitoring and Colorimetric Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, K; Behr, B; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Jacobsen, F; Renner, M; Harati, A; Wallner, C; Lehnhardt, M; Becerikli, M

    2017-01-01

    The cytostatic effects of the polyphenol curcumin and Viscum album extract (VAE) were assessed in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Eight human STS cell lines were used: fibrosarcoma (HT1080), liposarcoma (SW872, T778, MLS-402), synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1, 1273), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (U2197). Primary human fibroblasts served as control cells. Cell proliferation, viability, and cell index (CI) were analyzed by BrdU assay, MTT assay, and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). As indicated by BrdU and MTT, curcumin significantly decreased the cell proliferation of five cell lines (HT1080, SW872, SYO1, 1273, and U2197) and the viability of two cell lines (SW872 and SW982). VAE led to significant decreases of proliferation in eight cell lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, 1293, and U2197) and reduced viability in seven STS lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, and 1273). As indicated by RTCA for 160 h, curcumin decreased the CI of all synovial sarcoma cell lines as well as T778 and HT1080. VAE diminished the CI in most of the synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1) and liposarcoma (SW872, T778) cell lines as well as HT1080. Primary fibroblasts were not affected adversely by the two compounds in RTCA. Curcumin and VAE can inhibit the proliferation and viability of STS cells.

  12. EVA Glove Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  13. EVA Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  14. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  15. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-03-01

    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  16. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

  17. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  18. Cell viability and PSA secretion assays in LNCaP cells: a tiered in vitro approach to screen chemicals with a prostate-mediated effect on male reproduction within the ReProTect project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Stefano; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility; nevertheless, prostate was so far overlooked in reproductive toxicity assays. Within the EU project ReProTect, the human prostate cell line LNCaP was utilized to identify molecules targeting prostate function by the integrated assessment of cell viability (MTS assay) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion as specific marker; a training set - five (anti)androgenic chemicals - and a ReProTect feasibility set - ten chemicals - were used. Several compounds reduced PSA only at cytotoxic concentrations. Androgens (DHT, MT) markedly increased PSA as did the herbicide glufosinate ammonium, not known as androgen agonist. Anti-androgens (2OH-flutamide, linuron, vinclozolin, di-n-butyl phthalate) also increased PSA, but the effect of magnitude was much lower than for androgens. The ER-binder bisphenol A reduced PSA, while increasing cell viability. At this stage, the approach can identify chemicals able to interfere with prostate function: further refinements may allow to include prostate effects in reproductive toxicity in vitro testing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EVA 1 - ADAM 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken, C.B. von der; Fedders, H.; Hoehlein, B.

    1980-01-01

    The supplying of industry and households with heat is a central problem in our economy. The crisis background of oil supply renders a long-term secured heat supply with nuclear power plants a discussible alternative. The district heating in the form of hot water, which is heated in power plants and supplied to the consumer via district heating pipeline networks, however, is limited due to the unavoidable heat losses. To bridge long distances between the heat source and consumer and to maintain the heat at a high temperature level, there are distinct advantages in using the EVA-ADAM principle of long-distance energy transport. (orig.) [de

  20. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, Francesco, E-mail: f.torella@liverpool.ac.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); Chan, Tze Y., E-mail: tze.chan@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Shaikh, Usman, E-mail: usman.shaikh@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); England, Andrew, E-mail: a.england@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Department of Radiography (United Kingdom); Fisher, Robert K., E-mail: robert.fisher@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G., E-mail: richard.mcwilliams@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  1. Multiplexing spheroid volume, resazurin and acid phosphatase viability assays for high-throughput screening of tumour spheroids and stem cell neurospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyan P Ivanov

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money.

  2. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during...

  3. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  4. Eva Wohlgemuth / Eva Wohlgemuth ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wohlgemuth, Eva

    2006-01-01

    1997. a. tehtud intervjuu austria kontseptuaalse kunstniku Eva Wohlgemuthiga (sünd. 1955), kes koos Kathy Rae Huffmaniga dokumenteeris võrgus reisipäevikuna (Interneti projekt "Siberian Deal") sõidu läbi Siberi. Ka projektist "Face Settings". E. Wohlgemuth on loonud varem "Location Sculpture Systems'i" (koos Andreas Baumanniga) ja "Moving Plates Systems'i" ning dokumenteerinud tööd veebisaidil

  5. Tracking Historical NASA EVA Training: Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Development of the EVA Suit Exposure Tracker (EVA SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    During a spacewalk, designated as extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut ventures from the protective environment of the spacecraft into the vacuum of space. EVAs are among the most challenging tasks during a mission, as they are complex and place the astronaut in a highly stressful environment dependent on the spacesuit for survival. Due to the complexity of EVA, NASA has conducted various training programs on Earth to mimic the environment of space and to practice maneuvers in a more controlled and forgiving environment. However, rewards offset the risks of EVA, as some of the greatest accomplishments in the space program were accomplished during EVA, such as the Apollo moonwalks and the Hubble Space Telescope repair missions. Water has become the environment of choice for EVA training on Earth, using neutral buoyancy as a substitute for microgravity. During EVA training, an astronaut wears a modified version of the spacesuit adapted for working in water. This high fidelity suit allows the astronaut to move in the water while performing tasks on full-sized mockups of space vehicles, telescopes, and satellites. During the early Gemini missions, several EVA objectives were much more difficult than planned and required additional time. Later missions demonstrated that "complex (EVA) tasks were feasible when restraints maintained body position and underwater simulation training ensured a high success probability".1,2 EVA training has evolved from controlling body positioning to perform basic tasks to complex maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Today, preparation is centered at special facilities built specifically for EVA training, such as the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center ([JSC], Houston) and the Hydrolab at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre ([GCTC], Star City, outside Moscow). Underwater training for an EVA is also considered hazardous duty for NASA

  6. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  7. Eva Luna: Writing as History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Diamond-Nigh

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bildungsroman of Eva Luna's development as a writer reflects—in a somewhat fragmented manner—important developments in Latin American literary history. Her personal quest was paralleled by an aesthetic quest, manifested in the trying on and taking off of various genres, literary movements and myths characteristic of Latin America; she even goes so far as to allude explicitly to specific authors and their individual works. Although some of these are simply lightheartedly parodied, others are reworked and reinterpreted in the light of the feminist enterprise of the past twenty-five years. Eva Luna transgresses fundamentally by having an intellectually strong, sexual, nurturing, very feminine protagonist, setting up an initial rupture with the dichotomy so clearly demarcated by Octavio Paz between "the mother and the whore." Four primary categories suggest themselves: myth and the mythic consciousness; magical realism; Boom writers; and then a miscellaneous grouping that subsumes a host of other significant literatures and literary themes: the picaresque, the neo-romantic, novels of the dictators, the ever-present conflict between civilization and barbarism, and testimonial literature.

  8. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, searchable repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, the one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision control system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, and also for hundreds of other NASA and contract employees. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  9. Bagatellid : Maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2009-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: Arvo Pärdi Neljanda sümfoonia maailma esiettekanne Los Angeleses. Felix Mendelssohni 200. sünniaastapäeva eel avastati helilooja kadunud teoseid. Esa-Pekka Salonen lahkub Los Angelese Filharmoonikute juurest

  10. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  11. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  12. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  13. Innovative EVA Glove Exoskeleton, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dexterous performance degradation resulting from donning an extra-vehicular activity (EVA) glove limits the capability of astronauts to perform certain tasks in...

  14. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  15. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  16. Eva ja Adele: "Kus oleme meie, seal on muuseum" / Eva & Adele ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eva & Adele, kunstnikepaar

    2009-01-01

    Berliini kunstnikepaari Eva & Adele näitus "Stereoefekt" Tallinna Kunstihoones 28. maini, kuraator Harry Liivrand. Kunstnikud räägivad koostööst meediaga, sooküsimusest, julgusest teha kunstis midagi uut, oma otsusest elada elu Eva ja Adelena, inimeste julgusest teha valikuid, inimlikkusest, üksindusest, oma maalidest, kollaažidest ja videotest, missioonitundest

  17. Applications of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model formating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a model for estimating the impact of manned EVA costs on future payloads is discussed. Basic information on the EV crewman requirements, equipment, physical and operational characteristics, and vehicle interfaces is provided. The cost model is being designed to allow system designers to quantify the impact of EVA on vehicle and payload systems.

  18. Reconfigurable Ultra-Low Power Miniaturized EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EVA radio is an important integral part of lunar missions and beyond. To minimize power consumption and mass of an EVA radio, innovative solutions are needed for the...

  19. EVA: Evryscopes for the Arctic and Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Law, N.; Tasuya, O.; Fors, O.; Dennihy, E.; Carlberg, R.; Tuthill, P.; Ashley, M.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2017-06-01

    We are planning to build Evryscopes for the Arctic and Antarctic (EVA), which will enable the first ultra-wide-field, high-cadence sky survey to be conducted from both Poles. The system is based on the successful Evryscope concept, already installed and operating since 2015 at Cerro Tololo in Chile with the following characteristics: robotic operation, 8,000 square degrees simultaneous sky coverage, 2-minute cadence, milli-mag level photometric accuracy, pipelined data processing for real-time analysis and full data storage for off-line analysis. The initial location proposed for EVA is the PEARL station on Ellesmere island; later also an antarctic location shall be selected. The science goals enabled by this unique combination of almost full-sky coverage and high temporal cadence are numerous, and include among others ground-breaking forays in the fields of exoplanets, stellar variability, asteroseismology, supernovae and other transient events. The EVA polar locations will enable uninterrupted observations lasting in principle over weeks and months. EVA will be fully robotic. We discuss the EVA science drivers and expected results, and present the logistics and the outline of the project which is expected to have first light in the winter of 2018. The cost envelope can be kept very competitive thanks to R&D already employed for the CTIO Evryscope, to our experience with both Arctic and Antarctic locations, and to the use of off-the-shelf components.

  20. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  1. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  2. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  3. A imagem de Eva : o governo peronista

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Renata A. Melki de

    2016-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem como objetivo a análise da imagem de Eva Perón, entre de 1939 a 1955 e utiliza como fontes de pesquisa a imprensa, brasileira e argentina, e a biografia “A Razão de minha Vida”, publicada em 1951, em Buenos Aires. Outro fim desta pesquisa é questionar qual foi o papel de Eva no regime peronista, qual o foco e o olhar quando se fala da primeira-dama argentina e quais os direcionamentos que levaram a imprensa a ter esta posição, além de mostrar como a Argenti...

  4. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  5. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  6. Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

  7. Bagatellid : Maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2010-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: Paavo Järvi lahkub Cincinnati sümfooniaorkestri peadirigendi ametist. Läti metsosopran Elina Garanca pälvis tunnustust. Seiji Ozawa lahkub kontserdielust kuueks kuuks. Fryderyk Chopini 200nda sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest

  8. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  9. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  10. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  11. Ettevõtte tegevuse hindamine : EVA meetod / Kristo Reinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinsalu, Kristo

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb: Raamatupidamisuudised, nr. 7, 2001, lk. 19-25. Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti, nr. 6, 2001, lk. 17-22; nr. 7, 2001, lk. 15-18; nr. 8, 2001, lk. 21-24. Majandusliku lisandväärtuse meetodist EVA - Economic Value Added - leidmisest ja standardimisest. Tabelid ja diagrammid: Hansapanga Grupi EVA septembris 2000; korrelatsioon turuväärtusega; tegevustulemused: mittefinantsiline lähenemine; preemia määramine; EVA ja Benchmarking

  12. A Human Machine Interface for EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    EVA astronauts work in a challenging environment that includes high rate of muscle fatigue, haptic and proprioception impairment, lack of dexterity and interaction with robotic equipment. Currently they are heavily dependent on support from on-board crew and ground station staff for information and robotics operation. They are limited to the operation of simple controls on the suit exterior and external robot controls that are difficult to operate because of the heavy gloves that are part of the EVA suit. A wearable human machine interface (HMI) inside the suit provides a powerful alternative for robot teleoperation, procedure checklist access, generic equipment operation via virtual control panels and general information retrieval and presentation. The HMI proposed here includes speech input and output, a simple 6 degree of freedom (dof) pointing device and a heads up display (HUD). The essential characteristic of this interface is that it offers an alternative to the standard keyboard and mouse interface of a desktop computer. The astronaut's speech is used as input to command mode changes, execute arbitrary computer commands and generate text. The HMI can respond with speech also in order to confirm selections, provide status and feedback and present text output. A candidate 6 dof pointing device is Measurand's Shapetape, a flexible "tape" substrate to which is attached an optic fiber with embedded sensors. Measurement of the modulation of the light passing through the fiber can be used to compute the shape of the tape and, in particular, the position and orientation of the end of the Shapetape. It can be used to provide any kind of 3d geometric information including robot teleoperation control. The HUD can overlay graphical information onto the astronaut's visual field including robot joint torques, end effector configuration, procedure checklists and virtual control panels. With suitable tracking information about the position and orientation of the EVA suit

  13. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  14. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  15. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  16. EVA: continuous automatic evaluation of protein structure prediction servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich, V A; Martí-Renom, M A; Przybylski, D; Madhusudhan, M S; Fiser, A; Pazos, F; Valencia, A; Sali, A; Rost, B

    2001-12-01

    Evaluation of protein structure prediction methods is difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe EVA, a web server for assessing protein structure prediction methods, in an automated, continuous and large-scale fashion. Currently, EVA evaluates the performance of a variety of prediction methods available through the internet. Every week, the sequences of the latest experimentally determined protein structures are sent to prediction servers, results are collected, performance is evaluated, and a summary is published on the web. EVA has so far collected data for more than 3000 protein chains. These results may provide valuable insight to both developers and users of prediction methods. http://cubic.bioc.columbia.edu/eva. eva@cubic.bioc.columbia.edu

  17. Hydrogeology of the Olševa massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Krivic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Olševa consists of highly pervious carbonates, forming a relatively big fractured and karstified aquifer. Due to its high-altitude mountainous nature, the aquifer is unpolluted and therefore has to be regarded as a potential source of drinking water for the future.The Olševa aquifer is tectonically divided into three parts. Groundwater from the two smaller aquifers, covering areas of 1,9 and 0,8 km2, located in eastern part of Ol{eva massif, flows toward Northeast into Meža river basin. In spite of several transversal faults, the rest of Olševa massif forms a relatively uniform aquifer that is conveying groundwater in westerly direction towards Rjavica valley. Rjavica valley in Austria represents the discharge area of a majority of groundwater from the main Ol{eva aquifer.

  18. The odontological identification of Eva Braun Hitler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Strøm, F

    1983-01-01

    On May 7th-9th, 1945, a team of Russian pathologists autopsied several bodies found in and near the Fuehrer Bunker in Berlin; among them, a female body (No. 13) was later identified as that of Eva Braun Hitler (EBH), mainly by means of a gold bridge from the lower right jaw. A postmortem photograph of this bridge also shows a separate gold filling. Data now available on the dental treatment of EBH have permitted the present authors to substantiate that this gold filling also came from the mouth of EBH. Further speculation about the fate of EBH would henceforth seem professionally unfounded.

  19. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  20. Synthesis of EVA/MWNT nanocomposites by radiation induced crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, K.A.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Chaudhari, C.V.; Sabharwal, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: EVA is widely used as an insulating material for high voltage cables and in the footwear and toy industries due to its high flexibility and chemical inertness. The nano-composites of EVA with MWNT are of the special interest because incorporation of suitable amount of MWNT in EVA matrix is expected to significantly enhance EVA's thermal and mechanical properties, and open a new domain of applications. The modification of EVA by using high-energy radiation and with particulate filler has been widely practiced; however, there is not much information available on the radiation processing of EVA nanocomposites. To understand the effect of radiation and of MWNT addition on the physico-mechanical characteristics of EVA, different compositions of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/multiple walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) nanocomposites were prepared by mixing in Brabender and subjected to different doses of gamma radiation. The efficiency of radiation vulcanization was analyzed by gel-content, Charlesby-Pinner parameter and crosslinking density measurements. Gamma radiation induced crosslinking was found to increase with MWNT fraction in EVA/MWNT nanocomposites (P o /q o range: 1.15-0.98). These results ruled out the possibility of a significant neutralization of single ionization spurs by MWNT addition. The polymer-filler interaction parameter determined from Kraus plot indicated good interaction between EVA and MWNTs. Storage modulus changed from 7 x 10 7 Pa to 1.8 x 10 8 Pa with incorporation of 5% (wt/wt) MWNT while density increased from 0.78 g/cc to 0.80 g/cc

  1. Effect of EVA on thermal stability, flammability, mechanical properties of HDPE/EVA/Mg(OH)2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, R.; Deng, Z. L.; Ma, Y. H.; Chen, X. L.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is introduced to improve the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/magnesium hydroxide (MH) composites. The thermal stability, flame retardancy and mechanical properties of HDPE/EVA/MH composites are investigated and discussed. With increasing content of EVA, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the composites increases. The thermal stability analysis shows that the initial decomposition temperature begins at a low temperature; however, the residues of the composites at 600°C increase when HDPE is replaced by small amounts of EVA. The early degradation absorbs heat, dilute oxygen and residue. During this process, it protects the matrix inside. Compared with the HDPE/MH and EVA/MH composites, the ternary HDPE/EVA/MH composites exhibit better flame retardancy by increasing the LOI values, and reducing the heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR). With increasing content of EVA, the mechanical properties can also be improved, which is attributed to the good affinity between EVA and MH particles.

  2. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  3. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  4. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author)

  5. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Rubber Technology Center; Tikku, V.K.; Pradhan, N.K. [NICCO Corporation Ltd., (Cable Div.), Calcutta (India)

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author).

  6. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  7. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  8. Analisis Economic Value Added (EVA) dalam Menilai Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan pada PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk.

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfauzi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the financial performance of PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk which is measured by Economic Value Added (EVA). Variable which is needed to compute The EVA are Net Profit After Tax (NOPAT), Cost of Capital (CoC), and Economic Value Added (EVA). EVA concept is different with another financial performance instruments. Because in computing EVA, Cost of Capital is included. That’s why accounting profitable company doesn’t mean it has positive EV...

  9. A flow cytometric method for assessing viability of intraerythrocytic hemoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, C R; Goff, W; Davis, W C

    1991-06-24

    We have developed a rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites. The assay involves the selective uptake and metabolic conversion of hydroethidine to ethidium by live parasites present in intact erythrocytes. The red fluorescence imparted by ethidium intercalated into the DNA of the parasite permits the use of flow cytometry to distinguish infected erythrocytes with viable parasites from uninfected erythrocytes and erythrocytes containing dead parasites. Comparison of the fluorochromasia technique of enumerating the number and viability of hemoparasites in cultured erythrocytes with enumeration in Giemsa-stained films and uptake of [3H]hypoxanthine demonstrated the fluorochromasia technique yields comparable results. Studies with the hemoparasite, Babesia bovis, have shown the fluorochromasia technique can also be used to monitor the effect of parasiticidal drugs on parasites in vitro. The cumulative studies with the fluorochromasia assay suggest the assay will also prove useful in investigations focused on analysis of the immune response to hemoparasites and growth in vitro.

  10. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  11. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  12. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 2: Shuttle orbiter crew and equipment translation concepts and EVA workstation concept development and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    EVA crewman/equipment translational concepts are developed for a shuttle orbiter payload application. Also considered are EVA workstation systems to meet orbiter and payload requirements for integration of workstations into candidate orbiter payload worksites.

  13. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  14. SELENE - Self-Forming Extensible Lunar EVA Network, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar EVA network will exhibit a wide range of connectivity levels due to the challenging communications environment and mission dynamics. Disruption-Tolerant...

  15. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  16. Vabariigi aastapäeva tähistamisest Hamiltonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    EV 91. aastapäeva tähistas Hamiltoni Eesti Võitlejate Ühing, Hamiltoni Eesti Pensionäride Klubi; Hamiltoni eesti organisatsioonid korraldasid aktuse, mille peakõneleja oli Eesti Sihtkapital Kanadas esinaine Lia Hess

  17. KIK pidas sünnipäeva / Endrik Tõnsberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnsberg, Endrik

    2005-01-01

    11. mail 2005. a. andsid Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskuse viienda sünnipäeva puhul ajakirjanikele pressikonverentsi KIK-i nõukogu esimees, keskkonnaminister Villu Reiljan, KIK-i juhataja Kalev Aun ja programmijuht Heiko Põdersalu

  18. Reconfigurable Power-Aware EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) radio system is a pivotal technology for the successful support of the International Space Station beyond 2020 and future...

  19. Soomemeelsed / Eva Klemets ja Juhan Ulfsak ; intervjueerinud Rednar Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koldits, Eva, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Kristian Smedsi lavastusest "Mental Finland", milles osalevad üheteistkümne rahvuse esindajad, sealhulgas eesti näitlejad Juhan Ulfsak ja Eva Klemets. Koostööst Kristian Smedsi trupiga. Eesti ja soome teatrimaastiku erinevusest ja sarnasusest

  20. Phase separation and orientation in EVA/polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins-Franchetti, S.M.; Nunes, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Blends of the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A-(PC) with poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) were prepared by solution casting in different solvents and various proportions. Their behaviours was examined by diferential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and u.v. spectrophotometry. The results obtained show that PC and EVA form partially miscible blends. In some cases, birefringence was observed by optical microscopy indicating the occurrence of polymer orientation in the neighbourhood of the interfaces. (author) [pt

  1. Astronaut Ronald Evans is suited up for EVA training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, is assisted by technicians in suiting up for extravehicular activity (EVA) training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (49970); Evans participates in EVA training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The structure in the picture simulates the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module (49971).

  2. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  3. Assessment of bacterial endospore viability with fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, C; Lavigne, S; Ho, J; Duchaine, C

    2004-01-01

    To validate three fluorescence viability assays designed primarily for vegetative cells on pure Bacillus endospores. Purified fresh and gamma-irradiated Bacillus endospores (Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans and two strains of B. subtilis) were used. The viability assays were: 5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) to test respiratory activity and early germination, DiBAC4(3) and Live/Dead BacLight to measure membrane energization and permeabilization, respectively. Gamma irradiation treatment completely eliminated spore culturability and was used as negative control. The untreated spores showed respiratory activity after 1 h of incubation and this was characteristic of almost 100% of spores after 24 h. The membrane potential assessment gave no answer about spore viability. A lower proportion of untreated spores had permeabilized membrane compared with gamma-irradiated spores using Live/Dead BacLight (P plate count. This study shows that fluorescence tests could be applied to assess viability in potentially pathogenic Bacillus spore preparations within 1 h.

  4. EVA1A inhibits GBM cell proliferation by inducing autophagy and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xue; Kan, Shifeng; Liu, Zhen [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Guang [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Yingyu [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Beijing 100191 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyun@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Eva-1 homolog A (EVA1A) is a novel lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein involved in autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-EVA1A vector (Ad5-EVA1A) to overexpress EVA1A in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and evaluated its anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We found that overexpression of EVA1A in three GBM cell lines (U251, U87 and SHG44) resulted in a suppression of tumor cell growth via activation of autophagy and induction of cell apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EVA1A-mediated autophagy was associated with inactivation of the mTOR/RPS6KB1 signaling pathway. Furthermore in vivo, overexpression of EVA1A successfully inhibited tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. Our data suggest that EVA1A-induced autophagy and apoptosis play a role in suppressing the development of GBM and their up-regulation may be an effective method for treating this form of cancer. - Highlights: • Overexpression of EVA1A suppresses GBM cell growth. • EVA1A induces autophagy through the mTOR/RPS6KB1 pathway. • EVA1A induces GBM cell apoptosis. • EVA1A inhibits the development of GBM in vivo.

  5. Assessment of physical protection systems: EVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-L.; Lamotte, C.; Jorda, A.

    2001-01-01

    CEA's missions in various sectors of activity such as nuclear, defence, industrial contracts and the associated regulatory requirements, make it necessary to develop a strategy in the field of physical protection. In particular, firms having nuclear materials are subject to the July 25, 1980 law no.80-572 on the protection and control of nuclear materials. A holding permit delivered by the regulatory authority is conditioned to the protection by the operator of the nuclear materials used. In France it is the nuclear operator who must demonstrate, in the form of a security study, that potential aggressors would be neutralised before they could escape with the material. To meet these requirements, we have developed methods to assess the vulnerability of our facilities. The EVA method, the French acronym for 'Evaluation de la vulnerabilite des Acces' (access vulnerability system) allows dealing with internal and external threats involving brutal actions. In scenarios relating to external threat, the intruders get past the various barriers of our protection system, attempting to steal a large volume of material in one swoop and then escape. In the case of internal threat, the goal is the same. However, as the intruder usually has access to the material in the scope of his activities, the action begins at the level of the target. Our protection system is based on in-depth defense where the intruders are detected and then delayed in their advance towards their target to allow time for intervention forces to intercept them

  6. A fluorescence sedimentation assay for dsDNA antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, K; Draborg, A H; Güven, E

    2017-01-01

    The Farr assay is a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dsDNA antibodies, based on antibody precipitation using ammonium sulphate and quantification using radio-labelled dsDNA. The RIA-Farr assay offers outstanding clinical specificity and sensitivity for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to other...... on precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fluorescence of EvaGreen intercalated in dsDNA as detection principle. As dsDNA antibodies are quantified using fluorescence, the disadvantages of working with radioactivity are eliminated. The Fluoro-Farr assay was developed and validated, and the diagnostic...

