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Sample records for vi detector system

  1. Radiation effects on II-VI compound-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallini, A; Dusi, W; Auricchio, N; Chirco, P; Zanarini, M; Siffert, P; Fougeres, P

    2002-01-01

    The performance of room temperature CdTe and CdZnTe detectors exposed to a radiation source can be strongly altered by the interaction of the ionizing particles and the material. Up to now, few experimental data are available on the response of II-VI compound detectors to different types of radiation sources. We have carried out a thorough investigation on the effects of gamma-rays, neutrons and electron irradiation both on CdTe : Cl and Cd sub 0 sub . sub 9 Zn sub 0 sub . sub 1 Te detectors. We have studied the detector response after radiation exposure by means of dark current measurements and of quantitative spectroscopic analyses at low and medium energies. The deep traps present in the material have been characterized by means of PICTS (photo-induced current transient spectroscopy) analyses, which allow to determine the trap apparent activation energy and capture cross-section. The evolution of the trap parameters with increasing irradiation doses has been monitored for all the different types of radiati...

  2. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  3. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  4. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  5. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  6. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  7. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  8. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  9. Seal system with integral detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiarman, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  10. Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Abderrahman; Lossi, Nadine S.; Hamilton, Alexander; Jones, Cerith; Bleves, Sophie; Albesa-Jové, David; Filloux, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Such infections are associated with an active type VI secretion system (T6SS), which consists of about 15 conserved components, including the AAA+ ATPase, ClpV. The T6SS secretes two categories of proteins, VgrG and Hcp. Hcp is structurally similar to a phage tail tube component, whereas VgrG proteins show similarity to the puncturing device at the tip of the phage tube. In P. aeruginosa, three T6SSs are known. The expression of H1-T6SS genes is controlled by the RetS sensor. Here, 10 vgrG genes were identified in the PAO1 genome, among which three are co-regulated with H1-T6SS, namely vgrG1a/b/c. Whereas VgrG1a and VgrG1c were secreted in a ClpV1-dependent manner, secretion of VgrG1b was ClpV1-independent. We show that VgrG1a and VgrG1c form multimers, which confirmed the VgrG model predicting trimers similar to the tail spike. We demonstrate that Hcp1 secretion requires either VgrG1a or VgrG1c, which may act independently to puncture the bacterial envelope and give Hcp1 access to the surface. VgrG1b is not required for Hcp1 secretion. Thus, VgrG1b does not require H1-T6SS for secretion nor does H1-T6SS require VgrG1b for its function. Finally, we show that VgrG proteins are required for secretion of a genuine H1-T6SS substrate, Tse3. Our results demonstrate that VgrG proteins are not only secreted components but are essential for secretion of other T6SS substrates. Overall, we emphasize variability in behavior of three P. aeruginosa VgrGs, suggesting that, although very similar, distinct VgrGs achieve specific functions. PMID:21325275

  11. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  12. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  13. ATLAS Pixel Detector System Test

    CERN Document Server

    Triplett, N

    2007-01-01

    On June 25th of 2007 the ATLAS collaboration lowered the pixel detector into place, however before this the detector had to be qualified through a series of tests. Prior to assembly, each individual piece of the detector and services chain passed a set of quality controls. This was followed by the construction and test of the whole pixel detector. This test of the full chain of services -including the voltage supplies, opto-boards, cooling, temperature monitoring, control software, and the pixel modules themselves- is referred to as the Pixel System Test. The System Test took place in an above-ground laboratory setting at CERN and consisted of two main parts. The first half of the test focused on one of the pixel detector’s endcaps. This endcap consists of 144 modules, making up roughly 10% of the total pixel detector. For the pixel endcap test, most of the 144 modules were operated simultaneously which required that the pixel endcap’s cooling system be functioning as well[1]. Additionally, four scintilla...

  14. The ATLAS Detector Safety System

    CERN Multimedia

    Helfried Burckhart; Kathy Pommes; Heidi Sandaker

    The ATLAS Detector Safety System (DSS) has the mandate to put the detector in a safe state in case an abnormal situation arises which could be potentially dangerous for the detector. It covers the CERN alarm severity levels 1 and 2, which address serious risks for the equipment. The highest level 3, which also includes danger for persons, is the responsibility of the CERN-wide system CSAM, which always triggers an intervention by the CERN fire brigade. DSS works independently from and hence complements the Detector Control System, which is the tool to operate the experiment. The DSS is organized in a Front- End (FE), which fulfills autonomously the safety functions and a Back-End (BE) for interaction and configuration. The overall layout is shown in the picture below. ATLAS DSS configuration The FE implementation is based on a redundant Programmable Logical Crate (PLC) system which is used also in industry for such safety applications. Each of the two PLCs alone, one located underground and one at the s...

  15. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R

    2012-01-01

    A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

  16. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  17. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2011-01-01

    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

  18. The Tilecal/ATLAS detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasio Pina, João Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Tilecal is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector that is presently being built at CERN to operate at the LHC accelerator. The main task of the Tilecal detector control system (DCS) is to enable the coherent and safe operation of the detector. All actions initiated by the operator and all errors, warnings, and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector are handled by DCS. The DCS has to continuously monitor all operational parameters, give warnings and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector. The DCS architecture consists of a distributed back-end (BE) system running on PC's and different front-end (FE) systems. The implementation of the BE will he achieved with a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) and the FE instrumentation will consist on a wide variety of equipment. The connection between the FE and BE is provided by fieldbus or L

  19. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  20. The ternary system U(VI) / humic acid / Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Claudia

    2013-07-23

    , where the geochemical interaction with uranium contaminated water plays a role. Concerning the suitability of Opalinus Clay as host rock for a nuclear waste repository, it can be concluded, that Opalinus Clay has a relatively high retardation potential for U(VI). In case of water ingress U(VI) as part of the nuclear waste is released into the clay formation. Under near-neutral pH conditions, it will be complexed by calcium and carbonate ions leached out from Opalinus Clay, whereby Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) is formed. This complex is only weakly retarded by sorption onto the clay, which can contribute to an enhanced mobility of U(VI) in the host rock. However, the U(VI) migration through the clay rock is governed by molecular diffusion. This decelerates the migration of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) through Opalinus Clay and thus it represents the decisive retardation process in the investigated system.

  1. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CONICET, Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina); Contreras, Edgardo M. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CONICET, Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: econtrer@quimica.unlp.edu.ar; Zaritzky, Noemi E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CONICET, Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, UNLP. 47 y 1 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2.

  2. Fluid systems for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2005-01-01

    The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.

  3. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  4. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Zbijewski, W; Gang, G; Stayman, J W; Taguchi, K; Lundqvist, M; Fredenberg, E; Carrino, J A; Siewerdsen, J H

    2014-10-01

    Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1-7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of

  6. Spin Physics with the PHENIX Detector System

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, N.; Collaboration, for the PHENIX

    1998-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has extended its scope to cover spin physics using polarized proton beams. The major goals of the spin physics at RHIC are elucidation of the spin structure of the nucleon and precision tests of the symmetries. Sensitivities of the spin physics measurements with the PHENIX detector system are reviewed.

  7. System qualification of Digital Detector Array (DDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeredo, Soraia R.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graducao em Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDAs) should be characterized to establish the operating conditions of the system prior to perform a NDT (Nondestructive Testing). The image quality in digital radiography depends on the exposure conditions and the properties of the digital detectors. Quantitative definitions of DDA characterization parameters are important to discussions about achieved image quality of a particular type of DDA and also contribute to quantitative comparison of DDAs so that an appropriate digital detector is selected to meet NDT requirements. Evaluations of DDA factors were performed as defined by the standard practice for manufacturing characterization of DDAs, ASTM E2597-07. The evaluations provided quantitative results of some characteristic parameters. The factors evaluated were: basic spatial resolution, achievable contrast sensitivity, specific material thickness range and image lag. The results of measurements of characterization parameters are presented and related with the definitions in ASTM E2597-07. (author)

  8. A simple Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system for rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidative degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanan; Yang, Shaojie [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China); Zhou, Danna, E-mail: zdncug@163.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Feng [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of organic pollutants occur. • Oxysulfur radicals generated in Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system oxidize the organic pollutants. • Acidic pH facilitates the reactions from both directions of reduction and oxidation. • Degradation potential of aromatic amines depends on the substituted groups. • Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system is promising for “waste control by waste”. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a heavy-metal contaminant, can be easily reduced to less toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by sulfite ions (S(IV)). However, S(IV) has not drawn as much attention as the ferrous ion has. We report herein a novel Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system containing sulfite ions that rapidly and simultaneously reduces Cr(VI) and oxidize organic pollutants in the presence of oxygen in aqueous solutions. This Cr(VI)–S(IV)-O{sub 2} system contains the initiator Cr(VI), the reductant S(IV), and the oxidant O{sub 2}, which produce oxysulfur radicals (mainly SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and SO{sub 5}·{sup −}) and hydroxyl radicals (OH·). The Cr(VI)/S(IV) molar ratio, pH, and oxygen content play important roles in the entire reaction system. Acidic conditions (pH 3.0) facilitated degradation of organic compounds and reduction of Cr(VI) as well. In addition, experiments of rapid degradation of several kinds of organic pollutants such as azo dye (acid orange 7, AO7), aniline, phenol, bisphenol A etc were also conducted. Preliminary results show that the removal rates of the analogs of phenols or aromatic amines in this Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system have a relationship with the electronic parameters (Hammett constant, σ) of the substituted groups. Thus, the Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system, provides an excellent strategy of “waste control by waste” for removing multiple industrial contaminants.

  9. Identification of a Functional Type VI Secretion System in Campylobacter jejuni Conferring Capsule Polysaccharide Sensitive Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M.C.; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses rev...

  10. The ALICE silicon strip detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijer, P

    2000-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

  11. The ATLAS/TILECAL Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Tilecal, the barrel hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS, is a sampling calorimeter where scintillating tiles are embedded in an iron matrix. The tiles are optically coupled to wavelength shifting fibers that carry the optical signal to photo-multipliers. It has a cylindrical shape and is made out of 3 cylinders, the Long Barrel with the LBA and LBC partitions, and the two Extended Barrel with the EBA and EBC partitions. The main task of the Tile calorimeter Detector Control System (DCS) is to enable the coherent and safe operation of the calorimeter. All actions initiated by the operator, as well as all errors, warnings and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector are handled by DCS. The Tile calorimeter DCS controls and monitors mainly the low voltage and high voltage power supply systems, but it is also interfaced with the infrastructure (cooling system and racks), the laser and cesium calibration systems, the data acquisition system, configuration and conditions databases and the detector safety system. In...

  12. Performance of the St. George Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Luis; Kalkal, Sunil; Jung, Hyo Soon; Seymour, Chris; Gilardy, Gwenaelle; Moran, Mike; Meisel, Zachary; Hinnefeld, Jerry; Couder, Manoel

    2016-09-01

    The St. George recoil mass separator at the University of Notre Dame will be used to study (α , γ) reactions of astrophysical interest. A detection system was developed for the St. George recoil mass separator, in collaboration with Indiana University South Bend, that will utilize energy and time-of-flight to separate reaction products from residual unreacted beam particles. The detection system uses two microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, perpendicular electric and magnetic field are used to bend secondary electrons from the surface of a parylene backed carbon foil to register timing measurements, and a silicon strip detector is used to measure the ion's kinetic energy. The performance of the detection system will be presented. NSF Grant (PHY-0959816 & PHY-1062819).

  13. Wafer-scale pixelated detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Zimmerman, Tom

    2017-10-17

    A large area, gapless, detection system comprises at least one sensor; an interposer operably connected to the at least one sensor; and at least one application specific integrated circuit operably connected to the sensor via the interposer wherein the detection system provides high dynamic range while maintaining small pixel area and low power dissipation. Thereby the invention provides methods and systems for a wafer-scale gapless and seamless detector systems with small pixels, which have both high dynamic range and low power dissipation.

  14. Status of the CMS Detector Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Gerry; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) is responsible for ensuring the safe, correct and efficient operation of the experiment, and has contributed to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC operational mode. CMS sub-detectors bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. An operator provided with a small set of screens supervises the system status summarized from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency by minimizing the time required by sub-detectors to prepare for physics data taking. From the infrastructure point of view the DCS will be subject to extensive modifications in 2012. The current rack mounted control PCs will be replaced by a redundant pair of DELL Blade systems. These blade servers are a high-density modular solution that incorporates servers and networking into a single chassis that provides shared power, cooling and management. This infrastructure modification associated with the migration to blade servers will challenge the DCS software and hardware factorization capabilities. The on-going studies for this migration together with the latest modifications are discussed in the paper.

  15. Status of the CMS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bouffet, Olivier; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Jose Antonio Coarasa; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Yi Ling Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Andrei Cristian Spataru; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient experiment operation, contributing to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC operational mode. CMS sub-detectors' bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. An operator provided with a small set of screens supervises the system status summarized from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency by minimizing the time required by sub detectors to prepare for physics data taking. From the infrastructure point of view the DCS will be subject to extensive modifications in 2012. The current rack mounted control PCs will be exchanged by a redundant pair of DELL Blade systems. Thes...

  16. Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

  17. Position Ring System using Anger Type Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel S. Karp, principal investigator

    2004-12-14

    The overall objective of our project was to develop PET scanners and imaging techniques that achieve high performance and excellent image quality. Our approach was based upon 3-D imaging (no septa) with position-sensitive Anger-logic detectors, whereby the encoding ratio of resolution elements to number of photo-multiplier tube channels is very high. This design led to a series of PET systems that emphasized cost-effectiveness and practicality in a clinical environment.

  18. The Compact Muon Solenoid Detector Control System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient experiment operation, contributing to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC changes. CMS sub-detector’s bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. A protection mechanism ensures that the sub-detectors are locked in a safe mode whenever a potentially dangerous situation exists. The system is supervised from the experiment control room by a single operator. A small set of screens summarizes the status of the detector from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency. The automation allows now for configuration commands that can be used to automatically pre-configure hardwar...

  19. Detector Control System for the AFP detector in ATLAS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211068; The ATLAS collaboration; Caforio, Davide; Czekierda, Sabina; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Sicho, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector consists of two forward detectors located at 205 m and 217 m on either side of the ATLAS experiment. The aim is to measure the momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. In 2016, two detector stations on one side of the ATLAS interaction point were installed and commissioned. The detector infrastructure and necessary services were installed and are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS), which is responsible for the coherent and safe operation of the detector. A large variety of used equipment represents a considerable challenge for the AFP DCS design. Industrial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) product Siemens WinCCOA, together with the CERN Joint Control Project (JCOP) framework and standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading, processing, monitoring and archiving of the detector parameters. Graphical user interfaces allow for overall detector operation and visualization of the det...

  20. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  1. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  2. Status of the CMS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Cristian Spataru, Andrei; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) is responsible for ensuring the safe, correct and efficient operation of the experiment, and has contributed to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC operational mode. CMS sub-detectors’ bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. An operator provided with a small set of screens supervises the system status summarized from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency by minimizing the time required by sub-detectors to prepare for physics data taking. From the infrastructure point of view the DCS will be subject to extensive modifications in 2012. The current rack mounted control PCs will be replaced by a redundant pair of DELL Blade systems. These blade servers are a high-density modular solution that incorporates servers and networking into a single chassis that provides shared power, cooling and management. This infrastructure modification associated with the migration to blade servers will challenge the DCS software and hardware factorization capabilities. The on-going studies for this migration together with the latest modifications are discussed in the paper.

  3. Empirical Study of the Disparity in Radiation Tolerance of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime Between II-VI and III-V MWIR Detector Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Geoffrey D.; Morath, Christian P.; Cowan, Vincent M.

    2017-09-01

    The degradation of the minority-carrier recombination lifetime of various III-V nB n and II-VI HgCdTe midwave-infrared space detector materials under stepwise 63-MeV proton irradiation up to fluence of 7.5 × 1011 cm-2 and above has been measured using time-resolved photoluminescence while samples were held at 120 K to limit thermal annealing. As expected, the recombination rate of each sample was found to increase with proton fluence at a nearly constant rate, implying a near-linear increase in defect concentration. The rate of change of the carrier recombination rate, herein called the minority-carrier lifetime damage factor, was then plotted as a function of the initial recombination rate for each sample. Juxtaposing the III-V and II-VI results revealed a distinct disparity, with the incumbent detector material HgCdTe being roughly an order of magnitude more radiation tolerant to displacement damage from proton irradiation than any of the nB n materials. The results for the latter also suggest some degree of interrelation between the damage factor and initial lifetime. The behavior of the lifetime of each material under annealing revealed that HgCdTe exhibited nearly 100% recovery at 295 K whereas III-V materials recovered to only about 50% under the same conditions.

  4. The effects of chromium(VI) on the thioredoxin system: Implications for redox regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are highly redox active and have long been recognized as potent cytotoxins and carcinogens. The intracellular reduction of Cr(VI) generates reactive Cr intermediates, which are themselves strong oxidants, as well as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical. These probably contribute to the oxidative damage and effects on redox-sensitive transcription factors that have been reported. However, the identification of events that initiate these signaling changes has been elusive. More recent studies show that Cr(VI) causes irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and oxidation of thioredoxin (Trx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx). Mitochondrial Trx2/Prx3 are more sensitive to Cr(VI) treatment than cytosolic Trx1/Prx1, although both compartments show thiol oxidation with higher doses or longer treatments. Thiol redox proteomics demonstrate that Trx2, Prx3, and Trx1 are among the most sensitive proteins in cells to Cr(VI) treatment. Their oxidation could therefore represent initiating events that have widespread implications for protein thiol redox control and for multiple aspects of redox signaling. This review summarizes the effects of Cr(VI) on the TrxR/Trx system and how these events could influence a number of downstream redox signaling systems that are influenced by Cr(VI) exposure. Some of the signaling events discussed include the activation of apoptosis signal regulating kinase and MAP kinases (p38 and JNK) and the modulation of a number of redox-sensitive transcription factors including AP-1, NF-κB, p53, and Nrf2. PMID:22542445

  5. The Evaporative Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aitree, D; Anderssen, E C; Akhnazarov, V; Apsimon, R J; Barclay, P; Batchelor, L E; Bates, R L; Battistin, M; Bendotti, J; Berry, S; Bitadze, A; Bizzel, J P; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Butterworth, J M; Butterworth, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Catinaccio, A; Corbaz, F; Danielsson, H O; Danilevich, E; Dixon, N; Dixon, S D; Doherty, F; Dorholt, O; Doubrava, M; Egorov, I; Egorov, K; Einsweiler, K; Falou, A C; Feraudet, P; Ferrari, P; Fowler, K; Fraser, J T; French, R S; Galuska, M; Gannaway, F; Gariano, G; Gibson, M D; Gilchriese, M G D; Giugni, D; Godlewski, J; Gousakov, I; Górski, B; Hallewell, G D; Hartman, N; Hawkings, R J; Haywood, S J; Hessey, N P; Infante, S; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; Kaplon, J; Katunin, S; Lindsay, S; Luisa, L; Massol, N; McEwan, F; McMahon, S J; Menot, C; Mistry, J; Morris, J; Muskett, D M; Nagai, K; Nichols, A; Nicholson, R; Nickerson, R B; Nielsen, S L; Nordahl, P E; Olcese, M; Parodi, M; Pérez-Gómez, F; Pernegger, H; Perrin, E; Rossi, L P; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Smith, A; Sopko, V; Stapnes, S; Stodulski, M; Tarrant, J; Thadome, J; Tovey, D; Turala, M; Tyndel, M; Vacek, V; van der Kraaij, E; Viehhauser, G H A; Vigeolas, E; Wells, P S; Wenig, S; Werneke, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components are addressed. Finally results of initial operational tests are reported. Although the entire system described, the paper focuses on the on-detector aspects. Details of the evaporative cooling plant will be discussed elsewhere.

  6. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Lorenzo; Shah, S Y; Stringer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Detector Control System is a distributed software which ensures the safe and coherent operation of the detector, by controlling approximate to 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and by monitoring-more than 1000 environmental sensors. In this paper we first present the architecture of the control system and the characteristics of the controlled hardware, then we discuss some general strategies adopted in the implementation. We propose a method to give an effective representation for the state of a large but homogeneous system, stressing the necessity to provide the user with some quantitative information and presenting an effective algorithm to keep this information updated in real time. We also present the advantages of a new approach for the automatic analysis and recovery from error conditions via a wizard that relieves the experts from unnecessary and time-wasting work. The tracker was chosen as a use-case in a framework for automatic 3D GUI prototyping: some prelimin...

  7. Experiment Management System for the SND Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, K.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new experiment management system for the SND detector at the VEPP-2000 collider (Novosibirsk). An important part to report about is access to experimental databases (configuration, conditions and metadata). The system is designed in client-server architecture. User interaction comes true using web-interface. The server side includes several logical layers: user interface templates; template variables description and initialization; implementation details. The templates are meant to involve as less IT knowledge as possible. Experiment configuration, conditions and metadata are stored in a database. To implement the server side Node.js, a modern JavaScript framework, has been chosen. A new template engine having an interesting feature is designed. A part of the system is put into production. It includes templates dealing with showing and editing first level trigger configuration and equipment configuration and also showing experiment metadata and experiment conditions data index.

  8. Detector Control System for the AFP detector in ATLAS experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, E.; Caforio, D.; Czekierda, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Seabra, L.; Šícho, P.

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector consists of two forward detectors located at 205 m and 217 m on either side of the ATLAS experiment. The aim is to measure the momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. In 2016, two detector stations on one side of the ATLAS interaction point were installed and commissioned. The detector infrastructure and necessary services were installed and are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS), which is responsible for the coherent and safe operation of the detector. A large variety of used equipment represents a considerable challenge for the AFP DCS design. Industrial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) product Siemens WinCCOA, together with the CERN Joint Control Project (JCOP) framework and standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading, processing, monitoring and archiving of the detector parameters. Graphical user interfaces allow for overall detector operation and visualization of the detector status. Parameters, important for the detector safety, are used for alert generation and interlock mechanisms.