  7. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  8. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  9. An investigation on radiation crosslinked foam of LDPE/EVA blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqin Dalai; Chen Wenxiu

    1995-01-01

    LDPE/EVA blend, irradiated by γ-ray then expansed by heat as a foam material, the EVA content in LDPE/EVA blend was benefited to form gelation. The gel fraction on irradiated LDPE/EVA blend increased with the increasing of its EVA content in a given dose. The gel fraction values of LDPE/EVA blend with 30% EVA content were higher than those of other blends in a same given dose, its gel fraction value was 1.7 times as those values of LDPE without EVA. The gel fractions on LDPE/EVA blend were increased with dose in oxygen, in air and in nitrogen, the formation of gel was limited by oxygen. The oxidation products on foam of LDPE/EVA blend were observed in nitrogen, in air and in oxygen by FTIR spectra. The LDPE/EVA blend system has no protection effect from oxidation comparison with the LDPE system without EVA which has less oxidation product than those without EVA in a same given gel fraction. The gel fraction on foam of LDPE/EVA blend around 25-35%, dose 25 ± 5kGy, irradiated by γ-ray in air or in nitrogen, with higher expansion ratio (19), smaller cell diameter (0.175mm), lower apparent density (0.042g/cm 3 ), higher tensile strength (0.40MPa) and longer elongation at break (290-360%) on foam of LDPE/EVA blend were selected. It was opitimum condition for application in this systems. The relations among gel fraction on LDPE/EVA blend, expansion ratio, apparent density, average cell diameter and mechanical properties of foamed sheet were discussed. (author)

  10. Viability of infrared FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared FELs have broken important ground in optical science in the past decade. The rapid development of optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators, and THz sources, however, has changed the competitive landscape and compelled FEL facilities to identify and exploit their unique advantages. The viability of infrared FEL facilities depends on targeting unique world-class science and providing adequate experimental beam time at competitive costs

  11. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  12. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  13. Importance of Donor Chondrocyte Viability for Osteochondral Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Stannard, James P; Stoker, Aaron M; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-05-01

    chondrocytes with infiltration of fibroblasts from the surrounding recipient tissues. In situ polymerase chain reaction (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) assays were performed in an attempt to distinguish donor (male) cells from recipient (female) cells. Unfortunately, this technique was exceptionally difficult to perform on intact articular cartilage sections, and consistent, repeatable data could not be obtained from this testing. However, the data did support histologic and live-dead data, which strongly suggested that successful grafts retained viable donor (male) chondrocytes and unsuccessful grafts degraded and were replaced by fibrous tissue populated with recipient (female) fibroblasts. Viable chondrocytes in OCAs at the time of transplantation are primarily responsible for maintenance of donor articular cartilage health in the long term. Optimizing chondrocyte viability in all aspects of OCA transplantation-including procurement, processing, storage, transportation, and surgical implantation-needs to be a primary focus for OCA clinical use. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  15. Electrostatic Discharge Issues in International Space Station Program EVAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    EVA activity in the ISS program encounters several dangerous ESD conditions. The ISS program has been aggressive for many years to find ways to mitigate or to eliminate the associated risks. Investments have included: (1) Major mods to EVA tools, suit connectors & analytical tools (2) Floating Potential Measurement Unit (3) Plasma Contactor Units (4) Certification of new ISS flight attitudes (5) Teraflops of computation (6) Thousands of hours of work by scores of specialists (7) Monthly management attention at the highest program levels. The risks are now mitigated to a level that is orders of magnitude safer than prior operations

  16. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  17. EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite: Study of the properties thermal and crystallinity of the EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentim, Ana C.S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Emerson O. da

    2011-01-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the thermal properties and crystallinity of the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer containing 28% vinyl acetate were investigated. The EVA/TiO 2 nanocomposite films with TiO 2 contents of 0,10-1% relative to the total mass of EVA, were prepared via solution. The prepared films were characterized using TG, and XRD methods. (author)

  18. PBMC and MDAMB-231 cellular viability after telecobalt irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy by gamma rays are used for cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation effects on cells has been investigated. Studies in vitro were developed using tumor cell lines and ionizing radiation. The aim of this research was to test the cellular viability response of two cell types through MTT assay: human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and human breast carcinoma cell line MDAMB-231. These cells were irradiated with 60 Co source Theratron 80 radiotherapy machine from Atomic Energy Canada Limited with 20 x 20 cm field at 136.4 cGy/min, surface source distance 70 cm. Culture flasks contained 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 cells were irradiated with 100 Gy, 25 Gy, and 50 Gy using non fractionated doses. Cellular viability were evaluated 1h, 24h, 48h and 72h after irradiation and samples were measured by optical density at 595nm. Our results show that PBMC cells present lower cellular viability post irradiation. On the other hand, MDAMB-231 cells maintain viability after 50 Gy irradiation at 72h indicating cellular radioresistance. (author)

  19. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  20. Executive compensation and the EVA and MVA performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media regularly report a growing incidence of non-alignment of executive pay and performance, and in some cases, no link between the two whatsoever. The advent of new measures of shareholder wealth such as economic value added (EVA) and market value added (MVA) have allowed some companies to link ...

  1. Kodundust tuleks õpetada teisiti / Tiina Päeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päeva, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    Tiina Päeva 2000. a. läbi viidud uurimistööst "Eesti noorte kodumajanduslikud oskused ja teadmised - nende tähtsus, allikad ning seotus kodumajanduse õpetamisega", milles huvitas autorit, kuidas suhtuvad Eesti noored poistele kodunduse õpetamisse ning mida Eesti noored kodumajandusest kui õppeainest arvavad

  2. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  3. Taju vormiv arhitektuur / Eva Castro, Holger Kehne ; interv. Inga Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Castro, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Londoni arhitektuuribüroo Plasma Studio arhitektid Eva Castro (s. 1969 Argentiinas) ja Holger Kehne (s. 1970 Saksamaal) räägivad oma tööst ja arhitektuurist. Loetletud büroo tähtsamad arhitektuuriauhinnad ja projektid. Osalesid 5. Põhja- ja Baltimaade arhitektuuritriennaalil

  4. Kõne EV aastapäeva aktusel / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Läti kirikus peetud Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva aktusel rääkis Karl Altau Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee nimel kommunismi ohvrite mälestussamba ehitamise alustamisest Washingtoni kesklinna 2006. aastal, koostööst kõigi baltlaste vahel ja võimalusest annetada, üleskutsest toetada Valgevene rahvast teel demokraatiale

  5. 29. V peeti Narva kunstigaleriis traditsioonilist kunstnikupäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Salvador Dali 100. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud kunstnikupäeval eksponeerisid 53 Narva, Ivangorodi, Kohtla-Järve, Jõhvi ja Tallinna kunstnikku Dali loomingust inspireeritud töid. Päeva külaline: Tallinna Katariina gild eesotsas Kaire Taliga. Toimus teatri VB performance "Aastaajad. Mitgard"

  6. Radiation Effects on Mechanical Properties of LDPE/EVA blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung; Kim, Ki Yup; Im, Don Sun; Ryu, Boo Hyung

    2005-01-01

    Restricted properties and a limited use of homopolymers alone, have given rise to an exploration of composites, copolymers, blends, etc. Copolymers such as poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate), poly(ethylene-co-ethyl acrylate) (EEA) have wide usages in different industry. Among the numerous ethylene copolymers, due to its wide range of properties depending on its vinyl acetate content, EVA has become one of the most useful copolymers in the electrical industry as a cable insulator, and in many other industries as a hot melt adhesive, a coating, etc. Several works looked at the influence of gamma rays on polymers. Zhang et al have blended EVA with PE because crosslinked PE has a low flexibility for use as a cable insulation. It was reported that the blend showed have a better elongation, flexibility and heat aging effect than PE, but its hardness and softening point were lower. In this study, the radiation degradation of LDPE/EVA blends as a function of the vinyl acetate contents was investigated by using TGA, gelation and elongation

  7. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-12-21

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89.

  8. Bond-girl Eva Green: "Daniel ei ole sugugi halb" / Eva Green ; ref. Viktoria Ladõnskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Green, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Ajakirjanikud vaatasid Londonis uut Bondi-filmi "007 : Casino Royale" ja kohtusid pressikonverentsil peaosatäitjatega. Prantsusmaal elav rootsi-alžeeria päritolu näitlejanna Eva Green räägib oma rollist ja koostööst Bondi-kehastaja Daniel Craigiga

  9. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  10. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  11. Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) is an assay which evaluates xenobiotic-induced effects using three endpoints: mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, mESC viability, and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal was to develop an improved high-throughput assay by establi...

  12. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  13. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. INTEGRATING ABC AND EVA TO EVALUATE INVESTMENT DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chiadamrong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The significance of investment is transparent in the world of competitive business. Traditional costing systems in which their emphasizes are for short term savings rather than long term benefits have shown some lacking in providing accurate and reliable cost data for the investment decisions. Activity-based Costing (ABC, which is developed to satisfy some of the weaknesses of the traditional costing systems, can provide valuable insights into the operating processes and come up with more accurate cost data. In this paper, ABC is used to provide significant information for investment decisions. Although, the ABC method provides accurate operating product costs, it does not identify which products are economic valued added creators and so contribute to companies’ wealth. This drawback can be overcome by applying Economic Value Added (EVA. The adoption of ABC and EVA can represent a considerable change in the managerial thinking and to corporate strategies and business performance.

  16. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  17. Farewell Jean-Marie Good Luck Eva Welcome back Franz

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the farewell reception offered by the Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, on the occasion of Jean-Marie Dufour's retirement from CERN, three generations of CERN Legal Counsel met. From right to left: Jean-Marie Dufour, who retires on 30 November 2001, after 35 years of service. Eva-Maria Gröniger-Voss, who takes over from Jean-Marie Dufour on 1st December 2001. Ambassador Franz Schmid, CERN Legal Counsel from 1971 to 1974.

  18. Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

  19. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returing from the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of HDPE/EVA Flat Sheet Membranes by Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shoeyb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of material composition in fabrication of modified polymeric membrane has been considered the most efficient and easiest method. For this purpose blended membranes of high density polyethylene (HDPE–ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA were prepared by thermally induced phase separation method. The impact of EVA in the presence of diluent on the crystalization temperature was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The obtained results showed that EVA has no significant effect on the crystalization temperature of HDPE. The absorption frequencies at 1248 and 1749 cm-1, respectively, due to C-O and C=O streching vibrations of EVA functional groups, confirmed the existence of EVA in HDPE membrane. The pure water permeability of HDPE/EVA blend was measured and compared with that of neat HDPE membrane. The results showed that an EVA content up to 2.5 wt% raised water permeability considerably and the leafy structure of the membranes contracted and the pure water permeation dropped with higher EVA content. The results of porosity measurement and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM analysis also confirmed these findings. Contact angel measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM examinations and static absorption of collagen protein on the membrane surfaces revealed that EVA content up to 5 wt% lowered the hydrophobicity of the membrane. By EVA content above 10 wt%, due to the structural alteration on the membrane surface, the contact angel and the collagen absorption on the surface of membrane increased. The measurement of tensile strength showed that with increasing EVA content the mechanical properties of the membranes improved due to interactions of polar groups in EVA.

  1. Spaceborne construction and operations planning - Decision rules for selecting EVA, telerobot, and combined work-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented for selecting an appropriate work-system for performing construction and operations tasks by humans and telerobots. The decision to use extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by astronauts, extravehicular robotics (EVR), or a combination of EVA and EVR is determined by the ratio of the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA. The approach proposed here is useful for examining cost trade-offs between tasks and performing trade studies of task improvement techniques (human or telerobotic).

  2. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  3. Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

  4. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  5. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

  6. The application of flow cytometry and fluorescent probe technology for detection and assessment of viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional methods to detect and assess the viability of plant pathogenic bacteria are usually based on plating assays or serological techniques. Plating assays provide information about the number of viable cells, expressed as colony-forming units, but are time-consuming and laborious.

  7. Architectures/Algorithms/Tools for Ultra-Low Power, Compact EVA Digital Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EVA digital radio imposes tight constraints on power consumption, latency, throughput, form factor, reconfigurability, single event upset and fault tolerance,...

  8. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on

  9. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  10. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13 C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  11. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves Stael

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group.

  12. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  13. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  14. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle Tympanotonus Fuscatus in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Vabariigi presidendi iseseisvuspäeva kõne / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2011-01-01

    Presidendi kõne Eesti Vabariigi 93. aastapäeva pidulikul kontserdil Estonias 24. veebruaril 2011. aastal. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Isetehtud Eesti. Õhtulehes kommenteerivad Rainer Kattel, Olev Remsu, Agu Uudelepp ja Vitali Belobrovtsev. Õhtulehes vt. ka juhtkiri: Vaikne ja rahulik Põhjamaa? Äripäevas vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Rohkem enesekindlust, rohkem eneseusaldust!

  16. Valitsuse 100 päeva üllatused / Kadri Jakobson, Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 18. juuli lk. 2. Aprillirahutuste ohjamine on toonud valitsusele toetuse, aktsiisi- ja hinnatõus aga ennustavad majandusraskusi. Tabel: Valitsuskoalitsiooni lubadused, teod ja peaministri kommentaarid. Vt. samas: Silmapaistvamad 100 päeva ministrid; Valitsuse 100 päeva positiivsed otsused. Vt. samas: Andrus Saar: valitsuse otsused on pannud käima inflatsiooniralli

  17. Role of EVA viscoelastic properties in the protective performance of a sport shoe: computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Weisz, Ety; Hirsch-Falk, Yifat; Gefen, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Modern sport shoes are designed to attenuate mechanical stress waves, mainly through deformation of the viscoelastic midsole which is typically made of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. Shock absorption is obtained by flow of air through interconnected air cells in the EVA during shoe deformation under body-weight. However, when the shoe is overused and air cells collapse or thickness of the EVA is reduced, shock absorption capacity may be affected, and this may contribute to running injuries. Using lumped system and finite element models, we studied heel pad stresses and strains during heel-strike in running, considering the viscoelastic constitutive behavior of both the heel pad and EVA midsole. In particular, we simulated wear cases of the EVA, manifested in the modeling by reduced foam thickness, increased elastic stiffness, and shorter stress relaxation with respect to new shoe conditions. Simulations showed that heel pad stresses and strains were sensitive to viscous damping of the EVA. Wear of the EVA consistently increased heel pad stresses, and reduced EVA thickness was the most influential factor, e.g., for a 50% reduction in thickness, peak heel pad stress increased by 19%. We conclude that modeling of the heel-shoe interaction should consider the viscoelastic properties of the tissue and shoe components, and the age of the studied shoe.

  18. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  19. A versão de Eva: perspectiva, narrativa e interpretação em A vida de Adão e Eva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Motta Rios

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, estudo o discurso de Eva em A vida de Adão e Eva, em sua versão grega. Em um primeiro momento, introduzo o tema da mudança de perspectiva a partir de uma obra contemporânea, Vita Brevis de Jostein Gaarder. Em seguida, apresento brevemente o texto com o qual trabalho. Então, abordo o discurso de Eva, observando a maneira como este se insere na narrativa mais ampla. Reflito também sobre como a mudança de perspectiva instaurada no recontar de Eva possibilita uma narrativa na qual contar e interpretar se mesclam, à maneira dos midrashim agádicos.

  20. Use of fluorescent redox indicators to evaluate cell proliferation and viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of two cell viability test kits based on the use of redox indicators yielding fluorescent products, the AlamarBlue assay and a resazurin-based in vitro toxicology assay kit from Sigma, was compared in the present study. Cultures of human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts were exposed...... for 168 h of continuous exposure, but showed equal levels of cytostatic effects in cultures with a low initial cell density after 72 h of exposure. Similar characteristics of the dye solutions were observed by high-performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and UV spectroscopy, and the major...... components were tentatively identified as resazurin and resorufin. The AlamarBlue assay has gained wide application as a cell viability indicator that allows continuous monitoring of cell proliferation or cytotoxicity in human and animal cells, bacteria, and fungi, but no studies with the deliberate use...

  1. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Sakalar, Erg?n; Erg?n, Seyma ?z?irak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN? Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks...

  2. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün; Ergün, Seyma Özçirak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  4. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  5. Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qingyu; Kou, Dongquan; Ying, Xiaozhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Yu, Ziming; Peng, Lei; Lu, Chuanzhu

    2013-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.

  6. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  7. Rapid, radiolabeled-microculture method that uses macrophages for in vitro evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae viability and drug susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Sathish, M; Seshadri, P S; Nath, I

    1983-04-01

    This paper describes a microculture rapid assay using radiolabeling and mouse macrophages to determine the viability and the drug susceptibility or resistance of Mycobacterium leprae. Comparison of M. leprae resident macrophage cultures maintained in 96-well flat-bottomed plates showed results for viability and susceptibility or resistance to dapsone that were similar to results for concurrent cultures in Leighton tubes with greater numbers of bacilli and macrophages.

  8. Rapid, Radiolabeled-Microculture Method That Uses Macrophages for In Vitro Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae Viability and Drug Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, A.; Sathish, M.; Seshadri, P. S.; Nath, Indira

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a microculture rapid assay using radiolabeling and mouse macrophages to determine the viability and the drug susceptibility or resistance of Mycobacterium leprae. Comparison of M. leprae resident macrophage cultures maintained in 96-well flat-bottomed plates showed results for viability and susceptibility or resistance to dapsone that were similar to results for concurrent cultures in Leighton tubes with greater numbers of bacilli and macrophages.

  9. Spectroscopic, scanning laser OBIC, and I-V/QE characterizations of browned EVA solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Eisgruber, I.L. [Materials Research Group, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Micheels, R.H. [Polestar Technologies, Inc., Needham Hts, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of -80 to -90 to the range of -20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emission peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%-48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.

  10. Morphological observation and analysis using automated image cytometry for the comparison of trypan blue and fluorescence-based viability detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Kuksin, Dmitry; Laverty, Daniel J; Saldi, Stephanie; Qiu, Jean

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately determine cell viability is essential to performing a well-controlled biological experiment. Typical experiments range from standard cell culturing to advanced cell-based assays that may require cell viability measurement for downstream experiments. The traditional cell viability measurement method has been the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay. However, since the introduction of fluorescence-based dyes for cell viability measurement using flow or image-based cytometry systems, there have been numerous publications comparing the two detection methods. Although previous studies have shown discrepancies between TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability measurements, image-based morphological analysis was not performed in order to examine the viability discrepancies. In this work, we compared TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability detection methods using image cytometry to observe morphological changes due to the effect of TB on dead cells. Imaging results showed that as the viability of a naturally-dying Jurkat cell sample decreased below 70 %, many TB-stained cells began to exhibit non-uniform morphological characteristics. Dead cells with these characteristics may be difficult to count under light microscopy, thus generating an artificially higher viability measurement compared to fluorescence-based method. These morphological observations can potentially explain the differences in viability measurement between the two methods.

  11. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  12. Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong; Jiang, Feng; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Kalina; Zheng, Xuguang; Cai, Yizhong; Katakowski, Mark; Chopp, Michael; To, Shing-Shun Tony

    2010-01-01

    Gallic acid, an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is cytotoxic against certain cancer cells, without harming normal cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether gallic acid can inhibit glioma cell viability, proliferation, invasion and reduce glioma cell mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of U87 and U251n glioma cells with gallic acid inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BrdU and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid sign...

  13. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months.

  14. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  15. Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Peters, B.; McBryan, E.; Laske, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an EVA crew member since gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to approach this problem by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices. This application of the NASA/GM RoboGlove technology uses a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove. This design provides grasp augmentation to the glove user while active, but can also function as a normal glove when disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and extrinsically locating the actuators. Conduits are used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The second generation of the SSRG includes updated electronics, sensors, and actuators to improve performance. The following discusses the electromechanical design, softgoods integration, and control system of the SSRG. It also presents test results from the first integration of a powered mobility element onto a space suit, the NASA Mark III. Early results show that sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and the actuators show potential for reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  16. Assessment of myocardial viability by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, Joern J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of myocardial viability after infarction focuses on the prediction of functional improvement of dysfunctional myocardium after revascularization therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging provides different approaches for the detection of myocardial viability. Measurement of end-diastolic wall thickness is easy to perform and has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity, and can only be used 4 months after myocardial infarction due to infarct healing processes. Low-dose dobutamine stress has a good sensitivity with a high specificity for the prediction of wall motion improvement, but this is only true for patients with a singular dysfunctional area and only slightly depressed cardiac function. Late enhancement allows for direct visualization of necrotic or scarred tissue. By measuring the transmural extent of late enhancement, the probability of mechanical improvement can precisely be given. Imaging of microvascular obstruction by first-pass perfusion or late enhancement gives additional information on viability and patient prognosis. Metabolic imaging techniques, such as 31 P-MR spectroscopy and 23 Na-MR imaging, provide further insights into the mechanisms of myocardial infarction and viability. In conclusion, cardiac MRI offers several clinically usable approaches for the assessment of myocardial viability and will probably become the method of choice in the near future. (orig.)

  17. Development of single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid diagnosis of enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus A6, and A16 in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chansaenroj, Jira; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) has facilitated the rapid and accurate identification of the two most common etiological agents underlying hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the worldwide emergence of CV-A6 infection in HFMD necessitates development of an improved multiplex rRT-PCR method. To rapidly determine the etiology of HFMD, two rRT-PCR assays using TaqMan probes were developed to differentiate among three selected common enteroviruses (EV-A71, CV-A16 and CV-A6) and to enable broad detection of enteroviruses (pan-enterovirus assay). No cross-reactions were observed with other RNA viruses examined. The detection limits of both assays were 10 copies per microliter for EV-A71, CV-A6 and CV-A16, and pan-enterovirus. The methods showed high accuracy (EV-A71, 90.6%; CV-A6, 92.0%; CV-A16, 100%), sensitivity (EV-A71, 96.5%; CV-A6, 95.8%; CV-A16, 99.0%), and specificity (EV-A71, 100%; CV-A6, 99.9%; CV-A16, 99.9%) in testing clinical specimens (n=1049) during 2014-2016, superior to those of conventional RT-PCR. Overall, the multiplex rRT-PCR assays enabled highly sensitive detection and rapid simultaneous typing of EV-A71, CV-A6 and CV-A16, and enteroviruses, rendering them feasible and attractive methods for large-scale surveillance of enteroviruses associated with HFMD outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-11-06

    The development of an aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria (AptaVISens-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to live Salmonella typhimurium were selected via the cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against viable S. typhimurium and a negative selection step against heat killed S. typhimurium and a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii to ensure the species specificity of the selected aptamers. The DNA sequence showing the highest binding affinity to the bacteria was further integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNP-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. typhimurium down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 live cells in 30 μL of assay volume) and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. enteritidis and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based viability sensing of a variety of microorganisms, particularly viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  19. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  20. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  1. EVA Human Health and Performance Benchmarking Study Overview and Development of a Microgravity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Jarvis, Sarah; Bekdash, Omar; Cupples, Scott; Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various EVA suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. Expected results and methodologies developed during this study will provide the baseline benchmarking data and protocols with which future EVA suits and suit configurations (e.g., varied pressure, mass, center of gravity [CG]) and different test subject populations (e.g., deconditioned crewmembers) may be reliably assessed and compared. Results may also be used, in conjunction with subsequent testing, to inform fitness-for-duty standards, as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  2. Study of wettability and cell viability of H implanted stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Ahmad, Riaz; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of hydrogen ion implantation on surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel is investigated. Hydrogen ions are implanted in the near-surface of stainless steel to facilitate hydrogen bonding at different doses with constant energy of 500 KeV, which consequently improve the surface wettability. Treated and untreated sample are characterized for surface wettability, incubation of hydroxyapatite and cell viability. Contact angle (CA) study reveals that surface wettability increases with increasing H-ion dose. Raman spectroscopy shows that precipitation of hydroxyapatite over the surface increase with increasing dose of H-ions. Cell viability study using MTT assay describes improved cell viability in treated samples as compared to the untreated sample. It is found that low dose of H-ions is more effective for cell proliferation and the cell count decreases with increasing ion dose. Our study demonstrates that H ion implantation improves the surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel.

  3. EVA Swab Tool to Support Planetary Protection and Astrobiology Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hood, Drew; Walker, Mary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2018-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. A team at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each end effector. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab end effector much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab end effector is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and re-pressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between

  4. Effect of radiation dosage changes on the cell viability and the apoptosis induction on normal and tumorigenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Woo; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to detect the differences in the cell viability and the apoptosis induction after irradiation on normal and tumorigenic cells. The study, that was generated for two human normal cells (RHEK, HGF-1) and two human tumor cells (KB, HT-1080), was tested using MTT assay at 1 day and 3 day after irradiation and TUNEL assay under confocal laser scanning microscope at 1 day after irradiation. Single irradiation of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 Gy were applied to the cells. The two fractions of 1, 2, 4, and 8 Gy were separated with a 4 hour time interval. The irradiation was done with 5.38 Gy/min dose rate using Cs-137 irradiator at room temperature. 1. In 3-day group, the cell viability of HGF-1 cell was significantly decreased at 2, 4 and 8 Gy irradiation, the cell viability of KB cell was significantly decreased at 8 Gy irradiation and the cell viability of HT-1080 cell was significantly decreased at 4 and 8 Gy irradiation. 2. There was significant difference between RHEK and KB cell line in the cell viability of 3-day group at 8 Gy irradiation. There was significant difference between RHEK and HGF-1 cell line in the cell viability of 3-day group at 4 and 8 Gy irradiation. 3. There was a significantly decreased cell viability in 3-day group than those in 1-day group at 2, 4 and 8 Gy on HGF-1 cell, at 4 and 8 Gy on HT-1080 cell, at 8 Gy on KB cell.4. We could detect DNA fragmented cells only on KB cell. Number of apoptotic cells of KB cell was significantly increased at 4 and 8 Gy irradiation. However, there was no correlation between cell viability and apoptosis.5. On all 4 cell lines, there were no differences between single and split irradiation method in cell viability and apoptosis.

  5. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  6. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  7. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  8. Efficacy of SYBR 14/propidium iodide viability stain for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, M P; Clulow, J; Mahony, M J

    2010-01-25

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently described pathogen that has been implicated as a causal agent in the global decline in amphibians. Research into its biology and epidemiology has frequently involved in vitro experimentation. However, this research is currently limited by the inability to differentiate between viable and inviable zoospores. Stains are frequently used to determine cell viability, and this study tested a 2-colour fluorescence assay for the detection and quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis zoospores. The results show that the nucleic acid stains SYBR 14 and propidium iodide are effective in distinguishing live from dead zoospores, and a protocol has been optimized for their use. This viability assay provides an efficient and reliable tool that will have applications in B. dendrobatidis challenge and amphibian exposure experiments.

  9. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  10. Korp! Filiae Patriae 85. aastapäeva pidustused Los Angeleses / Lumme Erilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilt, Lumme

    2005-01-01

    5. novembril 2005 tähistas Filiae Patriae Kalifornia koondis Los Angelese Eesti Majas piduliku õestuspeo ning ühise perekonnaõhtuga koos korp! Rotaliaga aastapäeva. Peeti kõnesid, oli tervitusi, muusikat, palju lilli

  11. Eesti vanim raamatukogu tähistab 450. aastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Oleviste raamatukogu, mille varad on EAR baltikaosakonnas. Aastapäeva puhul avati näitus "Tallinna Oleviste raamatukogu 450" 3. aprillil 2002 Tallinna Raekoja keldrisaalis, samuti esitletakse kogumikku "Bibliotheca Revaliensis ad. D. Olai"

  12. “PERFORMANCE TREND” AND “PERFORMANCE CURRENT” RATINGS BY ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU BOGEANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Value Added (EVA is an index of “durable development.” It was proposed by the Stern-Stewart Office and represents the true economic profit of companies. A company reports economic profit only if thereported accounting profit is higher than the opportunity cost of equity. The authors of the EVA model (Stern-Stewart have also proposed the ways of restating the financial statements to get a “fair image” of the results, thuseliminating the “accounting distortions.”Based on the performance indexes calculated based on EVA and second-generation indexes relating toEVA, we calculated two types of rating: Rating Performance Current and Rating Performance Trend. The rating iscalculated by means of the percentiles technique and the results are split into 22 rating classes.The used database is Russell 3000.

  13. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  14. Taasleitud kadunud ja unustatud kino / Jonathan L. Owen ; tõlkinud Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Owen, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Via Transversa : Lost cinema of the former Eastern bloc. Eds. Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek. Special issue of Koht ja paik/Place and location :Studies in environmental aesthetics and semiotics VII. Tallinn, 2008

  15. 'Seal, kus oleme meie, on muuseum!' ; Eva ja Adele Helsingis / interv. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Elavad skulptuurid Saksamaalt Eva ja Adele etendasid moodsa kunsti muuseumi Kiasma avamisel performance'it 'Seal, kus oleme meie, on muuseum'. Intervjuu kunstnikega. Kunstnikepaarist, nende eesmärgist, millistes maades võetakse neid kergemini vastu, Kiasmast jm

  16. Reconfigurable EVA Radio with Built-In Navigation Capability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. and its sub-contractor, Purdue University, propose to develop a power-efficient miniaturized reconfigurable EVA radio system with...

  17. A Novel Approach to Highly Damage Tolerant and Abrasion Resistant EVA Gloves, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the spacesuit pressure garment, the EVA glove incorporates a silicone pad on the palm for protection of the bladder from cuts and punctures. Repeated...

  18. Võidupüha-Jaanipäeva tähistamine Clevelandis / Hans Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Hans

    2006-01-01

    25. juunil Clevelandi Eesti Kultuuraias. Sellel aastal tähistas kultuuraed 40-ndat asutamise aastapäeva. Meenutati monumendi avamist, peakõnelejaks Toomas Tubalkain, mälestati sõjas hukkunud eestlasi

  19. Closed-Loop, Non-Venting Thermal Control for Mars EVA Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks new thermal control technology for EVA suits on Mars. The system must be closed-loop and non-venting, have negligible impact on the Martian environment,...

  20. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  1. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, and highly reliable. A key component is a...

  2. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, highly reliable, and meets stringent...

  3. Astronauts Allen and Gemar during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and Andrew M. Allen participate in a training exercise at JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), located in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility. Gemar sits inside the airlock as Allen reviews procedures for EVA.

  4. Examination of viability and quality of ovarian tissue after cryopreservation using simple laboratory methods in ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerin Jean F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study is to assess viability tests and to evaluate follicle ovarian tissue quality after freezing-thawing procedures. Methods Ewe's ovaries were harvested at the slaughterhouse, after dissection each ovarian specimen was divided into two groups: fresh tissue (control group and frozen tissue. In the first part of the study, the follicles viability was assessed by trypan blue staining, calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining (LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, Molecular Probes and morphology in the two groups. In the second part of the study the quality of the whole ovarian tissue was evaluated by the quantification of the release of lactate dehydrogenase measurement (Cytotoxicity Detection kit ROCHE, DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL in primordial and primary follicles (ApopDETEK Kit system Enzo and morphology in the two groups. 100 Follicles (primordial and primary were counted on both fresh and frozen hemiovary to assess this various tests. Results Ovarian follicle viability assessment was similar using trypan blue or calcein/ethidium staining. Follicles showed a decreased viability after freezing-thawing. After cryopreservation, a significant correlation between the percentage of normal follicles and viability rate was found using trypan blue (r = 0.82, p Conclusion We suggest the use of trypan blue staining for the histological assessment of viability, the use of LDH assay for the cytotoxicity assessement and finally the use of DNA fragmentation assessment to valid different freezing-thawing protocols.

  5. Mechanical behavior of recycled lightweight concrete using EVA waste and CDW under moderate temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Q. R. Santiago

    Full Text Available Many benefits can be achieved by using recycled waste as raw material for construction. Some of them are the reduction of the total cost of the construction, the reduction of the consumption of energy and the decrease in the use of natural materials. The construction sector can also incorporate the waste of the other industries, like the waste of the shoes industry, the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA. EVA aggregate is obtained by cutting off the waste of EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of the shoes. In this work two types of recycled aggregate were used - construction and demolition waste (CDW and EVA. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates, as replacement of the natural coarse aggregate, on mechanical behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with two w/c ratio: 0.49 and 0.82. Four mixtures with produced with different aggregates substitution rates (0, 50%EVA, 50%CDW and 25%EVA-25%CDW, by volume. Compressive tests were carried out to evaluable the influence of recycled aggregate on strength, elastic modulus and Poisson coefficient. In addition, it was evaluated the effect of the moderate temperatures (50, 70 and 100º C on stress-strain behavior of concretes studied. The results demonstrated that is possible to use the EVA waste and RCD to produces lightweight concrete. The influence of temperature was more significant only on elastic modulus of the recycled concrete with 50%EVA.

  6. Diagnostic criteria for enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) on CT of the temporal bones. Borderline cases of EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Hoshino, Tomoyuki; Kikura, Mikino; Kikawada, Keiko; Kikawada, Toru

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine measurements of the vestibular aqueduct on axial CT figures and to examine the cases with borderline EVA. The width of the vestibular aqueduct was measured in two places, the midpoint of the duct and the external aperture in the posterior cranial fossa. Criteria was as follow: Enlargement; ≥1.5 mm at the midpoint, ≥2 mm at the aperture, Borderline; 1-1.4 mm at the midpoint, 1.5-1.9 mm at the aperture. Three hundred forty-five cases with CT scans of the temporal bones taken during July 2003 to June 2004 in the secondary ENT referral center. Those patients include sensorinearal, mixed or conductive deafness, vertigo, ear infections and other ear diseases. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct was found in 10 ears with sensorineural deafness (SD) and 2 ears without SD. Borderline measurements were found in 19 ears with SD and 33 ears without SD. The enlarged midpoint measurement was not seen in the cases without SD. More than 1.5 mm of the definition for the enlargement at the midpoint of the vestibular aqueduct seemed to be appropriate in the clinical situation. The measurement at the midpoint of the duct is more reliable than at the external aperture. The conductive component in EVA Syndrome with mixed hearing loss is present only at the lower frequencies (250, 500 Hz), not at the middle and higer frequencies. Long-term follow-up of hearing should be done in the borderline cases with check-up of PDS gene anomaly if necessary. (author)

  7. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancher, Luiza R; Nunes, Maria Fernanda de O; Grisa, Ana Maria C; Pagnussat, Daniel T; Zeni, Mára

    2016-01-15

    This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  8. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Brancher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  9. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation.

  10. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W C; Wyatt, C R; Hamilton, M J; Goff, W L

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethidine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrome, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes containing viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC) on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  11. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Davis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethiedine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrone, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes contamine viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  12. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  13. Myocardial viability assessment using nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Hisada, Kinichi; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial assessment continues to be an issue in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Nuclear imaging has long played an important role in this field. In particular, PET imaging using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose is regarded as the metabolic gold standard of tissue viability, which has been supported by a wide clinical experience. Viability assessment using SPECT techniques has gained more wide-spread clinical acceptance than PET, because it is more widely available at lower cost. Moreover, technical advances in SPECT technology such as gated-SPECT further improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. However, other imaging techniques such as dobutamine echocardiography have recently emerged as competitors to nuclear imaging. It is also important to note that they sometimes may work in a complementary fashion to nuclear imaging, indicating that an appropriate use of these techniques may significantly improve their overall accuracy. In keeping these circumstances in mind, further efforts are necessary to further improve the diagnostic performance of nuclear imaging as a reliable viability test. (author) 107 refs

  14. Viability Test Device for anisakid nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kroeger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the visual inspection of mobility of isolated anisakid larvae serves as a measure of viability and possible risk of infection. This paper presents a new method to rule out unreliability – caused by the temporary immobility of the larvae and by the human uncertainty factor of visual observation. By means of a Near infrared (NIR imaging method, elastic curvature energies and geometric shape parameters were determined from contours, and used as a measure of viability. It was based on the modelling of larvae as a cylindrical membrane system. The interaction between curvatures, contraction of the longitudinal muscles, and inner pressure enabled the derivation of viability from stationary form data. From series of spectrally signed images within a narrow wavelength range, curvature data of the larvae were determined. Possible mobility of larvae was taken into account in statistical error variables. Experiments on individual living larvae, long-term observations of Anisakis larvae, and comparative studies of the staining method and the VTD measurements of larvae from the tissue of products confirmed the effectiveness of this method. The VTD differentiated clearly between live and dead nematode larvae isolated from marinated, deep-frozen and salted products. The VTD has been proven as excellent method to detect living anisakid nematode larvae in fishery products and is seen as useful tool for fish processing industry and control authorities. Keywords: Biophysics

  15. Development of lightweight concrete subfloor with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates waste to reduce impact sound in flooring system

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Fernanda; Krumenauer, Marcelo; Reis de Medeiros, Daniel; Oliveira, Maria Fernanda; Fonseca Tutikian, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Comfort and habitability are requirements for housing quality, affected by underfloor system. Thus, this study aims to design lightweight concrete slabs underfloor with the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates, with two grain sizes of conventional aggregates replaced with EVA. The experimental counted on four unit mixes, varying the ratio between EVA coarse and fine aggregates and natural aggregates. The underfloor plates were molded with thickness of 3, 5 and 7 centimeters...

  16. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAKA DANIEL

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... E-mail: ndsaraka@yahoo.fr, ndsaraka@gmail.com. Tel: 225 ..... sample viability and control of contaminants that may mask the ... viability and composition of the Escherichia coli flora in faecal ... Microbiologie alimentaire, 8e.

  17. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes. ... This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie L Laurin

    Full Text Available Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12 as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants.

  19. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Fluoro-luminometric real-time measurement of bacterial viability and killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Janne; Virta, Marko; Lilius, Esa Matti

    2003-10-01

    The viability and killing of Escherichia coli was measured on a real-time basis using a fluoro-luminometric device, which allows successive measurements of fluorescence and bioluminescence without user intervention. Bacteria were made fluorescent and bioluminescent by expression of gfp and insect luciferase (lucFF) genes. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a highly fluorescent, extremely stable protein, which accumulates in cells during growth, and therefore the measured fluorescence signal was proportional to the total number of cells. The luciferase reaction is dependent of ATP produced by living cells, so that the bioluminescence level was a direct measure of the viable cells. In contrast to the bacterial luciferase, the insect luciferase uses a water-soluble and nonvolatile substrate, which makes automated multi-well microplate assay possible. For the validation of the assay, the proportion of living and dead cell populations was experimentally modified by incubating E. coli cells in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Bacterial viability and killing measured by a fluoro-luminometric assay correlated fairly well with the reference methods: conventional plate counting, optical density measurement and various flow cytometric analyses. The real-time assay described here allows following the changes in bacterial cultures and assessing the bactericidal and other effects of various chemical, immunological and physical agents simultaneously in large numbers of samples.

  1. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  2. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  3. Melting and crystallization behavior of partially miscible high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (HDPE/EVA) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang; Zou, Huawei, E-mail: hwzou@163.com; Liang, Mei, E-mail: liangmeiww@163.com; Cao, Ya

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • HDPE/EVA blends undergo phase separation, making it an interesting topic to investigate the relationships between miscibility and crystallization. • Influences from blending on the crystallization kinetics were successfully evaluated by Friedman's and Khanna's method. • X-ray diffraction studies revealed that blending with EVA the unit length of the unit cell of the HDPE increases. • Thermal fractionation method was successfully used to characterize the co-crystallization in HDPE/EVA blends. - Abstract: Crystallization studies on HDPE/EVA blends and the individual components were performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Influences of blending on the crystallization kinetics of each component in HDPE/EVA mixture were evaluated by Friedman's activation energy and Khanna's crystallization rate coefficient (CRC). The addition of more HDPE into the EVA matrix causes more heterogeneous nucleation while the addition of EVA would hinder the nucleation of HDPE at the beginning of cooling process. Inter-molecular interaction in the melt facilitated the crystallization of both EVA and HDPE components. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that HDPE and EVA have orthorhombic unit cell. Blending with EVA did not affect the crystalline structure of HDPE. In addition, a little shift of (1 1 0), (2 0 0) and (0 2 0) crystalline peaks toward lower 2θ values of samples indicating a little increase of unit cell parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell of polyethylene. Thermal fractionation results showed that co-crystallization took place in the HDPE/EVA blend. All those results indicated that the polymer pair we choose was partially miscible.

  4. Interference of magnesium corrosion with tetrazolium-based cytotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Janine; Prosenc, Marc H; Wolff, Martin; Hort, Norbert; Willumeit, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising materials for the development of biodegradable implants. However, the current in vitro test procedures for cytotoxicity, cell viability and proliferation are not always suitable for this class of materials. In this paper we show that tetrazolium-salt-based assays, which are widely used in practice, are influenced by the corrosion products of Mg-based alloys. Corroded Mg converts tetrazolium salts to formazan, leading to a higher background and falsifying the results of cell viability. Tetrazolium-based assays are therefore not a useful tool for testing the cytotoxicity of Mg in static in vitro assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state {sup 13} C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: stael@on.br; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Menezes, Sonia Maria Cabral de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; D' Almeida, Jose Roberto Morais; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the {sup 13} C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  6. ANALISIS PENGARUH ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA DAN RASIO KEUANGAN TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Sri Hariani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the simultaneous impact and partial impact of financial ratios (ROA, ROE, EPS and Economic Value-Added (EVA on stock return. One of the four independent variables, that is EVA, are new concepts for measuring financial performance. Explanatory method was used in this research, and the sample was collected using purposive sampling method from Jakarta Islamic Index listed in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI, Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2005 - 2007. Multiple linear regression was used for the analysis in this research.The result of the analysis shows that all independent variables, that is Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Earnings per Share (EPS and EVA have both simultaneous and partial impact on the dependent variable, that is stock return. An interesting finding is that the regression coefficients are different among the variables. ROE and EPS were found to have positive and significant impact on dependent variable while EVA and ROA were found to have negative and significant impact on dependent variable. A positive value for ROE means that the ROE variable can be taken as a measure for a company’s effectivity in utilizing equity in the effort to gain profit. While EPS was found to have the most dominant impact on stock price. The higher the EPS, the greater management’s success in gaining profit for the shareholder or investors. ROA was found to have negative and significant. A finding of this research which is contrary to previous research is that economic value added (EVA was found to have negative and significant impact on stock price. However this finding can be explained as follows: first, the average debt in the companies in the sample is greater than the value of their equity so that EVA will increase due to the reduction in WACC. The increase in EVA is accompanied by a reduction in stock return. Second, positive EVA is not accompanied by any increase of stock performance in the market; and

  7. Použití ukazatele EVA v konkrétním podniku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Zemánková

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This article is an illustrative case study describing usage of EVA indicator in chosen specific company. Key part of the article deals with application of EVA indicator in company. It consists of procedure how to adjust accounting data into required form and determine weight costs of capital. Then there is calculation of EVA indicator and other indicators based on it. Last part is comparison of results. Methodology/methods: The basic method is case study. Its aim is to demonstrate good understanding or causation explanation of particular example. It takes into account the overall context of the problem. Scientific aim: The objective of the article is to come near to theoretical economic procedures and highlight the problematic areas within the practical application of EVA indicator in the business. Next aim is to emphasize the importance of EVA indicator. Findings: This article illustrates some problematic issues that companies may face while calculating EVA indicator. Czech accounting standards do not correspond with international accounting standard methodology known as IFRS for compiling statements. First difficult area was conversion of assets into net operating assets NOA. Then operating profit is modified in respect of so-called unusual costs and revenues. The next issue in calculation of EVA indicator is stating average weight costs on capital. The last area of problems is the time flow of leasing contracts, value of liabilities arising from them and assessing the lifetime of leased property. Conclusions: The article empirically examined the effectiveness of EVA indicator with regard to its relation to the accounting performance indicators. It was proved that although the company reported financial health within the frame of financial analysis, it gave owners only slightly increasing economic value added. The article points out the need of usege of EVA indicator in corporate practice.

  8. A COMPARISON OF THREE ASSAY PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF WATERBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One criterion on which chlorine treatment of water may be based is the concentration (C) in mg/l multiplied by the time (t) in min of exposure or Ct values. We compared different Ct values on waterborne pathogenic bacteria by cultural assay for viability and 2 assays that mea...

  9. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0: an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  10. A comparative study of EVA with and without thermal history for different lamination process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabczyk, Kazimierz, E-mail: kazimierz.drabczyk@wp.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Panek, Piotr [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    In more than 80% of the worldwide photovoltaic (PV) modules, mostly very fragile and 200 {mu}m thick, crystalline silicon solar cells are encapsulated into ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foils, which bond the module components together, provide physical protection, electrical insulation and a barrier for moisture ingress. The understanding of what can happen with EVA during its transport, storage and lamination process is necessary to optimize the quality of the PV module for its long exposure to outdoor weather conditions. Achieving a proper cross-link density of over 70%, it is essential to overcome the cold flow of EVA and to make the module durable. In this work, the feasibility of the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) compared with the solvent extraction (SE) method by toluene were evaluated in order to provide structural information on the EVA curing kinetics and the cross-link density. DSC tests were performed on a DTA DuPont1600 tester. The temperature range for the test was from -50 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C, with the heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min, and the endothermic and exothermic peaks were evaluated. Toluene solvent extractions were performed on the same set of samples that were analyzed by DSC. The measured cross-link density shows a direct dependence on the pre-lamination conditions of EVA, which is in good agreement with the data obtained with the DSC method.

  11. A evasão no ensino superior brasileiro Higher education institutions' evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leal Lobo e Silva Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a evasão nas instituições de educação superior no Brasil é estudada com base em dados oficiais, em que se incluem análises regionais dos índices da evasão anual média e da evasão por tipo de instituição. Verifica-se uma correlação negativa entre os índices de evasão e a demanda por curso. Com vistas a possibilitar comparações, são apresentados dados internacionais que indicam que a evasão no Brasil não difere muito das médias internacionais.In this work, evasion in institutions of higher education is studied, based on official data, including regional analyses of annual mean evasion rates and evasion rates by type of institution. It was verified that there is a negative correlation between evasion rates an demand for undergraduate courses. Comparisons with international data are presented, pointing out that the evasion rates in Brazil do not differ a lot from those of other countries.

  12. Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.

    2009-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

  13. A comparative study of EVA with and without thermal history for different lamination process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabczyk, Kazimierz; Panek, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    In more than 80% of the worldwide photovoltaic (PV) modules, mostly very fragile and 200 μm thick, crystalline silicon solar cells are encapsulated into ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foils, which bond the module components together, provide physical protection, electrical insulation and a barrier for moisture ingress. The understanding of what can happen with EVA during its transport, storage and lamination process is necessary to optimize the quality of the PV module for its long exposure to outdoor weather conditions. Achieving a proper cross-link density of over 70%, it is essential to overcome the cold flow of EVA and to make the module durable. In this work, the feasibility of the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) compared with the solvent extraction (SE) method by toluene were evaluated in order to provide structural information on the EVA curing kinetics and the cross-link density. DSC tests were performed on a DTA DuPont1600 tester. The temperature range for the test was from −50 °C to 200 °C, with the heating rate of 10 °C/min, and the endothermic and exothermic peaks were evaluated. Toluene solvent extractions were performed on the same set of samples that were analyzed by DSC. The measured cross-link density shows a direct dependence on the pre-lamination conditions of EVA, which is in good agreement with the data obtained with the DSC method.

  14. Changes in the EV-A71 Genome through Recombination and Spontaneous Mutations: Impact on Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiiha Bibi Mandary

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains responsible for fatal HFMD outbreaks. We aim to see if the virulence of EV-A71 is contributed solely by the presence of fatal strains or is due to the co-operation of quasispecies within a viral population. The phenomenon of quasispecies within the poliovirus is discussed to reflect viral fitness, virulence and its implications for EV-A71. Ultimately, this review gives an insight into the evolution patterns of EV-A71 by looking into its recombination history and how spontaneous mutations would affect its virulence.

  15. Comparison Of Human Modelling Tools For Efficiency Of Prediction Of EVA Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA, spacewalks), and estimates of the actual time needed continue to rise. As recently as September, 1996, the amount of time to be spent in EVA was believed to be about 400 hours, excluding spacewalks on the Russian segment. This estimate has recently risen to over 1100 hours, and it could go higher before assembly begins in the summer of 1998. These activities are extremely expensive and hazardous, so any design tools which help assure mission success and improve the efficiency of the astronaut in task completion can pay off in reduced design and EVA costs and increased astronaut safety. The tasks which astronauts can accomplish in EVA are limited by spacesuit mobility. They are therefore relatively simple, from an ergonomic standpoint, requiring gross movements rather than time motor skills. The actual tasks include driving bolts, mating and demating electric and fluid connectors, and actuating levers; the important characteristics to be considered in design improvement include the ability of the astronaut to see and reach the item to be manipulated and the clearance required to accomplish the manipulation. This makes the tasks amenable to simulation in a Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) environment. For EVA, the spacesuited astronaut must have his or her feet attached on a work platform called a foot restraint to obtain a purchase against which work forces may be actuated. An important component of the design is therefore the proper placement of foot restraints.

  16. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Titanium Implant Surfaces: Microgroove-Structures Improve Cellular Adhesion and Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Philip; Hoffmann, Alexia; Henningsen, Anders; Barbeck, Mike; Kopp, Alexander; Kluwe, Lan; Precht, Clarissa; Quatela, Olivia; Gaudin, Robert; Heiland, Max; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Knipfer, Christian; Grubeanu, Daniel; Smeets, Ralf; Jung, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an established electrochemical treatment technique that can be used for surface modifications of metal implants. In this study we to treated titanium implants with PEO, to examine the resulting microstructure and to characterize adhesion and viability of cells on the treated surfaces. Our aim was to identify an optimal surface-modification for titanium implants in order to improve soft-tissue integration. Three surface-variants were generated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by PEO-treatment. The elemental composition and the microstructures of the surfaces were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. In vitro cytocompatibility of the surfaces was assessed by seeding L929 fibroblasts onto them and measuring the adhesion, viability and cytotoxicity of cells by means of live/dead staining, XTT assay and LDH assay. Electron microscopy and profilometry revealed that the PEO-surface variants differed largely in microstructure/topography, porosity and roughness from the untreated control material as well as from one another. Roughness was generally increased after PEO-treatment. In vitro, PEO-treatment led to improved cellular adhesion and viability of cells accompanied by decreased cytotoxicity. PEO-treatment provides a promising strategy to improve the integration of titanium implants with surrounding tissues. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cell Viability and PGE2 Production in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Castiblanco, Gina; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Roos, Stefan; Twetman, Svante

    2017-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that probiotic therapy can play a role in the prevention and management of oral inflammatory diseases through immunomodulation and down-regulation of the inflammatory cascade. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and its production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), when exposed to supernatants of two mixed Lactobacillus reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 5289 and DSM 17938). The experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. L. reuteri strains were grown and the bacterial supernatant was collected. The cell-free supernatant was diluted to concentrations equivalent to the ones produced by 0.5 to 5.0 × 10 7  CFU/mL bacteria. Cell viability was assessed with the MTT colorimetric assay and the amount of PGE 2 in the cell culture medium was determined using the monoclonal enzyme immune assay kits. Our findings showed that none of the L. reuteri supernatants were cytotoxic or affected the viability of HGF. The most concentrated bacterial supernatant stimulated the production of PGE 2 by the gingival cells in a significant way in the presence of IL-1β (p reuteri might play a role in the resolution of inflammation in HGF. Thus, our findings justify further investigations on the influence of probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammatory reactions.

  18. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L., is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i. Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.

  19. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  20. FDG uptake in cold and heat treated MCF-7 cells, comparison with cell viability, apoptosis, and tumor marker changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, X.; Huang, G.; Liu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives-To investigate the FDG uptake changes in cold and hyperthermia therapy and its correlation with cell viability, apoptosis and tumor marker changes. Methods: An in vitro cultured breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF- 7, was divided into 5 groups. Hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 43 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypothermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypo- and hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min and 43 degree centigrade 30 min. chemotherapy group: cell was treated with 21 microgram Cisplatin for 6 hours. And Control group: cell was untreated. The levels 18F-labelled FDG uptake, a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide viability assay, flow cytometry assay and tumor markers (CA153, CA125) were detected at 24 hour and 48 hour. Results: The change of 18F- FDG uptake (which came out at the 24h) is early than tumor marker (which came out at the 48h) under our study conditions. In treated MCF-7 cells, the levels of 18F-labelled FDG uptake were significantly lower than control group. The levels of 18F-FDG uptake depression were well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis data. Conclusion: FDG uptake is sensitive and well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis assay, and can be used for early response monitoring in hypo- and hyperthermia therapy. (author)

  1. Edaravone enhances the viability of ischemia/reperfusion flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yi; Kang, Shen-Song; Zhang, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to study the efficacy of edaravone in enhancing flap viability after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) and its mechanism. Forty-eight adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (n=16), IR group (n=16), and edaravone-treated IR group (n=16). An island flap at left lower abdomen (6.0 cm×3.0 cm in size), fed by the superficial epigastric artery and vein, was created in each rat of all the three groups. The arterial blood flow of flaps in IR group and edaravone-treated IR group was blocked for 10 h, and then the blood perfusion was restored. From 15 min before reperfusion, rats in the edaravone-treated IR group were intraperitoneally injected with edaravone (10 mg/kg), once every 12 h, for 3 days. Rats in the IR group and control group were intraperitoneally injected with saline, with the same method and frequency as the rats in the edaravone-treated IR group. In IR group and edaravone-treated IR group, samples of flaps were harvested after reperfusion of the flaps for 24 h. In the control group, samples of flaps were harvested 34 h after creation of the flaps. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined, and changes in organizational structure and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, apoptotic cells of vascular wall were marked by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall was calculated. The ultrastructural changes of vascular endothelial cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Seven days after the operation, we calculated the flap viability of each group, and marked vessels of flaps by immunohistochemical staining for calculating the average number of subcutaneous vessels. The results showed that the content of MDA, the number of multicore inflammatory cells and apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall

  2. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Chuanmei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Zhengzhou [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: zwang@ustc.edu.cn; Chen Xilei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Yu Benyi [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu Yuan [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2006-05-15

    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO{sub 3} hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose.