  9. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. The Detector Control System for ALICE Architecture and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, Detlef

    1999-01-01

    Presentation made at LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999The Alice experiment will include more than 10 individual detectors of different technologies and with specific operating conditions. The instrumentation required to run and control the operation of each sub-detector will include commercial and custom hardware of various standards. The detector control system (DCS) for the ALICE experiment will allow a hierarchical consolidation of the participating systems to obtain a fully integrated detector operation. This goal will be achieved by clearly defined interfaces between system layers. In addition, sub-detectors will continue to be able to access their equipment independently from other sub-detectors for maintenance, upgrading and debugging. The architecture will, therefore, be based on partitioning into self-contained sub-systems, which can be separately developed, maintained and operated. Horizontal communication between sub-systems will consequently be avoided. The DCS will use, where possib...

  11. Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa SECRETION AND MULTIMERIZATION OF VgrG PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hachani, Abderrahman; Lossi, Nadine S.; Hamilton, Alexander; Jones, Cerith; Bleves, Sophie; Albesa-Jove, David; Filloux, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Such infections are associated with an active type VI secretion system (T6SS), which consists of about 15 conserved components, including the AAA(+) ATPase, ClpV. The T6SS secretes two

  12. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; van Alphen, Lieke B; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, MM; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to

  13. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  14. Detector control system for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mato, P

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.1

  15. One-way ViSP (Visually Servoed Paired structured light system) for structural displacement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Myeong, W.; Myung, H.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, the evaluation of structural safety and serviceability is becoming more essential due to the deterioration of civil infrastructures. In particular, the structural displacement which provides important information on structural conditions is considered one of the important indicators for the health monitoring of structures. To estimate the structural displacement, this paper proposes a one-way projection-type six degree-of-freedom (DOF) displacement measurement system based on vision and laser sensors, named one-way ViSP (Visually Servoed Paired structured light system). The system is composed of a transmitter and a receiver, which are facing to each other. The transmitter consists of a 1D laser range finder, two lasers, and a 2-DOF manipulator, while the receiver consists of a screen and a camera. The one-way ViSP estimates relative displacements between a transmitter and receiver by measuring the coordinates of three projected beam spots and a distance. Besides the advantages such as high accuracy in 6-DOF displacement measurement, low cost, and real-time monitoring possibilities, the one-way ViSP can cover large areas such as dams and inclined planes by using multiple receivers. Through various simulations and experiments, it is shown that the one-way ViSP has high accuracy in 6-DOF displacement estimation.

  16. Novel Data Acquisition System for Silicon Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wendland, L A; Czellar, S; Heikkinen, A M; Harkeronen, J; Johansson, P; Karimäki, V; Lampen, T; Luukka, Panja; Mehtälä, P; Niku, J; Nummela, S; Nysten, J; Simpura, J; Tuovinen, E; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Vaarala, T; Voutilainen, M; Zibellini, A

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel data acquisition system for measuring tracking parameters of a silicon detector in a particle beam. The system is based on a commercial Analog-to-Digital VME module and a PC Linux based Data Acquisition System. This DAQ is realized with C++ code using object-oriented techniques. Track parameters for the beam particles were reconstructed using off-line analysis code and automatic detector position alignment algorithm. The new DAQ was used to test novel Czochralski type silicon detectors. The important silicon detector parameters, including signal size distributions and signal to noise distributions, were successfully extracted from the detector under study. The efficiency of the detector was measured to be 95%, the resolution about 10\\mu m, and the signal to noise ratio about 10.

  17. Development of the detector control system for the COMPASS detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schuhegger, C; Paul, S

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the implementation of system control software for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. This work concentrates on the GEM and silicon detectors, but it also includes parts that are generally useful for all kinds of detectors. The only prerequisites were the PVSS II SCADA-system and the JCOP PVSS framework distributed by ITCO at CERN. To achieve the given aims there was work to do both on a C++ framework called SLiC for hardware access and on top of the JCOP framework to customise it for the special needs of the GEM and silicon detectors.

  18. Detector and readout systems for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenshaw, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Some of the challenges of experimentation at the International Linear Collider (ILC) are discussed and the different detector concepts designed to cope with those challenges presented. These different concepts lead to various alternative technologies for the major ILC detector components, some of which are briefly presented.

  19. Development of technical information processing system(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Hoh; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Kwang; Chung, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This project is to establish high-quality information circulation system by developing serials-control system to improve serials management from ordering to distributing and availability on R and D and to advance in quality of information service needed in R and D by fast retrieval and providing of research information with CD-Net. The results of the project are as follows. 1. Serials management process which covers from ordering to distributing have higher efficiency by development of subscription information system. 2. Systematic control on each issue of serials is achieved by development of serials checking system. 3. It is possible to provide vol. and no. information of issue received currently to researchers promptly by improvement of serials holding information system. 4. Retrieval of research information contained in various CD-ROM DB throughout KAERI-NET is possible by research on construction methods of CD-Net. 2 figs, 25 refs. (Author).

  20. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Skinnari, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    To reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in the LHC collisions, the ATLAS detector is equipped with an inner tracking system built using two different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixels and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. Together they constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector, which is embedded in a 2 T solenoid field. An alignment of the inner tracking system, accurately determining the position and orientations of individual detector modules, is necessary for achieving required performance. The ATLAS Inner Detector has been aligned using isolated, high-pT collision tracks, and using cosmic-ray tracks collected between LHC proton-proton collisions. These proceedings present the alignment procedure, its results, and performance with LHC collision data during 2011. Results from real data are compared with Monte Carlo simulation of a perfectly aligned detector.

  1. The detector safety system for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schmeling, Sascha; Lüders, S; Morpurgo, Giulio

    2004-01-01

    The Detector Safety System (DSS), currently being developed at CERN under the auspices of the Joint Controls Project (JCOP), will be responsible for assuring the protection of equipment for the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC)**1 experiments. Thus, the DSS will require a high degree of both availability and reliability. After evaluation of various possible solutions, a prototype is being built based on a redundant Siemens PLC**2 front-end, to which the safety- critical part of the DSS task is delegated. This is then supervised by a PVSS**3 SCADA**4 system via an OPC**5 server. The PLC front-end is capable of running autonomously and of automatically taking predefined protective actions whenever required. The supervisory layer provides the operator with a status display and with limited online reconfiguration capabilities. Configuration of the code running in the PLCs will be completely data driven via the contents of a "configuration database." Thus, the DSS can easily adapt to the different and constantly ev...

  2. An XML generic detector description system and geometry editor for the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, L; Meyer, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a system which was developed to describe the ATLAS muon spectrometer, which is based on a generic XML detector description system (ATLAS Generic Detector Description, AGDD), on the PERSINT visualization program and on a series of parsers, respectively converters which build a generic, transient geometry model and translate it into commonly used geometry descriptions like Geant4, the ATLAS GeoModel, ROOT TGeo or others. The presented system permits an easy, self descriptive approach to the detector description problem, intuitive visualization and rapid turn-around, since the results of the description process can be immediately fed into e.g. a Geant4 simulation for rapid prototyping. Examples of the current usage for the ATLAS detector description will be given and further developments needed to meet future requirements will be discussed.

  3. Circumplex model of marital and family systems: VI. Theoretical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D H; Russell, C S; Sprenkle, D H

    1983-03-01

    This paper updates the theoretical work on the Circumplex Model and provides revised and new hypotheses. Similarities and contrasts to the Beavers Systems Model are made along with comments regarding Beavers and Voeller's critique. FACES II, a newly revised assessment tool, provides both "perceived" and "ideal" family assessment that is useful empirically and clinically.

  4. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov,; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech.

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  5. The ternary system U(VI) / humic acid / Opalinus Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is discussed worldwide as the main strategy for nuclear waste management. To ensure the confinement of the nuclear waste, a multiple barrier system which consists of engineered, geo-engineered, and geological barriers will be applied. Thereby, in Germany the definition of the isolating rock zone represents an important safety function indicator. Clay rock is internationally investigated as potential host rock for a repository and repr...

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  7. ATLAS Detector Control System Data Viewer

    CERN Document Server

    Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Roe, S; Bitenc, U; Fehling-Kaschek, ML; Winkelmann, S; D’Auria, S; Hoffmann, D; Pisano, O

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is one of the four Large Hadron Collider experiments. DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is a web interface application that provides access to historical data of ATLAS Detector Control System [1] (DCS) parameters written to the database (DB). It has a modular andflexible design and is structured using a clientserver architecture. The server can be operated stand alone with a command-line interface to the data while the client offers a user friendly, browser independent interface. The selection of the metadata of DCS parameters is done via a column-tree view or with a powerful search engine. The final visualisation of the data is done using various plugins such as “value over time” charts, data tables, raw ASCII or structured export to ROOT. Excessive access or malicious use of the database is prevented by dedicated protection mechanisms, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of inexperienced users. The metadata selection and data output features can be used separately by XML con...

  8. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bo, E-mail: bjiang86upc@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wang, Zhaohui [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • The formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, involve in Cr(VI) reduction induced by S(IV). • Affinity of polycarboxylate to Cr(VI) accelerates Cr(VI) reduction rate. • Polycarboxylates can act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction retrenching S(IV). • Only oxalate can enhance the formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH· in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO{sub 6}{sup 2−} can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant.

  9. Memory systems for signal generating photoelectric image detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    Digital systems are discussed which have the capacity to handle the large amounts of information contained in a typical image. It was used with a high gain pulse counting television camera tube, with a silicon target image detector and an analog to digital converter between the detector and the memory.

  10. Detector Control System for CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon groupbuilt several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data.

  11. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An indigenously developed automatic liquid nitrogen (LN2) filling system has been installed in gamma detector array (GDA) facility at Nuclear Science Centre. Electro-pneumatic valves are used for filling the liquid nitrogen into the high purity germanium detector cryostat. The temperature of the out-flowing gas/liquid from ...

  12. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Bai, J. Z.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beavis, D.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. L.; Butorov, I.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, W. T.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, X. S.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chidzik, S.; Chow, K.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dong, L.; Dove, J.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fang, S. D.; Fu, J. Y.; Fu, Z. W.; Ge, L. Q.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gornushkin, Y. A.; Grassi, M.; Greenler, L. S.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hahn, R. L.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; He, W. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hinrichs, P.; Ho, T. H.; Hoff, M.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, P. W.; Huang, X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiang, W. Q.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joseph, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, C. Y.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. K. P.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, B.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, J.; Li, N. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. F.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. B.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, J.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. X.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, A.; Luk, K. B.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, L. H.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Mayes, B.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Nie, Y. B.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pagac, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Patton, S.; Pearson, C.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sands, W. R.; Seilhan, B.; Shao, B. B.; Shih, K.; Song, W. Y.; Steiner, H.; Stoler, P.; Stuart, M.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tagg, N.; Tam, Y. H.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tang, W.; Tang, X.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Torun, Y.; Trentalange, S.; Tsai, O.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X. T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Wenman, D. L.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Whitten, C. A.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. C.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, J.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, F. F.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xiang, S. T.; Xiao, Q.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Yip, K.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. X.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zimmerman, S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of νbare oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin2 2θ13 and the effective mass splitting Δ mee2. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrino mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors' baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This paper describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.

  13. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Skinnari, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in the LHC collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using two different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. Together they constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector, which is embedded in a 2 T solenoid field. In order to achieve required performance, an alignment of the ATLAS inner tracking system is required, to accurately determine the position and orientations of the detector modules. The ATLAS Inner Detector has been aligned using high pT, isolated collision tracks, and using cosmic-ray tracks collected between LHC proton-proton collisions. This poster presents the alignment procedure, its results, and performance with LHC collision data. Results from real data are compared with Monte Carlo simulation of a perfectly aligned detector.

  14. Enhanced Cr(VI) removal from groundwater by Fe0-H2O system with bio-amended iron corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Jiang, Gangbiao; Li, Ping; Gu, Jingjing; Liang, Hao; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-06-15

    A one-pot bio-iron system was established to investigate synergetic abiotic and biotic effects between iron and microorganisms on Cr(VI) removal. More diverse iron corrosion and reactive solids, such as green rusts, lepidocrocite and magnetite were found in the bio-iron system than in the Fe 0 -H 2 O system, leading to 4.3 times higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency in the bio-iron system than in the Fe 0 -H 2 O system. The cycling experiment also showed that the Cr(VI) removal capacity of Fe 0 in the bio-iron system was 12.4 times higher than that in the Fe 0 -H 2 O system. A 62days of life-span could be achieved in the bio-iron system, while the Fe 0 -H 2 O system lost its efficacy after 30days. Enhanced effects of extra Fe 2+ on Cr(VI) removal was observed, largely contributed to the adsorbed Fe 2+ on iron surface, which could function as an extra reductant for Cr(VI) and promote the electron transfer on the solid phase. The results also showed that the reduction of Cr(VI) by microorganisms was insignificant, indicating the adsorption/co-precipitation of Cr by iron oxides on iron surface was responsible for the overall Cr(VI) removal. Our study demonstrated that the bio-amended iron corrosion could improve the performance of Fe 0 for Cr(VI) removal from groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The tracking system of the AFP detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Dyndal, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    AFP is a project to extend the diffractive physics programme of the ATLAS experiment by installing new detectors that will be able to tag forward protons scattered at a very small angles. In this talk I will present the status of AFP silicon tracker development: sensor qualification, actual design of mechanics and Geant4 simulation results with integrated ATLAS forward region description.

  16. Transportation and kinetic analysis of Mo(VI) ions through a MDLM system containing TNOA as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, R; Durmaz, Ö; Cetişli, H

    2015-08-30

    In this report, Mo(VI) ions are transported from an aqueous donor phase into an aqueous acceptor phase by a newly designed method called as multi dropped liquid membrane (MDLM) system prepared by dissolving TNOA as carrier in kerosene. During the extraction of Mo(VI) ions by the liquid membrane system; 100ppm Mo(VI) solutions as donor phase, buffer solution(pH:9.5) and Na2CO3 in different concentrations as acceptor phase and TNOA diluted by kerosen as organic phase are used.In our experimental work, the effect of temperature by using buffer solution and Na2CO3 in the acceptor phase and effect of concentration of acceptor phase on the extraction of Mo(VI) ions were investigated. Appropriate conditions for Mo(VI) transportation were as follows: pH of donor phase is 2.00, concentration of TNOA is 0.005M, 1.00M Na2CO3 as acceptor phase, and flux rate is 50mL/min. Besides, Mo(VI) ion transportation is consecutive first order irreversible reaction and the transportation of Mo(VI) ions is diffusion controlled process. The kinetic parameters (k1, k2, Rm(max), tmax, Jd(max), Ja(max)) were calculated for the interface reactions assuming two consecutive, irreversible first-order reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ViSlang: A system for interpreted domain-specific languages for scientific visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Rautek, Peter

    2014-12-31

    Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang, an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization. A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in terms of run-time performance.

  18. The LHCb RICH system; detector description and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Two RICH detectors provide positive charged hadron identification in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. RICH 1 covers the full acceptance of the spectrometer and contains two radiators: aerogel and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. RICH 2 covers half the acceptance and uses CF{sub 4} as a Cherenkov radiator. Photon detection is performed by the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), with silicon pixel sensors and bump-bonded readout encapsulated in a vacuum tube for efficient, low-noise single photon detection. The LHCb RICH detectors form a complex system of three radiators, 120 mirrors and 484 photon detectors operating in the very challenging environment of the LHC. The high performance of the system in pion and kaon identification in the momentum range of 2–100 GeV/c is reached only after careful calibration of many parameters. Operational efficiency above 99% was achieved by a high level of automatization in the operation of the detectors, from switching-on to error recovery. The challenges of calibrating and operating such a system will be presented. - Highlights: • This paper describes the operation and calibration of the LHCb RICH detectors. • The scintillation of CF{sub 4} was successfully suppressed with CO{sub 2}. • The refractive index of the gas radiators was calibrated with data to an accuracy better than 0.1%. • The Hybrid Photons Detectors were calibrated for operation in a magnetic field without loss of resolution.

  19. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system for charged particles built on two technologies: silicon and drift tube base detectors. These kind of detectors compose the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The Alignment of the ATLAS ID tracking system requires the determination of almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point of view, the alignment parameters should be know to a few microns precision. This permits to attain optimal measurements of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus enabling ATLAS to achieve its physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framework and the data flow will be discussed. Special attention will be paid to the recent challenges where large scale computing simulation of the ATLAS detector has been performed, mimicking the ATLAS operation, which is going to be very important for the LHC startup scenario. The alignment result for several challenges (real cosmic ray data taking and computing system commissioning) will be also rep...

  20. Predictive modeling of infrared detectors and material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkie, Benjamin

    Detectors sensitive to thermal and reflected infrared radiation are widely used for night-vision, communications, thermography, and object tracking among other military, industrial, and commercial applications. System requirements for the next generation of ultra-high-performance infrared detectors call for increased functionality such as large formats (> 4K HD) with wide field-of-view, multispectral sensitivity, and on-chip processing. Due to the low yield of infrared material processing, the development of these next-generation technologies has become prohibitively costly and time consuming. In this work, it will be shown that physics-based numerical models can be applied to predictively simulate infrared detector arrays of current technological interest. The models can be used to a priori estimate detector characteristics, intelligently design detector architectures, and assist in the analysis and interpretation of existing systems. This dissertation develops a multi-scale simulation model which evaluates the physics of infrared systems from the atomic (material properties and electronic structure) to systems level (modulation transfer function, dense array effects). The framework is used to determine the electronic structure of several infrared materials, optimize the design of a two-color back-to-back HgCdTe photodiode, investigate a predicted failure mechanism for next-generation arrays, and predict the systems-level measurables of a number of detector architectures.

  1. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  2. Adaptive Multiuser Detectors for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jean Etienne Jeszensky

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This work makes a review of the main Adaptives Multi-user Detectors (MuD-Adpt for Direct Sequence - Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA systems. The MuD-Adpt based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE and Decorrelator (MuD-Dec are focused. Multi-user detectors show great resistance to the near-far effect and combat effectively the Multiple Access Interference (MAI. Comparative numeric results characterize the substantial performance improvement of those detectors in relation to the matched filter conventional receiver (Conv.

  3. Design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dally, Adam

    2013-04-01

    CUORE, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of ^130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0νββ decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. The detector requires ultra-low background radiation, vacuum compatible materials, and cryogenic temperatures. Individual energy calibration of the bolometers is achieved by placing radioactive sources between detectors inside the cryostat. A source deployment and thermalization system that meets the background and thermal requirements of the CUORE experiment has been developed. This talk will discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system.

  4. Aging and materials Lessons for detectors and gas systems

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M

    2003-01-01

    Aging of gaseous detectors is known as the degradation of their performance under the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a complex phenomenon that depends on many parameters. Among others, aging depends on the gas mixture and may be enhanced by the presence of pollutants in the gas. The origin of the impurities is diverse and includes outgassing from assembly materials, contamination of the detector during the assembly process and the gas system itself. Systematic studies on this topic have been carried out. The methods used to ascertain the outgassing properties of materials are described and compared. Materials that might be used for assembling gaseous detectors and associated gas systems are catalogued according to their outgassing rate. Some factors affecting the aging rate of some fast gases are presented. Finally, a set of recommendations to build and operate gaseous detectors in high-luminosity experiments is given.

  5. Enhanced Cr(VI) removal from groundwater by Fe0-H2O system with bio-amended iron corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Wu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A one-pot bio-iron system was established to investigate synergetic abiotic and biotic effects between iron and microorganisms on Cr(VI) removal. More diverse iron corrosion and reactive solids, such as green rusts, lepidocrocite and magnetite were found in the bio-iron system than...... in the Fe0-H2O system, leading to 4.3 times higher Cr(VI) removal efficiency in the bio-iron system than in the Fe0-H2O system. The cycling experiment also showed that the Cr(VI) removal capacity of Fe0 in the bio-iron system was 12.4 times higher than that in the Fe0-H2O system. A 62 days of life......-span could be achieved in the bio-iron system, while the Fe0-H2O system lost its efficacy after 30 days. Enhanced effects of extra Fe2+ on Cr(VI) removal was observed, largely contributed to the adsorbed Fe2+ on iron surface, which could function as an extra reductant for Cr(VI) and promote the electron...

  6. Detector Control System of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Kersten, S; Lantzsch, K; Zeitnitz, C; Verlaat, B; Meroni, C; Citterio, M; Gensolen, F; Mättig, P; Kind, P

    2011-01-01

    To improve tracking robustness and precision of the ATLAS inner tracker, an additional, fourth pixel layer is foreseen, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It will be installed between the innermost present Pixel layer and a new, smaller beam pipe and is presently under construction. As, once installed into the experiment, no access is possible, a highly reliable control system is required. It has to supply the detector with all entities required for operation and protect it at all times. Design constraints are the high power density inside the detector volume, the sensitivity of the sensors against heat-ups, and the protection of the front end electronics against transients. We present the architecture of the control system with an emphasis on the CO2 cooling system, the power supply system, and protection strategies. As we aim for a common operation of Pixel and IBL detector, the integration of the IBL control system into the Pixel control system will also be discussed.