  3. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  4. Synergistic effects of EB irradiation and heat on EVA electrical insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, S.; Zaharescu, T.; Marcuta, M.; Setnescu, R.; Gorghiu, L.M.; Dumitrescu, C.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation/thermal degradation is discussed as a successful endurance check. EVA samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation at 12, 30, 60 and 90kGy. Heat treatment was performed in air at 120 o C for 72h and 120h. Chemiluminescence (CL) investigations on EVA specimens were carried out at 200, 210 and 220 o C. Several kinetic parameters such as oxidation induction time (t i ), half-oxidation time (t 1/2 ), maximum oxidation rate (v ox max ), maximum time of thermal oxidation (t max ) and other chemiluminescence features were obtained from the time dependencies of the CL intensity. While the ageing factors of processed EVA samples reveal a constant value for two testing temperatures (200 and 210 o C), the co-operative factors that describe a combined (synergistic) degradation present higher than unity values, either for the oxidation rates or for the maximum CL intensity measured for all irradiation doses. They increase linearly with dose

  5. All about Eve. Eva Hesse and the Post-Minimalist Romantic Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański, Wojciech

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article employs the category of Romantic irony for an interpretation of Eva Hesse's work. It takes as its starting point one of Arthur Danto's texts, where the American philosopher makes a positive re-evaluation of the artist's work, and reads it as a largely humorous combination of two – seemingly incongruent – traditions of American art of the 20thcentury: Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism. Features that Danto finds humorous, the author of the present article considers exemplary of Romantic irony, an approach that he finds in Eva Hesse's oeuvre. In the second part of the article, two competing interpretations of Eva Hesse's work are presented: Robert Pincus-Witten's and Lucy R. Lippard's. However, with the use of the notion of Romantic irony their standpoints can be reconciled, with a simultaneous indication of a previously dismissed, yet crucial, ironic aspect of the work of the American artist.

  6. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Chuanmei; Wang Zhengzhou; Chen Xilei; Yu Benyi; Hu Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO 3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose

  7. Tectonic contact beetwen Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic contact between Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa, which passes prominent cliffs over the left bank of Savinja river (Klemenča peč, Jamnikova peč, Golerjeva peč, Strevčeva peč and Huda peč, is on the basis of the new mapping a steep fault, dipping to the north. In the last phase, the fault was dextral strike – slip active, before was probably reverse, and can represent accompanying structure of Periadriatic lineament. It was under transpresive tectonic regime and complies with model of positive flower structure.We named it Podol{evski prelom (Podol{eva fault.

  8. Sistema E.V.A. 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Córdova, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del campo del crecimiento y desarrollo, el cálculo antropométrico, es una de las herramientas más utilizadas para encontrar indicadores válidos del estado general del crecimiento biológico de una población en su interacción con los diversos factores sociales. Frente al evidente proceso de pauperización por el que viene transcurriendo el país, la evaluación del estado nutricional de la población infantil, tanto en sus aspectos poblacionales como individuales, se hace necesaria y cotidiana. Presentamos aquí un software de escritorio que permite el cálculo y la graficación de las principales variables antropométricas. El E.V.A. 1.0 (Evaluación y Visualización Antropométrica brinda también la posibilidad de almacenar los datos, de incorporar tablas de comparación (por default el sistema trae las tablas de la SAP y del NCHS, y de exportar la información al programa EPINFO y a la mayoría de las aplicaciones estándar de escritorio (planillas de cálculo, procesadores de texto, etc.. La aplicación posee también una modalidad de sugerencias de diagnóstico, con referencias bibliográficas, que puede ser de ayuda, tanto para el profesional de A.P.S. como para el investigador.

  9. Myocardial Viability on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana Luiza Mansur; Souto, Rafael Mansur; Teixeira, Isabella Cristina Resende; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2017-05-01

    The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability. Resumo O estudo de viabilidade miocárdica é de grande importância para a orientação e manejo de pacientes que necessitam de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica ou angioplastia. A técnica de realce tardio (RT) é precisa e transformou o estudo de viabilidade em um teste fácil, não só para a detecção de fibrose, mas também como um modelo binário para a detecção do que é ou não é viável. Uma fibrose identificada pelo RT é considerada como não viável quando igual ou maior do que 50% da área segmentar e como viável quando menor que 50%. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) também pode lançar mão de outras técnicas para estudo funcional e de perfusão para uma avaliação global da doença isquêmica do coração no mesmo exame. Este estudo tem como objetivo destacar os conceitos atuais e enfatizar amplamente o uso da RMC como um método que nos últimos 20 anos se tornou referência na detecção de infarto e avaliação de viabilidade miocárdica.

  10. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cell Viability and PGE2 Production in Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castiblanco, Gina A.; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Roos, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that probiotic therapy can play a role in the prevention and management of oral inflammatory diseases through immunomodulation and down-regulation of the inflammatory cascade. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the viability of human gingival fibroblasts...... (HGF) and its production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), when exposed to supernatants of two mixed Lactobacillus reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 5289 and DSM 17938). The experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. L. reuteri strains were grown and the bacterial...... immune assay kits. Our findings showed that none of the L. reuteri supernatants were cytotoxic or affected the viability of HGF. The most concentrated bacterial supernatant stimulated the production of PGE2 by the gingival cells in a significant way in the presence of IL-1β (p

  11. Study on human chondrocyte culture viability for autologous transplantation in clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Lombello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The limited regenerative capacity of the cartilage tissuemakes the treatment of chondral lesions difficult. The techniquescurrently available to treat cartilage lesions may relieve symptoms,but do not regenerate the injured tissue. Autologous chondrocytetransplantation uses cell biology and cell culture techniques toregenerate the hyaline cartilage. Methods: In this study, we analyzechondrocyte biopsy collection and culture for autologoustransplantation. Ultrastructural analyses of hyaline cartilage biopsieswere performed 0, 6, 24 and 48 hours after collection. The tissue evenafter 48 hours. Eleven cell culture assays were performed to evaluateisolation, viability, morphology, proliferation and absence ofcontaminants. Results: The cell culture techniques used allowedchondrocyte proliferation. Rates on cell viability were maintained abovethe acceptable patterns (above 90. Control of cell culture laboratoryconditions showed absence of contaminants, assuring safety of theprocess. The chondrocytes obtained presented the morphology typicalof cultured cell monolayers. Conclusion: The results indicate viabilityof chondrocyte culture technique for clinical application in autologoustransplantation.

  12. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US and Russian EVA Suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27 percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the bare phantom head

  13. Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

    The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

  14. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  15. Influence of CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase release of human gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Grassmann, L; Weyhrauch, M; Brüllmann, D D; Ziebart, T; Scheller, H; Lehmann, K M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of four CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase (ADK) release of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and oral keratinocytes (HOK). HGF and HOK were cultured on disc-shaped CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials (e.max CAD LT, e.max CAD HT, Empress CAD and Mark II) and on discs made of tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS) serving as control. Cell viability was analyzed by using an MTT assay, and migration ability was investigated by a scratch assay. A ToxiLight assay has been performed to analyze the effect of all-ceramic materials on ADK release and cell apoptosis. At MTT assay for HGF, no significant decrease of cell viability could be detected at all points of measurement (p each > 0.05), while HOK demonstrated a significant decrease in cell viability especially on Empress CAD and Mark II at each point of measurement (p each materials at all points of measurement (between -36 % and -71 %; p each ceramic materials could be investigated. This study disclosed significant differences in cell viability and migration ability of HGF and HOK on CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials can influence oral cell lines responsible for soft tissue creation which may affect the esthetic outcome.

  16. Coconut milk and probiotic milk as storage media to maintain periodontal ligament cell viability: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Divya; Gadicherla, Prahlad; Chandra, Prakash; Anandakrishna, Latha

    2017-06-01

    The viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is a significant determinant of the long-term prognosis of replanted avulsed teeth. A storage medium is often required to maintain the viability of these cells during the extra-alveolar period. Many studies have been carried out to search for the most suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth, but an ideal solution has not yet been found. The purpose of the study was to compare and analyze the ability of coconut milk and probiotic milk to maintain PDL cell viability. In an in vitro setting, 69 caries free human premolars with normal periodontium that had been extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into two experimental groups on the basis of storage media used (i.e., coconut milk or probiotic milk) and a Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) control group (23 samples per group). Immediately after extraction, the teeth were stored dry for 20 min and then immersed for 30 min in one of the storage media. The teeth were then subjected to collagenase-dispase assay and labeled with 0.5% trypan blue staining solution for determination of cell viability. The number of viable cells was counted under a light microscope and statistically analyzed using anova and post hoc Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). Statistical analysis demonstrated there was a significant difference (P coconut milk and probiotic milk as well as HBSS in maintaining cell viability. However, there was no significant difference between probiotic milk and HBSS in ability to maintain PDL cell viability (P > 0.05). Coconut milk may not be suitable as an interim transport media due to poor maintenance of cell viability. However, probiotic milk was able to maintain PDL cell viability as well as HBSS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Caracterização de resíduos de copolímeros de etileno-acetato de vinila - EVA Characterization of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir J. Zattera

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O poli[(etileno-co-(acetato de vinila] (EVA possui grande aplicação na indústria calçadista, sendo utilizado na confecção de placas expandidas para posterior corte de palmilhas e entressolas. Estudos realizados na região sul do Brasil mostraram que os resíduos gerados pela indústria calçadista foram superiores a 200 toneladas/mês em 2001, sendo o maior volume oriundo de recortes de placas expandidas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de caracterizar resíduos de EVA de chapas expandidas, visando à reciclagem mecânica desse material. Análises em MEV demonstraram que o resíduo de EVA apresenta uma morfologia microcelular que é destruída após o processo de moagem. O resíduo de EVA moído apresenta duas fases, uma reticulada (matriz e uma não-reticulada (dispersa. O resíduo de EVA apresentou teor de gel de aproximadamente 75% em massa, cerca de 20% em massa de acetato de vinila (VAc, fora processado a partir de EVA com aproximadamente 28% de VAc e possui teor de carga inorgânica de 20% em massa, segundo análises em TGA. O EVA resíduo apresentou maiores valores de módulo elástico e de dureza, e menores valores de elongação na ruptura e de resistência ao impacto Izod. O custo energético da moagem do resíduo de EVA foi calculado como sendo inferior a 5% do valor do EVA virgem.Poly[(ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate] (EVA has large application in the shoes industries, especially as expanded sheets, in order to produce insoles and innersoles. Studies carried out in the south region of Brazil in 2001 have demonstrated that the residues generated by shoes industries were higher than 200 ton/month, the major part of which is composed by EVA expanded sheets. With this in mind, the objective of this work was to characterize the residues of expanded EVA and also to analyze the milling cost in order to make the recycling possible. The EVA residues presented originally a microcellular structure, which was destroyed after milling

  18. Radioisotopic 51Cr-leukocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) assay. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, P.H.; Tangnavarad, K.; Lesnick, G.; Holland, J.F.; Bekesi, J.G.; Perloff, M.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified radioisotopic leukocyte adherence inhibition assay ( 51 Cr-LAI assay) was used to determine tumor-directed immune responses in patients with cancer of the breast. Essential steps in development of this assay are the standardization of conditions for optimal 51 Cr uptake by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the inclusion of autologous or normal AB serum in the incubation media. A dextrose salt mixture (GNK) was found to enhance intracellular uptake of 51 Cr significantly (8-fold) without affecting viability of the cells or without causing selective loss of lymphocyte subpopulations. The presence of 10% autologous or normal AB serum prevented non-specific LAI responses to unrelated tumor antigens. Experimental results are presented and it is seen that this short term (4 h) 51 Cr-LAI assay provides reproducible and specific results analogous to those using tube-LAI assay. The test has the advantages of being accurate, sensitive and free from technical bias. (Auth.)

  19. Insight into a Pedagogical Sketchbook. Life and work of Eva Eyquem

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit dokumentiert und kontextualisiert das Werk der französischen Kunstpädagogin und ehemaligen Itten-Schülerin Eva Eyquem, geb. Plaut (1915-2009). Es ist meine Absicht, ihr Werk für Forschung und Lehre zugänglich zu machen und für einen kunstpädagogischen Diskurs zu öffnen, der sich mit Positionen in der Nachfolge der Bauhaus-Pädagogik befasst. Meine Arbeit ist in zwei Teile gegliedert. Sie umfasst eine Monografie zu Eva Eyquem, sowie eine fachwissenschaftliche Reflexion, i...

  20. TEJAS - TELEROBOTICS/EVA JOINT ANALYSIS SYSTEM VERSION 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  1. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  2. IAS15 inflation adjustments and EVA: empirical evidence from a highly variable inflation regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Erasmus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflation can have a pronounced effect on the financial performance of a firm. This study makes inflation adjustments to a firm’s cost of sales, depreciation, level of gearing and assets in line with International Accounting Standard 15 (IAS15 in order to calculate an inflation-adjusted version of the economic value added (EVA measure. The study was conducted using data from South African industrial firms during a period characterised by highly variable inflation levels (1991-2005. The results indicate that during this period there were significant differences between the nominal and real values of the firms’ EVAs

  3. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    .003) and cytokines. Yet, these systemic adaptations had no effect on breast cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p ... no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.......Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses...

  4. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  5. Viability Study for an Unattended UF_6 Cylinder Verification Station: Phase I Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon E.; Miller, Karen A.; Garner, James R.; Branney, Sean; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Nordquist, Heather; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Stewart, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) that could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, "2"3"5U mass, total uranium mass and identification for all declared UF_6 cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The US Support Program team consisted of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL, lead), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savanah River National Laboratory (SRNL). At the core of the viability study is a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a Westinghouse fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study is a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This report provides context for the UCVS concept and the field trial: potential UCVS implementation concepts at an enrichment facility; an overview of UCVS prototype design; field trial objectives and activities. Field trial results and interpretation are presented, with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 ''typical'' Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an ''NDA Fingerprint'' concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that the contents of a given cylinder are consistent with previous scans. A modeling study, combined with field-measured instrument

  6. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  7. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Brad

    1996-01-01

    One of the more mission-critical tasks performed in space is extravehicular activity (EVA) which requires the astronaut to be external to the station or spacecraft, and subsequently at risk from the many threats posed by space. These threats include, but are not limited to: no significant atmosphere, harmful electromagnetic radiation, micrometeoroids, and space debris. To protect the astronaut from this environment, a special EVA suit is worn which is designed to maintain a sustainable atmosphere (at 1/3 atmosphere) and provide protection against the hazards of space. While the EVA suit serves these functions well, it does impose limitations on the astronaut as a consequence of the safety it provides. Since the astronaut is in a virtual vacuum, any atmospheric pressure inside the suit serves to pressurize the suit and restricts mobility of flexible joints (such as fabric). Although some of the EVA suit joints are fixed, rotary-style joints, most of the mobility is achieved by the simple flexibility of the fabric. There are multiple layers of fabric, each of which serves a special purpose in the safety of the astronaut. These multiple layers add to the restriction of motion the astronaut experiences in the space environment. Ground-based testing is implemented to evaluate the capability of EVA-suited astronauts to perform the various tasks in space. In addition to the restriction of motion imposed by the EVA suit, most EVA activity is performed in a micro-gravity (weight less) environment. To simulate weightlessness EVA-suited testing is performed in a neutral buoyancy simulator (NBS). The NBS is composed of a large container of water (pool) in which a weightless environment can be simulated. A subject is normally buoyant in the pressurized suit; however he/she can be made neutrally buoyant with the addition of weights. In addition, most objects the astronaut must interface with in the NBS sink in water and flotation must be added to render them "weightless". The

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Effect of photobiomodulation on viability and proliferation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth under different nutritional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato de Souza, Letícia; Guilherme Roque Rinco, Ugo; Aparecida Tavares Aguiar, Daniela; Aparecido de Almeida Junior, Luciano; Cosme-Silva, Leopoldo; Marchini Oliveira, Thais; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Thiemy Sakai, Vivien

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of low-level laser irradiation on the viability and proliferation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured under nutritional deficit (cellular stress) or regular nutritional conditions. SHED underwent irradiation by a red laser between 1.2 and 6.2 J cm-2. Prior to the irradiation, all groups received culture medium (MEMα, Eagle’s minimum essential medium alpha modification) supplemented with 1% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1 h. After the irradiation, cells received MEMα supplemented with 10% of FBS (regular nutrition) or 1% of FBS (nutritional deficit). Cell viability and proliferation were respectively determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assays 6 and 24 h after irradiation (P  cell viability and proliferation of SHED after laser irradiation, except for 1.2 J cm-2.

  10. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  11. Eesti piirivalve tähistas 85. aastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese sõnavõtust Eesti kutselise piirivalve 85. aastapäeva tähistamise pidulikul kontsertaktusel 1. novembril 2007 Estonia kontserdisaalis. Ingl. k. ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna 8. nov. 2007, lk. 12, pealk.: President Ilves thanked the Estonian border guards

  12. Tänapäeva muinasjutt : [lühijutud] / Kris, Moor, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kris Moor, pseud.

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: Imagine an actor saying following ; algus ; korralikud tüdrukud ; Provokatsioon ; absoluutselt täiuslik ; sigaret ; best friends ; probleem ; Tere Kris ; kirjutis ; armastus ; Elluastuja ; oeh ; klishee ; happy neverending story ; tungid ja tungisaatused ; noh ; lohe ; the art of noise ; latentsus ; Lühikokkuvõte tänapäeva muinasjutust: (ilma ilukirjandusliku liialduseta)

  13. ETV tähistab tantsupäeva kolme filmiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise tantsupäeva puhul 29. apr. on Eesti Televisiooni kavas kolm tantsuprogrammi - Uwe Scholzi tantsulavastus "Suur Missa", tantsufilm "Teine" (filmi režissöör René Vilbre) ja kolmas film on Inglismaal valminud Lloyd Newsoni "Elu hind"

  14. Mis on "Tänapäeva apokalüpsis"? / Kalmer Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kalmer

    2006-01-01

    Francis Ford Coppola suurfilmi "Tänapäeva apokalüpsis" autoriversioon "Apocalypse Now Redux" (Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001/1979) lõpetab USA kultusfilmide festivali kinos "Sõprus". Lisa : Jaan Ruusi "Apocalypse Now Redux" selgitab autoriversiooni - director's cut - mõistet

  15. "Nad olid nuhkinud meie pulmapäeva välja!" / Aigi Viira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viira, Aigi

    2004-01-01

    Vanemuise teatri draamajuht andis näitlejatest abielupaarile Herta Elvistele ja Lembit Eelmäele peale L. Razumovskaja näidendi "Vladimiri väljak" 30. okt. etendust üle lilled ja õnnitlused 50. pulma-aastapäeva puhul

  16. Mari sangari päeva sõnum / Jaak Prozes ; interv. Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prozes, Jaak, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Fenno-Ugria Hõimukeskuse juhataja ja Eestimaa Rahvaste Ühenduse juht soome-ugri rahvaste olukorrast Venemaal ja rahvusseltside tegevusest Eestis. Aprilli lõpul tähistasid marid oma rahvuspüha - mari sangari päeva. Pärimuse põhjal langes maride rahvuskangelane Boltu̧ võitluses oma rahva vabaduse eest 26. aprillil 1556

  17. STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  18. Simunas pühitseti uus vitraažaken / Eva Klaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaas, Eva, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Simunas tähistati 31. oktoobril Simuna kiriku ja kogu kihelkonna nimepäeva, pühitseti ka äsjavalminud vitraažaken, mille autor on Dolores Hoffmann, kelle kujundatud on ka sarja "Maailma loomine" kuuluvad teised vitraažid

  19. The properties of neutron shielding and flame retardant of EVA polymer after modified by EB accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-hui; He, Man-li; Jiang, Dan-feng; He, Fan; Chang, Shu-quan; Dai, Yao-dong

    2017-11-01

    According to the requirements for neutron shielding and flame retardant properties of some nuclear devices, a new kind of polymer composite materials based on ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer have been studied. EVA is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, It can be used as materials for applications due to its flexibility, good processability, and low cost. Insulating EVA can be used for cable sheath, automotive sound damping and many other appication. Boron nitride (BN), zinc borate (ZB), magnesium hydroxide (MH) and EVA consisted the compounds with the properties of neutron shielding and flame retardant. With increasing of the contents of BN and ZB, the neutron shielding performance of materials increased up to 33.08%. With the increasing contents of MH and ZB as flame retardant, oxygen index of material have been improved. The elongation at break and tensile strength of material decreased with the increasing of filler powders. Sheet E was chosen and modified by electron beam accelerator in different doses. After modification by electron beam irradiation the sheets showed varying degrees of transformation in the OI, neutron shielding rate and mechanical properties.

  20. Kunstnikuks pürgija vajab paari õigeaegset impulssi / Kaido Ole, Eva Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ole, Kaido

    2006-01-01

    Antonia Claudio Carvalho meistriklass "Ava oma silmad/Open Your Eyes" 23.-27. I ja näitus 27. I-9. II Eesti Kunstiakadeemia galeriis. Meistriklassist vestlesid EKA maaliosakonna juhataja Kaido Ole ja maalieriala III kursuse üliõpilane Eva Unt

  1. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  2. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  3. Meremaa võluriga päeva kallastele / Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Helle

    1999-01-01

    29. apr. esietendub Ugalas "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", lavalugu Ursula K. Le Guini Meremaa-lugude alusel, lavastaja Andres Noormets, kunstnikud Silver Vahtre ja Airi Eras, peaosades Margus Vaher, Martin Algus, Aarne Soro, Leila Säälik, Gert Raudsepp, Silvia Sarrap

  4. Eesti Draamateater tähistas maja 100. sünnipäeva / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    18. septembril tähistati avatud uste päevaga Eesti Draamateater hoone 100. sünnipäeva. Õhtul sai teatrihoone fassaadilt vaadata Taavet Janseni, Taavi Varmi ja Andres Tenusaare videoinstallatsiooni. Esitleti raamatut "Eesti Draamateatri maja 100" (autorid Karin Hallas-Murula, Kristel Pappel, Haldja Jalajas). Avati Peeter Lauritsa fotonäitus "Pahempidi"

  5. Keskkonnamiljardär pidas sünnipäeva / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2005-01-01

    Viiendat sünnipäeva tähistanud Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskus (KIK) on oma tegutsemisaja jooksul investeerinud keskkonda 1,4 miljardit krooni ning vahendanud ühtekuuluvusfondi ISPA raha 575 miljonit krooni eest. Lisa: KIKi rahastatud projektid Raplamaal

  6. TÜ tähistab rahvusülikooli aastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Emakeelse ülikooli 91. aastapäeva tähistamisest. Aktusel promoveeriti 103 doktorit ja 5 audoktorit. Audoktoriks said: Jaan Einasto (Eesti), Vilmos Voigt (Ungari), Pekka Topias Männistö (Soome), William J. Mitsch (USA), Lars Oreland (Rootsi)

  7. Linn kui maastik / Eva Castro ; intervjueerinud Katrin Koov ; toimetanud Carl-Dag Lige

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Castro, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuus Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaali ühe peaesineja Eva Castroga, kes on AB Groundlab arhitekt ja juhib Londoni Arhitektuuriühingu arhitektuurikoolis maastikuurbanismi magistriprogrammi, maastikuurbanismist ja selle õppekavast, Groundlabi projektide ja Londoni Arhitektuuriühingu arhitektuurikooli tudengite tööde näitusest Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis, visioonivõistlusest "Street 2020"

  8. 25. juulil toimuvad kodukoha suurmehe Jakob Hurda 170. sünniaastapäeva pidustused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vill, Sirje

    2009-01-01

    Jakob Hurda 170. sünniaastapäeva tähistatakse traditsioonilise kultuuriretkega Jakob Hurdaga seotud paikadesse, autasustatakse õpilaste uurimustööde võitjaid ja teemaüritusel "Jakob Hurt 170" Põlva Kultuuri- ja Huvikeskuses antakse üle laureaatidele Hurda-nimelised kultuuriauhinnad

  9. Kunagi nii popp idabloki kadunud filmikunst / Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek ; intervjueerinud Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva

    2009-01-01

    2007. a. oktoobris toimunud konverentsi "Via Transversa : Lost Cinema of the Former Eastern Bloc" ettekannetel põhinevast kogumikust: Via Transversa : Lost Cinema of the Former Eastern Bloc / editors Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek. Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2008. (Koht ja paik ; 7)

  10. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  11. Ei sinistele esmaspäevadele!!! / Piret Jamnes, Marju Unt, Mare Teichmann, Eva Palu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Personaliotsingufirma Fontes partner ja konsultant Piret Jamnes, Estonian Euromanagement Institute'i direktor Marju Unt, kommunikatsioonibüroo JLS PR-konsultant Eva Palu ja TTÜ psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Teichmann ideedest, mis aitavad tööst rohkem rõõmu tunda

  12. Head animapäeva soovivad Petja ja hunt / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Animaürituste sari "Animateek" tähistab täna rahvusvahelist animapäeva, näidates Suzie Templetoni animafilmi (32 min) Sergei Prokofjevi muusikateose alusel "Petja ja hunt" : Suurbritannia - Norra - Poola 2006. Filmi tutvustab üks selle juhtanimaatoreid Krzysztof Brzozowski

  13. THE APPLICATION OF THE METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AT RISK (EVaR IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  14. Evaluation of safety of hypobaric decompressions and EVA from positions of probabilistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. P.