  7. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reducing agent: batch, spectroscopic and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Cetin; Ari, Cihan; Keskin, Selda; Dogaroglu, Zeynep Gorkem; Karadeniz, Aykut; Alten, Akin

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory batch and column experiments, in conjunction with geochemical calculations and spectroscopic analysis, were performed to better understand reaction mechanisms and kinetics associated with Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reactive material under both static and dynamic flow conditions similar to those observed in in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and geochemical calculations suggest that the Cr(VI) removal by pyrite occurred due to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), coupled with the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and S2(2-) to SO4(2-) at the pyrite surface. Zeta potential measurements indicate that although the pyrite surface was negatively charged under a wide pH range in the absence of Cr(VI), it behaved more like a "metal oxide" surface with the surface potential shifting from positive to negative values at pH values >pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). Batch experiments show that increasing solution pH led to a significant decrease in Cr(VI) removal. The decrease in Cr(VI) removal at high Cr(VI) concentrations and pH values can be explained through the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)(3(s)), Fe(OH)(3(s)) and Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy) hydroxides onto pyrite surface which may, then, lead to surface passivation for further Cr(VI) reduction. Batch results also suggest that the reaction kinetics follow a first order model with rate constants decreasing with increasing solution pH, indicating proton consumption during Cr(VI) reduction by pyrite. Column experiments indicate that nearly 100% of total Fe in the column effluent was in the form of Fe(II) species with a [SO4(2-)]/[Fe(2+)] stoichiometric ratio of 2.04, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) by pyrite produced about 2 mol of sulfate per mole of Fe (II) release under excess surface sites relative to Cr(VI) concentration. Column experiments provide further evidence on the accumulation of oxidation products which

  8. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reducing agent: Batch, spectroscopic and column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Cetin; Ari, Cihan; Keskin, Selda; Dogaroglu, Zeynep Gorkem; Karadeniz, Aykut; Alten, Akin

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory batch and column experiments, in conjunction with geochemical calculations and spectroscopic analysis, were performed to better understand reaction mechanisms and kinetics associated with Cr(VI) removal from aqueous systems using pyrite as the reactive material under both static and dynamic flow conditions similar to those observed in in situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and geochemical calculations suggest that the Cr(VI) removal by pyrite occurred due to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), coupled with the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and S22 - to SO42 - at the pyrite surface. Zeta potential measurements indicate that although the pyrite surface was negatively charged under a wide pH range in the absence of Cr(VI), it behaved more like a "metal oxide" surface with the surface potential shifting from positive to negative values at pH values > pH 6 in the presence of Cr(VI). Batch experiments show that increasing solution pH led to a significant decrease in Cr(VI) removal. The decrease in Cr(VI) removal at high Cr(VI) concentrations and pH values can be explained through the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)3(s), Fe(OH)3(s) and Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy) hydroxides onto pyrite surface which may, then, lead to surface passivation for further Cr(VI) reduction. Batch results also suggest that the reaction kinetics follow a first order model with rate constants decreasing with increasing solution pH, indicating proton consumption during Cr(VI) reduction by pyrite. Column experiments indicate that nearly 100% of total Fe in the column effluent was in the form of Fe(II) species with a [SO42 -]/[Fe2 +] stoichiometric ratio of 2.04, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) by pyrite produced about 2 mol of sulfate per mole of Fe (II) release under excess surface sites relative to Cr(VI) concentration. Column experiments provide further evidence on the accumulation of oxidation products which consequently led

  9. Photon counting detector for the personal radiography inspection system "SIBSCAN"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Leonov, V. V.; Oleynikov, V. P.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    X-ray detectors operating in the energy integrating mode are successfully used in many different applications. Nevertheless the direct photon counting detectors, having the superior parameters in comparison with the integrating ones, are rarely used yet. One of the reasons for this is the low value of the electrical signal generated by a detected photon. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based scintillation counters have a high detection efficiency, high electronic gain and compact dimensions. This makes them a very attractive candidate to replace routinely used detectors in many fields. More than 10 years ago the digital scanning radiography system based on multistrip ionization chamber (MIC) was suggested at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector demonstrates excellent radiation resistance and parameter stability after 5 year operations and an imaging of up to 1000 persons per day. Currently, the installations operate at several Russian airports and at subway stations in some cities. At the present time we design a new detector operating in the photon counting mode, having superior parameters than the gas one, based on scintillator - SiPM assemblies. This detector has close to zero noise, higher quantum efficiency and a count rate capability of more than 5 MHz per channel (20% losses), which leads to better image quality and improved detection capability. The suggested detector technology could be expanded to medical applications.

  10. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  11. Data acquisition system for the VENUS detector at TRISTAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amako, K.; Arai, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Teramoto, Y.; Uehara, S.; Yasu, Y.; Chiba, Y.; Endo, I.; Hayashibara, I.; Ohsugi, T.

    1988-11-01

    A data acquisition system for the VENUS detector at the TRISTAN electron-positron collider is presented. The whole system of the VENUS detector consists of nine different kinds of principal detectors, and the total number of electronics channels of the system reaches about 30 000. A FASTBUS system was introduced as the main data path and the TKO and the CAMAC standard have also been utilized for the frontened electronics. A FASTBUS interface to an on-line computer (VAX11/780), simplex segment interconnect and many data acquisition modules were developed. Most of the data are analyzed in a VAX cluster system in real time. Data logging is done in a main frame computer (FACOM M382) by using an automatic loading cartridge tape subsystem.

  12. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Naimuddin, Md; Blazey, G; Boi, S; Dyshkant, A; Erdelyi, B; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Krider, J; Rukalin, V; Uzunyan, S A; Zutshi, V; Fordt, R; Sellberg, G; Rauch, J E; Roman, M; Rubinov, P; Wilson, P

    2015-01-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantageous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  13. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimuddin, Md. [Delhi U.; Coutrakon, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Blazey, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Boi, S. [Northern Illinois U.; Dyshkant, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Erdelyi, B. [Northern Illinois U.; Hedin, D. [Northern Illinois U.; Johnson, E. [Northern Illinois U.; Krider, J. [Northern Illinois U.; Rukalin, V. [Northern Illinois U.; Uzunyan, S. A. [Northern Illinois U.; Zutshi, V. [Northern Illinois U.; Fordt, R. [Fermilab; Sellberg, G. [Fermilab; Rauch, J. E. [Fermilab; Roman, M. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Wilson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-02-04

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  14. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  15. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benziger, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: benziger@princeton.edu; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Goretti, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Harding, E. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ianni, Aldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-03-21

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  16. Burkholderia type VI secretion systems have distinct roles in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Sandra; West, T Eoin; Boyer, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thai) in eukaryotic and bacteri...... of bacterial cells of one species in intimate association with those of another, such as in polymicrobial communities present both in the environment and in many infections....... displaced in mixed biofilms with P. putida, whereas wild-type cells persisted and overran the competitor. Our data show that T6SSs within a single organism can have distinct functions in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions. These systems are likely to be a decisive factor in the survival......Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thai) in eukaryotic and bacterial...

  17. A Vertex and Tracking Detector System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2017-01-01

    The physics aims at the proposed future CLIC high-energy linear $e^+e^−$ collider pose challenging demands on the performance of the detector system. In particular the vertex and tracking detectors have to combine precision measurements with robustness against the expected high rates of beam-induced backgrounds. The requirements include ultra-low mass, facilitated by power pulsing and air cooling in the vertex-detector region, small cell sizes and precision hit timing at the few-ns level. A detector concept meeting these requirements has been developed and an integrated R&D program addressing the challenges is progressing in the areas of ultra-thin sensors and readout ASICs, interconnect technology, mechanical integration and cooling.

  18. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the multipurpose experiments that records the products of the LHC proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using two different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. Together they constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector, which is embedded in a 2 T axial field. Efficiently reconstructing tracks from charged particles traversing the detector, and precisely measure their momenta is of crucial importance for physics analyses. In order to achieve its scientific goals, an alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector is required to accurately determine its more than 700,000 degrees of freedom. The goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensor locations should not deteriorate the resolution of track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. The implementation of t...

  19. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of four multipurpose experiments that records the products of the LHC proton-proton collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using two different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. Together they constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector, which is embedded in a 2 T solenoidal field. Efficiently reconstructing tracks from charged particles traversing the detector, and precisely measure their momenta, is of crucial importance for physics analyses. In order to achieve its scientific goals, an alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector is required to accurately determine its almost 36,000 degrees of freedom. The goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensor locations should not deteriorate the resolution of track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. The resulting required precision f...

  20. Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grybos, P

    2010-01-01

    Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detektor systems Volume 08, EuCARD Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology The monograph is devoted to many different aspects related to front-end electronics for semiconductor detector systems, namely: − designing and testing silicon position sensitive detectors for HEP experiments and X-ray imaging applications, − designing and testing of multichannel readout electronics for semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications, especially for noise minimization, fast signal processing, crosstalk reduction and good matching performance, − optimization of semiconductor detection systems in respect to the effects of radiation damage. The monograph is the result mainly of the author's experience in the above-mentioned areas and it is an attempt of a comprehensive presentation of issues related to the position sensitive detection system working in a single photon counting mode and intended to X-ray imaging applications. The structure...

  1. Treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewaters with exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria in pilot flow through and batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colica, Giovanni; Mecarozzi, Pier Cesare; De Philippis, Roberto [Florence Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology

    2010-08-15

    Seven exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria were tested with regard to their capability to remove Cr(VI) from the wastewater of a plating industry. The cyanobacterium which showed, under lab conditions, the most promising features with regard to both Cr(VI) removal (about 12 mg of Cr(VI) removed per gram of dry biomass) and growth characteristics (highest growth rate and simplest culture medium) was Nostoc PCC7936. Furthermore, in lab experiments, it was also found that a HCl pretreatment is essential to abate the concentration of Cr(VI) in solution and that the viability of the biomass is not necessary. Subsequently, three pilot devices were tested, one batch (a dialysis cell) and two flow-through systems (a filter press and a column filled with quartz grain). The best performances were obtained with the filter press, where it was observed a sharp decrease in the concentration of Cr(VI), partly due to the adsorption of the metal by the biomass (about 50%) and partly due to its reduction to Cr(III). The results are discussed in terms of the role played by the different components (biomass and polysaccharide) of the cyanobacterial cultures in the removal of Cr(VI). (orig.)

  2. The detector control system of the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poy, A Barriuso; Burckhart, H J; Cook, J; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hallgren, B; Schlenker, S; Varela, F [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Boterenbrood, H [NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filimonov, V; Khomutnikov, V [PNPI, Gatchina, Leningrad reg., 188300 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: stefan.schlenker@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. The individual detector components as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision using operator commands, reads, processes and archives the operational parameters of the detector, allows for error recognition and handling, manages the communication with external control systems, and provides a synchronization mechanism with the physics data acquisition system. Given the enormous size and complexity of ATLAS, special emphasis was put on the use of standardized hardware and software components enabling efficient development and long-term maintainability of the DCS over the lifetime of the experiment. Currently, the DCS is being used successfully during the experiment commissioning phase.

  3. The detector control system of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barriuso Poy, A; Burckhart, H J; Cook, J; Filimonov, V; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hallgren, B; Khomutnikov, V; Schlenker, S; Varela, F

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. The individual detector components as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision using operator commands, reads, processes and archives the operational parameters of the detector, allows for error recognition and handling, manages the communication with external control systems, and provides a synchronization mechanism with the physics data acquisition system. Given the enormous size and complexity of ATLAS, special emphasis was put on the use of standardized hardware and software components enabling efficient development and long-term maintainability of the DCS over the lifetime of the experiment. Currently, the DCS is being used successfully during the experiment commissioning phase.

  4. Preliminary studies for the LHCb vertex detector cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Doets, M; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano

    2000-01-01

    99-046 "We present some preliminary studies for the design of a cooling system for the LHCb silicon vertex detector. We consider the case of a cooling system using CO2 in the gas-liquid mixed phase as a coolant. Based on these considerations, we sketch a possible design."

  5. Perancangan Safety Instrumented System pada Proses Loading PT Pertamina (Persero Refinery Unit VI Balongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Tri widodo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu proses yang ada di PT Pertamina (Persero Refinery Unit VI adalah pengiriman crude oil menuju kapal tanker. Proses tersebut disebut dengan proses loading. Terdapat beberapa jenis crude yang dikirim pada proses loading tersebut, diantaranya adalah crude Jatibarang dan Crude DCO. Terdapat beberapa masalah yang kerap terjadi pada proses loading ini. Yang sering terjadi adalah kebocoran offshore pipeline yang biasa disebabkan oleh korosi air laut. Selain itu juga pernah terjadi penyumbatan pipa oleh crude akibat heater yang tidak berfungsi dengan baik. Sampai saat ini safety system yang ada pada proses loading ini hanya sebuah shutdown valve yang dijalankan manual dengan menggunakan hand switch. Sistem tersebut masih belum bisa menangani permasalahan yang ada. Oleh karena itu pada tugas akhir kali ini dilakukan perancangan SIS pada jalur loading PT Pertamina RU VI Balongan yang kemudian disimulasikan pada software Matlab (Simulink. Simulasi dilakukan dengan memberikan manipulasi besar disturbance yang merepresentasikan kebocoran pada offshore pipeline. Berdasarkan simulasi yang dilakukan, didapatkan bahwa SIS dapat berjalan dengan baik karena dapat menghentikan proses dengan menutup ESDV dan mematikan pompa saat keadaan perbedaan tekanan antara ujung-ujung pipa offshore tinggi. Tingginya perbedaan tekanan antar ujung offshore pipeline mengindikasikan terjadinya kebocoran. SIS yang sudah dirancang kemudian dihitung nilai PFDtotal dan diapatkan nilai sebesar 0,085 sehingga rancangan SIS.

  6. An XML generic detector description system and geometry editor for the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Meyer, J

    2012-01-01

    On this poster we give an overview on a system which was developed to describe the ATLAS muon spectrometer in software. The functionality of the generic XML detector description system (AGDD, ATLAS Generic Detector Description) based on a series of parsers and converters which build a generic, transient geometry model is pointed out and it is explained how it is linked to commonly used geometry descriptions like Geant4, the ATLAS GeoModel or Root TGeo. We particularly focus on visual representations and especially stress that PERSINT amongst other crucial features permits a comfortable way for debugging. Finally we present next to a simple example a visualisation of the current XML implementation of the ATLAS muon spectrometer.

  7. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  8. The Power System Detector Control System of the Monitored Drift Tubes of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexopoulos, T; Bachtis, M; Argyropoulos, T; Gazis, E; Lliopoulos, A; Mountricha, E; Tsipolitis, G; Vlachos, S

    2008-01-01

    In this note the Detector Control System (DCS) for the power supply (PS) of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS experiment is presented. The principal task of DCS is to enable and ensure the coherent and safe operation of the detector. The interaction of the detector experts users or shifters with the detector hardware is also performed via DCS. This system monitors the operational parameters and the overall state of the detector, the alarm generation and handling, the connection of hardware values to databases and the interaction with the Data Acquisition system (DAQ). In this note the Power System (PS) system as a Detector Control Subsystem is presented. Furthermore, it is outlined in detail what is the front-end to be controlled and how the architecture of the back-end is established.

  9. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  10. SMS security system for smart home detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cekova, Katerina; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    Security has always been an important problem everywhere. Home security has been a major issue where crime is increasing and everybody wants home security to protect the home. Safety from theft and flame are the most important requirements of a home security system for people. A remote home security system offers many benefits from keeping homeowners, and their property safe. This paper present controlling of the home security system remotely from Android Application. Owners can turn on or...

  11. Development of electronic materials for infra-red detector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.S.D

    1999-07-01

    Indium antimonide (InSb) and gallium antimonide (GaSb) are technologically important III-V semiconductor materials used in infrared detector systems. Yet, the application of these materials is to a certain extent limited, in that the techniques currently used for their growth are both expensive and problematic. Semiconductor electrochemical deposition, which has been successfully applied to the generation of II-VI semiconductor materials, may offer the prospect of overcoming such limitations. This work presents results that represent a significant contribution to the development of electrochemical methods for both InSb and GaSb thin film growth. The direct electrochemical co-deposition of InSb was achieved via the potentiostatic electrolysis of aqueous halide/citric acid electrolyte solutions, and for the first time, non-aqueous (ethylene glycol) electrolyte solutions containing the halides and tetraethylammonium chloride. This choice of solvents allowed the compound's deposition to be studied over a wide range of temperatures (RT to 185 deg. C). A first report was also made of the direct potentiostatic: co-deposition of GaSb from an aqueous solution containing Ga{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and SbCl{sub 3}. An extensive study was carried out on the relationship between the technique's fundamental growth parameters (temperature, deposition potential, solution composition etc.) and the film's compositional, crystallographic and morphological properties. The material's characterisation showed that there was tendency for the films to be non-stoichiometric. X-Ray diffraction patterns obtained from InSb films deposited from aqueous electrolyte solutions showed them to generally consist of two phases, the compound and, depending mostly on deposition potential, one of the elements. Films containing three phases, the compound and both elements, were deposited on Ti substrates from aqueous solutions and on to ITO substrates from non-aqueous solutions. These

  12. Managing Infrastructure in the ALICE Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Lechman, M; Bond, P M; Chochula, P.Ch; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O; Rosinsky, P; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O

    2014-01-01

    The main role of the ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is to ensure safe and efficient operation of one of the large high energy physics experiments at CERN. The DCS design is based on the commercial SCADA software package WinCC Open Architecture.

  13. A VLSI System-on-Chip for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078019

    In this thesis I present a System-on-Chip (SoC) I designed to oer a self- contained, compact data acquisition platform for micromegas detector mon- itoring. I carried on my work within the RD-51 collab oration of CERN. With a companion ADC, my architecture is capable to acquire the signal from a detector electro de, pro cess the data and p erform monitoring tests. The SoC is built around on a custom 8-bit micropro cessor with internal mem- ory resources and emb eds the p eripherals to b e interf...

  14. Prevalence of Type VI Secretion System in Spanish Campylobacter jejuni Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Stabler, R A; Domínguez, L; Porrero, M C; Wren, B W; Dorrell, N; Gundogdu, O

    2015-11-01

    Infections from Campylobacter jejuni pose a serious public health problem and are now considered the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Sequencing of C. jejuni genomes has previously allowed a number of loci to be identified, which encode virulence factors that aid survival and pathogenicity. Recently, a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) consisting of 13 conserved genes was described in C. jejuni strains and recognised to promote pathogenicity and adaptation to the environment. In this study, we determined the presence of this T6SS in 63 Spanish C. jejuni isolates from the food chain and urban effluents using whole-genome sequencing. Our findings demonstrated that nine (14%) strains harboured the 13 ORFs found in prototype strain C. jejuni 108. Further studies will be necessary to determine the prevalence and importance of T6SS-positive C. jejuni strains. © 2014 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Energy Detector Using a Hybrid Threshold in Cognitive Radio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Hwang, Seung-Hoon; Hwang, Deok-Kyu

    Cognitive radio systems offer the opportunity to improve the spectrum utilization by detecting unused frequency bands while avoiding interference to primary users. This paper proposes a new algorithm for spectrum sensing, which is an energy detector using a hybrid (adaptive and fixed) threshold, in order to compensate the weak points of the existing energy detector in the distorted communication channel environment. Simulation results are presented which show that the performance of the new proposed scheme is better than the existing scheme using a fixed threshold or an adaptive threshold. Additionally, the performance is investigated in terms of several parameters such as the mobile speed and the probability of false alarms. The simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm makes the detector highly robust against fading, shadowing, and interference.

  16. The LUCID detector ATLAS luminosity monitor and its electronic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manghi, F. Lasagni, E-mail: flasagni@cern.ch [University of Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In 2015 LHC is starting a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely rebuilt, both the detector and the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics features a new read-out board (LUCROD) for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and a revisited LUMAT board for combination of signals from the two detectors. This note describes the new board design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  17. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; van Alphen, Lieke B; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, Marc M S M; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.

  18. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy M C Bleumink-Pluym

    Full Text Available The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.

  19. Miniature Intelligent Wireless Fire Detector System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a wireless intelligent dual-band photodetector system for advanced fire detection/recognition, combining UV/IR III...

  20. Integrated real time bowel sound detector for artificial pancreas systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandaker A. Al Mamun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an ultra-low power real time bowel sound detector with integrated feature extractor for physiologic measure of meal instances in artificial pancreas devices. The system can aid in improving long term diabetic patient care and consists of a front end detector and signal processing unit. The front end detector transduces the initial bowel sound recorded from a piezoelectric sensor into a voltage signal. The signal processor uses a feature extractor to determine whether a bowel sound is detected. The feature extractor consists of a low noise, low power signal front-end, peak and trough locator, signal slope and width detector, digitizer, and bowel pulse locator. The system was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process, and the bowel sound detection system was characterized and verified with experimentally recorded bowel sounds. The integrated instrument consumes 53 μW of power from a 1 V supply in a 0.96 mm2 area, and is suitable for integration with portable devices.

  1. The pathogenic potential of Helicobacter pullorum: possible role for the type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Raftery, Mark J; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2013-04-01

    Helicobacter pullorum is a putative enterohepatic pathogen that has been associated with hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal diseases in chickens and in humans. The pathogenic potential of H. pullorum NCTC 12826 was investigated. Adherence and gentamicin protection assays and scanning electron microscopy were performed to quantitate and visualise H. pullorum adherence and invasion. Proteomics coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to characterise the secretome of H. pullorum. Helicobacter pullorum was able to adhere to the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line with a mean attachment value of 1.98 ± 0.16% and invade Caco-2 cells with a mean invasion value of 0.25 ± 0.02%. The in vitro adherence and invasion assays were confirmed with scanning electron microscopy, which showed that H. pullorum can adhere to host cells through flagellum-microvillus interaction and invade causing a membrane-ruffling effect. One hundred and thirty-seven proteins were identified, of which 33 were bioinformatically predicted to be secreted. Further functional classifications revealed six putative virulence and colonisation factors, which included cell-binding factor 2, flagellin, secreted protein Hcp, valine-glycine repeat protein G, a type VI secretion protein, and a protease. Protein threading of H. pullorum Hcp and subsequent 3D-Blast searches revealed structural similarities between Hcp and endocytic vesicle coat proteins, suggesting the type VI secretion system of H. pullorum may interact with endocytic vesicles. This study has shown that H. pullorum has the ability to adhere to and invade human cells and secrete factors that may contribute to the pathogenic potential of H. pullorum. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Constitutive type VI secretion system expression gives Vibrio cholerae intra- and interspecific competitive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Unterweger

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae - the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date harbor gene clusters encoding a T6SS. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device suggest that the T6SS functions as a contractile molecular syringe to inject effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Regulation of the T6SS is critical. A subset of V. cholerae strains, including the clinical O37 serogroup strain V52, express T6SS constitutively. In contrast, pandemic strains impose tight control that can be genetically disrupted: mutations in the quorum sensing gene luxO and the newly described regulator gene tsrA lead to constitutive T6SS expression in the El Tor strain C6706. In this report, we examined environmental V. cholerae isolates from the Rio Grande with regard to T6SS regulation. Rough V. cholerae lacking O-antigen carried a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global T6SS regulator VasH and did not display virulent behavior towards Escherichia coli and other environmental bacteria. In contrast, smooth V. cholerae strains engaged constitutively in type VI-mediated secretion and displayed virulence towards prokaryotes (E. coli and other environmental bacteria and a eukaryote (the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Furthermore, smooth V. cholerae strains were able to outcompete each other in a T6SS-dependent manner. The work presented here suggests that constitutive T6SS expression provides V. cholerae with an advantage in intraspecific and interspecific competition.

  3. Identification and functional characterization of gene components of Type VI Secretion system in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Shrivastava

    Full Text Available A new secretion system, called the Type VI Secretion system (T6SS, was recently reported in Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia mallei. A total of 18 genes have been identified to be belonging to this secretion system in V. cholerae. Here we attempt to identify presence of T6SS in other bacterial genomes. This includes identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, 3D folds, genomic islands containing T6SS components, phylogenetic profiles and protein-protein association of these components. Our analysis indicates presence of T6SS in 42 bacteria and its absence in most of their non-pathogenic species, suggesting the role of T6SS in imparting pathogenicity to an organism. Analysis of genomic regions containing T6SS components, phylogenetic profiles and protein-protein association of T6SS components indicate few additional genes which could be involved in this secretion system. Based on our studies, functional annotations were assigned to most of the components. Except one of the genes, we could group all the other genes of T6SS into those belonging to the puncturing device, and those located in the outer membrane, transmembrane and inner membrane. Based on our analysis, we have proposed a model of T6SS and have compared the same with the other bacterial secretion systems.

  4. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Jeremy S.; Dally, Adam; Davis, Christopher J.; Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel; Lim, Kyungeun E.; Heeger, Karsten M.; Maruyama, Reina H.; Nucciotti, Angelo; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Wise, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  5. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, Jeremy S., E-mail: jeremy.cushman@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dally, Adam [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Davis, Christopher J. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lim, Kyungeun E. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Heeger, Karsten M., E-mail: karsten.heeger@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Maruyama, Reina H. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nucciotti, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wise, Thomas [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  6. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system for c harged particles built on two technologies: silicon and drift tube base detectors. These kind of detectors compose the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The Alignment of the ATLAS ID tracking s ystem requires the determination of almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point o f view, the alignment parameters should be know to a few microns precision. This permits to att ain optimal measurements of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus ena bling ATLAS to achieve its physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framewor k and the data flow will be discussed. Special attention will be paid to the recent challenges wher e large scale computing simulation of the ATLAS detector has been performed, mimicking the ATLAS o peration, which is going to be very important for the LHC startup scenario. The alignment r esult for several challenges (real cosmic ray data taking and computing system commissioning) will be...

  7. Type VI secretion system-associated gene clusters contribute to pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, David T; Cooper, Colin A; Coombes, Brian K

    2012-06-01

    The enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium employs a suite of tightly regulated virulence factors within the intracellular compartment of phagocytic host cells resulting in systemic dissemination in mice. A type VI secretion system (T6SS) within Salmonella pathogenicity island 6 (SPI-6) has been implicated in this process; however, the regulatory inputs and the roles of noncore genes in this system are not well understood. Here we describe four clusters of noncore T6SS genes in SPI-6 based on a comparative relationship with the T6SS-3 of Burkholderia mallei and report that the disruption of these genes results in defects in intracellular replication and systemic dissemination in mice. In addition, we show that the expression of the SPI-6-encoded Hcp and VgrG orthologs is enhanced during late stages of macrophage infection. We identify six regions that are transcriptionally active during cell infections and that have regulatory contributions from the regulators of virulence SsrB, PhoP, and SlyA. We show that levels of protein expression are very weak under in vitro conditions and that expression is not enhanced upon the deletion of ssrB, phoP, slyA, qseC, ompR, or hfq, suggesting an unknown activating factor. These data suggest that the SPI-6 T6SS has been integrated into the Salmonella Typhimurium virulence network and customized for host-pathogen interactions through the action of noncore genes.

  8. Adsorption of Cr(VI) on cerium immobilized cross-linked chitosan composite in single system and coexisted with Orange II in binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianyi; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Lingfan; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Wenqing

    2017-10-01

    In this work, cerium immobilized cross-linked chitosan (CTS-Ce) composite, employed as an efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI) in single system and coexisted with Orange II (OII) in binary system, was prepared by co-precipitation method. The as-obtained adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDS and XPS before and after adsorption. The adsorption behaviors of Cr(VI) in single and binary system were systematically studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) on CTS-Ce (202.8mg/g) was calculated by Langmuir equation in single metal system, but it decreased to 112.9mg/g with initial concentration of 100mg/L OII in binary system at pH 2 and 293K. The adsorption data for Cr(VI) followed the Langmuir model in single system, while fitted Temkin model well in binary system. In both single and binary system, the kinetics of adsorption exhibited pseudo-second order behavior and adsorption capacity increased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the data of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°0) indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Besides, |ΔGCr|>|ΔGCr-OII| at the same temperature further suggested that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on the CTS-Ce composite faster in binary system than in single system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acceptance test report for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, J.L.

    1995-02-17

    This Acceptance Test Report is for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System. This test verified that the data logger and data converter for the gamma detector system functions as intended.

  10. The superconducting magnet system for the ATLAS Detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system for the ATLAS Detector for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is under construction since 1997. The magnet system is a hybrid of 4 superconducting magnets, a 2.5 m bore, 5.3 m long 2 T central solenoid servicing the inner detector and three 4 T toroids with global dimensions of 20 m diameter, 25 m long providing the magnetic field of about 1 T for the muon detectors. The operating currents of the solenoid and toroids are 8 and 20 kA respectively with a total stored energy of 1.6 GJ. The realization of the system is challenging due to its unusual size and complexity. Last year the construction of the coils and cryostats commenced in industry. The manufacture of the solenoid cold mass is already finished and the delivery of the individual toroid coils will commence in 2001. An on-surface test of all magnets will occur. After installation in a new cavern 100 m underground this will start in 2003 leading to commissioning of the entire magnet system in early 2005. In the paper vari...

  11. Alignment of the Atlas Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Lacuesta, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a charged particle tracking system built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The pixel and microstrip subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the transition radiation tracker. The alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system requires the determination of its almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point of view, the alignment parameters should be known with few microns accuracy. This permits to attain an optimal measurement of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus enabling ATLAS to achieve its ambitious physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framework and the data flow will be discussed, including the selection of an alignment and calibration stream at the ATLAS Event Filter stage. The results obtained on the recent computing challenges, where large scale simulation samples have been used in order to mimic the...

  12. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Lacuesta, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. To reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS tracking system is equipped with silicon planar sensors and drift‐tube based detectors. They constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector. In order to achieve its scientific goals, the alignment of the ATLAS tracking system requires the determine accurately its almost 36000 degrees of freedom. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated charge particle tracks. The high level trigger selects those tracks online. Then the raw data with the hits information of the triggered tracks is stored in a calibration stream. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of ...

  13. Crystal Structure of Hcp from Acinetobacter baumannii: A Component of the Type VI Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico M Ruiz

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a bacterial macromolecular machine widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria, which transports effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells or other bacteria. Membrane complexes and a central tubular structure, which resembles the tail of contractile bacteriophages, compose the T6SS. One of the proteins forming this tube is the hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp, which acts as virulence factor, as transporter of effectors and as a chaperone. In this study, we present the structure of Hcp from Acinetobacter baumannii, together with functional and oligomerization studies. The structure of this protein exhibits a tight β barrel formed by two β sheets and flanked at one side by a short α-helix. Six Hcp molecules associate to form a donut-shaped hexamer, as observed in both the crystal structure and solution. These results emphasize the importance of this oligomerization state in this family of proteins, despite the low similarity of sequence among them. The structure presented in this study is the first one for a protein forming part of a functional T6SS from A. baumannii. These results will help us to understand the mechanism and function of this secretion system in this opportunistic nosocomial pathogen.

  14. A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  16. FELIX - the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754725; The ATLAS collaboration; Anderson, John Thomas; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Guest, Daniel; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Roich, Alexander; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, J\\"orn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Wu, Weihao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    From the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade and onward, new or upgraded detectors and trigger systems will be interfaced to the data acquisition, detector control and timing (TTC) systems by the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX). FELIX is the core of the new ATLAS Trigger/DAQ architecture. Functioning as a router between custom serial links and a commodity network, FELIX is implemented by server PCs with commodity network interfaces and PCIe cards with large FPGAs and many high speed serial fiber transceivers. By separating data transport from data manipulation, the latter can be done by software in commodity servers attached to the network. Replacing traditional point-to-point links between Front-end components and the DAQ system by a switched network, FELIX provides scaling, flexibility uniformity and upgradability. Different Front-end data types or different data sources can be routed to different network endpoints that handle that data type or source: e.g. event data, configuration, calibration, detector control, monito...

  17. FELIX: The new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00370160; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrades (2019) of the ATLAS experiment, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data acquisition system and the detector front-end and trigger electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network using standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with commercial data collecting and processing components. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the status of the firmware implementation and hardware development currently in progress will be presented.

  18. FELIX: The new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Soo; ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    After the Phase-I upgrades (2019) of the ATLAS experiment, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data acquisition system and the detector front-end and trigger electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network using standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with commercial data collecting and processing components. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the status of the firmware implementation and hardware development currently in progress will be presented.

  19. FELIX : The new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Soo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data handling system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network which will use standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with data collecting and processing components. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the results of the demonstrator program currently in progress will be presented.

  20. The Control System for the CMS Strip Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel; Chen, Jie; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Masetti, Lorenzo; Militaru, Otilia; Shah, Yousaf; Stringer, Robert; Tsirou, Andromachi

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker of the CMS silicon strip tracking detector covers a surface of 206 m2. 9648128 channels are available on 75376 APV front-end chips on 15232 modules, built of 24328 silicon sensors. The power supply of the detector modules is split up in 1944 power supplies with two low voltage for front end power and two high voltage channels each for the bias voltage of the silicon sensors. In addition 356 low voltage channels are needed to power the control chain. The tracker will run at -20°C at low relative humidity for at least 10 years. The Tracker Control System handles all interdependencies of control, low and high voltages, as well as fast ramp downs in case of higher than allowed temperatures or currents in the detector and experimental cavern problems. This is ensured by evaluating $10^{4}$ power supply parameters, $10^{3}$ information from Tracker Safety System and $10^{5}$ information from the tracker front end.

  1. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the products of the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built on silicon planar sensors (Pixels and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. They constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector. It contains 1744 pixel modules (1456 in 3 barrel layers and 288 in 6 end cap disks). The pixel size is 50x400 squared microns. In order to achieve its scientific goals, the alignment of the ATLAS tracking system requires the determination of its almost 36000 degrees of freedom (DoF) with high accuracy. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the pixel and microstrip sensors is below 10 micrometers. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated charge particle tracks. The high level trigger selects those tracks online. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment if they cross the pixel detector vo...

  2. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the products of the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built on silicon planar sensors (Pixels and micro-trips) and drift-tube based detectors. They constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector. It contains 1744 pixel modules (1456 in 3 barrel layers and 288 in 6 end cap discs). The pixel size is 50x400 µm2 . In order to achieve its scientific goals, the alignment of the ATLAS tracking system requires the determination of its almost 36000 degrees of freedom (DoF) with high accuracy. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the pixel and micro-trip sensors is below 10 µm. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated charge particle tracks. The high level trigger selects those tracks online. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment if they cross the pixel detector volume. The impleme...

  3. Acquisition and control command system for power pulsed detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R; Magniette, F

    2014-01-01

    A DAQ system is developed within the SiW-Ecal ILC collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture, compound of four parts. A detector interface (DIF) extracting data from front-end electronics and sending them as packets. Two levels of data concentration, control clock and fast command fanout. The two cards, named DCC and GDCC, use respectively FastEthernet and GigaEthernet. A software suite (named Calicoes) allows to control the DAQ and the detector chips and to acquire data from GigaEthernet. It also includes programs for decoding frontend readout to various formats, and also dispatching and aggregating data. Overall architecture, performance in test beam and prospects for use with hundreds of thousands channels are discussed.

  4. The LUCID detector ATLAS luminosity monitor and its electronic system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00378808; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Starting from 2015 LHC is performing a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side-A-side-C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  5. Interaction region design and auxiliary detector systems for an EIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of exciting physics opportunities at a future electron-ion collider facility. One possible design for such a facility is eRHIC, where the current RHIC facility located at Brookhaven National Lab would be transformed into an electron-ion collider. It is imperative for a seamless integration of auxiliary detector systems into the interaction region design to have a machine that meets the needs for the planned physics analyses, as well as take into account the space constraints due to the tunnel geometry and the necessary beam line elements. In this talk, we describe the current ideas for integrating a luminosity detector, electron polarimeter, roman pots, and a low Q2-tagger into the interaction region for eRHIC.

  6. The type VI secretion system impacts bacterial invasion and population dynamics in a model intestinal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Savannah L.; Shields, Drew S.; Hammer, Brian K.; Xavier, Joao B.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    Animal gastrointestinal tracts are home to a diverse community of microbes. The mechanisms by which microbial species interact and compete in this dense, physically dynamic space are poorly understood, limiting our understanding of how natural communities are assembled and how different communities could be engineered. Here, we focus on a physical mechanism for competition: the type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS is a syringe-like organelle used by certain bacteria to translocate effector proteins across the cell membranes of target bacterial cells, killing them. Here, we use T6SS+ and T6SS- strains of V. cholerae, the pathogen that causes cholera in humans, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy for in vivo imaging to show that the T6SS provides an advantage to strains colonizing the larval zebrafish gut. Furthermore, we show that T6SS+ bacteria can invade and alter an existing population of a different species in the zebrafish gut, reducing its abundance and changing the form of its population dynamics. This work both demonstrates a mechanism for altering the gut microbiota with an invasive species and explores the processes controlling the stability and dynamics of the gut ecosystem. Research Corporation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

  7. Visualization of the Serratia Type VI Secretion System Reveals Unprovoked Attacks and Dynamic Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerc, Amy J; Diepold, Andreas; Trunk, Katharina; Porter, Michael; Rickman, Colin; Armitage, Judith P; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-09-29

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine that fires toxic proteins into target cells. Deployment of the T6SS represents an efficient and widespread means by which bacteria attack competitors or interact with host organisms and may be triggered by contact from an attacking neighbor cell as a defensive strategy. Here, we use the opportunist pathogen Serratia marcescens and functional fluorescent fusions of key components of the T6SS to observe different subassemblies of the machinery simultaneously and on multiple timescales in vivo. We report that the localization and dynamic behavior of each of the components examined is distinct, revealing a multi-stage and dynamic assembly process for the T6SS machinery. We also show that the T6SS can assemble and fire without needing a cell contact trigger, defining an aggressive strategy that broadens target range and suggesting that activation of the T6SS is tailored to survival in specific niches. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualization of the Serratia Type VI Secretion System Reveals Unprovoked Attacks and Dynamic Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Gerc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a bacterial nanomachine that fires toxic proteins into target cells. Deployment of the T6SS represents an efficient and widespread means by which bacteria attack competitors or interact with host organisms and may be triggered by contact from an attacking neighbor cell as a defensive strategy. Here, we use the opportunist pathogen Serratia marcescens and functional fluorescent fusions of key components of the T6SS to observe different subassemblies of the machinery simultaneously and on multiple timescales in vivo. We report that the localization and dynamic behavior of each of the components examined is distinct, revealing a multi-stage and dynamic assembly process for the T6SS machinery. We also show that the T6SS can assemble and fire without needing a cell contact trigger, defining an aggressive strategy that broadens target range and suggesting that activation of the T6SS is tailored to survival in specific niches.

  9. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  10. Simple ML Detector for Multiple Antennas Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Taqwa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to support providing broadband wireless communication services against limited and expensive frequency bandwidth, we have to develop a bandwidth efficient system. Therefore, in this paper we propose a closed-loop MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output system using ML (Maximum Likelihood detector to optimize capacity and to increase system performance. What is especially exciting about the benefits offered by MIMO is that a high capacity and performance can be attained without additional frequency-spectral resource. The grand scenario of this concept is the attained advantages of transformation matrices having capability to allocate transmitted signals power suit to the channel. Furthermore, product of these matrices forms parallel singular channels. Due to zero inter-channels correlation, thus we can design ML detector to increase the system performance. Finally, computer simulations validates that at 0 dB SNR our system can reach optimal capacity up to 1 bps/Hz and SER up to 0.2 higher than opened-loop MIMO.

  11. Computing Architecture of the ALICE Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Moreno, A; Kurepin, A N; De Cataldo, G; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L S

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is based on a commercial SCADA product, running on a large Windows computer cluster. It communicates with about 1200 network attached devices to assure safe and stable operation of the experiment. In the presentation we focus on the design of the ALICE DCS computer systems. We describe the management of data flow, mechanisms for handling the large data amounts and information exchange with external systems. One of the key operational requirements is an intuitive, error proof and robust user interface allowing for simple operation of the experiment. At the same time the typical operator task, like trending or routine checks of the devices, must be decoupled from the automated operation in order to prevent overload of critical parts of the system. All these requirements must be implemented in an environment with strict security requirements. In the presentation we explain how these demands affected the architecture of the ALICE DCS.

  12. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  13. Laser system for testing radiation imaging detector circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, Weronika; Kasinski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Performance and functionality of radiation imaging detector circuits in charge and position measurement systems need to meet tight requirements. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly test sensors as well as read-out electronics. The major disadvantages of using radioactive sources or particle beams for testing are high financial expenses and limited accessibility. As an alternative short pulses of well-focused laser beam are often used for preliminary tests. There are number of laser-based devices available on the market, but very often their applicability in this field is limited. This paper describes concept, design and validation of laser system for testing silicon sensor based radiation imaging detector circuits. The emphasis is put on keeping overall costs low while achieving all required goals: mobility, flexible parameters, remote control and possibility of carrying out automated tests. The main part of the developed device is an optical pick-up unit (OPU) used in optical disc drives. The hardware includes FPGA-controlled circuits for laser positioning in 2 dimensions (horizontal and vertical), precision timing (frequency and number) and amplitude (diode current) of short ns-scale (3.2 ns) light pulses. The system is controlled via USB interface by a dedicated LabVIEW-based application enabling full manual or semi-automated test procedures.

  14. Quantifying the Effectiveness of Muon Detector Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Naomi; Guida, Roberto; Mandelli, Beatrice

    The experiments along the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) were developed to study the fundamental particles that govern our universe. These experiments utilize gaseous detectors to track muons in the outermost portion of the experiment. For example, in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment three types of gaseous detectors are used as muon trackers: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), Drift Tubes (DTs) and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs). RPCs use a gas mixture of Freon (C2H2F4) , sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and isobutane (iC4H10) . The components of this gas mixture are both expensive and have high global warming potentials, so most of the gas mixture must be recycled and purified through a gas recirculation system. For this reason, RPCs employ purification systems that remove impurities due to the contamination and irradiation of the gas mixture that occur during normal operation of the LHC. Ion selective electrodes, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry are set up and employed to study impurities produced in the RPCs and to quantify the ability of the purification systems to remove these impurities. National Science Foundation.

  15. Impact of Cr(VI) on P removal performance in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system based on the anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Sun, Pei-de; Xu, Shao-juan; Luo, Tao; Lou, Ju-qing; Han, Jing-yi; Song, Ying-qi

    2012-10-01

    Influence of Cr(VI) on P removal in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated with respect to the composition of poly-phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and glycogen, enzymes' activities, and the intracellular Cr. Whether EBPR system could revive after Cr(VI) shock was also explored. Results showed P removal performance was completely inhibited by Cr(VI) with the concentration more than 5 mg L(-1). PAOs were more sensitive to Cr(VI) than GAOs and the other bacteria were. PHA consumption, glycogen synthesis and adenylate kinase's activity had been inhibited by 5 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). Both adenylate kinase's activity and P removal efficiency were negatively correlated with the intracellular Cr. Recovery experiments revealed that P removal performance with 5 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) shock could revive after a 2-day recovery treatment, while systems with high level Cr(VI) (20 and 60 mg L(-1)) shock could not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated Interventions to Tackle Antimicrobial Usage in Animal Production Systems: The ViParc Project in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production is now recognized to be an important contributor to the global problem of AMR. Initiatives to curb indiscriminate antimicrobial use in animal production are currently being discussed in many low- and middle-income countries. Well-designed, scientifically sound interventions aimed to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage should provide scientists and policy makers with evidence of the highest quality to guide changes in policy and to formulate better targeted research initiatives. However, since large-scale interventions are costly, they require careful planning in order not to waste valuable resources. Here, we describe the components of the ViParc project (www.viparc.org), one of the first large-scale interventions of its kind to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in Southeast Asian animal production systems. The project has been formulated as a "randomized before-and-after controlled study" targeting small-scale poultry farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. It aims to provide farmers with a locally-adapted veterinary support service to help them reduce their reliance on antimicrobials. ViParc has been developed in the backdrop of efforts by the Government of Vietnam to develop a National Action Plan to reduce Antimicrobials in Livestock and Aquaculture. Crucially, the project integrates socio-economic analyses that will provide insights into the drivers of antimicrobial usage, as well as an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the proposed intervention. Information generated from ViParc should help the Government of Vietnam refine its policies to curb excessive antimicrobial usage in poultry production, while lessons from ViParc will help tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in other productions systems in Vietnam and in the broader Southeast Asian region.

  17. Timing, Trigger and Control Systems for LHC Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    \\\\ \\\\At the LHC, precise bunch-crossing clock and machine orbit signals must be broadcast over distances of several km from the Prevessin Control Room to the four experiment areas and other destinations. At the LHC experiments themselves, quite extensive distribution systems are also required for the transmission of timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals to large numbers of front-end electronics controllers from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. The systems must control the detector synchronization and deliver the necessary fast signals and messages that are phased with the LHC clock, orbit or bunch structure. These include the bunch-crossing clock, level-1 trigger decisions, bunch and event numbers, as well as test signals and broadcast commands. A common solution to this TTC system requirement is expected to result in important economies of scale and permit a rationalization of the development, operational and support efforts required. LHC Common Project RD12 is developi...

  18. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atlas is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using distinct technologies: silicon planar sensors (both pixel and microstrips) and drift-tubes (the Inner Detector). The tracking system is embedded in a 2 T solenoid field. In order to reach the track parameter accuracy requested by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software counts of course on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam spot and primary vertex for the global position...