    Formation and subsequent evolution of gas bubbles in blood and tissues of subjects exposed to decompression are casual processes in their nature. Such character of bubbling processes in a body predetermines probabilistic character of decompression sickness (DCS) incidence in divers, aviators and astronauts. Our original probabilistic theory of decompression safety is based on stochastic models of these processes and on the concept of critical volume of a free gas phase in body tissues. From positions of this theory, the probability of DCS incidence during single-stage decompressions and during hypobaric decompressions under EVA in particular, is defined by the distribution of possible values of nucleation efficiency in "pain" tissues and by its critical significance depended on the parameters of a concrete decompression. In the present study the following is shown: 1) the dimensionless index of critical nucleation efficiency for "pain" body tissues is a more adequate index of decompression stress in comparison with Tissue Ratio, TR; 2) a priory the decompression under EVA performed according to the Russian protocol is more safe than decompression under EVA performed in accordance with the U.S. protocol; 3) the Russian space suit operated at a higher pressure and having a higher "rigidity" induces a stronger inhibition of mechanisms of cavitation and gas bubbles formation in tissues of a subject located in it, and by that provides a more considerable reduction of the DCS risk during real EVA performance.

  15. Evidence Report: Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah L.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; House, Nancy; Jadwick, Jennifer; hide

    2017-01-01

    Given the high physiological and functional demands of operating in a self-contained EVA or training suit in various gravity fields and system environments, there is a possibility that crew injury can occur and physiological and functional performance may be comprised.

  16. EVA reactive blending with Si–H terminated polysiloxane by carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction: From compatibilised blends to crosslinking networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.; Bounor-Legaré, V.; Alcouffe, P.; Cassagnau, P.

    2012-01-01

    A new and original method based on carbonyl hydrosilylation was developed to prepare ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)/polysiloxane polymer blends. This focused on the addition of hydrogenosilane groups (SiH) from polysiloxane to the carbonyl groups of EVA. The influence of the nature of the polysiloxane on blend properties was investigated by rheology and scanning electron microscopy. Mixing of a low viscosity polysiloxane with a high viscosity EVA matrix produced a two-phase morphology. The occurrence of the hydrosilylation reaction at the EVA/polysiloxane interface promoted a homogenisation of the blend depending on the molar ratio SiH/vinyl acetate groups, [SiH]/[VA], and the viscosity ratio of the blend. Two distinct behaviours were observed. The formation of a crosslinked network under shear was obtained for a low viscosity ratio between polysiloxane and EVA (λ polysiloxane/EVA = 4.0 × 10 −6 ) with a high concentration of SiH groups ([SiH]/[VA] = 0.5), while the formation of a compatibilised blend was observed for high molar mass polysiloxanes (Mn > 15,000 g mol −1 ) with a low concentration of SiH ([SiH]/[VA] −3 ). -- Highlights: ► Carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction was found to enhance EVA/polysiloxane immiscible blends. ► EVA crosslinking was obtained with a low molar mass polysiloxane. ► EVA compatibilisation was obtained with a high molar mass polysiloxane. ► Shear rate was found to improve the hydrosilylation reaction at the interface. ► A two-phase morphology of the blends was observed after reaction with fine polysiloxane nodules.

  17. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  18. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  19. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  20. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  1. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (psap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (psap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  2. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa; da Silva, Camila Luna; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Cortez, Erika; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Low-level infrared laser is considered safe and effective for treatment of muscle injuries. However, the mechanism involved on beneficial effects of laser therapy are not understood. The aim was to evaluate cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser at therapeutic fluences. C2C12 myoblast cultures at different (2 and 10 %) fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (808 nm, 100 mW) at different fluences (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) and evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by WST-1 assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased atthe lowest FBS concentration. Laser exposure increased the cell viability in myoblast cultures at 2 % FBS after 48 and 72 h, but no significant increase in ROS was observed. Apoptosis was decreased at the higher fluence and necrosis was increased at lower fluence in myoblast cultures after 24 h of laser exposure at 2 % FBS. No laser-induced alterations were obtained at 10 % FBS. Results show that level of reactive oxygen species is not altered, at least to those evaluated in this study, but low-level infrared laser exposure affects cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures depending on laser fluence and physiologic conditions of cells.

  3. The effects of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals on chondrocyte viability and function: implications for development of cartilage damage in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Gregory D; Dray, Michael; Pitto, Rocco; Bentley, Jarome; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage damage is frequently observed in advanced destructive gout. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on chondrocyte viability and function. The alamarBlue assay and flow cytometry were used to assess the viability of primary human chondrocytes and cartilage explants following culture with MSU crystals. The number of dead chondrocytes in cartilage explants cultured with MSU crystals was quantified. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of chondrocytic genes. The histological appearance of cartilage in joints affected by gout was also examined. MSU crystals rapidly reduced primary human chondrocyte and cartilage explant viability in a dose-dependent manner (p gout, normal cartilage architecture was lost, with empty chondrocyte lacunae observed. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on chondrocyte viability and function. Interactions between MSU crystals and chondrocytes may contribute to cartilage damage in gout through reduction of chondrocyte viability and promotion of a catabolic state.

  4. Inhibitory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia CHEN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the mediation effect of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR in the effect of brainderived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons. Methods  Hippocampal neurons were obtained from p75NTR+/+ and p75NTR-/- 18-day mice and primarily cultured. For p75NTR+/+ neurons, three experimental groups were set, i.e. control, proBDNF (30ng/ml, and proBDNF (30ng/ml+p75/Fc (30µg/ml groups. For p75NTR-/- neurons, two experimental groups were set, i.e. control and proBDNF (30ng/ml groups. MTT assays were performed after 24h to examine the viability of neonatal primary neurons. Immunofluorescent staining was conducted after 72h to investigate the neurite length. Results With MAP2 and DAPI double fluorescent staining it was identified that the neonatal hippocampal neurons were successfully cultured in vitro with high purity. For viability assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the absorbance value at 570nm (A570 in proBDNF group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the neurite length in proBDNF group was significantly shorter than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR-/- neurons, no difference in neurite length was observed between proBDNF group and control group. Conclusion proBDNF may inhibit the neuronal viability and neurite growth via p75NTR. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.03

  5. An in vitro assay for compounds toxic to rumen protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.J.; Cumming, G.J.; Graham, C.A.; Leng, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The viability of protozoa in whole rumen fluid was assessed by measuring the incorporation of Me- 14 C-choline in vitro. The use of the technique as an assay for testing antiprotozoal agents was evaluated with a variety of surfactant detergents which have previously been shown to have antiprotozoal activity in vivo. A good correlation was obtained between the potency of these compounds in vitro and in vivo. (auth)

  6. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  7. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a nu...

  8. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neuronal cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Vulto, P; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  9. Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Bloemen, K.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2001-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA

  10. Nucleic acid stains as indicators of Giardia muris viability following cyst inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi-Kilani, R; Gyürék, L L; Millard, P J; Finch, G R; Belosevic, M

    1996-06-01

    A reliable viability assay for Giardia is required for the development of disinfection process design criteria and pathogen monitoring by water treatment utilities. Surveys of single-staining nucleic acid dyes (stain dead parasites only), and double-staining vital dye kits from Molecular Probes (stain live and dead parasites) were conducted to assess the viability of untreated, heat-killed, and chemically inactivated Giardia muris cysts. Nucleic acid staining results were compared to those of in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Nucleic acid stain, designated as SYTO-9, was considered the best among the single-staining dyes for its ability to stain dead cysts brightly and its relatively slow decay rate of visible light emission following DNA binding. SYTO-9 staining was correlated to animal infectivity. A Live/Dead BacLight was found to be the better of 2 double-staining viability kits tested. Logarithmic survival ratios based on SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight were compared to excystation and infectivity results for G. muris cysts exposed to ozone or free chlorine. The results indicate that SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight staining is stable following treatment of cysts with chemical disinfectants.

  11. The reducibility of heLa cell viability by Sargassum polycystum extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, M.; Setijawati, D.; Islam, I.; Nursyam, H.; Kartikaningsih, H.; Yufidasari, H. S.; Prihanto, A. A.; Nurdiani, R.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death-related cancer in women. The efficacy of cancer drugs is still low. Bioactive of brown seaweed has been studied by in vitro and in vivo as anticancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Sargassum polycystum extracts on HeLa cell, to recognize bioactive on extract and estimate the interaction between the bioactive and target protein. S. polycystum was found from Talango Island waters and HeLa cell was obtained from Indonesian Science Institute. Sample was extracted by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane, concentrated and finally, extracts were assayed on HeLa cell. The viability of this cell was quantified on ELISA-Reader. The bioactive compounds of the extract were elucidated by GC-MS. The interaction between bioactive and target protein was evaluated by using in silico method. The result showed that the lowest viability of HeLa cell on n-hexane extracts treatment. The n-hexane extract of this seaweed contained benzenepropanoic acid. This compound reduced HeLa cell viability by reducing of thrombin concentration. In conclusion, the benzene propanoic acid of S. polycystum was the cytotoxic agent and it is potential agent for anti-cervical cancer.

  12. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  13. Pollen Viability and Autogamy Fitness in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Camila Capitani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae occurs in many phytophysiognomies of southern Brazil, however its ecological relevance is not well understood. The present study was developed in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul and aimed to determine variations in pollen viability along flowering, ability to perform autogamy and dye efficiency for the viability test. Pollen viability was determined by colorimetry as well as the ability to perform autogamy by isolating floral buds, being evaluated in eleven matrices. Average pollen viability was 81.43%, with the highest average value obtained with the dye 2,3,5- Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC (84.11%. Safranin was not a good indicator at the tested concentration. No correlation was found between pollen viability and flowering time. The species demonstrated an inability to perform autogamy.

  14. Population viability analysis for endangered Roanoke logperch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul; Anderson, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy for recovering endangered species is ensuring that populations exceed the minimum viable population size (MVP), a demographic benchmark that theoretically ensures low long-term extinction risk. One method of establishing MVP is population viability analysis, a modeling technique that simulates population trajectories and forecasts extinction risk based on a series of biological, environmental, and management assumptions. Such models also help identify key uncertainties that have a large influence on extinction risk. We used stochastic count-based simulation models to explore extinction risk, MVP, and the possible benefits of alternative management strategies in populations of Roanoke logperch Percina rex, an endangered stream fish. Estimates of extinction risk were sensitive to the assumed population growth rate and model type, carrying capacity, and catastrophe regime (frequency and severity of anthropogenic fish kills), whereas demographic augmentation did little to reduce extinction risk. Under density-dependent growth, the estimated MVP for Roanoke logperch ranged from 200 to 4200 individuals, depending on the assumed severity of catastrophes. Thus, depending on the MVP threshold, anywhere from two to all five of the logperch populations we assessed were projected to be viable. Despite this uncertainty, these results help identify populations with the greatest relative extinction risk, as well as management strategies that might reduce this risk the most, such as increasing carrying capacity and reducing fish kills. Better estimates of population growth parameters and catastrophe regimes would facilitate the refinement of MVP and extinction-risk estimates, and they should be a high priority for future research on Roanoke logperch and other imperiled stream-fish species.

  15. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers.

  16. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  17. Microtissues Enhance Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Cell Viability of hADSCs for Three Dimensional Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yipeng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle differentiated human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs provide a crucial stem cell source for urinary tissue engineering, but the induction of hADSCs for smooth muscle differentiation still has several issues to overcome, including a relatively long induction time and equipment dependence, which limits access to abundant stem cells within a short period of time for further application. Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting holds great promise in regenerative medicine due to its controllable construction of a designed 3D structure. When evenly mixed with bioink, stem cells can be spatially distributed within a bioprinted 3D structure, thus avoiding drawbacks such as, stem cell detachment in a conventional cell-scaffold strategy. Notwithstanding the advantages mentioned above, cell viability is often compromised during 3D bioprinting, which is often due to pressure during the bioprinting process. The objective of our study was to improve the efficiency of hADSC smooth muscle differentiation and cell viability of a 3D bioprinted structure. Here, we employed the hanging-drop method to generate hADSC microtissues in a smooth muscle inductive medium containing human transforming growth factor β1 and bioprinted the induced microtissues onto a 3D structure. After 3 days of smooth muscle induction, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and smoothelin was higher in microtissues than in their counterpart monolayer cultured hADSCs, as confirmed by immunofluorescence and western blotting analysis. The semi-quantitative assay showed that the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was 0.218 ± 0.077 in MTs and 0.082 ± 0.007 in Controls; smoothelin expression was 0.319 ± 0.02 in MTs and 0.178 ± 0.06 in Controls. Induced MTs maintained their phenotype after the bioprinting process. Live/dead and cell count kit 8 assays showed that cell viability and cell proliferation in the 3D structure printed with microtissues were higher at all time

  18. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  19. The in vitro viability and growth of fibroblasts cultured in the presence of different bone grafting materials (NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, E; Rumpel, E; Fanghänel, J; Bayerlein, T; Gedrange, T; Proff, P

    2006-02-01

    Different clinical applications, including dentistry, are making increasing demands on bone grafting material. In the present study we have analysed the viability, proliferation and growth characteristics of fibroblasts cultured in vitro together with two different bone grafting materials, NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic, over a period of 24 and 28 days respectively. Viability was measured at least every 72 hours by using the alamarBlue assay, a test that measures quantitatively cell proliferation and viability but does not require cell fixation or extraction. After one week of culture fibroblast viability was as high as in controls for both grafting materials and remained high (> 90%) for the duration of the experiment. Cell growth was evaluated microscopically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a dense fibroblast growth at the surface of both bone grafting materials after three weeks of in vitro culture. Generally, our in vitro analyses contribute to further insights into cell - scaffold interactions.

  20. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  5. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges

  6. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei, E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2015-01-15

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  7. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein-particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  8. Homogeneity characterization of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and hydrophobic silica nanocomposite by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2005-01-01

    This project proposes the characterization of a polymeric matrix composite material using nanometric scale hydrophobic silica as charge element, with the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), by using the spin-lattice relaxation time measurement applying the low field NMR

  9. Low Power, Small Form Factor, High Performance EVA Radio Employing Micromachined Contour Mode Piezoelectric Resonators and Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I Harmonic Devices proposes to investigate the feasibility of a low-power, low-volume, lightweight, frequency agile, and fault tolerant EVA radio based on...

  10. Muusajüngrid pühitsesid Kreutzwaldi 200. sünnipäeva / Toomas Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2004-01-01

    13. dets. 2003 Sydneys toimunud tähtpäevaüritusel esines Toomas Pill referaadiga "Kalevipoja" retseptsioonist, loeti ette katkendeid Kreutzwaldi ja Koidula kirjavahetusest ning deklameeriti Heidi Aedma poolt valitud katkendeid "Kalevipojast"

  11. The Baltic States and Moscow's 9 May Commemoration : Analysing Memory Politics in Europe / Eva-Clarita Onken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Onken, Eva-Clarita

    2007-01-01

    Mälu roll kaasaegse Euroopa poliitikas, selle mõju riikidevahelistele kahepoolsetele suhetele ja Euroopa Liidu poliitikale seoses 2005. aasta 9. mail Moskvas toimunud Teise maailmasõja 60. aastapäeva pidustustega

  12. Nende kõrgeaususte kirjad on avaldatud : [intervjuu] / Eva Aaver, Heli Laanekask ; üles kirjut. Juhani Püttsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaver, Eva, 1925-2008

    1998-01-01

    Riigi teaduspreemia humanitaarteaduste vallas said Eva Aaver, Heli Laanekask, Abel Nagelmaa ja Leo Anvelt (postuumselt) publikatsiooni 'Otto Wilhelm Masingu kirjad Johann Heinrich Rosenplänterile. 1814-1832'

  13. [Knockdown of PRDX6 in microglia reduces neuron viability after OGD/R injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Beibei; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Objective To observe the effects of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) knockdown in the microglia on neuron viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Methods Microglia was treated with lentivirus PRDX6-siRNA and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethgl)-sn-glycerol-2 phosphomethanol (MJ33). Twenty-four hours later, it was co-cultured with primary neuron to establish the microglia-neuron co-culture OGD/R model. According to the different treatment of microglia, the cells were divided into normal group, OGD/R group, negative control-siRNA treated OGD/R group, PRDX6-siRNA treated OGD/R group and PRDX6-siRNA combined with MJ33 treated OGD/R group. Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR were respectively performed to detect PRDX6 protein and mRNA levels after knockdown of PRDX6 in microglia. The iPLA2 activity was measured by ELISA. MTS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to measure neuron viability and cell damage. The oxidative stress level of neuron was determined by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. Results In PRDX6-siRNA group, neuron viability was inhibited and oxidative stress damage was aggravated compared with OGD/R group. In PRDX6-siRNA combined with MJ33 group, cell viability was promoted and oxidative stress damage was alleviated compared with PRDX6-siRNA group. Conclusion PRDX6 in microglia protects neuron against OGD/R-induced injury, and iPLA2 activity has an effect on PRDX6.

  14. Compósitos à base de gesso com resíduos de EVA e vermiculita Gypsum-based composites with EVA waste and vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia P. de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O gesso é um dos materiais de construção mais antigos de que se tem conhecimento. Algumas de suas propriedades lhes conferem vantagens, tais como resistência ao fogo e isolamentos térmico e acústico. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar as propriedades físico-mecânicas de compósitos à base de gesso com a incorporação de resíduos da indústria de calçados, o etileno acetato de vinila (EVA e a vermiculita. O desenvolvimento desses compósitos tem como propósito a produção de elementos de revestimento para proteção térmica de alvenarias. Para determinar a influência dos teores de resíduo de EVA e vermiculita e da relação água/gesso nas propriedades massa específica aparente e nas resistências a flexão e a compressão, foram incorporados cinco diferentes percentuais desses materiais, combinados com três relações água/gesso. Os resultados foram analisados por meio da estatística multivariável e indicaram que a massa específica aparente de ambos os compósitos e a resistência à flexão do compósito com vermiculita, mostraram maior dependência da relação água/gesso; por sua vez, o percentual de agregado apresentou maior influência na resistência à flexão do compósito com EVA e na resistência a compressão de ambos os compósitos.Gypsum is one of the oldest known building materials. Some of its properties confer advantages such as fire resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation. This work aims to study the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum-based composite with the incorporation of residues from the footwear industry ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA and vermiculite. The aim to develop these composites is to produce components for thermal protection of masonry. To determine the influence of different residue levels of EVA and vermiculite, and the water/plaster ratio on the bulk density, flexural and compressive strength, five different percentages of these materials were incorporated combined with

  15. Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system’s structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of the link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of the link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. After a short recap of the original multiplex viability study, the distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up a proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and the controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different responses of networks under random removals of overlapping and non-overlapping links, respectively, as well as under several link-removal strategies. Our results show that the link overlap facilitates the viability and mutual percolation; at the same time, the presence of link overlap poses a challenge in analytical approaches to the problem

  16. Monosodium urate monohydrate crystals inhibit osteoblast viability and function: implications for development of bone erosion in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Watson, Maureen; Gamble, Greg D; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Bone erosion is a common manifestation of chronic tophaceous gout. To investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on osteoblast viability and function. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to assess osteoblast cell viability in the MC3T3-E1 and ST2 osteoblast-like cell lines, and primary rat and primary human osteoblasts cultured with MSU crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR and von Kossa stained mineralised bone formation assays were used to assess the effects of MSU crystals on osteoblast differentiation using MC3T3-E1 cells. The numbers of osteoblasts and bone lining cells were quantified in bone samples from patients with gout. MSU crystals rapidly reduced viability in all cell types in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on cell viability was independent of crystal phagocytosis and was not influenced by differing crystal length or addition of serum. Long-term culture of MC3T3-E1 cells with MSU crystals showed a reduction in mineralisation and decreased mRNA expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation such as Runx2, Sp7 (osterix), Ibsp (bone sialoprotein), and Bglap (osteocalcin). Fewer osteoblast and lining cells were present on bone directly adjacent to gouty tophus than bone unaffected by tophus in patients with gout. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on osteoblast viability and differentiation. These data suggest that bone erosion in gout occurs at the tophus-bone interface through alteration of physiological bone turnover, with both excessive osteoclast formation, and reduced osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells.

  17. A viability analysis for a stock/price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, Chakib; Raissi, Nadia

    2012-09-01

    We examine the conditions for the sustainability of a stock/price system based on the use of a marine renewable resource. Instead of studying the environmental and economic interactions in terms of optimal control, we focus on the viability of the system. These viability/crisis situations are defined by a set of economic state constraints. This constraints combine a guaranteed consumption and a minimum income for fishermen. Using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal that with only economics constraints we guarantee a perennial stock/price system.

  18. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  19. PROPRIEDADES DE ARGAMASSAS COM EVA (ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO PARCIAL AO AGREGADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Carneiro Guimarães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O setor da construção civil apresenta grande potencial para aproveitamento de vários tipos de resíduos industriais. A incorporação dos resíduos, principalmente nas argamassas e concretos, produtos com vasta aplicabilidade no setor, tem se mostrado como uma ótima alternativa na diversificação das matérias-primas e para a economia de recursos naturais. Esse trabalho avaliou as propriedades das argamassas, no estado fresco e endurecido, produzidas com substituição parcial da areia por resíduo de EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. Para isso, foram preparadas argamassas com teores de substituição do agregado 0% (referência, 5%, 10% e 15%, em massa. A relação água/cimento, para cada traço, foi determinada empiricamente e mantida constante para as argamassas com substituição. Os resultados apontam que as argamassas produzidas com agregado de EVA apresentam menor absorção de água e também um decréscimo da resistência mecânica. Desta forma, a produção de argamassas utilizando EVA em substituição ao agregado natural é viável, todavia é necessário avaliar os parâmetros mínimos de aplicação para cada finalidade. Dessa forma, o trabalho apresenta contribuição ao servir de suporte a gestores de empresas de argamassas ou gestores de obra a tomarem decisões acerca da inserção do resíduo de EVA na produção de argamassa. ABSTRACT: The construction sector has great potential for use of various types of industrial waste. The incorporation of waste, especially in mortar and concrete products with wide applicability in the industry, has proven to be a great alternative for diversification of raw materials and the economy of natural resources. This study evaluated the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state, made with partial replacement of sand by waste EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. For this, mortars were prepared with substitution aggregate content 0%(reference, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. The water

  20. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  1. Analysis by X-Ray images of EVA waste incorporated in Portland Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.A.; Antunes, M.L.P.; Montagnoli, R.M.; Mancini, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The EVA is a copolymer used by Brazilian shoes industries. This material is cut for the manufacture of insoles. This operation generates about 18% of waste. The EVA waste can be reused in incorporation in Portland cement to construction without structural purposes. The aim of this work is to show X-rays images to assessment the space distribution of the wastes in the cement and to evaluate the use of this methodology. Cylindrical specimens were produced according to ABNT - NBR 5738 standards. The volume relation of sand and cement was 3:1, 10% and 30% of waste was incorporated in cement specimens. X-Rays images were obtained of cylindrical specimens in front projection. The images showed that the distribution of the waste is homogeneous, consistent with what was intended in this type of incorporation, which can provide uniformity in test results of compressive strength. (author)

  2. Eesti Vabariigi 89. aastapäeva tähistamine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti iseseisvuspäeva tähistamisest Londonis. 20. veebruaril 2007 korraldas Eesti Vabariigi suursaatkond vastuvõtu Crown Plaza hotellis, kus ligi 300 külalist tervitas president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. 19. veebruaril 2007 külastas president Oxfordi, kus ta esines kõnega üliõpilastele. Lisatud foto, millel on kujutatud president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, kolonelleitnant Lauri Einre ja Eesti Vabariigi saadik Londonis dr. Margus Laidre

  3. Pidupäevaüritused olid Eestile ilus kingitus / Andris Tammela, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammela, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade EV 90. aastapäeva juubeliüritusest Pärnus. Vt. samas: Vabariigi juubel värvis Pärnu sinimustvalgeks; Head emotsioonid Eesti aastapäevalt: Are vallavanem Jaanus Männik, Euroopa Parlamendi liige Marianne Mikko, Pärnu linnavolikogu liikmed Valter Parve ja Raul Sarandi ja Pärnu maavanem Toomas Kivimägi

  4. Eva Giberti: trayectoria institucional, científica y cívica

    OpenAIRE

    Giberti, Eva; Escardó, Vita; Invernizzi, Hernán; Maffia, Diana; Maldavsky, David

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: In spite of the diversity of perspectives approached by the authors, this text –which presents the institutional, scientific, and civic trajectory of Eva Giberti– highlights her landmarks and facets: her academic activity, her trajectory integrating different responsibilities, her clinical labor, her civic participation, her contributions in the mass media (where she was the pioneer in the spreading of psychoanalysis), and her publications (among them, the ones about the demystific...

  5. Tähistame Helen Kelleri 130. sünniaastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keskküla, Raissa

    2010-01-01

    Helen Kellerist ja tema sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest, samuti Eesti Pimekurtide Tugiliidu ettevõtmistest: koostöölepingust Eesti Kujurite Ühendusega, punktkirjas väljaantud raamatust "Õppimise ime", Hilton/Perkins programmi kaasabil Eesti pimekurtide ja nägemis-liitpuudega lastega töötavate õpetajate ning töötajate koolitamiset

  6. Thermodynamical analysis of an ADAM/EVA-process for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, K.F.; Tsatsaronis, G.; Loehrer, F.

    1982-01-01

    In this article, the so-called ADAM/EVA-process for long-range heat transport is presented as an alternative method of electricity generation, as being interesting from the purely thermodynamic point of view. For various variants of this process, extensive mass and energy balances are calculated. With the help of exact energy balances, the irreversibilities of the individual parts of the plant are determined and evaluated by comparison. (orig.) [de

  7. EVA measure and ability of the firm to create shareholder wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the possibilities of Economic Value Added index usage in the conditions of Czech food-processing industry and is trying to provide independent empirical evidence on the indicator’s qualities. The EVA proponents attach to it a superiority compared to other common performance measures. The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between Economic Value Added, traditional performance measures (ROA and ROE and ability of creation of shareholder wealth for food-processing firms in the Czech Republic. The way of intended comparison is not dissimilar to the main world studies, which are quoted in this paper. A critical point of the EVA’s application in the conditions of Czech economy is a lack of good quality information from capital market, which at the same time, serve as an exogenous criterion for assessing the quality of the examined measures in the mentioned studies. In the absence of quality capital market information, a criterion for assessing the information content of performance measures suitable for conditions of Czech economy is developed in this paper. This also shows how to circumvent the handicap of the available data.The intent of this article is fulfilled by providing a simple regression test of the hypothesis, that the EVA measure is more associated with improved shareholder wealth than traditional performance measures ROA and ROE. The results of regression analysis show higher quality information content of EVA indicator in the relationship to the ability of shareholder wealth creation than traditional performance measures. This fact supports the tested hypothesis as well as the conclusions of corporate finance theory, that from the theoretical point of view EVA is seen as a superior performance metric.

  8. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  11. The effect of gestational diabetes on proliferation capacity and viability of human umbilical cord-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Nadia; Naseem, Rashida; Anwar, Sanam Saiqa; Awan, Sana Javaid; Ali, Muhammad; Javed, Sara; Ali, Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Stomal cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord (WJMSCs) are considered as the potential therapeutic agents for regeneration and are getting famous for stem cell banking. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of gestational diabetes on proliferation capacity and viability of WJMSCs. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cords from normal and gestational diabetic (DWJMSCs) mothers. Growth patterns of both types of cells were analyzed through MTT assay and population doubling time. Cell survival, cell death and glucose utilization were estimated through trypan blue exclusion assay, LDH assay and glucose detection assay respectively. Angiogenic ability was evaluated by immunocytochemistry and ELISA for VEGF A. Anti-cancerous potential was analyzed on HeLa cells. DWJMSCs exhibited low proliferative rate, increased population doubling time, reduced cell viability and increased cell death. Interestingly, DWJMSCs were found to have a reduced glucose utilization and anti-cancerous ability while enhanced angiogenic ability. Gestational diabetes induces adverse effects on growth, angiogenic and anti-cancerous potential of WJMSCs.

  12. Identification of luteolin as enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 inhibitors through reporter viruses and cell viability-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Su, Weiheng; Jin, Jun; Chen, Jiawen; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xuyuan; Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; An, Dong; Zhang, Huafei; Zhang, Xiguang; Kong, Wei; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-07-17

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability‑based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 μM. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs.

  13. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed ... body size, slow average daily weight gain, decreased fertility, extended .... were determined by counting a total of 200 spermatozoa per each stained slide.

  14. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... by field artificial pollination were analyzed in this study. The maximum pollen viability .... the day before anthesis to avoid self-pollination. Subsequently, between ..... The Lagerstroemia handbook/checklist. Ameri. Association ...

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... minor cross-incompatibilities and physiological studies of incompatibility ... campanula shape of the flowers attractive for insect. (bees are ..... irradiation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) pollen: Effect on pollen grain viability ...

  16. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees ..... their pollen characteristics to be used in cross breeding ... viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in.

  17. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  18. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Benniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  19. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  20. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  1. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes ... at the Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources Management farm, Ebonyi State University,. Abakaliki. ..... Roots, tuber, plantains and bananas in human nutrition. Rome,.

  2. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard; Blanco, Raul; Sipila, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  3. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  4. Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenisen, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

  5. Synergistic effects of EB irradiation and heat on EVA electrical insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, S [' Valachia' University of Ta-hat rgoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Targoviste (Romania); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Zaharescu, T [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Marcuta, M [ICPE ELECTROSTATICA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Setnescu, R [' Valachia' University of Ta-hat rgoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Targoviste (Romania); Gorghiu, L M [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Ta-hat rgoviste (Romania); Dumitrescu, C [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Targoviste (Romania)

    2005-07-01

    Radiation/thermal degradation is discussed as a successful endurance check. EVA samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation at 12, 30, 60 and 90kGy. Heat treatment was performed in air at 120{sup o}C for 72h and 120h. Chemiluminescence (CL) investigations on EVA specimens were carried out at 200, 210 and 220{sup o}C. Several kinetic parameters such as oxidation induction time (t{sub i}), half-oxidation time (t{sub 1/2}), maximum oxidation rate (v{sub ox}{sup max}), maximum time of thermal oxidation (t{sub max}) and other chemiluminescence features were obtained from the time dependencies of the CL intensity. While the ageing factors of processed EVA samples reveal a constant value for two testing temperatures (200 and 210{sup o}C), the co-operative factors that describe a combined (synergistic) degradation present higher than unity values, either for the oxidation rates or for the maximum CL intensity measured for all irradiation doses. They increase linearly with dose.

  6. Quebra de dormência de gemas de macieira cv. Eva tratadas com cianamida hidrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRUZ JÚNIOR ÁLVARO DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das cultivares de macieiras plantadas no Brasil apresentam deficiência e desuniformidade de brotação, devido à má distribuição e/ou baixo número de horas de frio abaixo de 7,2masculine C, constituindo-se num entrave à produtividade. Mesmo utilizando-se de cultivares de baixa exigência de frio invernal, como a cultivar Eva, tem-se verificado a necessidade de se fazer a quebra de dormência para uniformizar a brotação, compatibilizar o florescimento e antecipar e melhorar a produção em regiões com invernos amenos ou anos de baixo acúmulo de frio. Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada em três diferentes concentrações (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 % associada ao óleo mineral (3% na brotação de gemas laterais e terminais de macieiras da cv. Eva, e a fenologia das cvs. Eva e Anabela. Concluiu-se que a concentração de cianamida hidrogenada influi na percentagem de gemas laterais e terminais brotadas, sendo a concentração de 1,5% de cianamida hidrogenada associada a 3% de óleo mineral a mais efetiva na quebra da dormência das gemas

  7. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  8. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  9. THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA - A MEASUREMENT INDICATOR OF THE VALUE CREATION WITHIN A COMPANY FROM THE ROMANIAN SEASIDE HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-ANDREEA TRANDAFIR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to highlight the role of EVA – an indicator measuring the financial performance of a hotel company from the Romanian seaside. EVA is one of the most appreciated indicators in terms of achieving performance that involve all used resources; this indicator can be adopted for the decentralization of management decisions. In order to highlight the importance of the EVA assessment method, we performed a case study on a representative hotel company that gets positive financial results pursuant to conventional methods, aiming to outline the correlation between EVA and the traditional methods for performance assessment

  10. Improved crystallinity and dynamic mechanical properties of reclaimed waste tire rubber/EVA blends under the influence of electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarad, Suganti; Ratnam, Chantara T.; Khalid, Mohammad; Chuah, Abdullah Luqman; Hanson, Svenja

    2017-01-01

    Dependence on automobiles has led to a huge amount of waste tires produced annually around the globe. In this study, the feasibility of recycling these waste tires by blending reclaimed waste tire rubber (RTR) with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and electron beam irradiation was studied. The RTR/EVA blends containing 100-0 wt% of RTR were prepared in the internal mixer followed by electron beam (EB) irradiation with doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy. The processing torques, calorimetric and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Blends were found to have lower processing torque indicating easier processability of RTR/EVA blends compared to EVA. RTR domains were found to be dispersed in EVA matrix, whereas, irradiation improved the dispersion of RTR into smaller domains in EVA matrix. Results showed the addition of EVA improves the efficiency of irradiation induced crosslink formation and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends at the expense of the calorimetric properties. Storage and loss modulus of 50 wt% RTR blend was higher than RTR and EVA, suggesting partial miscibility of the blend. Whereas, electron beam irradiation improved the calorimetric properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends through redistribution of RTR in smaller domain sizes within EVA.

  11. Human neuron-astrocyte 3D co-culture-based assay for evaluation of neuroprotective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasso, Ana Paula; Silva, Ana Carina; Filipe, Augusto; Pedroso, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Alves, Paula Marques; Brito, Catarina

    Central nervous system drug development has registered high attrition rates, mainly due to the lack of efficacy of drug candidates, highlighting the low reliability of the models used in early-stage drug development and the need for new in vitro human cell-based models and assays to accurately identify and validate drug candidates. 3D human cell models can include different tissue cell types and represent the spatiotemporal context of the original tissue (co-cultures), allowing the establishment of biologically-relevant cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Nevertheless, exploitation of these 3D models for neuroprotection assessment has been limited due to the lack of data to validate such 3D co-culture approaches. In this work we combined a 3D human neuron-astrocyte co-culture with a cell viability endpoint for the implementation of a novel in vitro neuroprotection assay, over an oxidative insult. Neuroprotection assay robustness and specificity, and the applicability of Presto Blue, MTT and CytoTox-Glo viability assays to the 3D co-culture were evaluated. Presto Blue was the adequate endpoint as it is non-destructive and is a simpler and reliable assay. Semi-automation of the cell viability endpoint was performed, indicating that the assay setup is amenable to be transferred to automated screening platforms. Finally, the neuroprotection assay setup was applied to a series of 36 test compounds and several candidates with higher neuroprotective effect than the positive control, Idebenone, were identified. The robustness and simplicity of the implemented neuroprotection assay with the cell viability endpoint enables the use of more complex and reliable 3D in vitro cell models to identify and validate drug candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preservation of seed viability during 25 years of storage under standard genebank conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Groot, de E.C.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining sufficient viability is critical to the sustainability of ex situ conserved seed collections. For this reason, accessions are regenerated when viability falls below a predefined threshold. Viability is monitored by determining the germination ability of accessions at predefined time

  13. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  14. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  15. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  16. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  17. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  18. Viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts in milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and coconut water as storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B D M; Lückemeyer, D D; Reyes-Carmona, J F; Felippe, W T; Simões, C M O; Felippe, M C S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 5 °C for maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF). Plates with PDLF were soaked in recently prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), skimmed milk, whole milk, Save-A-Tooth(®) system's HBSS (Save), natural coconut water, industrialized coconut water or tap water (negative control) at 5 °C for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Minimum essential medium (MEM) at 37 °C served as the positive control. PDL cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Data were statistically analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Scheffé test (α=5%). The greatest number of viable cells was observed for MEM. Skimmed and whole milk, followed by natural coconut water and HBSS, were the most effective media in maintaining cell viability (Pmilk had the greatest capacity to maintain PDLF viability when compared with natural coconut water, HBSS, Save, industrialized coconut water and tap water. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  19. Effects of corticosteroid on the expressions of neuropeptide and cytokine mRNA and on tenocyte viability in lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the reaction mechanism of corticosteroid by analyzing the expression patterns of neuropeptides (substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and of cytokines (interleukin (IL-1α, tumor growth factor (TGF-β after corticosteroid treatment in lateral epicondylitis. In addition, we also investigated whether corticosteroid influenced tenocyte viability. Methods The corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide (TAA was applied to cultured tenocytes of lateral epicondylitis, and the changes in the mRNA expressions of neuropeptides and cytokines and tenocyte viabilities were analyzed at seven time points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and an MTT assay were used. Results The expression of SP mRNA was maximally inhibited by TAA at 24 hours but recovered at 72 hours, and the expressions of CGRP mRNA and IL-1α mRNA were inhibited at 24 and 3 hours, respectively. The expression of TGF-β mRNA was not significant. Tenocyte viability was significantly reduced by TAA at 24 hours. Conclusions We postulate that the reaction mechanism predominantly responsible for symptomatic relief after a corticosteroid injection involves the inhibitions of neuropeptides and cytokines, such as, CGRP and IL-1α. However the tenocyte viability was compromised by a corticosteroid.

  20. Evaluation of radical scavenging activity, intestinal cell viability and antifungal activity of Brazilian propolis by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Lizziane; Pinto, Diana; Rosseto, Hélen; Toledo, Lucas; Santos, Rafaela; Tobaldini-Valério, Flávia; Svidzinski, Terezinha; Bruschi, Marcos; Sarmento, Bruno; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Rodrigues, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Propolis is a natural adhesive resinous compound produced by honeybees to protect hives from bacteria and fungi, being extremely expensive for food industry. During propolis production, a resinous by-product is formed. This resinous waste is currently undervalued and underexploited. Accordingly, in this study the proximate physical and chemical quality, as well as the antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and cell viability of this by-product were evaluated and compared with propolis in order to boost new applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The results revealed that the by-product meets the physical and chemical quality standards expected and showed that the propolis waste contains similar amounts of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) to propolis. Also, a good scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) determined by the assays of superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxyl radical (ROO) were determined. Linear positive correlations were established between the TPC of both samples and the antioxidant activity evaluated by three different methods (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays). The extracts were also screened for cell viability assays in two different intestinal cell lines (HT29-MTX and Caco-2), showing a viability concentration-dependent. Similarly, the Artemia salina assay, used to assess toxicity, demonstrated the concentration influence on results. Finally, the antifungal activity against ATCC species of Candida was demonstrated. These results suggest that propolis by-product can be used as a new rich source of bioactive compounds for different areas, such as food or pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  2. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicological Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide on Ceolomocytes Viability of Earthworm E. Foetida Using NRRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Farrukh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of sub-lethal earthworm biomarkers as they are relevant indicators of environmental change and they are among the five key indicators for ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals determined by the OECD. In the present study, the effects of an organophosphate pesticide dichlorovos on lysosomes of coelomocytes of earthworm E. foetida are studied using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Methods: Earthworms were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of the pesticide for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days and neutral red retention assay was done following the method employed by Weeks and Sevendsen and Booth et al. Results: It was observed that the pesticide significantly affected the coelomocyte viability within 28 days of exposure. The neutral red retention time of lysosomal membrane significantly decreased at all concentrations when compared with well-matched controls. Conclusion: After the analysis of results, it was concluded that the neutral red retention time assay in earthworms can be used to link changes in the permeability of lysosomal membranes to ecologically relevant life cycle effects caused by such toxic substances.

  4. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  5. Viability test of fish scale collagen (Oshpronemus gouramy on baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21 fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to examine the toxicity of collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales (Oshpronemus gouramy by evaluating its viability against baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21. Materials and Methods: Collagen was extracted from gouramy fish scales (O. gouramy with 6% acetic acid. Its results were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and freeze-dried technique. Its morphology then was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. Afterward, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to compare cells with and without fish scale collagen treatment. Results: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales had no influence statistically on cultured fibroblast cells with a statistical significance (2-tailed value of 0.754 (p>00025. Conclusion: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales has high viability against BHK21 fibroblast cells.

  6. In vitro effect of the antimalarial drug proguanil hydrochloride on viability and DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Dinter, Domagoj; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of proguanil, a chemical substance used for treatment and prevention of malaria on viability and DNA integrity in human lymphocytes in vitro. Two different concentrations of proguanil obtained from the plasma concentrations were used: 130ng/ml used for prophylactic treatment and 520ng/ml used in treatment of malaria. Testing was done with and without metabolic activation. Viability of lymphocytes decreased in time and dose dependent manner. Comet assay parameters showed similar effects, indicating that some damage to DNA molecule can occur. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges did not show significant deviation from the control samples. As for the proliferation kinetics no significant changes were noticed. Since majority of DNA damaging effect is induced after metabolic activation it is to be concluded that activity of proguanil is dependent upon the active metabolite cycloguanil and that monitoring should be conducted especially among frequent travellers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  8. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Vaziri, Shahram; Torshabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Anitua’s PRGF and Choukran’s PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-valuesPRGF treatment induced statistically significant (PPRGF than in PRF group (PPRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF. PMID:26877740

  9. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Intellectual Capital (IC dan Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap Harga Saham Perusahaan Manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fauzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding out if The Influence of Intellectual Capital (ICand Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The hypothesis of this study is : There is Influence of Intellectual Capital (IC and Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The method used is the author of the survey method with a quantitative approach . This study population is the entire manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange in 2012 his sampling technique is random sampling as many as 36 samples .. Correlation Coefficient significance test ( Test A of 0.512 , indicating that there is a middle relationship between IC and EVA on Stock Price. The results of the coefficient of determination ( R2 Test stated that R2 is 0.262 or 26.2% . This shows that the percentage contribution of the effect of independent variables ( IC and EVA on the dependent variable ( stock price of 26.2 % . Or variations of the independent variables used in the model ( IC and EVA are able to explain 26.2% of variation in the dependent variable ( stock price . While the remaining 73.8 % are influenced or explained by other variables not included in this research model .

  10. Analisis Determinasi Financial Performance Perusahaan Industri Manufaktur Makanan Dan Minuman Yang Go Public Suatu Pendekatan Metode Economic Value Added (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Affandi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain empirical evidence concerning the effect of Financial Performance Determinant (Capital Structure and Profit Margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA method at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors. The results of this study is expected to contribute for the development of financial management and strategic management. The study was carried out at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The characteristic of this study is confirmatory research. The research method used is associative and explanatory, and to hypothesis testing of the research has used multiple regression. Sampling method is used purposive sampling with total sample are 15 corporate registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia during 2006-2007 period. While for data processing is used SPSS 14.0 for windows programs. The result of this study is: The first hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of capital structure on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. The second hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of profit margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. So, in the EVA predicting can used capital structure and profit margin indicators, because capital structure and profit margin both have a significant effect on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA.

  11. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  12. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  13. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  14. Determination of Nitrate Reductase Assay Depending on the Microbial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid micro-dilution assay for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of different bacterial isolates was developed. This assay is based on the ability of the most of viable organisms to reduce nitrates. The MIC or MBC could be determined by nitrate reductase (NR) only after 30 to 90 min of incubation depending on the behaviour of microbial growth. Bacterial viability is detected by a positive nitrite reduction rather than visible turbidity. The nitrate reduction assay was compared with standard micro-assay using 250 isolates of different taxa against 10 antibiotics belonging to different classes. An excellent agreement of 82.5 % was found between the two methods and only 17.5 % of 1794 trials showed difference in the determined MIC by tow-dilution interval above or below the MIC determined by the turbidimetric method under the same test conditions. However, the nitrate reduction assay was more rapid and sensitive in detecting viable bacteria and so, established an accurate estimate of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or the minimal bacterial concentration (MBC). The nitrate reduction assay offers the additional advantage that it could be used to determine the MBC without having to subculture the broth. 232 cases of resistance were detected by NR and 4 different media were tested for susceptibility test. The bacterial isolates were exposed to ultra violet (UV) light for different period

  15. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Hung-Tao; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Hwan-You

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Highlights: ► f-MWCNTs conjugated with anti-HER2 antibody by chemical method. ► Kill breast cancer cells by using low dose f-MWCNTs-ab due to photothermal effect. ► Use EtBr fluorescent to prove that the cell membrane was broken by heated f-MWCNTs. ► Few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell indicating the endocytosis effect. ► Necrosis may result from protein denaturation due to contact with the heated CNTs.

  16. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  17. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hung-Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsung-Pao [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tai, Nyan-Hwa, E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer f-MWCNTs conjugated with anti-HER2 antibody by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kill breast cancer cells by using low dose f-MWCNTs-ab due to photothermal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use EtBr fluorescent to prove that the cell membrane was broken by heated f-MWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell indicating the endocytosis effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necrosis may result from protein denaturation due to contact with the heated CNTs.

  18. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez AS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambar S Jimenez,1 Francesca Jaramillo,1 Usha D Hemraz,2 Yaman Boluk,3 Karina Ckless,1 Rajesh Sunasee1 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA; 2National Research Council, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta and National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin, a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide], and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study. Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, surface coating, cell viability, MTT, LDH

  19. Ebselen alters mitochondrial physiology and reduces viability of rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) have been extensively employed as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective compound. However, its glutathione peroxidase activity at the expense of cellular thiols groups could underlie certain deleterious actions of the compound on cell physiology. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular viability, the intracellular free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), the mitochondrial free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m), and mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm) were analyzed. The caspase-3 activity was also assayed. Our results show that cell viability was reduced by treatment of cells with ebselen, depending on the concentration employed. In the presence of ebselen, we observed an initial transient increase in [Ca(2+)]c that was then followed by a progressive increase to an elevated plateau. We also observed a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]m in the presence of ebselen that returned toward a value over the prestimulation level. The compound induced depolarization of ψm and altered the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane. Additionally, a disruption of the mitochondrial network was observed. Finally, we did not detect changes in caspase-3 activation in response to ebselen treatment. Collectively, these data support the likelihood of ebselen, depending on the concentration employed, reduces viability of rat hippocampal astrocytes via its action on the mitochondrial activity. These may be early effects that do not involve caspase-3 activation. We conclude that, depending on the concentration used, ebselen might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise cell function.

  20. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  1. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  2. Moringa oleifera's Nutritious Aqueous Leaf Extract Has Anticancerous Effects by Compromising Mitochondrial Viability in an ROS-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Niveen; Dany, Mohammed; Abdoun, Salah; Usta, Julnar

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is an important dietary component for many populations in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to its highly nutritious value, almost all parts of this plant have been widely used in folk medicine in curing infectious, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and other diseases. Evidence-based research supported its versatile medicinal properties; however, more rigorous research is required to establish it in cancer therapy. As such, in this study we aim to investigate the in vitro anticancerous effect of Moringa oleifera's aqueous leaf extract. Moringa extract was prepared by soaking pulverized leaves in hot water mimicking the people's mode of the leaf drink preparation. Several assays were used to study the effect of different percentage concentrations of the extract on viability of A549 cells; levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) generated; as well as percentage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released at different time points. In addition to mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptotic events were assessed using western blotting for apoptotic markers and immunoflourescent flourescent labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) assay. MO extract treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (1 hour) and ATP levels (3 hours), followed by an increase in (6 hours) ROS, caspase activation, proapoptotic proteins expression (p53, SMAC/Diablo, AIF), and PARP-1 cleavage. This eventually resulted in decreased GSH levels and a decrease in viability. The cytotoxic effect was prevented upon pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. MO decreased as well the viability of HepG2, CaCo2, Jurkat, and HEK293 cells. Our findings identify a plant extract with an anticancerous effect on cancer cell lines. MO extract exerts its cytotoxic effect in A549 cancer cells by affecting mitochondrial viability and inducing apoptosis in an ROS-dependent manner.

  3. Cell viability score as an integrated indicator for cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride-containing antiglaucoma eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing antiglaucoma eyedrops. We prepared cell cultures of SIRC, BCE C/D-1b, RC-1, and Chang conjunctiva. The viability of cell cultures was determined using the MTT and neutral red assays. The cell viability score (CVS) was used to compare the toxicity of test solutions. %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 of each eyedrop solution were 71 and 26 for Lumigan(®) (0.002% bimatoprost with 0.005% BAK), 100 and 99 for Tapros(®) (0.0015% tafluprost, a new formula from 2010 with 0.001% BAK), 39 and -29 for 2% Trusopt(®) (2% dorzolamide with 0.0075% BAK), 28 and -43 for Xalacom(®) (latanoprost/0.5% timolol with 0.02% BAK), 88 and 66 for DuoTrav(®) (travoprost/0.5% timolol with no BAK), 36 and -35 for Cosopt(®) (2% dorzolamide/0.5% timolol with 0.0075% BAK) and 53 and -1 for Combigan(®) (0.15% brimonidin/0.5% timolol with 0.005% BAK). Only Xalacom(®) and Tapros(®) did not show an apparent decrease in %CVS as compared to the corresponding concentration of BAK. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of tested eyedrops was dependent on BAK. Only the eyedrops containing latanoprost or tafluprost showed a reduction in the cytotoxicity of BAK.

  4. Release kinetics and cell viability of ibuprofen nanocrystals produced by melt-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Dias-Ferreira, J; Cabral, C; Garcia, M L; Souto, E B

    2018-06-01

    The clinical use of poorly water-soluble drugs has become a big challenge in pharmaceutical development due to the compromised bioavailability of the drugs in vivo. Nanocrystals have been proposed as a formulation strategy to improve the dissolution properties of these drugs. The benefits of using nanocrystals in drug delivery, when compared to other nanoparticles, are related to their production facilities, simple structure, and suitability for a variety of administration routes. High pressure homogenization (HPH) is the most promising production process, which can be employed at low or high temperatures. Ibuprofen nanocrystals with a mean size below 175 nm, and polydispersity below 0.18, have been produced by melt-emulsification, followed by HPH. Two nanocrystal formulations, differing on the surfactant composition, have been produced, their in vitro ibuprofen release tested in Franz diffusion cells and adjusted to several kinetic models (zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Baker-Lonsdale and Weibull model). Cell viability was assessed at 3, 6 and 24 h of incubation on human epithelial colorectal cells (Caco-2) by AlamarBlue ® colorimetric assay. For both formulations, Caco-2 cells viability was dependent on the drug concentration and time of exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:24843386

  6. Viability of probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and nonprobiotic microflora in Argentinian Fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, C G; Prosello, W; Ghiberto, T D; Reinheimer, J A

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bifidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combinations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts, and molds) organisms were counted at 0, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage. Furthermore, the acid resistance of probiotic and starter bacteria was determined from hydrochloric solutions (pH 2 and 3) of Fresco cheese. The results showed that nine different combinations of bifidobacteria and L. acidophilus had a satisfactory viability (count decreases in 60 d casei cultures assayed also showed a satisfactory survival (counts decreased casei). On the other hand, the three combinations of bifidobacteria, L. acidophilus, and L. casei tested adapted well to the Fresco cheese environment. When a cheese homogenate at pH 3 was used to partially simulate the acidic conditions in the stomach, the probiotic cultures had an excellent ability to remain viable up to 3 h. At pH 2, the cell viability was more affected; B. bifidum was the most resistant organism. This study showed that the Argentinian Fresco cheese could be used as an adequate carrier of probiotic bacteria.