  19. Low complexity Breadth First Search Sphere Detector for MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Edward.A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO technology is the key to meet the demands for data rate and link reliability of modern wireless communication system, such as 3GPP-LTE.The full potential of such a system can be achieved only by high performance detection algorithms, which exhibit prohibitive computational complexity. Therefore, in this paper, a low complexity and highly parallel Breadth First search Sphere Detector (BFSD is proposed for MIMO detection, which takes forward only the symbol set with minimum partial Euclidean distances (PEDs of the expanded node in the tree search process. We had designed a BFSD scheme for 16QAM modulation with 2 x 2 and 4 x4 antenna configurations and implemented on a state-of-the-art Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA device. The results indicate that with less computational complexity compared with the literature the detector can achieve a throughput of up to 98Mbps which makes it suitable for 3GPP-LTE uplink transmission.

  20. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Geometry VI - Space-the Final Frontier. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 28-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0028-0033 ...

  1. VI KA’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen handler om hvordan man kan bruge et spil til at udvikle og måle kompetencer. Artiklen diskuterer forskellige forståelser kompetencebegrebet og diskuterer hvordan Vi Ka'-spillet bidrager til at indfange den mere aktive forståelse af kompetence, som noget du gør i en bestemt kontekst....

  2. The electronics for TOF system of the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A. N.; Ruban, A. A.; Amerhanov, A. N.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gribanov, S. S.; Popov, A. S.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Tolmachev, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    The time-of-flight (TOF) system now is installed at the CMD-3 detector of the VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. It is based on the strips of organic scintillator with shifter fibers readout and silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photodetectors. The new electronics for TOF system is designed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The main feature of the new electronics is usage a ripple-free technology for providing a bias voltage for SiPM photodetectors. Also this design has very low power consumption. It allows the individual controlled bias voltage generator to be integrated to front-end electronics, near the photodetectors. In this paper the structure of the TOF electronic hardware is described.

  3. Track based Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Schieck, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particle, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift‐tube detectors. In order to achieve its scientific goals, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated tracks. The high level trigger selects and stores those tracks in a calibration stream. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. Primary vertexing and beam spot constraints have been implemented, as well as constraints on th...

  4. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  5. First results from the Lund NMP particle detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Kristiansson, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: Per.Kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Wegden, M. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    The design and first results from a Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSSD) recently installed at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe facility (NMP) are presented. The detector has 64 sector strips and 32 ring strips, which in combination give more than 2000 detector cells, each with characteristics comparable with a standard surface barrier detector (SBD). The detector has been tested both with radioactive sources and with different ion beams and energies. The most striking features are the high rate virtually pile-up free operation and also the possibility of detailed measurement of angular distributions.

  6. A Soft Detector with Good Performance/Complexity Trade-Off for a MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Liu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybrid soft detector that has a good performance/complexity trade-off for a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO wireless communication system with known channel information. The new soft detector combines the merits of a simple unstructured least-squares (LS-based soft detector and a list sphere decoder (LSD-based soft detector for data bit detection. The former is computationally much more efficient than the latter at the cost of poorer performance. The poor performance of the former occurs mainly when the channel matrix is ill-conditioned. Whenever this happens, we use the LSD-based soft detector in the hybrid soft detector; otherwise, we use the LS-based one. Moreover, we provide a tight radius for a sphere decoder, a hard detector, via using the output of an LS-based hard detector. These two hard detectors are needed to determine if LS or LSD should be used in the hybrid soft detector. As an application example, we consider doubling the maximum data rate of the IEEE 802.11a conformable wireless local area networks by a MIMO system with two transmit and two receive antennas. For this application, the new soft detector is about 10 times faster than the LSD-based one and is about 10 times slower than the LS-based one. Yet the packet error rate due to using the new soft detector is quite close to that of using the LSD-based one.

  7. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  8. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Loddenkoetter, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's largest particle accelerator. After a successful start run at 900 GeV in 2009, during 2010, LHC will collide two proton beams at an unprecedented centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. ATLAS is one of the four multipurpose experiments that will record the products of the LHC proton‐proton collisions. ATLAS is equipped, among others, with a charged particle tracking system built on two different technologies: silicon planar sensors and drift‐tube based detectors constituting the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). In order to achieve its scientific goals, ATLAS has quite exigent tracking performance requirements. Thus, the goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensors location should not deteriorate the resolution of the track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. In this manner the required precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors in its most sensitive direction is below 10 micrometers. T...

  9. Type VI secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: secretion and multimerization of VgrG proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Abderrahman; Lossi, Nadine S; Hamilton, Alexander; Jones, Cerith; Bleves, Sophie; Albesa-Jové, David; Filloux, Alain

    2011-04-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Such infections are associated with an active type VI secretion system (T6SS), which consists of about 15 conserved components, including the AAA+ ATPase, ClpV. The T6SS secretes two categories of proteins, VgrG and Hcp. Hcp is structurally similar to a phage tail tube component, whereas VgrG proteins show similarity to the puncturing device at the tip of the phage tube. In P. aeruginosa, three T6SSs are known. The expression of H1-T6SS genes is controlled by the RetS sensor. Here, 10 vgrG genes were identified in the PAO1 genome, among which three are co-regulated with H1-T6SS, namely vgrG1a/b/c. Whereas VgrG1a and VgrG1c were secreted in a ClpV1-dependent manner, secretion of VgrG1b was ClpV1-independent. We show that VgrG1a and VgrG1c form multimers, which confirmed the VgrG model predicting trimers similar to the tail spike. We demonstrate that Hcp1 secretion requires either VgrG1a or VgrG1c, which may act independently to puncture the bacterial envelope and give Hcp1 access to the surface. VgrG1b is not required for Hcp1 secretion. Thus, VgrG1b does not require H1-T6SS for secretion nor does H1-T6SS require VgrG1b for its function. Finally, we show that VgrG proteins are required for secretion of a genuine H1-T6SS substrate, Tse3. Our results demonstrate that VgrG proteins are not only secreted components but are essential for secretion of other T6SS substrates. Overall, we emphasize variability in behavior of three P. aeruginosa VgrGs, suggesting that, although very similar, distinct VgrGs achieve specific functions.

  10. VgrG and PAAR Proteins Define Distinct Versions of a Functional Type VI Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R Cianfanelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is widespread among bacterial pathogens and acts as an effective weapon against competitor bacteria and eukaryotic hosts by delivering toxic effector proteins directly into target cells. The T6SS utilises a bacteriophage-like contractile machinery to expel a puncturing device based on a tube of Hcp topped with a VgrG spike, which can be extended by a final tip from a PAAR domain-containing protein. Effector proteins are believed to be delivered by specifically associating with particular Hcp, VgrG or PAAR proteins, either covalently ('specialised' or non-covalently ('cargo' effectors. Here we used the T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens, together with integratecd genetic, proteomic and biochemical approaches, to elucidate the role of specific VgrG and PAAR homologues in T6SS function and effector specificity, revealing new aspects and unexpected subtleties in effector delivery by the T6SS. We identified effectors, both cargo and specialised, absolutely dependent on a particular VgrG for delivery to target cells, and discovered that other cargo effectors can show a preference for a particular VgrG. The presence of at least one PAAR protein was found to be essential for T6SS function, consistent with designation as a 'core' T6SS component. We showed that specific VgrG-PAAR combinations are required to assemble a functional T6SS and that the three distinct VgrG-PAAR assemblies in S. marcescens exhibit distinct effector specificity and efficiency. Unexpectedly, we discovered that two different PAAR-containing Rhs proteins can functionally pair with the same VgrG protein. Showing that accessory EagR proteins are involved in these interactions, native VgrG-Rhs-EagR complexes were isolated and specific interactions between EagR and cognate Rhs proteins identified. This study defines an essential yet flexible role for PAAR proteins in the T6SS and highlights the existence of distinct versions of the

  11. Proteomic Identification of Novel Secreted Antibacterial Toxins of the Serratia marcescens Type VI Secretion System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Trunk, Katharina; Diniz, Juliana Alcoforado; Guo, Manman; Trost, Matthias; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a complex macromolecular machine used by many bacterial species to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic or bacterial cells, with significant implications for virulence and interbacterial competition. “Antibacterial” T6SSs, such as the one elaborated by the opportunistic human pathogen, Serratia marcescens, confer on the secreting bacterium the ability to rapidly and efficiently kill rival bacteria. Identification of secreted substrates of the T6SS is critical to understanding its role and ability to kill other cells, but only a limited number of effectors have been reported so far. Here we report the successful use of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to identify at least eleven substrates of the S. marcescens T6SS, including four novel effector proteins which are distinct from other T6SS-secreted proteins reported to date. These new effectors were confirmed as antibacterial toxins and self-protecting immunity proteins able to neutralize their cognate toxins were identified. The global secretomic study also unexpectedly revealed that protein phosphorylation-based post-translational regulation of the S. marcescens T6SS differs from that of the paradigm, H1-T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Combined phosphoproteomic and genetic analyses demonstrated that conserved PpkA-dependent threonine phosphorylation of the T6SS structural component Fha is required for T6SS activation in S. marcescens and that the phosphatase PppA can reverse this modification. However, the signal and mechanism of PpkA activation is distinct from that observed previously and does not appear to require cell–cell contact. Hence this study has not only demonstrated that new and species-specific portfolios of antibacterial effectors are secreted by the T6SS, but also shown for the first time that PpkA-dependent post-translational regulation of the T6SS is tailored to fit the needs of different bacterial

  12. Visual System for Browsing, Analysis, and Retrieval of Data (ViSBARD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron; Boller, Ryan; Cornwell, Carl

    2012-01-01

    ViSBARD software provides a way of visualizing multiple vector and scalar quantities as measured by many spacecraft at once. The data are displayed three-dimensionally along the orbits that may be shown either as connected lines or as points. The data display allows the rapid determination of vector configurations, correlations among many measurements at multiple points, and global relationships. Things such as vector field rotations and dozens of simultaneous variables are very difficult to see in (complementary) panel plot representations. The current and next generations of space physics missions require a means to display from tens to hundreds of time series of data in such a way that the mind can comprehend them for the purposes of browsing data, retrieving them in directly useful form, and analyzing them in a global context. Sets of many spacecraft, each carrying many instruments yielding nearly continuous data at high time resolution, have become one of the most effective ways to make progress in understanding the extended, ionized (plasma) atmosphere of the Earth and the Sun. For large collections of data to be effective, they must be extremely readily accessible, with simple, comprehensible overviews of what is available. ViSBARD provides a means to answer these concerns. The ViSBARD package also acts as a remote repository browser; an interface to a Virtual Observatory. Therefore, data can be pulled directly into the application, as opposed to searching for it and downloading separately.

  13. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puellen, Lukas

    2015-02-10

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  14. Detector Control System for an LHC experiment - User Requirements Document

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.

  15. Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068219; Gektin, Alexander; Korzhik, Mikhail; Pédrini, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The development of new scintillators as components of modern detector systems is increasingly defined by the end user's needs. This book provides an introduction to this emerging topic at the interface of physics and materials sciences, with emphasis on bulk inorganic scintillators. After surveying the end user's needs in a vast range of applications, ranging from astrophysics to industrial R & D, the authors move on to review scintillating mechanisms and the properties of the most important materials used. A chapter on crystal engineering and examples of recent developments in the field of high-energy physics and medical imaging introduce the reader to the practical aspects. This book will benefit researchers and scientists working in academic and industrial R & D related to the development of scintillators.

  16. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners.

  17. Virtual Systems Pharmacology (ViSP software for mechanistic system-level model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey eErmakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple software programs are available for designing and running large scale system-level pharmacology models used in the drug development process. Depending on the problem, scientists may be forced to use several modeling tools that could increase model development time, IT costs and so on. Therefore it is desirable to have a single platform that allows setting up and running large-scale simulations for the models that have been developed with different modeling tools. We developed a workflow and a software platform in which a model file is compiled into a self-contained executable that is no longer dependent on the software that was used to create the model. At the same time the full model specifics is preserved by presenting all model parameters as input parameters for the executable. This platform was implemented as a model agnostic, therapeutic area agnostic and web-based application with a database back-end that can be used to configure, manage and execute large-scale simulations for multiple models by multiple users. The user interface is designed to be easily configurable to reflect the specifics of the model and the user’s particular needs and the back-end database has been implemented to store and manage all aspects of the systems, such as Models, Virtual Patients, User Interface Settings, and Results. The platform can be adapted and deployed on an existing cluster or cloud computing environment. Its use was demonstrated with a metabolic disease systems pharmacology model that simulates the effects of two antidiabetic drugs, metformin and fasiglifam, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  18. Virtual Systems Pharmacology (ViSP) software for simulation from mechanistic systems-level models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Sergey; Forster, Peter; Pagidala, Jyotsna; Miladinov, Marko; Wang, Albert; Baillie, Rebecca; Bartlett, Derek; Reed, Mike; Leil, Tarek A

    2014-01-01

    Multiple software programs are available for designing and running large scale system-level pharmacology models used in the drug development process. Depending on the problem, scientists may be forced to use several modeling tools that could increase model development time, IT costs and so on. Therefore, it is desirable to have a single platform that allows setting up and running large-scale simulations for the models that have been developed with different modeling tools. We developed a workflow and a software platform in which a model file is compiled into a self-contained executable that is no longer dependent on the software that was used to create the model. At the same time the full model specifics is preserved by presenting all model parameters as input parameters for the executable. This platform was implemented as a model agnostic, therapeutic area agnostic and web-based application with a database back-end that can be used to configure, manage and execute large-scale simulations for multiple models by multiple users. The user interface is designed to be easily configurable to reflect the specifics of the model and the user's particular needs and the back-end database has been implemented to store and manage all aspects of the systems, such as Models, Virtual Patients, User Interface Settings, and Results. The platform can be adapted and deployed on an existing cluster or cloud computing environment. Its use was demonstrated with a metabolic disease systems pharmacology model that simulates the effects of two antidiabetic drugs, metformin and fasiglifam, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  19. The Type VI Secretion System: A Dynamic System for Bacterial Communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Gallique

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in Gram-negative bacteria have focused on the Type VISecretion Systems (T6SSs, Quorum Sensing (QS, and social behavior, such as in biofilms. These interconnected mechanisms are important for bacterial survival; T6SSs allow bacteria to battle other cells, QS is devoted to the perception of bacterial cell density, and biofilm formation is essentially controlled by QS. Here, we review data concerning T6SS dynamics and T6SS–QS cross-talk that suggest the existence of inter-bacterial communication via T6SSs.

  20. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data handling system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network which will use standard technologies to communicate with data collecting and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed by using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card interfacing to GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. Dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software will provide the required functionality. On the network side, the FELIX unit connects to both Ethernet-based network and Infiniband. The system architecture of FE...

  1. Distributed Impact Detector System (DIDS) Health Monitoring System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Damage due to impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris is one of the most significant on-orbit hazards for spacecraft. Impacts to thermal protection systems must be detected and the damage evaluated to determine if repairs are needed to allow safe re-entry. To address this issue for the International Space Station Program, Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center technologists have been working to develop and implement advanced methods for detecting impacts and resultant leaks. LaRC funded a Small Business Innovative Research contract to Invocon, Inc. to develop special wireless sensor systems that are compact, light weight, and have long battery lifetimes to enable applications to long duration space structures. These sensor systems are known as distributed impact detection systems (DIDS). In an assessment, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center procured two prototype DIDS sensor units to evaluate their capabilities in laboratory testing and field testing in an ISS Node 1 structural test article. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  2. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Starting during the upcoming major LHC shutdown from 2019-2021, the ATLAS experiment at CERN will move to the the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system as the interface between the data acquisition system and the trigger and detector front-end electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network, which will use industry standard technologies to communicate with data collection and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card hosting GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. FELIX functions will be implemented with dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software. On the network side, FELIX is able to connect to both Ethernet or Infiniband network a...

  3. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Kevin Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Starting during the upcoming major LHC shutdown from 2019-2021, the ATLAS experiment at CERN will move to the the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system as the interface between the data acquisition system and the trigger and detector front-end electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network, which will use industry standard technologies to communicate with data collection and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card hosting GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. FELIX functions will be implemented with dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software. On the network side, FELIX is able to connect to both Ethernet or Infiniband network a...

  4. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my; Yussup, N., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M. [Instrumentation Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  5. A differential viscosity detector for use in miniaturized chemical separation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.T.; Chmela, Emil; van der Heyden, F.H.J.; Oosterbroek, R.E.; Tijssen, Robert; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We present a micromachined differential viscosity detector suitable for integration into an on-chip hydrodynamic chromatography system. The general design, however, is applicable to any liquid chromatography system that is used for separation of polymers. The micromachined part of the detector

  6. Uranium(VI) reduction by nanoscale zero-valent iron in anoxic batch systems: The role of Fe(II) and Fe(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Sen; Chen, Yongheng; Xiang, Wu; Bao, Zhengyu; Liu, Chongxuan; Deng, Baolin

    2014-12-01

    The role of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on U(VI) reduction by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nanoFe0) was investigated using two iron chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and triethanolamine (TEA) under a CO2-free anoxic condition. The results showed U(VI) reduction was strongly inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and TEA in a pH range from 6.92 to 9.03. For instance, at pH 6.92 the observed U(VI) reduction rates decreased by 80.7% and 82.3% in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and TEA, respectively. The inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complexes between 1,10-phenanthroline and Fe(II) or TEA and Fe(III). In the absence of iron chelators, U(VI) reduction can be enhanced by surface-bound Fe(II) on nanoFe0. Our results suggested that Fe(III) and Fe(II) probably acted as an electron shuttle to mediate the transfer of electrons from nanoFe0 to U(VI), therefore a combined system with Fe(II), Fe(III) and nanoFe0 can facilitate the U(VI) reductive immobilization in the contaminated groundwater.

  7. Scalable multiplexed detector system for high-rate telecom-band single-photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Piacentini, F; Schettini, V; Polyakov, S V; Migdall, A

    2009-11-01

    We present an actively multiplexed photon-counting detection system at telecom wavelengths that overcomes the difficulties of photon-counting at high rates. We find that for gated detectors, the heretofore unconsidered deadtime associated with the detector gate is a critical parameter, that limits the overall scalability of the scheme to just a few detectors. We propose and implement a new scheme that overcomes this problem and restores full scalability that allows an order of magnitude improvement with systems with as few as 4 detectors. When using just two multiplexed detectors, our experimental results show a 5x improvement over a single detector and a greater than 2x improvement over multiplexed schemes that do not consider gate deadtime.

  8. Track based alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS   is   a   multipurpose   experiment   that   records   the   LHC   collisions.   In   order   to   reconstruct   trajectories   of   charged   particle,   ATLAS   is   equipped   with   a   tracking   system   built   using   different   technologies,   silicon   planar   sensors   (pixel   and   microstrips)   and   drift-­‐tube   detectors.   In   order   to   achieve  its  scientific  goals,  the  ATLAS  tracking  system  requires  to  determine  accurately  its  almost   700,000   degrees   of   freedom.   The   demanded   precision   for   the   alignment   of   the   silicon   sensors   is   below   10   micrometers.   This   implies   to   use   a   large   sample   of   high   momentum   and   isolated   tracks.   The   high   level   trigger   selects   and   stores   those   tracks   in   a   calibration   stream.   Tracks   from   cosmic   trigger   during   empty   LHC   bunches   a...

  9. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve the scientific goals, the alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system requires the determination of its almost 36000 degrees of freedom (DoF) with high accuracy. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. Primary vertex and beam spot constraints have also been implemented. As alignment algorithms are based on minimization of the track‐hit residuals, one needs to solve a linear system with large number of DoF. The solving involves the inversion or diagonalization of a large matrix that may be dense. The alignment jobs are executed at the CERN Analysis Facility, and also are moving to Grid. The event processing is run in parallel in many jobs. The output matrices from all jobs are added before solving. We will present the results of the alignment o...

  10. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally sialidosis and mucolipidosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (Naglazyme®), clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided. PMID:20385007

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  12. The development of a silicon multiplicity detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Kraner, H.W.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Sondericker, J.; Stephani, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barrette, J.; Hall, J.; Mark, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolfe, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States); Borenstein, S.R. [York College-CUNY, Jamaica, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The physics program and the design criteria for a Silicon Pad Detector at RHIC are reviewed. An end cap double sided readout detector configuration for RHIC is presented. Its performance as an on-line and off-line centrality tagging device is studied by means of simulations with Fritiof as the event generator. The results of an in-beam test of a prototype double-sided Si-detector are presented. Good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained with front junction and the resistive back side readout. Good separation between one and two minimum-ionizing particle signals is achieved.

  13. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

  14. Aqueous U(VI) interaction with magnetite nanoparticles in a mixed flow reactor system: HR-XANES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidchenko, I.; Heberling, F.; Kvashnina, KO; Finck, N.; Schild, D.; Bohnert, E.; Schäfer, T.; Rothe, J.; Geckeis, H.; Vitova, T.

    2016-05-01

    The redox variations and changes in local atomic environment of uranium (U) interacted with the magnetite nanoparticles were studied in a proof of principle experiment by the U L3 and M4 edges high energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure (HR-XANES) technique. We designed and applied a mixed flow reactor (MFR) set-up to maintain dynamic flow conditions during U-magnetite interactions. Formation of hydrolyzed, bi- and poly-nuclear U species were excluded by slow continuous injection of U(VI) (10-6 M) and pH control integrated in the MFR set-up. The applied U HR-XANES technique is more sensitive to minor changes in the U redox states and bonding compared to the conventional XANES method. Major U(VI) contribution in uranyl type of bonding is found in the magnetite nanoparticles after three days operation time of the MFR. Indications for shortening of the U-Oaxial bond length for the magnetite compared to the maghemite system are present too.

  15. Thermo-dynamical measurements for ATLAS Inner Detector (evaporative cooling system)

    CERN Document Server

    Bitadze, Alexander; Buttar, Craig

    During the construction, installation and initial operation of the Evaporative Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector SCT Barrel Sub-detector, some performance characteristics were observed to be inconsistent with the original design specifications, therefore the assumptions made in the ATLAS Inner Detector TDR were revisited. The main concern arose because of unexpected pressure drops in the piping system from the end of the detector structure to the distribution racks. The author of this theses made a series of measurements of these pressure drops and the thermal behavior of SCT-Barrel cooling Stave. Tests were performed on the installed detector in the pit, and using a specially assembled full scale replica in the SR1 laboratory at CERN. This test setup has been used to perform extensive tests of the cooling performance of the system including measurements of pressure drops in different parts of system, studies of the thermal profile along the stave pipe for different running conditions / parameters a...