  7. Processing of nanocomposites EVA/PVC/MMT in twin-screw extruder; Processamento de nanocompositos EVA/PVC/MMT em extrusora dupla rosca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlen, A.; Barbutti Filho, W.R.; Francisquetti, E.L.; Andrade, M.Z.; Zattera, A.J., E-mail: ajzatter@ucs.b [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Polimeros

    2010-07-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites have some superior properties when compared to conventional polymer composites and is one of the most promising fields in the nanotechnology research. In a EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) /PVC (poly vinyl chloride) matrix was incorporated different types of montmorillonite clays (an inorganic (Na{sup +}) and two organic modified (15A and 30B nanoclays). The mixtures were processed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at processing speeds of 200 and 400 rpm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shown that the inorganic and organic modified clays promoted a shift to higher temperatures in the degradation temperature., X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) shows a possible intercalation with the 15A clay, exfoliation with the 30B clay and formation of clusters in the Na{sup +} clay. For all clays studied, the increase in shear rate does not promote significant changes. (author)

  8. Monitoring of Legionella pneumophila viability after chlorine dioxide treatment using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Pascale; Epalle, Thibaut; Allegra, Séverine; Girardot, Françoise; Garraud, Olivier; Riffard, Serge

    2015-04-01

    The viability of three Legionella pneumophila strains was monitored after chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treatment using a flow cytometric assay. Suspensions of L. pneumophila cells were submitted to increasing concentrations of ClO2. Culturable cells were still detected when using 4 mg/L, but could no longer be detected after exposure to 6 mg/L of ClO2, although viable but not culturable (VBNC) cells were found after exposure to 4-5 mg/L of ClO2. When testing whether these VBNC were infective, two of the strains were resuscitated after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but neither of them could infect macrophage-like cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of low-power red light laser irradiation on the viability of human skin fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, K.; Rozga, B.; Leyko, W.; Bryszewska, M. [Institute of Biophysics, University of Lodz (Poland); Kolodziejczyk, K.; Szosland, D. [Diabetological Clinic, Medical Academy of Lodz (Poland)

    1998-10-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayers (S-126 cell line) were exposed to laser radiation (wavelength 670 nm, power density 40 mW/cm{sup 2}). The energy densities were 2 J/cm{sup 2} and 12 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively, and the irradiation was carried out at a temperature of 22 C. For fibroblast viability evaluation, the colorimetric assay (conversion of thiazolyl blue to formazan) was used. The experiments were carried out at 37 C, in the presence of 5% CO{sub 2}, and at different time periods of incubation after irradiation (2, 4, 8 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days). The results indicated that there was a certain stimulating effect on the long-term proliferation of skin fibroblasts and that the stimulation proceeded in two stages, the first one 2 h and the second one 3 days post-irradiation. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  10. Doctors' perspectives on the viability of rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J A; Humphreys, J S; Adena, M A

    2004-01-01

    Private practitioners play a vital role in meeting the health needs of rural communities. However, the prospect of operating a private practice business in rural Australia seems to be increasingly unattractive, because many communities are forced to recruit salaried or overseas-trained doctors. This study focuses on rural practices as businesses whose viability influences their attractiveness for the recruitment and retention of practitioners. The specific objectives are to ascertain which factors contribute to or threaten practice viability in rural areas, and whether they vary according to the degree of rurality or geographical remoteness. This study is based on data collected from a national study into the viability of rural general practice undertaken jointly by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia and Monash University School of Rural Health Bendigo. The Rural Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) classification was used as the indicator of rurality. The study surveyed all general practitioners practising in rural or remote regions of Australia (RRMAs 3 to 7). Only practitioners with some financial interest in the practice were selected for this analysis. Free-text responses to the two questions 'What are the key factors contributing to the viability of your practice?' and 'What factors would put the viability of your practice at risk?' were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Factors were derived iteratively through higher-level aggregation of responses. Chi-square tests were used to make comparisons across the RRMA categories. The national survey achieved a response rate of 35% of the entire population of GPs practising in RRMA 3 to 7 regions. Of these, 1050 respondents were relevant to this analysis. Seven major factors were identified by practitioners as the main contributors to practice viability. 'Practice characteristics' was nominated by 59% of respondents, followed by 'Income' (31%), 'Personal circumstances', 'Workforce' and 'Community

  11. Viability of seeds of two representatives from Apocynaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Aviekin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability of some Apocynaceae seeds depending on the duration of storage under conditions of low temperature was studied. Extracted embryos from the seeds of Pachypodium lamerei Drake and Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. et Schult with different storage history were analyzed. Embryos were stained by acidic fuchsine what allows identification of viable and destructed cells. Destructed cells were stained much more intensively, while viable cells remained unstained. Observed results showed dependence of viability of P. lamerei and A. obesum seeds from term of storage. It was obtained that the seeds of investigated succulent species, just like in many other tropical plants, rapidly lost their viability and should be described as microbiotic.

  12. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined...... concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts...... the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third...

  13. Evaluation of goat milk as storage media to preserve viability of human periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Ayça Tuba; Kalyoncuoglu, Elif; Kaya, Senay; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of goat milk as a storage media for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth and compare it with commonly used and/or investigated storage media. PDL cells were obtained from the root surface of healthy premolars and were cultured in Eagle's maintenance medium (EMM). Cell cultures were treated with the following storage media: tap water (negative control); EMM (positive control); Hank's balanced salt solution; ultra high temperature (UHT) long-shelf-life lactose-free cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life whole cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life skimmed cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life soy milk; UHT long-shelf-life goat milk, UHT long-shelf-life follow on milk with probiotic, 20% propolis, and egg white. Culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 20°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. PDL cell viability was assessed by tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric (MTT) assay at each test period. One-way anova was used to evaluate the effects of storage solutions at each time point, followed by post hoc Duncan's multiple comparison test (P = 0.05). A dendrogram was constructed to show the arrangement of hierarchical clustering. Goat milk displayed the highest capacity to maintain cell viability at all test intervals (P milk with the probiotic showed the lowest time-dependent PDL cell viability among all test media (P milks, HBSS performed significantly less effectively in maintaining PDL cell viability during the entire test period (P milk can be recommended as a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  15. Present assessment of myocardial viability by nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, G B; MacIntyre, W J; Brunken, R C; Go, R T; Raja, S; Wong, C O; Chen, E Q

    1996-10-01

    Prospective delineation of viable from nonviable myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease in an important factor in deciding whether a patient should be revascularized or treated medically. Two common techniques--single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron-emission computed tomography (PET)--are used in nuclear medicine using various radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of myocardial viability in patients. Thallium-201 (201Tl) and technetium-99m (99mTc)-sestamibi are the common radiopharmaceuticals used in different protocols using SPECT, whereas fluoride-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and rubidium-82 (82Rb) are most widely used in PET. The SPECT protocols involve stress/redistribution, stress/redistribution/reinjection, and rest/redistribution imaging techniques. Many studies have compared the results of 201Tl and (99mTc)-sestamibi SPECT with those of FDG PET; in some studies, concordant results have been found between delayed thallium and FDG results, indicating that 201Tl, although considered a perfusion agent, shows myocardial viability. Discordant results in a number of studies have been found between sestamibi and FDG, suggesting that the efficacy of sestamibi as a viability marker has yet to be established. Radiolabeled fatty acids such as iodine-123 (123I)-para-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid and carbon-11 (11C)-palmitic acid have been used for the assessment of myocardial viability with limited success. 11C-labeled acetate is a good marker of oxidative metabolism in the heart and has been used to predict the reversibility of wall motion abnormalities. (18F)-FDG is considered the marker of choice for myocardial viability, although variable results are obtained under different physiological conditions. Detection of myocardial viability can be greatly improved by developing new equipment and radiopharmaceuticals of better quality.

  16. Viability Study for an Unattended UF6 Cylinder Verification Station: Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garner, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Branney, Sean [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Jennifer B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Todd, Lindsay C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nordquist, Heather [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-31

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) that could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, 235U mass, total uranium mass and identification for all declared UF6 cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The US Support Program team consisted of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL, lead), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savanah River National Laboratory (SRNL). At the core of the viability study is a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a Westinghouse fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study is a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This report provides context for the UCVS concept and the field trial: potential UCVS implementation concepts at an enrichment facility; an overview of UCVS prototype design; field trial objectives and activities. Field trial results and interpretation are presented, with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 “typical” Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an “NDA Fingerprint” concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that the contents of a given cylinder are consistent with previous scans. A modeling study, combined with field

  17. Real-time viability and apoptosis kinetic detection method of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Sarah; Cribbes, Scott; Bonasu, Surekha; Rice, William; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-09-01

    The development of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid models for cancer drug discovery research has increased in the recent years. The use of 3D tumor spheroid models may be more representative of the complex in vivo tumor microenvironments in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) assays. Currently, viability of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids has been commonly measured on standard plate-readers using metabolic reagents such as CellTiter-Glo® for end point analysis. Alternatively, high content image cytometers have been used to measure drug effects on spheroid size and viability. Previously, we have demonstrated a novel end point drug screening method for 3D multicellular tumor spheroids using the Celigo Image Cytometer. To better characterize the cancer drug effects, it is important to also measure the kinetic cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we demonstrate the use of PI and caspase 3/7 stains to measure viability and apoptosis for 3D multicellular tumor spheroids in real-time. The method was first validated by staining different types of tumor spheroids with PI and caspase 3/7 and monitoring the fluorescent intensities for 16 and 21 days. Next, PI-stained and nonstained control tumor spheroids were digested into single cell suspension to directly measure viability in a 2D assay to determine the potential toxicity of PI. Finally, extensive data analysis was performed on correlating the time-dependent PI and caspase 3/7 fluorescent intensities to the spheroid size and necrotic core formation to determine an optimal starting time point for cancer drug testing. The ability to measure real-time viability and apoptosis is highly important for developing a proper 3D model for screening tumor spheroids, which can allow researchers to determine time-dependent drug effects that usually are not captured by end point assays. This would improve the current tumor spheroid analysis method to potentially better

  18. Uso de EVA Modificado com Grupos Mercaptana na Compatibilização de Misturas NBR/EPDM The Use of Mercapto-Modified EVA as Compatibilizing Agent for NBR/EPDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia G. Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Copolímeros de etileno - acetato de vinila com diferentes teores de acetato de vinila - foram funcionalizados com grupos mercaptana e utilizados como agentes compatibilizantes reativos em misturas envolvendo borracha nitrílica e copolímeros de etileno-propileno-dieno (EPDM. Foi investigada a influência das características estruturais dos copolímeros funcionalizados no processo de vulcanização, propriedades mecânicas e dinâmico-mecânicas bem como resistência ao envelhecimento. A adição de pequena porção desses copolímeros resultou em tempos de cura menores. Copolímeros funcionalizados, obtidos a partir da transesterificação de EVA com ácido mercaptoacético (EVASH, apresentaram desempenho melhor como compatibilizante do que aquele obtido a partir da esterificação de EVA hidrolisado com o mesmo ácido (EVALSH. As misturas compatibilizadas com o primeiro sistema apresentaram melhores propriedades mecânicas além de uma morfologia mais refinada e uniforme. A presença dos grupos mercaptana nesses agentes compatibilizantes resultou em uma melhora na resistência ao envelhecimento das misturas.Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA copolymers with different amounts of vinyl acetate have been functionalized with mercapto groups and these reactive compounds were used as compatibilizing agent for nitrile rubber (NBR/ ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM blends. The effects from the structural properties of mercapto-modified EVA compounds on the vulcanizing characteristics, mechanical properties, aging resistance and dynamic-mechanical properties were investigated. The addition of low amounts of mercapto-modified EVA resulted in a decrease of curing time. The functionalized copolymer obtained through transesterification reaction between mercaptoacetic acid and EVA (EVASH presented better compatibilizing action than that obtained from esterification of hydrolyzed EVA and mercaptoacetic acid (EVALSH. Blends compatibilized with the former

  19. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  20. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  1. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  2. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be part...

  3. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a new drug carrier for 3D printed medical drug delivery devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Hollander, Jenny; Jukarainen, Harri

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the printability of different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers as new feedstock material for fused-deposition modeling (FDM™)-based 3D printing technology in fabrication of custom-made T-shaped intrauterine systems (IUS......) and subcutaneous rods (SR). The goal was to select an EVA grade with optimal properties, namely vinyl acetate content, melting index, flexural modulus, for 3D printing of implantable prototypes with the drug incorporated within the entire matrix of the medical devices. Indomethacin was used as a model drug...... affected the drug release profiles from the filaments and printed prototype products: faster release from the prototypes over 30 days in the in vitro tests. To conclude, this study indicates that certain grades of EVA were applicable feedstock material for 3D printing to produce drug-loaded implantable...

  4. Fatores anteriores ao ingresso como preditivos de evasão nos anos iniciais dos cursos superiores de tecnologia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela de Menezes Souza Brissac

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: A evasão de estudantes do ensino superior evidencia-se como fenômeno complexo, com conseqüências de ordem pessoal, institucional e social. Entre os estudos que buscam aprofundar o conhecimento sobre este fenômeno encontram-se os que se detém a pesquisar as causas e fatores associados à evasão de alunos neste nível de ensino. No que se refere às variáveis associadas à ocorrência da evasão, os estudos têm mostrado que é possível localizar fatores que são anteriores ao ingresso do estuda...

  5. Use of the Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) for coordinated IVA-EVA astronaut training and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, J P; Huffman, S D

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a unique virtual reality training and assessment tool developed under a NASA grant, "Research in Human Factors Aspects of Enhanced Virtual Environments for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Training and Simulation." The Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) was created to train and evaluate the verbal, mental and physical coordination required between the intravehicular (IVA) astronaut operating the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and the EVA astronaut standing in foot restraints on the end of the RMS. The RAVEN system currently allows the EVA astronaut to approach the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) under control of the IVA astronaut and grasp, remove, and replace the Wide Field Planetary Camera drawer from its location in the HST. Two viewpoints, one stereoscopic and one monoscopic, were created all linked by Ethernet, that provided the two trainees with the appropriate training environments.

  6. Quality Control Assays for Clinical-Grade Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Validation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radrizzani, Marina; Soncin, Sabrina; Bolis, Sara; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Andriolo, Gabriella; Turchetto, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The present chapter focuses on the validation of the following analytical methods for the control of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for cell therapy clinical trials: Microbiological control for cellular product Endotoxin assay Mycoplasma assay Cell count and viability Immunophenotype Clonogenic potential (CFU-F assay) In our lab, these methods are in use for product release, process control or control of the biological starting materials. They are described in detail in the accompanying Chapter 19.For each method, validation goals and strategy are presented, and a detailed experimental scheme is proposed.

  7. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  8. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  9. Entre Lilith y Eva: Björk canta E. E. Cummings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mas López

    2016-05-01

    del poeta norteamericano en Sun In My Mouth y el resto de composiciones de Vespertine. Frente a la inequívoca exaltación del héroe solar de Cummings, Björk utiliza una mirada femenina que duda entre los referentes de Lilith, la mujer que encuentra su libertad fuera de la sociedad, y Eva, aquella cuya sumisión es socialmente productiva. El resultado es un discurso de gran valor artístico, pero sujeto, en lo ideológico, a las limitaciones que imponen los motivos de partida

  10. Using EVA Method to Assess Achievement of BEJ Registered Retail Trade Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the the achievement in terms of the company finance, on whether it adds value or not to shareholders and investors in generating profit on top of used capital or normally mentioned as the method of EVA. This research was carried out against 10 retail trade companies that registered in BEJ during the finance year of 2005 by using the documentary or secondary data obtained from the Centre of the Pasar Modal Reference (PRPM in the Building of Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ. Evaluation results suggested 6 companies for future investment.

  11. Eesti Vabariigi 90. aastapäeva tähistamise muljeid / Vello Helk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helk, Vello, 1923-2014

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi juubeliaasta tähistamisest, endiste riigijuhtide mälestuse austamisest. Käsitletud on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnesid kindral Johan Laidoneri mälestusloengul Viimsi mõisas 12. veebruaril 2008, Ajutise Valitsuse liikmete büstide näituse avamisel 14. veebruaril 2008 Eesti Pangas, Eesti Vabariigi väljakuulutamise monumendi avamisel Pärnus 23. veebruaril 2008 ja Eesti Vabariigi väljakuulutamise 90. aastapäeva pidulikul kontsertaktusel 24. veebruaril 2008. Ilmunud ka: Eesti Elu 15. aug. 2008, lk. 5; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm) 28. aug. 2008, lk. 3

  12. Kuidas tähistame TÜ 375. aastapäeva? / Varje Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Varje, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    TÜ 375. aastapäeva tähistamise ürituste seas ka kontserdid: 5. okt. Vanemuise kontserdimajas "Kuningas Gustavi gala" (esinevad ülikoori esinduskoorid koos Vanemuise Sümfooniaorkestriga ja Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia kultuurikollektiivid, sh. muusikud), 6. okt. AthenasTRÜ ansamblid Rajacas, Rentaablus, Meedium ja Fix, 3. sept. Raekoja platsil uue kooliaasta alguse kontsert, 5. okt. üliõpilasmajas heategevuskontsert, sept. lõpus esitavad ülikoolide koorid Tallinnas ja Pärnus Carl Orffi lavakantaadi "Carmina BUrana"

  13. The Use of Human Modeling of EVA Tasks as a Systems Engineering Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Schmidt, Henry J.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer-generated human models have been used in aerospace design for a decade. They have come to be highly reliable for worksite analysis of certain types of EVA tasks. In many design environments, this analysis comes after the structural design is largely complete. However, the use of these models as a development tool is gaining acceptance within organizations that practice good systems engineering processes. The design of the United States Propulsion Module for the International Space Station provides an example of this application. The Propulsion Module will provide augmentation to the propulsion capability supplied by the Russian Service Module Zvezda. It is a late addition to the set of modules provided by the United States to the ISS Program, and as a result, faces design challenges that result from the level of immaturity of its integration into the Station. Among these are heat dissipation and physical envelopes. Since the rest of the Station was designed to maximize the use of the cooling system, little margin is available for the addition of another module. The Propulsion Module will attach at the forward end of the Station, and will be between the Orbiter and the rest of ISS. Since cargo must be removed from the Payload Bay and transferred to Station by the Canadarm, there is a potential for protrusions from the module, such as thruster booms, to interfere with robotic operations. These and similar engineering issues must be addressed as part of the development. In the implementation of good system design, all design solutions should be analyzed for compatibility with all affected subsystems. Human modeling has been used in this project to provide rapid input to system trades of design concepts. For example, the placement of radiators and avionics components for optimization of heat dissipation had to be examined for feasibility of EVA translation paths and worksite development. Likewise, the location of and mechanism for the retraction of thruster

  14. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  15. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  16. Cartilage formation measured by a novel PIINP assay suggests that IGF-I does not stimulate but maintains cartilage formation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S H; Sondergaard, B C; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay

    2009-01-01

    explants were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM):F12 in the presence of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL of IGF-I. The viability of the chondrocytes was measured by the colorimetric Alamar blue assay. Collagen formation was assessed from the conditioned medium by the PIINP assay...

  17. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  18. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...

  20. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Visser, C.W.; Henke, S.J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  1. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  2. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  3. Comparison of Germination and Viability Tests for Southern Hardwood Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; J. L. Gammage

    1967-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 3-year evaluation of 10 methods for testing germinability and viability of the seed of six species of southern hardwood. In five of the methods, the seeds were germinated. In the others, visual, biochemical, or physical properties were the criteria. Cutting tests were best for sweetgum and Nuttall oak seed, while cutting or water germination...

  4. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae O: 1 ...

  5. Financial viability of district mutual health insurance schemes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since its implementation, unsubstantiated reports indicate increasing health care and administra-tive costs of the various DMHIS across the country without any corresponding increase in the premium level. We sought to assess the financial viability of the DMHIS in Lawra (LDMHIS) and Sissala East (SEDMHIS) districts, ...

  6. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  7. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  8. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and ... increase in germination potential (60%) of seeds treated with polyethylene .... Key: 60* = There was no germination 60 days after sowing; MC = Moisture content; Germ. ...... Paper presented at the pre-germplasm collection meeting on Irvingia.

  9. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  10. The viability of business data mining in the sports environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data mining can be viewed as the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases and utilising this information to make crucial business decisions (Simoudis, 1996: 26). This paper considers the viability of using data mining tools and techniques in sports, particularly with regard to mining the ...

  11. Potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicholaus family

    marginal (incremental) revenues from forest carbon stock as well as the conceptual trend of forest biomass indicates that, there is ... Key words: Carbon stock payments, community preferences and REDD+ project viability. INTRODUCTION .... following criteria were used in selecting respondents especially households: 1) ...

  12. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  13. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  14. Heterozygous effects of irradiated chromosomes on viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Two large experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the heterozygous effects of irradiated chromosomes on viability. Mutations were accumulated on several hundred second chromosomes by delivering doses of 2,500R over either two or four generations for total x-ray exposures of 5,000R or 10,000R. Chromosomes treated with 5,000R were screened for lethals after the first treatment, and surviving nonlethals were used to generate families of fully treated chromosomes. The members of these families shared the effects of the first irradiation, but differed with respect to those of the second. The chromosomes treated with 10,000R were not grouped into families since mutations were accumulated independently on each chromosome in that experiment. Heterozygous effects on viability of the irradiated chromosomes were tested in both isogenic (homozygous) and nonisogenic (heterozygous) genetic backgrounds. In conjunction with these tests, homozygous viabilities were determined by the marked-inversion technique. This permitted a separation of the irradiated chromosomes into those which were drastic when made homozygous and those which were not. The results indicate that drastic chromosomes have deleterious effects in heterozygous condition, since viability was reduced by 2 to 4 percent in tests performed with the 10,000R chromosomes, and by 1 percent in those involving the 5,000R material. Within a series of tests, the effects were more pronounced when the genetic background was homozygous. These results suggest that the mutants induced by high doses of x-rays are principally drastic ones which show deleterious effects on viability in heterozygous condition

  15. ANALISIS PENGARUH EVA DAN MVA TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTI DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pahlawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis: (1 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham (2 pengaruh Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham (3 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham antara variabel kinerja keuangan industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada periode 2007-2012. Kegunaan teoritis adalah untuk memberikan kontribusi tentang pengetahuan manajemen keuangan, yang dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk penelitian berikutnya kinerja keuangan terutama tentang industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Kegunaan praktis adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap kinerja keuangan untuk kontribusi memberi kepada manajemen properti umum dalam mengelola variabel kinerja industri properti Bursa Efek Indonesia.Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang dikumpulkan dari data Bursa Efek Indonesia, dan Departemen Riset menurut sifat laporan keuangan pada periode 2007-2012. Sampel adalah 54 variabel dan dianalisis dengan regresi berganda metode statistik linier. Total nilai determinasi adalah 0,368, artinya ini adalah 36,8% informasi dalam data dapat dijelaskan oleh model dan 63,2% di bawah variabel lain dan error. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 Variabel Economic Value Added (EVA berpengaruh positif terhadap return saham; (2 Variabel Market Value Added (MVA memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap Return Saham; Mengacu pada kesimpulan penelitian diatas maka disarankan adalah: (1 Dioptimalkan Economic Value Added (EVA untuk mencapai pendapatan dan keuntungan dari return saham (2 Mengelola Variabel Market Value Added (MVA pada kondisi baik untuk menjaga stabilitas keuangan dan mendapatkan dipercaya dari investor Bursa Efek Indonesia (3 Fokus ke Manajemen Risiko, Jasa, perusahaan Visi & Misi, dan Active keterampilan dan pengetahuan karyawan perusahaan yang lebih tinggi untuk

  16. An efficient and economical MTT assay for determining the antioxidant activity of plant natural product extracts and pure compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-07-23

    Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, singlet oxygen, and electrons in cellular redox reactions. The yellow MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] is reduced to a purple formazan by mitochondrial enzymes. NADPH is the basis of established in vitro cell viability assays. An antioxidant assay has been developed utilizing the redox reaction between MTT and selected natural product extracts and purified compounds. This simple, fast, and inexpensive MTT antioxidant assay is comparable with the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay and can be mechanized to achieve high throughput.

  17. Clay intercalation and influence on crystallinity of EVA-based clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, D.S.; Prasad, R.; Gupta, R.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Various polymer clay nanocomposites (PCNs) were prepared from ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with 9, 18 and 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content filled with different wt.% (2.5, 5 and 7.5) of a Montmorillonite-based organo-modified clay (Cloisite[reg] C15A and C30B). The PCNs were prepared using melt blending techniques. Morphological information regarding intercalation and exfoliation were determined by using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). WAXS and TEM confirmed that increasing the VA content was necessary to achieve greater clay-polymer interaction as seen from the comparatively higher intercalation of clay platelets with 28% VA. The effect of addition of clay on the development and the modification of crystalline morphology in EVA matrix was also studied using WAXS and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Results are presented showing that the addition of clay platelets does not increase the matrix crystallinity but the morphology was significantly modified such that there was an increase in the 'rigid' amorphous phase. Mechanical properties were also evaluated against the respective morphological information for each specimen and there are indications that the level of clay-polymer interaction plays a significant role in such morphological modification, and in such a way that affects the final PCN mechanical properties which has wide and significant applications in the packaging industries

  18. Physicochemical and enzimatic transformations of "eva" apples stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Betsy Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for a permanent market supply of fresh fruit has generated great interest in postharvest techniques that can promote useful life and quality of the fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of atmospheric modification using different polymeric films in maintaining postharvest quality and prolonging the shelf life of Eva (Mallus sp apples. For this, fruits from the city of Barbacena - MG, selected and sanitized were packed in plastic trays and wrapped in the corresponding films. The films used were: polypropylene - 20 µm, low-density polyethylene - 14 µm and high-density polyethylene - 7 µm. Another group of fruits (control was not submitted to a modified atmosphere. Subsequently, all the the packages were stored under refrigeration (0 ° C ± 0.5 for 210 days and the evaluations of the following variables were performed every 30 days of storage: hydrogen potential (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, weight loss, firmness, total pectin, soluble pectin, pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase. The work was conducted in a completely randomized design (4x8, with 4 treatments and 8 experimental times. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and each experimental unit consisted of six fruits. The results were submitted to variance analysis and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability and regression analysis. The low density polyethylene (14 µm packaging provided the best conservation of the Eva cultivar apple textural characteristics.