  16. Probing the Drosophila Circadian System with Enhancer Detectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassone, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    The overall goals of this project are to: (1) identify candidate clock genes by analyzing the spatial expression patterns and circadian activity rhythm phenotypes of enhancer detector P-element insertion lines and (2...

  17. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) consists of two silicon subsystems, the Pixel detector and the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT), complemented by the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) composed of drift tubes. After the assembly of the detector, the position of the individual modules is known with much worse accuracy than their intrinsic resolution. Therefore a track-based alignment procedure has to be applied. The baseline goal is to determine the position and orientation of the modules with such precision that the track parameters’ determination is not worsened by more than 20% with respect to that expected from the perfectly aligned detector. This is crucial for efficient track reconstruction and precise momentum measurement and vertex reconstruction. The alignment of the ID requires the determination of its almost 36,000 degrees of freedom(DoF) with high accuracy. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometer.The implementation of the track based alignment with the ...

  18. Design, production and first operation of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Cavicchioli, C; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, M; Librizzi, F; Manzari, V; Marangio, G; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjol, H; Viesti, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE experiment. The SPD is the detector closest to the interaction point, mounted around the beam pipe with the two layers at r=3.9 cm and 7.6 cm distance from beam axis. In order to reduce multiple scattering the material budget per layer in the active region has been limited to ≈1% X0. The SPD consists of 120 hybrid silicon pixel detectors modules with a total of ~107 cells. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The readout electronics, located in the control room, is housed in 20 VME boards; it is the interface to the ALICE trigger, data acquisition, control system and detector electronics. In this contribution the SPD detector components design and production are reviewed. First operation results are reported.

  19. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  20. Silicon PIN diode based electron-gamma coincidence detector system for Noble Gases monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, K; Popov, V Yu; Popov, Yu S

    2017-08-01

    We present a new second generation SiPIN based electron-photon coincidence detector system developed by Lares Ltd. for use in the Noble Gas measurement systems of the International Monitoring System and the On-site Inspection verification regimes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The SiPIN provide superior energy resolution for electrons. Our work describes the improvements made in the second generation detector cells and the potential use of such detector systems for other applications such as In-Situ Kr-85 measurements for non-proliferation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The fluid-filling system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benziger, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: benziger@princeton.edu; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Corsi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ianni, Aldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-09-21

    The system for controlled filling of the nested flexible scintillator containment vessels in the Borexino solar neutrino detector is described. The design and operation principles of pressure and shape monitoring systems are presented for gas filling, gas displacement by water, and water displacement by scintillator. System specifications for safety against overstressing the flexible nylon vessels are defined as well as leak-tightness and cleanliness requirements. The fluid-filling system was a major engineering challenge for the Borexino detector.

  2. ALICE Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II in the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00522336; Martinez, M.I.; Monzon, I. Leon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes general characteristics of the deployment and commissioned of the Detector Control System (DCS) AD0 for the second phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The AD0 detector is installed in the ALICE experiment to provide a better selection of diffractive events.

  3. The Laser Alignment and Monitoring System for the LHCb RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Blanks, C; Nardulli, J

    2011-01-01

    The two Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detectors (RICH) are the key tools for particle identification at the LHCb experiment. A description of the Laser Alignment Monitoring Systems (LAMS) for the RICH detectors is presented, followed by preliminary results, and a description of their data acquisition and archiving.

  4. Detector Control System and Efficiency Performance for CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Muhammad; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Fagot, A; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Aly, S; Assran, Y; Radi, A; Sayed, A; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Doninck, W V; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Bhatnagar, V; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Singh, J; Ahmad, A; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Awan, I A; Hoorani, H R; Ahmed, W; Shahzad, H; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M; Goutzvitz, M; Grenier, G; Lagarde, F; Estrada, C U; Pedraza, I; Severiano, C B; Carrillo Moreno, S; Vazquez Valencia, F; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Esposito, M; Fabozzi, F; Lanza, G; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Orso, I; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Montagna, P; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Lomidze, D; Bagaturia, I; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon group built several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data.

  5. The First Running Period of the CMS Detector Controls System - A Success Story

    CERN Document Server

    Glege, F; Chaze, O; Cittolin, S; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, C; Dobson, M; Gigi, D; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, C; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Morovic, S; Nunez-Barranco-Fernandez, C; Orsini, L; Ozga, W; Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Branson, J; Holzner, A; Erhan, S; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, V

    2014-01-01

    The Detector Control System (DCS) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has been running since the ?rst detector test in summer 2006. It has proven to be robust, ef?cient and easy to maintain.

  6. Subinhibitory concentration of kanamycin induces the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerith Jones

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium found in natural environments including plants, soils and warm moist surfaces. This organism is also in the top ten of nosocomial pathogens, and prevalent in cystic fibrosis (CF lung infections. The ability of P. aeruginosa to colonize a wide variety of environments in a lasting manner is associated with the formation of a resistant biofilm and the capacity to efficiently outcompete other microorganisms. Here we demonstrate that sub-inhibitory concentration of kanamycin not only induces biofilm formation but also induces expression of the type VI secretion genes in the H1-T6SS cluster. The H1-T6SS is known for its role in toxin production and bacterial competition. We show that the antibiotic induction of the H1-T6SS only occurs when a functional Gac/Rsm pathway is present. These observations may contribute to understand how P. aeruginosa responds to antibiotic producing competitors. It also suggests that improper antibiotic therapy may enhance P. aeruginosa colonization, including in the airways of CF patients.

  7. Configuration of gamma detectors in a neutron interrogation system for detection of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, M R; Mostaar, A; Nadali-Varkani, J

    2017-10-26

    This paper investigates the use of a suitable gamma detector array to increase the detectably of explosives in a prompt-gammas neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-4C) were used for analyzing the system. It was found that the system's performance is enhanced by the use of four detectors: three of the are located on the same side as the neutron source and the fourth on the opposite side. Signature-based radiation-scanning, with nine signatures for each detector, is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  9. Compensating for Channel Fading in DS-CDMA Communication Systems Employing ICA Neural Network Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Overbye

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the impact of channel fading on the bit error rate of a DS-CDMA communication system. The system employs detectors that incorporate neural networks effecting methods of independent component analysis (ICA, subspace estimation of channel noise, and Hopfield type neural networks. The Rayleigh fading channel model is used. When employed in a Rayleigh fading environment, the ICA neural network detectors that give superior performance in a flat fading channel did not retain this superior performance. We then present a new method of compensating for channel fading based on the incorporation of priors in the ICA neural network learning algorithms. When the ICA neural network detectors were compensated using the incorporation of priors, they give significantly better performance than the traditional detectors and the uncompensated ICA detectors. Keywords: CDMA, Multi-user Detection, Rayleigh Fading, Multipath Detection, Independent Component Analysis, Prior Probability Hebbian Learning, Natural Gradient

  10. Front-end I/O of the ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart, Helfried J

    1999-01-01

    The importance of using a powerful Detector Control System (DCS) has much increased with the size and complexity of High-Energy Physics detectors. The generation of detectors for the LHC experiments puts further requirements onto the front-end I/O system due to the inaccessibility of the equipment and the hostile environment concerning radiation and magnetic field. Novel techniques such as fieldbuses for distributed input/output and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for closed loop control have to be employed. These represent the layer closest to the detector of a hierarchically organized multi-layer DCS. After an introduction of the organization of the ATLAS detector and of the concept and the architecture of DCS the paper will concentrate on the usage of fieldbuses as front-end I/O bus with special emphasis on industrial standards of hardware and software.

  11. CFD-based design of the ventilation system for the PHENIX detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parietti, L.; Martin, R.A.; Gregory, W.S.

    1996-10-01

    The three-dimensional flow and thermal fields surrounding the large PHENIX sub-atomic particle detector enclosed in the Major Facility Hall are simulated numerically in this study using the CFX finite volume, commercial, computer code. The predicted fields result from the interaction of an imposed downward ventilation system cooling flow and a buoyancy-driven thermal plume rising from the warm detector. An understanding of the thermal irregularities on the surface of the detector and in the flow surrounding is needed to assess the potential for adverse thermal expansion effects in detector subsystems, and to prevent ingestion of electronics cooling air from hot spots. With a computational model of the thermal fields on and surrounding the detector, HVAC engineers can evaluate and improve the ventilation system design prior to the start of construction. This paper summarizes modeling and results obtained for a conceptual MFH ventilation scheme.

  12. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ingo@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. B-Plant D-Filter detector system qualification test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes the results of qualification testing of the B Plant D-Filter Detector System. The purpose of this test was to verify that the system meets the performance requirements and that the unit is ready for field deployment. Testing was performed in the test pit in the 306E Facility. This detector system will be deployed in the B Plant D-Filter to measure beta/gamma dose rates from the filter bank.

  15. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  16. Calibration of a detector system for solar energetic particles analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jose; Delperal, L.; Sanchez, S.; Meziat, D.

    1992-09-01

    The heavy ions calibration of a detector telescope is presented. The telescope is able to study solar energetic particles from helium to iron up to an energy of 50 MeV/nucleon. The telescope consists of four silicon surfer barrier circular detectors with a 40 degree aperture angle. The calibration was performed in the VICKS (German acronym for Van der Graaf isochron cyclotron combination for heavy ions) accelerator with a 795 MeV ion beam. The raw data, charge and mass spectra are presented, concluding a suitable resolution in charge and mass for registered fragments.

  17. Over-expression of superoxide dismutase ameliorates Cr(VI induced adverse effects via modulating cellular immune system of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Pragya

    Full Text Available The evolutionarily conserved innate immune system plays critical role for maintaining the health of an organism. However, a number of environmental chemicals including metals are known to exert adverse effects on immune system. The present study assessed the in vivo effect of a major environmental chemical, Cr(VI, on cellular immune response using Drosophila melanogaster and subsequently the protective role of superoxide dismutase (SOD based on the comparable performance of the tested anti-oxidant enzymes. The immuno-modulatory potential of Cr(VI was demonstrated by observing a significant reduction in the total hemocyte count along with impaired phagocytic activity in exposed organism. Concurrently, a significant increase in the percentage of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, activation of DEVDase activity, generation of free radical species along with inhibition of anti-oxidant enzyme activities was observed in the hemocytes of exposed organism. In addition, we have shown that ONOO(- is primarily responsible for Cr(VI induced adverse effects on Drosophila hemocytes along with O2(-. While generation of O2(-/ONOO(- in Cr(VI exposed Drosophila hemocytes was found to be responsible for the suppression of Drosophila cellular immune response, Cr(VI induced alteration was significantly reduced by the over-expression of sod in Drosophila hemocytes. Overall, our results suggest that manipulation of one of the anti-oxidant genes, sod, benefits the organism from Cr(VI induced alteration in cellular immunity. Further, this study demonstrates the applicability of D. melanogaster to examine the possible effects of environmental chemicals on innate immunity which can be extrapolated to higher organisms due to evolutionary conservation of innate immune system between Drosophila and mammals.

  18. Unraveling the Long-Term Effects of Cr(VI on the Performance and Microbial Community of Nitrifying Activated Sludge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of different influent Cr(VI concentrations (0–0.5 mg L−1 on the nitrification activities and microbial community structures of nitrifying activated sludge system were investigated in this study. Results showed that the performance of ammonia oxidation was significantly inhibited, and the effluent concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N increased markedly when the influent Cr(VI loading was equal or greater than 0.2 mg L−1. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR, specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR, and specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR of the system decreased from 53.24, 6.31, and 7.33 mg N g−1 VSS h−1 to 18.17, 1.68, and 2.88 mg N g−1 VSS h−1, respectively, with an increase of Cr(VI concentration from 0 to 0.5 mg L−1. The protein/polysaccharide (PN/PS ratio increased with the increasing Cr(VI concentration, indicating that excessive PN secreted by microorganisms was conducive to resisting the toxicity of Cr(VI. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira all decreased with the increasing Cr(VI concentration, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more sensitive to heavy metal toxicity than nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The activities of nitrifying activated sludge system could not be completely recovered after a 30-d recovery process.

  19. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The filling is aborted if the software detects any hardware malfunction and an alarm is sounded. A simplified flow chart of the control program for the filling of the first six detectors is shown in figure 3. A LINUX based program has now been developed with graphical user interface. It uses client-server protocol to communicate ...

  20. Shielding optimization studies for the detector systems of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    Preliminary shielding optimization studies for the Superconducting Super Collider`s Solenoidal Detector Collaboration detector system were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993. The objective of the study was to reduce the neutron and gamma-ray fluxes leaving the shield to a level that resulted in insignificant effects on the functionality of the detector system. Steel and two types of concrete were considered as components of the shield, and the shield was optimized according to thickness, weight, and cost. Significant differences in the thicknesses, weights, and costs were noted for the three optimization parameters. Results from the study are presented.

  1. Maintenance and development of the NA61/SHINE Detector Control System (DCS)

    CERN Document Server

    Brylinski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the summary of my CERN Summer Student project. The main goal of my stay was the development of some parts of Detector Control System responsible for gas parameters, atmospheric conditions and drift velocity measurements.

  2. The upgrade for the data acquisition system of the KOTO detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tecchio, M., E-mail: tecchio@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beechert, J.; Campbell, M. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Huff, M. [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH (United States); Micallef, J.; Rymph, C.; Schamis, H.; Su, S. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Xu, J. [Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA (United States)

    2016-07-11

    A major upgrade to the KOTO detector data acquisition system based on the ATCA standard is being considered. The ATCA standard provides a natural solution to the current KOTO constraints, including communication between boards and higher input and output bandwidth.

  3. Real-time operating system for a multi-laser/multi-detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-one hazard detector system, used on the Rensselaer Mars rover, is reviewed briefly with respect to the hardware subsystems, the operation, and the results obtained. A multidetector scanning system was designed to improve on the original system. Interactive support software was designed and programmed to implement real time control of the rover or platform with the elevation scanning mast. The formats of both the raw data and the post-run data files were selected. In addition, the interface requirements were selected and some initial hardware-software testing was completed.

  4. Solid-State Neutron Multiplicity Counting System Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhdestvenskyy, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This work iterates on the first demonstration of a solid-state neutron multiplicity counting system developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by using commercial off-the-shelf detectors. The system was demonstrated to determine the mass of a californium-252 neutron source within 20% error requiring only one-hour measurement time with 20 cm2 of active detector area.

  5. A Positron CT Camera System Using Multiwire Proportional Chambers as Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-18

    Beijing) Abstract This article reports on a positron computerized tomography camera syste:. using 7ultiwire proportional chambers ( MWPC ) as detectors...This system is composed of two high-density MWPC gamma-ray detectors, an electronic readout system and a computer foi data piocessing. Three...proportional chamber ( MWPC ) PECT is directly used in the field of solid body investigation in physics to measure Fermi surfaces as well as to determine Lhe

  6. Multiagent Intrusion Detection Based on Neural Network Detectors and Artificial Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitsekhovich, L.; Golovko, V; Rubanau, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the artificial immune system and neural network techniques for intrusion detection have been addressed. The AIS allows detecting unknown samples of computer attacks. The integration of AIS and neural networks as detectors permits to increase performance of the system security. The detector structure is based on the integration of the different neural networks namely RNN and MLP. The KDD-99 dataset was used for experiments performing. The experimental results show that such int...

  7. Systematic Comparison of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Anatael [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Queen' s College

    2005-06-22

    The MINOS experiment is a neutrino oscillation baseline experiment intending to use high resolution L/E neutrinos to measure the atmospheric neutrino oscillations parameters to unprecedented precision. Two detectors have been built to realize the measurements, a Near detector, located about 1km downstream from the beam target at the Fermi Laboratory, and a Far detector, located at 736km, at the Soudan Laboratory. The technique relies on the Near detector to measure the un-oscillated neutrino spectrum, while the Far detector measures the neutrino spectrum once oscillated. The comparison between the two measurements is expected to allow MINOS to measure Δm2 beyond 10% precision level. The Near and Far detectors have been built similarly to minimize possible systematic effects. Both detectors have been endowed with different readout systems, as the beam event rates are very different. The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet), installed at CERN, was instrumented with both readout systems such that they can simultaneously measure and characterize the energy deposition (response and event topology) of incident known particle from test-beams. This thesis presents the investigations to quantify the impact of the performance of both readout systems on the MINOS results using the measurements obtained with CalDet. The relative comparison of the responses of both readout systems have been measured to be consistent with being identical within a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The event topologies have been found to be negligibly affected. In addition, the performance of the detector simulations have been thoroughly investigated and validated to be in agreement with data within similar level of uncertainties.

  8. Spatial characterisation of a 36-fold segmented AGATA detector via a novel scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Namita

    2011-06-06

    The core principle of segmented gamma-tracking germanium detector arrays like AGATA and GRETA, that will be used in future for 4{pi} gamma detection, is the application of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The 3D position sensitivity of the HPGe detectors is based on differences in the shape of the charge pulses associated with different interaction points inside the whole volume. It is therefore necessary for this analysis to have a data base containing pulses for all the interaction points inside the detector volume. A full 3D scanning of the detectors, which experimentally determines pulse shapes for each position inside the active volume, is therefore needed. In this thesis, a novel scanning system is presented to determine the HPGe detector pulse shapes as a function of the {gamma}-ray interaction position inside the detector. The device is based on a pulse shape comparison scan (PSCS) and the positron annihilation correlation (PAC) method which makes it about 100 times faster than the conventional coincidence based scanners. The performance and efficiency of the system is superior because of using a position sensitive detector (PSD)/gamma camera. It consists of a LYSO scintillating crystal optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The individual multianode readout (IMAR) approach is used to achieve a spatial resolution of {approx}1 mm and to optimize its field of view to {approx}28 cm{sup 2}. A Compton scattering imaging technique is implemented to perform an accurate position calibration of the gamma camera. The employment of PSD yields an added advantage of imaging capability which allows to study e.g. the details of the inner structure of HPGe detectors and electric field anisotropy effects. The position response of a planar HPGe detector is obtained using the apparatus and the risetime distribution plots are compared with those obtained via a conventional scanning system. However, to validate the aforementioned scanning principle, an AGATA

  9. The Type VI Secretion System Engages a Redox-Regulated Dual-Functional Heme Transporter for Zinc Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiru Si

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system was recently reported to be involved in zinc acquisition, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that Burkholderia thailandensis T6SS4 is involved in zinc acquisition via secretion of a zinc-scavenging protein, TseZ, that interacts with the outer membrane heme transporter HmuR. We find that HmuR is a redox-regulated dual-functional transporter that transports heme iron under normal conditions but zinc upon sensing extracellular oxidative stress, triggered by formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. Acting as the first line of defense against oxidative stress, HmuR not only guarantees an immediate response to the changing environment but also provides a fine-tuned mechanism that allows a gradual response to perceived stress. The T6SS/HmuR-mediated active zinc transport system is also involved in bacterial virulence and contact-independent bacterial competition. We describe a sophisticated bacterial zinc acquisition mechanism affording insights into the role of metal ion transport systems.

  10. The electronics and data acquisition system for the DarkSide-50 veto detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Pietro, G. Di; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    DarkSide-50 is a detector for dark matter candidates in the form of weakly interacting massive particles. It utilizes a liquid argon time projection chamber for the inner main detector, surrounded by a liquid scintillator veto (LSV) and a water Cherenkov veto detector (WCV). The LSV and WCV act as the neutron and cosmogenic muon veto detectors for DarkSide-50. This paper describes the electronics and data acquisition system used for these two detectors. The system is made of a custom built front end electronics and commercial National Instruments high speed digitizers. The front end electronics, the DAQ, and the trigger system have been used to acquire data in the form of zero-suppressed waveform samples from the 110 PMTs of the LSV and the 80 PMTs of the WCV. The veto DAQ system has proven its performance and reliability. This electronics and DAQ system can be scaled and used as it is for the veto of the next generation DarkSide-20k detector. Abstract (arXiv)

  11. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  12. Autonomous Rubidium Clock Weak Frequency Jump Detector for Onboard Navigation Satellite System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Akshay; Arora, Rajat; Banik, Alak; Mehta, Sanjay D

    2016-02-01

    Frequency jumps are common in rubidium frequency sources. They affect the estimation of user position in navigational satellite systems. These jumps must be detected and corrected immediately as they have direct impact on the navigation system integrity. A novel weak frequency jump detector is proposed based on a Kalman filter with a multi-interval approach. This detector can be applied for both "sudden" and "slow" frequency transitions. In this detection method, noises of clock data are reduced by Kalman filtering, for accurate estimation of jump size with less latency. Analysis on in-orbit rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS) phase telemetry data shows that the detector can be used for fast detection and correction of weak frequency jumps. Furthermore, performance comparison of different existing frequency jump detection techniques with the proposed detector is discussed. A multialgorithm-based strategy is proposed depending on the jump size and latency for onboard navigation satellites having RAFS as the primary frequency source.

  13. Binary selectable detector holdoff circuit: Design, testing, and application. [to laser radar data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    A very high speed switching circuit, part of a laser radar data acquisition system, has been designed and tested. The primary function of this circuit was to provide computer controlled switching of photodiode detector preamplifier power supply voltages, typically less than plus or minus 20 volts, in approximately 10 nanoseconds. Thus, in actual use, detector and/or detector preamplifier damage can be avoided as a result of sudden extremely large values of backscattered radiation being detected, such as might be due to short range, very thin atmospheric dust layers. Switching of the power supply voltages was chosen over direct switching the photodiode detector input to the preamplifier, based on system noise considerations. Also, the circuit provides a synchronized trigger pulse output for triggering devices such as the Biomation Model 8100 100 MHz analog to digital converter.

  14. Studies for the detector control system of the ATLAS pixel at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Püllen, L; Boek, J; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Zeitnitz, C

    2012-01-01

    experiment will be replaced completely. As part of this redesign there will also be a new pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a control system which meets the strict space requirements for electronics in the ATLAS experiment. To accomplish this goal we propose a DCS (Detector Control System) network with the smallest form factor currently available. This network consists of a DCS chip located in close proximity to the interaction point and a DCS controller located in the outer regions of the ATLAS detector. These two types of chips form a star shaped network with several DCS chips being controlled by one DCS controller. Both chips are manufactured in deep sub-micron technology. We present prototypes with emphasis on studies concerning single event upsets.

  15. The power supply system for the DEPFET pixel detector at BELLE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Stefan; Depfet Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the KEKB accelerator towards 8×1035 cm-2 s-1 poses several challenges for the BELLE II detector. Especially the innermost detector will be faced with a significant radiation of several MRad per year as well as a high hit density. To cope with this a silicon pixel detector will be used for the inner layers of the silicon tracker. The pixel detector (PXD) consists of two layers of DEPFET active pixel sensors. The DEPFET technology has an unique set of advantages like low power dissipation in the active area, flexible device size, radiation hardness and a thinning procedure allowing to adjust the thickness of the device over a wide range. The two layers close to the interaction point together with a low material budget will improve the IP resolution by a factor of 2 compared to the previous installed silicon detector. In addition silicon stand-alone pattern recognition will be possible together with the four layers of double sided strip detectors (DSSD) of the strip detector. The PXD detector system consists of the DEPFET modules with integrated readout chips, the data handling hybrid receiving the data and sending them to compute nodes performing an online pattern recognition. Moreover the power supply system provides the supply voltages for the DEPFET from a position outside of the detector. The power distribution is designed to provide low output impedance over all frequencies and transient response with appropriate overshoots. The PXD pose several challenges to the power distribution system—number of voltages, tight requirements on regulation and noise.

  16. A Type VI secretion system encoding locus is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica immunomodulation and persistence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Weyrich

    Full Text Available Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SSs have been identified in numerous gram-negative pathogens, but the lack of a natural host infection model has limited analysis of T6SS contributions to infection and pathogenesis. Here, we describe disruption of a gene within locus encoding a putative T6SS in Bordetella bronchiseptica strain RB50, a respiratory pathogen that circulates in a broad range of mammals, including humans, domestic animals, and mice. The 26 gene locus encoding the B. bronchiseptica T6SS contains apparent orthologs to all known core genes and possesses thirteen novel genes. By generating an in frame deletion of clpV, which encodes a putative ATPase required for some T6SS-dependent protein secretion, we observe that ClpV contributes to in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity while inducing several eukaryotic proteins associated with apoptosis. Additionally, ClpV is required for induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 production in J774 macrophages infected with RB50. During infections in wild type mice, we determined that ClpV contributes to altered cytokine production, increased pathology, delayed lower respiratory tract clearance, and long term nasal cavity persistence. Together, these results reveal a natural host infection system in which to interrogate T6SS contributions to immunomodulation and pathogenesis.

  17. The Role of Type VI Secretion System Effectors in Target Cell Lysis and Subsequent Horizontal Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Peter David; Hu, Di; Basler, Marek

    2017-12-26

    Bacteria use type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to manipulate host cells during pathogenesis or to kill competing bacteria, which, in some cases, increases horizontal gene transfer. These functions largely depend on T6SS regulation, dynamics, and the set of effectors that the system delivers into the target cells. Here, we show that Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 assembles a highly dynamic T6SS capable of killing and lysing bacterial cells. T6SS function depends on conserved T6SS components as well as Acinetobacter-specific genes of unknown function. Five different effectors, encoded next to VgrG or PAAR proteins and their cognate immunity proteins, cause distinct changes in the prey cells, resulting in various degrees of their lysis. Prey lysis correlates with the rate of DNA transfer from prey to predator, suggesting that lytic effectors are required for efficient T6SS-dependent horizontal gene transfer in naturally competent bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A charged aerosol detector/chemiluminescent nitrogen detector/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system for regular and fragment compound analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutao; Hascall, Daniel; Li, Delia; Pease, Joseph H

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we introduce a high throughput LCMS/UV/CAD/CLND system that improves upon previously reported systems by increasing both the quantitation accuracy and the range of compounds amenable to testing, in particular, low molecular weight "fragment" compounds. This system consists of a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) added to a LCMS/UV system. Our results show that the addition of CAD and CLND to LCMS/UV is more reliable for concentration determination for a wider range of compounds than either detector alone. Our setup also allows for the parallel analysis of each sample by all four detectors and so does not significantly increase run time per sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transit timing observations from Kepler. VI. Potentially interesting candidate systems from fourier-based statistical tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, J.H.; Ford, E.B.; Rowe, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify...... several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies....

  20. BaBar: A new detector for studying CP violation in the B system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, Roy

    2003-06-17

    A new detector for investigating the CP violation mechanism in the B meson system is being built and is scheduled to take data at PEP II, the asymmetric B Factory in construction at SLAC, at the end of this century. Its main characteristics are briefly overviewed in this paper. Its sensitivity for measuring CP violation in some selected B decays is also discussed, underlining the great potential of this detector to accomplish a comprehensive study of this phenomenon.

  1. BaBar: a new detector for studying CP violation in the B system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, R.

    1995-09-01

    A new detector for investigating the CP violation mechanism in the B meson system is being built and is scheduled to take data at PEP II, the asymmetric B Factory in construction at SLAC, at the end of this century. Its main characteristics are briefly overviewed in this paper. Its sensitivity for measuring CP violation in some selected B decays is also discussed, underlining the great potential of this detector to accomplish a comprehensive study of this phenomenon. (author). 20 refs.

  2. Detector control system and efficiency performance for CMS RPC at GIF++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, M.; Gonzalez Blanco, G.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Rios, A. A. O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Doninck, W. V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Asghar, M. I.; Muhammad, S.; Awan, I. M.; Hoorani, H. R.; Ahmed, W.; Shahzad, H.; Shah, M. A.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S. Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Kim, M. S.; Goutzvitz, M.; Grenier, G.; Lagarde, F.; Lagarde, F.; Estrada, C. U.; Pedraza, I.; Severiano, C. B.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L. M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Orso, I.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Lomidze, D.; Bagaturia, I.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon group built several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System (DCS) has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data. Preliminary efficiency studies that set the base performance measurements of CMS RPC for starting aging studies are also presented.

  3. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Cr(VI) transport via a supported ionic liquid membrane containing CYPHOS IL101 as carrier: system analysis and optimization through experimental design strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Vital, Xóchitl; de Gyves, Josefina

    2014-05-30

    Chromium(VI) transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system containing the commercial ionic liquid CYPHOS IL101 as carrier was studied. A reducing stripping phase was used as a mean to increase recovery and to simultaneously transform Cr(VI) into a less toxic residue for disposal or reuse. General functions which describe the time-depending evolution of the metal fractions in the cell compartments were defined and used in data evaluation. An experimental design strategy, using factorial and central-composite design matrices, was applied to assess the influence of the extractant, NaOH and citrate concentrations in the different phases, while a desirability function scheme allowed the synchronized optimization of depletion and recovery of the analyte. The mechanism for chromium permeation was analyzed and discussed to contribute to the understanding of the transfer process. The influence of metal concentration was evaluated as well. The presence of different interfering ions (Ca(2+), Al(3+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) at several Cr(VI): interfering ion ratios was studied through the use of a Plackett and Burman experimental design matrix. Under optimized conditions 90% of recovery was obtained from a feed solution containing 7mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) in 0.01moldm(-3) HCl medium after 5h of pertraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  6. LHCb : Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  7. The Control System for a new Pixel Detector at the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boek, J; Henß, T; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Zeitnitz, C

    2009-01-01

    For the upgrade of the LHC, the sLHC (super Large Hadron Collider), a new ATLAS Pixel Detector is planned, which will require a completely new control system. To reduce the material budget new power distribution schemes are under investigation, where the active power conversion is located inside the detector volume. Such a new power supply system will need new control strategies. Parts of the control must be located closer to the loads. The minimization of mass, the demand for less cables and the re-use of the outer existing services are the main restrictions to the design of the control system. The requirements of the DCS (Detector Control System) and a first concept will be presented. We will focus on a control chip which necessarily has to be implemented in the new system. A setup of discrete components has been built up to investigate and verify the chip’s requirements. We report on the status of the work.

  8. Characterization of IcmF of the type VI secretion system in an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pace, Fernanda; Boldrin de Paiva, Jacqueline; Nakazato, Gerson; Lancellotti, Marcelo; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Guedes Stehling, Eliana; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2011-10-01

    The intracellular multiplication factor (IcmF) protein is a component of the recently described type VI secretion system (T6SS). IcmF has been shown to be required for intra-macrophage replication and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion in Legionella pneumophila. In Vibrio cholerae it is involved in motility, adherence and conjugation. Given that we previously reported that two T6SS genes (hcp and clpV) contribute to the pathogenesis of a septicaemic strain (SEPT362) of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), we investigated the function of IcmF in this strain. Further elucidation of the virulence mechanisms of APEC is important because this pathogen is responsible for financial losses in the poultry industry, and is closely related to human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains, representing a potential zoonotic risk, as well as serving as a reservoir of virulence genes. Here we show that an APEC icmF mutant has decreased adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells, as well as decreased intra-macrophage survival. The icmF mutant is also defective for biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, expression of the flagella operon is decreased in the icmF mutant, leading to decreased motility. The combination of these phenotypes culminates in this mutant being altered for infection in chicks. These results suggest that IcmF in APEC may play a role in disease, and potentially also in the epidemiological spread of this pathogen through enhancement of biofilm formation.

  9. Type VI secretion system contributes to Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence by secreting catalase against host reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Baoshan; Zhang, Qiufen; Ni, Jinjing; Li, Shuxian; Wen, Donghua; Li, Jun; Xiao, Haihan; He, Ping; Ou, Hong-Yu; Tao, Jing; Teng, Qihui; Lu, Jie; Wu, Wenjuan; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one major type of contagious and foodborne pathogens. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been shown to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity and bacteria-bacteria competition. Here, we show that EHEC could secrete a novel effector KatN, a Mn-containing catalase, in a T6SS-dependent manner. Expression of katN is promoted by RpoS and OxyR and repressed by H-NS, and katN contributes to bacterial growth under oxidative stress in vitro. KatN could be secreted into host cell cytosol after EHEC is phagocytized by macrophage, which leads to decreased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and facilitates the intramacrophage survival of EHEC. Finally, animal model results show that the deletion mutant of T6SS was attenuated in virulence compared with the wild type strain, while the deletion mutant of katN had comparable virulence to the wild type strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that EHEC could sense oxidative stress in phagosome and decrease the host cell ROS by secreting catalase KatN to facilitate its survival in the host cells.

  10. Structure of a Peptidoglycan Amidase Effector Targeted to Gram-Negative Bacteria by the Type VI Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemay Chou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The target range of a bacterial secretion system can be defined by effector substrate specificity or by the efficacy of effector delivery. Here, we report the crystal structure of Tse1, a type VI secretion (T6S bacteriolytic amidase effector from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Consistent with its role as a toxin, Tse1 has a more accessible active site than related housekeeping enzymes. The activity of Tse1 against isolated peptidoglycan shows its capacity to act broadly against Gram-negative bacteria and even certain Gram-positive species. Studies with intact cells indicate that Gram-positive bacteria can remain vulnerable to Tse1 despite cell wall modifications. However, interbacterial competition studies demonstrate that Tse1-dependent lysis is restricted to Gram-negative targets. We propose that the previously observed specificity for T6S against Gram-negative bacteria is a consequence of high local effector concentration achieved by T6S-dependent targeting to its site of action rather than inherent effector substrate specificity.

  11. Type VI secretion system contributes to Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence by secreting catalase against host reactive oxygen species (ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC is one major type of contagious and foodborne pathogens. The type VI secretion system (T6SS has been shown to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity and bacteria-bacteria competition. Here, we show that EHEC could secrete a novel effector KatN, a Mn-containing catalase, in a T6SS-dependent manner. Expression of katN is promoted by RpoS and OxyR and repressed by H-NS, and katN contributes to bacterial growth under oxidative stress in vitro. KatN could be secreted into host cell cytosol after EHEC is phagocytized by macrophage, which leads to decreased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and facilitates the intramacrophage survival of EHEC. Finally, animal model results show that the deletion mutant of T6SS was attenuated in virulence compared with the wild type strain, while the deletion mutant of katN had comparable virulence to the wild type strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that EHEC could sense oxidative stress in phagosome and decrease the host cell ROS by secreting catalase KatN to facilitate its survival in the host cells.

  12. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Feed Flow Loop Phase VI: PulseEcho System Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.

    2012-11-21

    This document presents the visual and ultrasonic PulseEcho critical velocity test results obtained from the System Performance test campaign that was completed in September 2012 with the Remote Sampler Demonstration (RSD)/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform located at the Monarch test facility in Pasco, Washington. This report is intended to complement and accompany the report that will be developed by WRPS on the design of the System Performance simulant matrix, the analysis of the slurry test sample concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) data, and the design and construction of the RSD/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform.

  13. [Preliminary design for a VI system combining the voice acoustic analyzing and glottal image analyzing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Liu, Yan; Cai, Xiaolan; Li, Qiao; Meng, Yan; Xu, Xin; Sun, Wenhong; Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xin; Qi, Yan

    2008-04-01

    This work is directed at developing a virtual instrument system as an accessorial diagnostic instrument for laryngeal diseases. Programmed with LabWindows/CVI, the system combines the voice acoustic analyzing function with the glottal image measuring function. The voice acoustic analyzing system can sample, store and replay vocal signals; can extract and analyze parameters, including fundamental frequency (F0), frequency perturbation quotient (FPQ), amplitude perturbation quotient(APQ), harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter frequency (JF), Shimmer; and can do 3D sound graph analysis. The glottal image analyzing system can sample and store the image observed by the laryngostroboscope; can display any phase in one cycle of the vibration of the vocal cords or a slow and continuous movement of vibrating vocal cords; can snap and save the diagnostic frame of image; and can extract the parameters of the image such as the length and area of the glottis, the length and area of the vocal cords and the diseased part.

  14. ENC Measurement for ASIC Preamp Board as a Detector Module for PET System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nagara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a gamma ray detector with an LuAG:Pr scintillator and an avalanche photodiode as a detector for a positron emission tomography (PET system. Studies have been performed on the influences of gamma irradiation on application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC preamp boards used as a detector module. As a device used in nuclear environments for substantial durations, the ASIC has to have a lifetime long enough to ensure that there will be a negligible failure rate during this period. These front-end systems must meet the requirements for standard positron emission tomography (PET systems. Therefore, an equivalent noise charge (ENC experiment is needed to measure the front-end system's characteristics. This study showed that minimum ENC conditions can be achieved if a shorter shaping time could be applied.

  15. High availability through full redundancy of the CMS detector controls system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Gerry; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS detector control system (DCS) is responsible for controlling and monitoring the detector status and for the operation of all CMS sub detectors and infrastructure. This is required to ensure safe and efficient data taking so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The current system architecture is composed of more than 100 servers in order to provide the required processing resources. An optimization of the system software and hardware architecture is under development to ensure redundancy of all the controlled subsystems and to reduce any downtime due to hardware or software failures. The new optimized structure is based mainly on powerful and highly reliable blade servers and makes use of a fully redundant approach, guaranteeing high availability and reliability. The analysis of the requirements, the challenges, the improvements and the optimized system architecture as well as its specific hardware and software solutions are presented.

  16. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei cluster 1 type VI secretion system gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM) were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G) or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG) facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG) did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

  17. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei cluster 1 type VI secretion system gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N Burtnick

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1 expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

  18. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Cluster 1 Type VI Secretion System Gene Expression Is Negatively Regulated by Iron and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N.; Brett, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM) were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G) or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG) facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG) did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc. PMID:24146925

  19. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Kock Kiam

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  20. Inorganic scintillators for detector systems physical principles and crystal engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, Paul; Korzhik, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    This second edition features new chapters highlighting advances in our understanding of the behavior and properties of scintillators, and the discovery of new families of materials with light yield and excellent energy resolution very close to the theoretical limit. The book focuses on the discovery of next-generation scintillation materials and on a deeper understanding of fundamental processes. Such novel materials with high light yield as well as significant advances in crystal engineering offer exciting new perspectives. Most promising is the application of scintillators for precise time tagging of events, at the level of 100 ps or higher, heralding a new era in medical applications and particle physics. Since the discovery of the Higgs Boson with a clear signature in the lead tungstate scintillating blocks of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter detector, the current trend in particle physics is toward very high luminosity colliders, in which timing performance will ultimately be essential to mitigating...

  1. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  2. A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Giovanni; Tagnani, Diego; 10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.166

    2007-01-01

    A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector has been designed and realized in Frascati within the LHCb muon detector framework. The system is built with seven floating power supply, with a maximum of 1200 V each, and controlled via CANbus, for voltage settings and monitoring. Several HV modules can be installed in a nano-ammeter mainframe already developed in Frascati, realizing a HV crate able to supply up to 24 triple GEM chambers with a 1 nA resolution monitoring system.

  3. Effect of detector noise on the positioning accuracy of an autofocus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caber, P J; Cohen, D K

    1992-11-01

    An autofocus system has been developed that automatically detects the presence of fringes in a white-light interference microscope and adjusts the vertical position of the microscope objective such that the focus error is minimal. The system consists of a motorized stage, a beam splitter, an optical detector, and associated electronics. In order for the interference microscope to provide accurate measurements of the optical wavefront, the error in the focus position must be small. The goal of this paper is to calculate the rms noise produced by the detector and electronics and use the results to predict the positioning error of the autofocus system.

  4. Beam test of a prototype read-out system for precision tracking detectors at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Millmore, M; Gill, K; Hall, G; Howell, G; Jones, L; Langhans, W A; MacEvoy, B C; Matheson, J; Payne, R; Raymond, M; Stefanini, G; Vasey, F; Vitè, Davide F; Watts, S; Wheadon, R

    1996-01-01

    A prototype of a read-out system developed for high spatial precision tracking detectors at LHC has been tested in a beam at CERN. It is based on a radiation hard CMOS front end chip which includes signal amplification, storage in an analogue delay line and a deconvolution filter. Data were transferred from the front-end chip using an analogue fibre optic link emplouing a novel reflective electro-optic modulator and continuous laser light source remote from the detector. This is the first time such a system has been used in an experimental environment and is the basis of the system proposed for the CMS experiment at LHC.

  5. A wireless sensor network-based portable vehicle detector evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong-eun

    2013-01-17

    In an upcoming smart transportation environment, performance evaluations of existing Vehicle Detection Systems are crucial to maintain their accuracy. The existing evaluation method for Vehicle Detection Systems is based on a wired Vehicle Detection System reference and a video recorder, which must be operated and analyzed by capable traffic experts. However, this conventional evaluation system has many disadvantages. It is inconvenient to deploy, the evaluation takes a long time, and it lacks scalability and objectivity. To improve the evaluation procedure, this paper proposes a Portable Vehicle Detector Evaluation System based on wireless sensor networks. We describe both the architecture and design of a Vehicle Detector Evaluation System and the implementation results, focusing on the wireless sensor networks and methods for traffic information measurement. With the help of wireless sensor networks and automated analysis, our Vehicle Detector Evaluation System can evaluate a Vehicle Detection System conveniently and objectively. The extensive evaluations of our Vehicle Detector Evaluation System show that it can measure the traffic information such as volume counts and speed with over 98% accuracy.

  6. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  7. A Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanism Finely Tunes the Firing of Type VI Secretion System in Response to Bacterial Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Martina; Feldman, Mario F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to detect and measure danger from an environmental signal is paramount for bacteria to respond accordingly, deploying strategies that halt or counteract potential cellular injury and maximize survival chances. Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are complex bacterial contractile nanomachines able to target toxic effectors into neighboring bacteria competing for the same colonization niche. Previous studies support the concept that either T6SSs are constitutively active or they fire effectors in response to various stimuli, such as high bacterial density, cell-cell contact, nutrient depletion, or components from dead sibling cells. For Serratia marcescens, it has been proposed that its T6SS is stochastically expressed, with no distinction between harmless or aggressive competitors. In contrast, we demonstrate that the Rcs regulatory system is responsible for finely tuning Serratia T6SS expression levels, behaving as a transcriptional rheostat. When confronted with harmless bacteria, basal T6SS expression levels suffice for Serratia to eliminate the competitor. A moderate T6SS upregulation is triggered when, according to the aggressor-prey ratio, an unbalanced interplay between homologous and heterologous effectors and immunity proteins takes place. Higher T6SS expression levels are achieved when Serratia is challenged by a contender like Acinetobacter, which indiscriminately fires heterologous effectors able to exert lethal cellular harm, threatening the survival of the Serratia population. We also demonstrate that Serratia’s RcsB-dependent T6SS regulatory mechanism responds not to general stress signals but to the action of specific effectors from competitors, displaying an exquisite strategy to weigh risks and keep the balance between energy expenditure and fitness costs. PMID:28830939

  8. Performance Test for Neutron Detector and Associated System using Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Park, Sung Jae; Cho, Man Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Hyun [USERS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SPND (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) has been developed to extend its lifespan. ENFMS (Ex-Core Flux Monitoring System) of pressurized water reactor has been also improved. After the development and improvement, their performance must be verified under the neutron irradiation environment. We used a research reactor for the performance verification of neutron detector and associated system because the research reactor can meet the neutron flux level of commercial nuclear reactor. In this paper, we report the performance verification method and result for the SPND and ENFMS using the research reactor. The performance tests for the SPND and ENFMS were conducted using UCI TRIGA reactor. The test environment of commercial reactor’s neutron flux level must be required. However, it is difficult to perform the test in the commercial rector due to the constraint of time and space. The research reactor can be good alternative neutron source for the test of neutron detectors and associated system.

  9. Performance of the RASNIK Optical Alignment Monitoring System for the LHCb Outer Tracker Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Szczekowski, Marek; Ukleja, Artur; Pellegrino, Antonio; Hart, Robert; Syryczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    We present the results collected by an optical system for position control of the Outer Tracker detector stations in the LHCb experiment. This system has been constructed using the RASNIK three-point alignment monitors. The measurements are based on data taken in Run 2 of LHC.

  10. The BaBar LST Detector High Voltage System: Design And Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benelli, G.; Honscheid, K.; Lewis, E.A.; Regensburger, J.J.; Smith, D.S.; /Ohio State U.