  19. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  20. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  1. siRNA - Mediated LRP/LR knock-down reduces cellular viability of malignant melanoma cells through the activation of apoptotic caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Thalia M; Vania, Leila; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2018-07-01

    The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively. In order to determine the effect of LRP/LR on cell viability and apoptosis, LRP was down-regulated via siRNA technology. MTT assays revealed that LRP knock-down led to significant reductions in the viability of A375 and A375SM cells. Confocal microscopy indicated nuclear morphological changes suggestive of apoptotic induction in both cell lines and Annexin-V FITC/PI assays confirmed this observation. Additionally, caspase-3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was induced in both cell lines after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of LRP. Caspase-8 and -9 activity assays suggested that post LRP knock-down; A375 cells undergo apoptosis solely via the extrinsic pathway, while A375SM cells undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. siRNAs mediated LRP knock-down might represent a powerful alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma through the induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Concentration-dependent effects of fullerenol on cultured hippocampal neuron viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha YY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying-ying Zha,1 Bo Yang,1 Ming-liang Tang,2 Qiu-chen Guo,1 Ju-tao Chen,1 Long-ping Wen,3 Ming Wang11CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 2Suzhou Institute of NanoTech and NanoBionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 3Laboratory of Nano-biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Recent studies have shown that the biological actions and toxicity of the water-soluble compound, polyhydroxyfullerene (fullerenol, are related to the concentrations present at a particular site of action. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of fullerenol on cultured rat hippocampal neurons.Methods and results: Fullerenol at low concentrations significantly enhanced hippocampal neuron viability as tested by MTT assay and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double stain detection. At high concentrations, fullerenol induced apoptosis confirmed by Comet assay and assessment of caspase proteins.Conclusion: These findings suggest that fullerenol promotes cell death and protects against cell damage, depending on the concentration present. The concentration-dependent effects of fullerenol were mainly due to its influence on the reduction-oxidation pathway.Keywords: fullerenol, nanomaterial, neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, hippocampal neuron

  3. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. G. D'Antona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  4. Shining a light on LAMP assays--a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Jens; Xander, Nina Carolin; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn Felix

    2015-04-01

    The need for simple and effective assays for detecting nucleic acids by isothermal amplification reactions has led to a great variety of end point and real-time monitoring methods. Here we tested direct and indirect methods to visualize the amplification of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared features important for one-pot in-field applications. We compared the performance of magnesium pyrophosphate, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), calcein, SYBR Green I, EvaGreen, and berberine. All assays could be used to distinguish between positive and negative samples in visible or UV light. Precipitation of magnesium-pyrophosphate resulted in a turbid reaction solution. The use of HNB resulted in a color change from violet to blue, whereas calcein induced a change from orange to yellow-green. We also investigated berberine as a nucleic acid-specific dye that emits a fluorescence signal under UV light after a positive LAMP reaction. It has a comparable sensitivity to SYBR Green I and EvaGreen. Based on our results, an optimal detection method can be chosen easily for isothermal real-time or end point screening applications.

  5. Effect of STI-571 (imatinib mesylate) in combination with retinoic acid and γ-irradiation on viability of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Jochen; Zambrzycka, Izabella; Lagodny, Jeanette; Kontny, Udo; Niemeyer, Charlotte Marie

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) expresses the tyrosine kinase receptors c-Kit, PDGFR-α and -β-targets for STI-571.We investigated a possible combination therapy of STI-571 with retinoic acid (RA) and γ-irradiation on NB cell viability in vitro. Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands was examined in 6 NB cell lines by RT-PCR and FACS. The effect on cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell viability of all 6 NB cell lines was significantly inhibited after treatment with 20 μM STI-571 for 72 h, two cell lines responding already to 10 μM. Cell lines responded irrespective of their mRNA status or cell surface expression of c-Kit, PDGFR-α and -β. Co-incubation with 9-cis RA sensitized cells to the inhibitory effects of STI-571. However, pre-treatment with 9-cis RA resulted in resistance of NB cell lines to STI-571 and γ-irradiation. Treatment of NB with STI-571 in combination with 9-cis RA might be a therapeutic strategy for patients in consolidation therapy who have completed γ-irradiation therapy

  6. Effect of Zebularine loaded MePEG-PCL nanoparticles on viability, attachment of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of zebularine(Zebloaded Poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(ε-caprolactonemethyl ether(MePEG-PCLnanoparticles(NPson the viability, attachment, and apoptosis of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells(LECs. METHODS: In vitro cultured infant human lens tissue HLE B-3 immortalized cells were distributed randomly divided into six groups. Each group was administered with free Zeb 50μmol/L(ZebF1 group, 100μmol/L(ZebF2 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 50μmol/L(ZebNP1 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 100μmol/L(ZebNP2 group, MePEG-PCL empty NPs(NPs groupor blank medium(group Crespectively. A tetrazolium dye assay(MTTtest and modified MTT test were performed to determine cell viability and cell attachment. DNA ladder was used to detect the cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Determined by MTT colorimetric method: Cell proliferation rate of LECs were suppressed by all Zeb administration groups in a concentration-time dependent manner(PPP ZebNP1>ZebF2(PCONCLUSION: Zeb loaded MePEG-PCL NPs had better effect on suppressing the viability and attachment of in vitro cultured LECs than the free Zeb groups, as well as enhancing the apoptosis.

  7. Cooperation of HIF- and NCAM-mediated mechanisms in cell viability of hippocampal cultures after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikova, Iryna; Nikandrova, Yelyzaveta; Skibo, Galyna

    2017-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases of different genesis are the result of cellular damages including those caused by oxygen and glucose deficit. Neuronal survival or death in brain pathologies depends on a variety of interrelated molecular mechanisms. A key role in modulation of neuron viability belongs to HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) and NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecules) signaling pathways. In this work, we used organotypic and dissociated hippocampal cultures to analyze cell viability and HIF-1α immunopositive (HIF-1α + ) signal after 30 min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 24 h of reoxygenation in the presence of FGL (synthetic NCAM-derived mimetic peptide). According to LDH- and MTS-assay of cell viability, FGL showed a neuroprotective effect, which was attributed to the association with FGFR. We showed that these effects correlated with changes of the HIF-1α + level suggesting the communications of HIF and NCAM signaling pathways. These data extend our knowledge of neurodegeneration mechanisms and open additional potential for the development of neuroprotection strategies. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Correlation of bacterial viability with uptake of (14C) acetate into phenolic glycolipid-1 of Mycobacterium leprae within Schwannoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, Y.; Antia, N.H.; Mukherjee, R.

    1989-01-01

    The viability of Mycobacterium leprae, maintained within 33B Schwannoma cells, was estimated in terms of incorporation of ( 14 C) acetate into its specific phenolic glycolipid-1. This measure of viability was correlated with two other assays, viz., fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide staining and mouse footpad growth. Observation of a 2-fold increase in the number of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae over an experimental period of 12 days also corroborated this contention. Furthermore, on addition of anti-leprosy drugs to these intracellular Mycobacterium leprae there was significant decrease in phenolic glycolipid-1 synthesis indicative of loss of viability of the organisms. This study also established the importance of the host cell for active bacillary metabolism, as Mycobacterium leprae maintained in cell-free conditions showed no incorporation into phenolic glycolipid-1. Moreover, compromising the host's protein synthesis capacity with cycloheximide, also led to reduction in bacillary metabolism. As this system measures the metabolic synthesis of a unique Mycobacterium leprae component, it would be useful for development and screening of compounds acting against specific bacillary targets. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Effects of mineral trioxide aggregate, BiodentineTM and calcium hydroxide on viability, proliferation, migration and differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Borges Araújo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the capping materials mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium hydroxide (CH and BiodentineTM (BD on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED in vitro. Material and Methods: SHED were cultured for 1 – 7 days in medium conditioned by incubation with MTA, BD or CH (1 mg/mL, and tested for viability (MTT assay and proliferation (SRB assay. Also, the migration of serum-starved SHED towards conditioned media was assayed in companion plates, with 8 μm-pore-sized membranes, for 24 h. Gene expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1 was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Regular culture medium with 10% FBS (without conditioning and culture medium supplemented with 20% FBS were used as controls. Results: MTA, CH and BD conditioned media maintained cell viability and allowed continuous SHED proliferation, with CH conditioned medium causing the highest positive effect on proliferation at the end of the treatment period (compared with BD and MTA (p<0.05. In contrast, we observed increased SHED migration towards BD and MTA conditioned media (compared with CH (p<0.05. A greater amount of DMP-1 gene was expressed in MTA group compared with the other groups from day 7 up to day 21. Conclusion: Our results show that the three capping materials are biocompatible, maintain viability and stimulate proliferation, migration and differentiation in a key dental stem cell population.

  10. The MADD-3 LAMMER Kinase Interacts with a p38 MAP Kinase Pathway to Regulate the Display of the EVA-1 Guidance Receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena A D'Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper display of transmembrane receptors on the leading edge of migrating cells and cell extensions is essential for their response to guidance cues. We previously discovered that MADD-4, which is an ADAMTSL secreted by motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, interacts with an UNC-40/EVA-1 co-receptor complex on muscles to attract plasma membrane extensions called muscle arms. In nematodes, the muscle arm termini harbor the post-synaptic elements of the neuromuscular junction. Through a forward genetic screen for mutants with disrupted muscle arm extension, we discovered that a LAMMER kinase, which we call MADD-3, is required for the proper display of the EVA-1 receptor on the muscle's plasma membrane. Without MADD-3, EVA-1 levels decrease concomitantly with a reduction of the late-endosomal marker RAB-7. Through a genetic suppressor screen, we found that the levels of EVA-1 and RAB-7 can be restored in madd-3 mutants by eliminating the function of a p38 MAP kinase pathway. We also found that EVA-1 and RAB-7 will accumulate in madd-3 mutants upon disrupting CUP-5, which is a mucolipin ortholog required for proper lysosome function. Together, our data suggests that the MADD-3 LAMMER kinase antagonizes the p38-mediated endosomal trafficking of EVA-1 to the lysosome. In this way, MADD-3 ensures that sufficient levels of EVA-1 are present to guide muscle arm extension towards the source of the MADD-4 guidance cue.

  11. Effect of the High-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of PE/EVA Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi Aghjeh, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of electron beam irradiation on the morphology and mechanical properties of PE/EVA blends. The melt compounding of the blends were carried out in an internal mixer. The small amount of the prepared blend samples were rapidly quenched in liquid nitrogen and the remained were compression molded into sheets. Sheets and quenched samples were then irradiated by a 10 MeV electron beam accelerator using different dose levels. The morphological studies for both, sheeted and quenched blends were performed on cryogenically fractured surfaces by using SEM technique. The mechanical properties of the sheeted samples were evaluated according to ASTM D638. The results of mechanical properties showed that, increasing in irradiation dose increases the tensile strength and decreases the elongation at break in all blend compositions. On the other hand, it was found that, for PE/EVA blends the extent of tensile strength increase, and elongation at break decrease, are more appreciable in compare to the neat PE and EVA. These results suggest that, the blend interface is more susceptible for irradiation induced crosslinking. This is because of more affinity of PE and EVA macroradicals to termination with together in compare to own macroradicals.The results of morphological studies showed that, irradiation can stabilize the blend morphology especially in co-continues regions, where the morphology is more unstable due to the heat coarsening

  12. Kodutus Eestis - kas indiviidi või ühiskonna probleem? / Jüri Kõre, Riina Kiik, Eva Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõre, Jüri, 1953-

    2005-01-01

    Kodutuse ajaloolisest taustast ja põhjustest. Tartu linna kodutute hulgas 2003.-2004. a. tehtud uurimusest ning Eva Kõivu magistritööst "Kodutus Tartu linnas: Põhjused ja võimalikud lahendused". Diagrammid: Tartu koduta inimeste jaotus kodutuse kestuse järgi; Intervjueeritute sissetulekuallikad

  13. Pühapäeva hommik : [luuletused] / Wallace Stevens ; tõlk. Hasso Krull, Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, Wallace

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Pühapäeva hommik ; Peter Quince klahvide ees ; Mozart, 1935 ; Postkaart vulkaanist ; Moodsast luulest ; Paks punane mees loeb ette ; Seesmise armukese viimane üksikõne ; Ühe üksikasja kulg. Elu- ja loomeloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 531-532

  14. Flame retardancy and thermal behavior of intumescent flame-retardant EVA composites with an efficient triazine-based charring agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Ma, Wen; Wu, Xiao; Qian, Lijun; Jiang, Shan

    2018-04-01

    Intumescent flame retardant (IFR) EVA composites were prepared based on a hyperbranched triazine charring-foaming agent (HTCFA) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). The synergistic effect of HTCFA and APP on the flame retardancy and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated through flammability tests, cone calorimeter measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) including evolved gas analysis (TG-IR) and residue analysis (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)). The flammability test results showed HTCFA/APP (1/3) system presented the best synergistic effect in flame-retardant EVA composites with the highest LOI value and UL-94 V-0 rating. As for cone calorimeter results, IFR changed the combustion behavior of EVA and resulted in remarkable decrease of flammability and smoke product. TGA results showed the synergistic effect between APP and HTCFA could strengthen the char-forming ability of composites. TG-IR results indicated the melt viscosities and gas release with increasing temperature were well-correlated for EVA/IFR composite. The residue analysis results from SEM, LRS, FT-IR and XPS revealed IFR promoted forming more compact graphitic char layer, connected by rich P–O–C and P–N structures.

  15. Muusikamaailm : "Musica Nova" Helsingis. Revueltase tähtpäeva-aasta. Pendereckile elutööauhind / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Helsingi uue muusika festivalist "Musica Nova" 3.-11. märtsini. Möödus sajand S. Revueltase sünnist, tähtpäeva üritustest USAs. MIDEMi muusikamess Cannes'is andis viiendat korda välja eriauhinna väljapaistvale kaasaja heliloojale ئ seekord K. Pendereckile

  16. Functional assessment of allelic variants in the SLC26A4 gene involved in Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Alejandra; Dossena, Silvia; Rodighiero, Simona; Gandía, Marta; Bottà, Guido; Meyer, Giuliano; Moreno, Felipe; Nofziger, Charity; Hernández-Chico, Concepción; Paulmichl, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, with malformations of the inner ear, ranging from enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) to Mondini malformation, and deficient iodide organification in the thyroid gland. Nonsyndromic EVA (ns-EVA) is a separate type of sensorineural hearing loss showing normal thyroid function. Both Pendred syndrome and ns-EVA seem to be linked to the malfunction of pendrin (SLC26A4), a membrane transporter able to exchange anions between the cytosol and extracellular fluid. In the past, the pathogenicity of SLC26A4 missense mutations were assumed if the mutations fulfilled two criteria: low incidence of the mutation in the control population and substitution of evolutionary conserved amino acids. Here we show that these criteria are insufficient to make meaningful predictions about the effect of these SLC26A4 variants on the pendrin-induced ion transport. Furthermore, we functionally characterized 10 missense mutations within the SLC26A4 ORF, and consistently found that on the protein level, an addition or omission of a proline or a charged amino acid in the SLC26A4 sequence is detrimental to its function. These types of changes may be adequate for predicting SLC26A4 functionality in the absence of direct functional tests. PMID:19017801

  17. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella pneumophila after treatment with copper and silver ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could p...

  18. Low-dose dose-response for reduced cell viability after exposure of human keratinocyte (HEK001 cells to arsenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth T. Bogen

    Full Text Available The in vitro arsenite (AsIII cytotoxicity dose-response (DR of human keratinocytes (HEK001 was examined at greater statistical resolution than ever previously reported using the MTT assay to determine cell viability. Fifty-four 96-well plates were treated with AsIII concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 μM. Because of unexpected variation in viability response patterns, a two-stage DR analysis was used in which data on plate-specific viability (%, estimated as 100% times the ratio of measured viability in exposed to unexposed cells, were fit initially to a generalized lognormal response function positing that HEK001 cells studied consisted of: a proportion P of relatively highly sensitive (HS cells, a proportion Po of relatively resistant cells, and a remaining (1–P–Po fraction of typical-sensitivity (TS cells exhibiting the intermediate level of AsIII sensitivity characteristic of most cells in each assay. The estimated fractions P and Po were used to adjust data from all 54 plates (and from the 28 plates yielding the best fits to reflect the condition that P = Po = 0 to provide detailed DR analysis specifically for TS cells. Four DR models fit to the combined adjusted data were each very predictive (R2 > 0.97 overall but were inconsistent with at least one of the data set examined (p  0.30 and exceeded 100% significance (p ≤ 10−6. A low-dose hormetic model provided the best fit to the combined adjusted data for TS cells (R2 = 0.995. Marked variability in estimates of P (the proportion of apparent HS cells was unexpected, not readily explained, and warrants further study using additional cell lines and assay methods, and in vivo. Keywords: Arsenic, Arsenate, Cell culture, Cell death, Cytotoxicity, HEK001 cells

  19. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  20. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  1. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  2. Cost viability of 3D printed house in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Omar, S. A.; Yehia, Z.; Al-Ojaili, S.; Hashim, A.; Orhan, O.

    2018-03-01

    UK has been facing housing crisis due to the rising price of the property on sale. This paper will look into the viability of 3D printing technology as an alternative way for house construction on UK. The analysis will be carried out based on the data until the year of 2014 due to limited resources availability. Details cost breakdown on average size house construction cost in UK were analysed and relate to the cost viability of 3D printing technology in reducing the house price in UK. It is found that the 3D printing generates saving of up to around 35% out of total house price in UK. This cost saving comes from the 3D printed construction of walls and foundations for material and labour cost.

  3. Usefulness of radionuclide scintiphotography to evaluate preserved kidney viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koshi; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    GAMMA imaging of the renal cortical microcirculation is a safe and non-invasive method for assessment of kidney viability before transplantation. We used trifluoperazine (TFP), urokinase and verapamil from 24 to 120 hour kidney preservation in dogs. For these preserved kidneys, we used radionuuclide scintiphotography to evaluate kidney viability. After preservation, these kidneys were perfused with technitium -99m labeled microspheres, and imaging of the renal vasculature was obtained by scintigraphy. The distribution of the microspheres was assessed visually and by computer analysis. Modified Collins' solution perfused kidneys show very poor cortical uptake with marked increase in uptake in the hilar region after preservation. In contrast, cortical flow remained relatively well preserved in kidneys perfused and preserved by use of modified Collins' solotion with TFP, urokinase and urokinase + verapamil. There was a direct correlation between these results and the capacity of kidneys treated in the same fashion to sustain life after retransplantation into the original host. (author)

  4. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  5. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Sims, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number

  6. Determination of intestinal viability by Doppler ultrasonography in venous infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, M; Martin, E W; Carey, L C

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in predicting the viability of ischemic intestine secondary to venous obstruction was assessed. Twenty loops of ischemic intestine were created in dogs by temporarily obstructing venous return from the bowel. Doppler arterial flow signals within the intestine quickly disappeared following venous occlusion. In ten segments, arterial signals promptly returned following release of venous occlusion. Nine of these ten segments were viable at reoperation 24 hours later. In ten segments, no arterial signals could be detected following release of venous occlusion, and only one segment proved to be viable. Doppler ultrasound findings were far more accurate in distinguishing between viable and nonviable intestine thatn were clinical guides to intestinal viability. PMID:7352777

  7. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  8. Effect of storage materials on viability and proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viability of the G. kola seeds stored in polyethylene bag (PB) was highest (100%) followed by that of the seeds stored in fresh plantain leaf (FPL) (86.67 ± 13.33%); cement bag paper (CBP) (73.33 ± 17.64%); dry plantain leaf (DPL) (60.00%) and the control which was exposed to the ambient temperature in the laboratory ...

  9. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  10. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  11. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  12. Incisional abdominal hernia repair with concomitant abdominoplasty: Maintaining umbilical viability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Phan; Elan Kaplan; Jemma K. Porrett; Yik-Hong Ho; Warren M. Rozen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominoplasty and abdominal hernia repair are often carried out in two-stage procedures, and those describing single-stage surgery require careful dissection to preserve often only partial blood supply to the umbilicus to maintain its viability. This paper aims to describe the surgical method of laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in association with abdominoplasty. Case presentation: A patient presents with an incisional hernia at a previous periumbilical port site of size 14...

  13. Economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, Z.F.

    1994-01-01

    Non conventional energy sources have begun to move from fringes of technological possibility towards commercial viability. Out of the four sources, i e. solar, wind, biogas and minimicro hydel the first two viz. wind and solar energy are of relevance for industries in western region of India. This has to be seen in the context of developments in technology and hence economics both worldwide and in India. (author)

  14. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: Anitua's PRGF and Choukran's PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: PRGF treatment induced statistically significant (P<0.001 proliferation of HGF cells compared to the negative control (100% viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours in values of 123%±2.25%, 102%±2.8% and 101%±3.92%, respectively. The PRF membrane treatment of HGF cells had a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation (21%±1.73%, P<0.001 at 24 hours compared to the negative control. However, at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, PRF had a negative effect on HGF cell proliferation and caused 38% and 60% decrease in viability and proliferation compared to the negative control, respectively. The HGF cell proliferation was significantly higher in PRGF than in PRF group (P< 0.001.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that PRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF.

  15. Effect of different cryo-protectants on the viability of frozen/thawed semen from boars of the Piau breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R O; Lima, D M A; Shiomi, H H; Siqueira, J B; Silva, H T; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cryo-protectants (glycerol, dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide alone or combined and added to lactose-egg yolk extender) on the viability of frozen/thawed semen from the Piau breed as assessed by in vitro testing. Frozen semen samples (n=20) were used from five male swine. Five different freezing extenders, including 2% glycerol (Group 1 - G), 2% glycerol and 3% dimethylacetamide (Group 2 - GA), 2% glycerol and 3% dimethylformamide (Group 3 - GF), 5% dimethylacetamide (Group 4 - A) and 5% dimethylformamide (group 5 - F), were evaluated. To assess post-thawing sperm quality, sperm motility and morphology were evaluated. Sperm viability was determined using the hypoosmotic swelling test, supravital staining, and a fluorescent assay (carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide). The mean total sperm motility of semen immediately after thawing was 46.2±1.3, 57.7±1.5, 53.2±2.1, 51.7±1.2, and 46.5±1.6% for groups 1-5, respectively. Groups 2 (GA) and 3 (GF) had greater motility values (P0.05). The other complementary tests (hypoosmotic swelling test and supra-vital staining) demonstrated that sperm in Groups 2 (GA), 3 (GF) and 4 (A) had the greatest viability and there were no significant differences among these three groups (P>0.05). The most effective cryo-protectant combinations likely minimized and controlled the deleterious processes that occur in the sperm cell during freezing/thawing, thus improving post-thawing sperm viability. In conclusion, the combination of amides (3%) and glycerol (2%) or dimethylacetamide (5%) alone were more efficient at cryo-protection than glycerol alone for semen freezing in the Piau swine breed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and validation of a quantitative, high-throughput, fluorescent-based bioassay to detect schistosoma viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by infection with the blood fluke Schistosoma, is responsible for greater than 200,000 human deaths per annum. Objective high-throughput screens for detecting novel anti-schistosomal targets will drive 'genome to drug' lead translational science at an unprecedented rate. Current methods for detecting schistosome viability rely on qualitative microscopic criteria, which require an understanding of parasite morphology, and most importantly, must be subjectively interpreted. These limitations, in the current state of the art, have significantly impeded progress into whole schistosome screening for next generation chemotherapies.We present here a microtiter plate-based method for reproducibly detecting schistosomula viability that takes advantage of the differential uptake of fluorophores (propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate by living organisms. We validate this high-throughput system in detecting schistosomula viability using auranofin (a known inhibitor of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, praziquantel and a range of small compounds with previously-described (gambogic acid, sodium salinomycin, ethinyl estradiol, fluoxetidine hydrochloride, miconazole nitrate, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, amphotericin b, niclosamide or suggested (bepridil, ciclopirox, rescinnamine, flucytosine, vinblastine and carbidopa anti-schistosomal activities. This developed method is sensitive (200 schistosomula/well can be assayed, relevant to industrial (384-well microtiter plate compatibility and academic (96-well microtiter plate compatibility settings, translatable to functional genomics screens and drug assays, does not require a priori knowledge of schistosome biology and is quantitative.The wide-scale application of this fluorescence-based bioassay will greatly accelerate the objective identification of novel therapeutic lead targets/compounds to combat schistosomiasis. Adapting this bioassay for use with other parasitic worm species

  17. Sphingosine kinase activity is not required for tumor cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rex

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology.

  18. Effect of storage temperature on Streptococcus mutans viability

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    Ana Lídia Soares COTA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Proper storage conditions and maintenance of viable biological material plays an important role in microbiological research, allowing for the opportunity to conduct future studies. Objective To evaluate the viability of Streptococcus mutans strains that were previously grown and stored under different temperatures for approximately eight years. Material and method In this study, we evaluated 393 bacterial isolates that were stored in a freezer at -80°C (G1 and 200 isolates stored in a freezer at -20°C (G2. Aliquots of each sample were plated on blood agar and mitis-salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar-solidified medium. After incubating under microaerophilic conditions in an incubator at 37°C for 72 hours, the presence, morphology and purity of bacterial growth was observed. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Result Microbial viability was observed in almost all samples (99.7% in G1, whereas all isolates stored at -20°C were considered inviable. Conclusion The viability of S. mutans is influenced by the storage temperature of the samples, and the strains remain viable when stored under ideal temperature conditions (-80°C, even when stored for a long period of time.

  19. Ca-Lignosulphonate and sclerotial viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    MATTEO MONTANARI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignosulphonates, low cost by-products of the pulping process, have shown suppressive effects against some diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of 1.5% v/v calcium lignosulphonate (Ca-Ls amendment to two commercial potting mixes (peat + coconut fibres; PC; and municipal compost + peat + pumice; MCPP on the viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia was investigated. Sclerotia were buried in the Ca-Ls amended substrates for 30 days. Non-amended PC and MCPP, sterile sand and sterile PC with and without Ca-Ls were used as controls. The viability of sclerotia recovered from PC and MCPP amended with Ca-Ls was reduced by 50 and 42% respectively compared to control treatments. Ca-Ls amendment decreased sclerotial viability by enhancing the activity of the indigenous mycoparasitic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor spp. and Trichoderma spp. The biocontrol ability of Ca-Ls against sclerotia was due to the stimulation of microbial activity and is, therefore, strictly dependent on the microbial composition of the substrate.

  20. Turnover of Glycerolipid Metabolite Pool and Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydration–dehydration cycles can frequently cause stress to seeds, but can also be used to improve germination. However, the molecular basis of the stress caused is poorly understood. Herein, we examine the effects of hydration–dehydration cycles on seed viability and profile the membrane glycerolipid molecular species. We find that seed viability was not affected during the first two cycles, but significantly decreased as further cycles were applied, until all viability was lost. The abundances of seven glycerolipid classes increased and decreased through hydration and dehydration, respectively, but the phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol abundances changed in the opposite sense, while total glycerolipid contents remained constant. This suggests that during hydration–dehydration cycles, turnover of glycerolipid metabolite pools take place, while no significant lipid synthesis or degradation is involved. As further hydration–dehydration cycles occurred, lipid unsaturation increased, plastidic lipids decreased, and phosphatidylserine acyl chains lengthened. The latter two could be lethal for seeds. Our findings reveal a novel model of membrane lipid changes, and provide new insights into the responses of seeds to hydration–dehydration cycles.