    2006-08-18

    In 2004, the first two sextants of the new Limited Streamer Tube (LST) detector were installed in the BABAR experiment to replace the ageing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detectors for the BABAR Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) muon system. Each streamer tube of the new detector consists of 8 cells. The cell walls are coated with graphite paint and a 100 {micro}m wire forms the anode. These wires are coupled in pairs inside the tubes resulting in 4 independent two-cell segments per LST. High voltage (HV) is applied to the 4 segments through a custom connector that also provides the decoupling capacitor to pick up the detector signals from the anode wires. The BABAR LST detector is operated at 5.5 kV. The high voltage system for the LST detector was designed and built at The Ohio State University (OSU HVPS). Each of the 25 supplies built for BaBar provides 80 output channels with individual current monitoring and overcurrent protection. For each group of 20 channels the HV can be adjusted between 0 and 6 kV. A 4-fold fan-out is integrated in the power supplies to provide a total of 320 outputs. The power supplies are controlled through built-in CANbus and Ethernet (TCP/IP) interfaces. In this presentation we will discuss the design and novel features of the OSU HVPS system and its integration into the BABAR EPICS detector control framework. Experience with the supplies operation during the LST extensive quality control program and their performance during the initial data taking period will be discussed.

  11. Detector system for the study of low energy heavy ion reactions using kinematic coincidence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Kalkal, S.; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Ahuja, R.; Gehlot, J.; Madhavan, N.; Behera, B. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics and performance of a new detector system developed for the study of low energy heavy ion binary reactions using the kinematic coincidence technique are presented. The detector system has been developed to carry out experiments such as multi-nucleon transfer reactions using the General Purpose Scattering Chamber (GPSC) facility at IUAC [1,2]. The detector system consists of a pair of two-dimensional position sensitive multi wire proportional counter (MWPC) and a ΔE - E gas ionization chamber. Both MWPC have an active area of 5×5 cm2, and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) plane, and timing signal for time of flight measurements. The main design feature of MWPC is the reduced wire pitch of 0.025 in. (0.635 mm) in all electrodes, giving uniform field and faster charge collection, and usage of 10 μm diameter in anode frame which gives higher gains. The position resolution of the detectors was determined to be 0.45 mm FWHM and time resolution was estimated to be 400 ps FWHM. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 100 kHz without any break down. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for kinematic coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass and angular distributions. The ionization chamber has a conventional transverse field geometry with segmented anode providing multiple ΔE signals for nuclear charge (Z) identification. This article describes systematic study of these detectors in terms of efficiency, count rate handling capability, time, position and energy resolution.

  12. Detector system for the study of low energy heavy ion reactions using kinematic coincidence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhingan, Akhil, E-mail: akhil@iuac.res.in [Inter University Accelerator Centre, P. O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kalkal, S. [Deptartment of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi University, Delhi 110007 (India); Sugathan, P.; Golda, K.S.; Ahuja, R.; Gehlot, J.; Madhavan, N. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, P. O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Behera, B.R. [Deptartment of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Mandal, S.K. [Deptartment of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi University, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics and performance of a new detector system developed for the study of low energy heavy ion binary reactions using the kinematic coincidence technique are presented. The detector system has been developed to carry out experiments such as multi-nucleon transfer reactions using the General Purpose Scattering Chamber (GPSC) facility at IUAC [1,2]. The detector system consists of a pair of two-dimensional position sensitive multi wire proportional counter (MWPC) and a ΔE−E gas ionization chamber. Both MWPC have an active area of 5×5 cm{sup 2}, and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) plane, and timing signal for time of flight measurements. The main design feature of MWPC is the reduced wire pitch of 0.025 in. (0.635 mm) in all electrodes, giving uniform field and faster charge collection, and usage of 10μm diameter in anode frame which gives higher gains. The position resolution of the detectors was determined to be 0.45 mm FWHM and time resolution was estimated to be 400 ps FWHM. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 100 kHz without any break down. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for kinematic coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass and angular distributions. The ionization chamber has a conventional transverse field geometry with segmented anode providing multiple ΔE signals for nuclear charge (Z) identification. This article describes systematic study of these detectors in terms of efficiency, count rate handling capability, time, position and energy resolution.

  13. Design and implementation of an expert system for the detector control systems of the ATLAS pixel detector; Entwurf und Implementation eines Expertensystems fuer das Detektorkontrollsystem des ATLAS-Pixeldetektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henss, Tobias

    2008-12-15

    In the framework of this thesis an expert system ''Pixel-Advisor'' for the control system of the pixel detector was designed and implemented. This supports the operational personnel in the diagnosis and removal of possible problems, which are in connection with the detector control system and unburdens the few available DCS experts.

  14. CdTe and CdZnTe gamma ray detectors for medical and industrial imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eisen, Y; Mardor, I

    1999-01-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe X-ray and gamma ray detectors in the form of single elements or as segmented monolithic detectors have been shown to be useful in medical and industrial imaging systems. These detectors possess inherently better energy resolution than scintillators coupled to either photodiodes or photomultipliers, and together with application specific integrated circuits they lead to compact imaging systems of enhanced spatial resolution and better contrast resolution. Photopeak efficiencies of these detectors is greatly affected by a relatively low hole mobility-lifetime product. Utilizing these detectors as highly efficient good spectrometers, demands use of techniques to improve their charge collection properties, i.e., correct for variations in charge losses at different depths of interaction in the detector. The corrections for the large hole trapping are made either by applying electronic techniques or by fabricating detector or electrical contacts configurations which differ from the commonly used pla...

  15. Liquid scintillator composition optimization for use in ultra-high energy cosmic ray detector systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beznosko Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Horizon-T (HT detector system and the currently under R&D HT-KZ detector system are designed for the detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS with energies above ∼1016 eV (∼1017 eV for HT-KZ. The main challenges in both detector systems are the fast time resolutions needed for studying the temporary structure of EAS, and the extremely wide dynamic range needed to study the spatial distribution of charged particles in EAS disks. In order to detect the low-density of charged particles far from the EAS axis, a large-area detector is needed. Liquid scintillator with low cost would be a possible solution for such a detector, including the recently developed safe and low-cost water-based liquid scintillators. Liquid organic scintillators give a fast and high light yield (LY for charged particle detection. It is similar to plastic scintillator in properties but is cost effective for large volumes. With liquid scintillator, one can create detection volumes that are symmetric and yet retain high LY detection. Different wavelength shifters affect the scintillation light by changing the output spectrum into the best detection region. Results of the latest studies of the components optimization in the liquid scintillator formulae are presented.

  16. Liquid scintillator composition optimization for use in ultra-high energy cosmic ray detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznosko, Dmitriy; Batyrkhanov, Ayan; Iakovlev, Alexander; Yelshibekov, Khalykbek

    2017-06-01

    The Horizon-T (HT) detector system and the currently under R&D HT-KZ detector system are designed for the detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with energies above ˜1016 eV (˜1017 eV for HT-KZ). The main challenges in both detector systems are the fast time resolutions needed for studying the temporary structure of EAS, and the extremely wide dynamic range needed to study the spatial distribution of charged particles in EAS disks. In order to detect the low-density of charged particles far from the EAS axis, a large-area detector is needed. Liquid scintillator with low cost would be a possible solution for such a detector, including the recently developed safe and low-cost water-based liquid scintillators. Liquid organic scintillators give a fast and high light yield (LY) for charged particle detection. It is similar to plastic scintillator in properties but is cost effective for large volumes. With liquid scintillator, one can create detection volumes that are symmetric and yet retain high LY detection. Different wavelength shifters affect the scintillation light by changing the output spectrum into the best detection region. Results of the latest studies of the components optimization in the liquid scintillator formulae are presented.

  17. Calculation of narcissus effect in scanning systems with detector arrays by exact numerical ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeninger, Werner

    1993-04-01

    The narcissus-effect is a well known phenomena in IR-scanning systems. Several methods of calculation have been proposed. Due to advances in IR-detector technology it is now possible to use detector line-arrays instead of single detectors for scanning systems. We have modified the model published by A. S. Lau. In our calculations the transmission of all optical components is taken into account, especially the transmission of the imager is also considered. We have developed a program based on this model. With this tool the calculations of the narcissus-equivalent temperature can be done by exact numerical ray-tracing for an array with up to twelve detectors. Separately for each of them you can see the exact narcissus-effect over the whole scan angle, showing a varying intensity over the detector array. The calculation can be done in arbitrary small steps over the whole scanning angle. Thus it is possible to take into account all effects of vignetting due to the mountings of the components or any other mechanical limitations. An example of such a scanning system is presented.

  18. Simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and phenol contaminants using Z-scheme bismuth oxyiodide/reduced graphene oxide/bismuth sulfide system under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Acong; Bian, Zhaoyong; Xu, Jie; Xin, Xin; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    An all-solid-state Z-scheme system containing Bi-based semiconductors bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) and bismuth sulfide (Bi 2 S 3 ) was constructed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets through an electrostatic self-assembly method to simultaneously remove aqueous Cr(VI) and phenol. In this Z-scheme that mimicked natural photosynthesis, photoinduced electrons in the conduction band (CB) of BiOI were transferred through rGO and reacted with photoinduced holes in the valence band (VB) of Bi 2 S 3 , which significantly increased its photocatalytic activity. The reduction and oxidation reactions were performed on Bi 2 S 3 and BiOI photocatalysts, respectively. Furthermore, complex contaminants of coexisting heavy metal Cr(VI) and organic phenol were treated using the system under visible-light irradiation. Results showed that Cr(VI) reduction and phenol oxidation were achieved efficiently with optimum reductive and oxidative efficiencies up to 73% and 95% under visible-light irradiation, respectively. This work provided a promising method of simultaneously removing heavy metals and organic pollutants by using a Z-scheme system with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) in the system with a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biełuszka, Paweł; Zakrzewska, Grażyna; Chajduk, Ewelina; Dudek, Jakub

    Raising role of the nuclear power industry, including governmental plans for the construction of first nuclear power plant in Poland, creates increasing demand for the uranium-based nuclear fuels. The project implemented by Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology concerns the development of effective methods for uranium extraction from low-grade ores and phosphorites for production of yellow cake-U 3 O 8 . The Liqui-Cel ® Extra-Flow 2.5 × 8 Membrane Contactor produced by CELGARD LLC (Charlotte, NC) company is the main component of the installation for liquid-liquid extraction applied for processing of post leaching liquors. In the process of membrane extraction the uranyl ions from aqueous phase are transported through the membrane into organic phase. The flow of two phases in the system was arranged in co-current mode. The very important element of the work was a selection of extracting agents appropriate for the membrane process. After preliminary experiments comprising tests of membrane resistivity and determination of extraction efficiency, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was found to be most favourable. An important aspect of the work was the adjustment of hydrodynamic conditions in the capillary module. To avoid the membrane wettability by organic solvent and mixing two phases equal pressure drops along the membrane module to minimize the transmembrane pressure, were assumed. Determination of pressure drop along the module was conducted using Bernoulli equation. The integrated process of extraction/re-extraction conducted in continuous mode with application of two contactors was designed.

  20. JACoW Challenges of the ALICE Detector Control System for the LHC RUN3

    CERN Document Server

    Chochula, Peter; Bond, Peter; Kurepin, Alexander; Lechman, Mateusz; Lang, John; Pinazza, Ombretta

    2018-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) has provided its services to the experiment since 10 years. During this period it ensured uninterrupted operation of the experiment and guaranteed stable conditions for the data taking. The DCS has been designed to cope with the detector requirements compatible with the LHC operation during its RUN1 and RUN2 phases. The decision to extend the lifetime of the experiment beyond this horizon requires the redesign of the DCS data flow and represents a major challenge. The major challenges of the system upgrade are presented in this paper.

  1. Electronic readout system for the Belle II imaging Time-Of-Propagation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-07-01

    The imaging Time-Of-Propagation (iTOP) detector, constructed for the Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB e+e- collider, is an 8192-channel high precision Cherenkov particle identification detector with timing resolution below 50 ps. To acquire data from the iTOP, a novel front-end electronic readout system was designed, built, and integrated. Switched-capacitor array application-specific integrated circuits are used to sample analog signals. Triggering, digitization, readout, and data transfer are controlled by Xilinx Zynq-7000 system on a chip devices.

  2. Radiation-Tolerant Custom Made Low Voltage Power Supply System for ATLAS/TileCal Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hruska, I; Calheiros, F; Némécek, S; Kotek, Z; Palacky, J; Price, J; Lokajícek, M; Tikhonov, A; Solin, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes custom made Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) system developed for the ATLAS – TileCal detector of the LHC (The Large Hadron Collider) particle accelerator at CERN, Geneva. The system is based on the use of only COTS (Commercial of The Shelf) components, is qualified to be radiation tolerant up to 40krad, and can operate in external DC magnetic field above 0.02 Tesla. The LVPS design described in this paper has been developed and produced for the ATLAS TileCal detector during the years 2001 – 2007.

  3. Design and characterization of the GEM detector for a digital radiographic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; Kang, Sang Muk; Hong, Dae Kee [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    DR(digital radiography) system which makes the inner structure of an interesting object visible in two-dimensional digital image is a technology-intensive and high value-added device with a variety of applications. The GEM detector which is being developed in the mother project has advantages of low fabrication-cost, compared with semiconductor or scintillation detectors, and of radiation protection, compared with conventional film/screen system. In this study, simulation codes such MAXWELL, SHOWFIELD, and IMAGEQUAL were developed to analyze the GEM characteristics, and the optimal GEM design was discussed using the codes. 14 refs., 25 figs. (Author)

  4. Development of an angled Si-PM-based detector unit for positron emission mammography (PEM) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Kouhei, E-mail: nakanishi.kouhei@c.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2016-11-21

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) systems have higher sensitivity than clinical whole body PET systems because they have a smaller ring diameter. However, the spatial resolution of PEM systems is not high enough to detect early stage breast cancer. To solve this problem, we developed a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) based detector unit for the development of a PEM system. Since a Si-PM's channel is small, Si-PM can resolve small scintillator pixels to improve the spatial resolution. Also Si-PM based detectors have inherently high timing resolution and are able to reduce the random coincidence events by reducing the time window. We used 1.5×1.9×15 mm LGSO scintillation pixels and arranged them in an 8×24 matrix to form scintillator blocks. Four scintillator blocks were optically coupled to Si-PM arrays with an angled light guide to form a detector unit. Since the light guide has angles of 5.625°, we can arrange 64 scintillator blocks in a nearly circular shape (a regular 64-sided polygon) using 16 detector units. We clearly resolved the pixels of the scintillator blocks in a 2-dimensional position histogram where the averages of the peak-to-valley ratios (P/Vs) were 3.7±0.3 and 5.7±0.8 in the transverse and axial directions, respectively. The average energy resolution was 14.2±2.1% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). By including the temperature dependent gain control electronics, the photo-peak channel shifts were controlled within ±1.5% with the temperature from 23 °C to 28 °C. With these results, in addition to the potential high timing performance of Si-PM based detectors, our developed detector unit is promising for the development of a high-resolution PEM system.

  5. Explorations of new phases in the Ga(III)/In(III)-Mo(VI)-Se(IV)/Te(IV)-O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fang; Hu, Chun-Li; Hu, Ting; Zhou, Yong; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2009-07-07

    Systematic explorations of new phases in the Ga(III)/In(III)-Mo(VI)-Se(IV)/Te(IV)-O systems by hydrothermal syntheses or solid-state reactions at high-temperature led to four new quaternary compounds, namely, Ga(2)MoQ(2)O(10) (Q = Se, Te), In(2)Mo(2)Se(2)O(13)(H(2)O) and In(2)MoTe(2)O(10). Ga(2)MoQ(2)O(10) (Q = Se, Te) are isostructural and their structures feature a 3D network of gallium selenite/tellurite with 12-member ring tunnels along b-axis, the distorted MoO(6) octahedra are attached on the wall of the above tunnels. The structure of In(2)Mo(2)Se(2)O(13)(H(2)O) features a new pillared-layered architecture composed of 2D indium(III) selenite layers that are interconnected by Mo(2)O(10) dimers, forming 8-membered ring tunnels along the b-axis. The structure of In(2)MoTe(2)O(10) features a 2D indium oxide layer formed by corner- and edge-sharing InO(6) and InO(7) polyhedra with MoO(4) tetrahedra and TeO(n) (n = 4, 5) polyhedra hanging on both sides of the layer, there are weak interlayer Te-O bonds of 2.512 A. Results of optical diffuse reflectance spectrum measurements indicate that all four compounds are insulators, which are in agreement with results of band structure calculations based on DFT methods.

  6. Systematic Dissection of the Agrobacterium Type VI Secretion System Reveals Machinery and Secreted Components for Subcomplex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jer-Sheng; Ma, Lay-Sun; Lai, Erh-Min

    2013-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in pathogenic Proteobacteria. Sequence and structural analysis of T6SS reveals a resemblance to the T4 bacteriophage tail, in which an outer sheath structure contracts an internal tube for injecting nucleic acid into bacterial cells. However, the molecular details of how this phage tail-like T6SS structure is assembled in vivo and executed for exoprotein or effector secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we used a systematic approach to identify T6SS machinery and secreted components and investigate the interaction among the putative sheath and tube components of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We showed that 14 T6SS components play essential roles in the secretion of the T6SS hallmark exoprotein Hcp. In addition, we discovered a novel T6SS exoprotein, Atu4347, that is dispensable for Hcp secretion. Interestingly, Atu4347 and the putative tube components, Hcp and VgrG, are mainly localized in the cytoplasm but also detected on the bacterial surface. Atu4342 (TssB) and Atu4341 (TssC41) interact with and stabilize each other, which suggests that they are functional orthologs of the sheath components TssB (VipA) and TssC (VipB), respectively. Importantly, TssB interacts directly with the three exoproteins (Hcp, VgrG, and Atu4347), in which Hcp also interacts directly with VgrG-1 on co-purification from Escherichia coli. Further co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays revealed these subcomplex(es) in A. tumefaciens and thereby support T6SS functioning as a contractile phage tail-like structure. PMID:23861778

  7. Longitudinal bunch length measurement of RFQ beam using in-house developed detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, H. K.; Dechoudhury, S.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2017-09-01

    We report here the bunch width measurement of 98keV/u ion beam accelerated through a 3.4 m long 37.8 MHz Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ) linac using a minimally interceptive approach. The detector system for this measurement has been indigenously developed and is based on secondary electron emission from tungsten filament on being hit by ion beam, followed by a capacitive loaded helical resonator cavity. A Channeltron Electron Multiplier (CEM) detector is used for detection of electrons. The design, development and optimization of various parameters of bunch width detector system along with its deflector cavity applicable in the low frequency regime (few tens of MHz) have been discussed. The measured bunch profile of accelerated Nitrogen beam from RFQ is in close agreement with the estimated profile obtained via simulation.

  8. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, W R; Yoon, S R; Tobin, M J

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min . This paper presents the design features, opera...

  9. Controlled reduction of red mud waste to produce active systems for environmental applications: heterogeneous Fenton reaction and reduction of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Regina C C; Moura, Flávia C C; Oliveira, Patrícia E F; Magalhães, Fabiano; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2010-02-01

    In this work, controlled reduction of red mud with H(2) was used to produce active systems for two different environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Mössbauer, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that at different temperatures, i.e. 300, 400, 500 and 600 degrees C, H(2) reduces red mud to different phases, mainly Fe(3)O(4), Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4) and Fe(0). These Fe phases are dispersed on Al, Si and Ti oxides present in the red mud and show high reactivity towards two environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Reduction with H(2) at 400 degrees C showed the best results for the oxidation of the model dye methylene blue with H(2)O(2) at neutral pH due to the presence of the composite Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4). The reduced red mud at 500-600 degrees C produced Fe(0) highly active for the reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous medium. Another feature of these red mud based system is that after deactivation due to extensive use they can be completely regenerated by simple treatment with H(2). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of a Wii balance board-based system (eBaViR for balance rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcañiz Mariano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired brain injury (ABI is the main cause of death and disability among young adults. In most cases, survivors can experience balance instability, resulting in functional impairments that are associated with diminished health-related quality of life. Traditional rehabilitation therapy may be tedious. This can reduce motivation and adherence to the treatment and thus provide a limited benefit to patients with balance disorders. We present eBaViR (easy Balance Virtual Rehabilitation, a system based on the Nintendo® Wii Balance Board® (WBB, which has been designed by clinical therapists to improve standing balance in patients with ABI through motivational and adaptative exercises. We hypothesize that eBaViR, is feasible, safe and potentially effective in enhancing standing balance. Methods In this contribution, we present a randomized and controlled single blinded study to assess the influence of a WBB-based virtual rehabilitation system on balance rehabilitation with ABI hemiparetic patients. This study describes the eBaViR system and evaluates its effectiveness considering 20 one-hour-sessions of virtual reality rehabilitation (n = 9 versus standard rehabilitation (n = 8. Effectiveness was evaluated by means of traditional static and dynamic balance scales. Results The final sample consisted of 11 men and 6 women. Mean ± SD age was 47.3 ± 17.8 and mean ± SD chronicity was 570.9 ± 313.2 days. Patients using eBaViR had a significant improvement in static balance (p = 0.011 in Berg Balance Scale and p = 0.011 in Anterior Reaches Test compared to patients who underwent traditional therapy. Regarding dynamic balance, the results showed significant improvement over time in all these measures, but no significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. There were no serious adverse events during treatment in either group. Conclusions The

  11. Effectiveness of a Wii balance board-based system (eBaViR) for balance rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Gómez, José-Antonio; Lloréns, Roberto; Alcañiz, Mariano; Colomer, Carolina

    2011-05-23

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is the main cause of death and disability among young adults. In most cases, survivors can experience balance instability, resulting in functional impairments that are associated with diminished health-related quality of life. Traditional rehabilitation therapy may be tedious. This can reduce motivation and adherence to the treatment and thus provide a limited benefit to patients with balance disorders. We present eBaViR (easy Balance Virtual Rehabilitation), a system based on the Nintendo® Wii Balance Board® (WBB), which has been designed by clinical therapists to improve standing balance in patients with ABI through motivational and adaptative exercises. We hypothesize that eBaViR, is feasible, safe and potentially effective in enhancing standing balance. In this contribution, we present a randomized and controlled single blinded study to assess the influence of a WBB-based virtual rehabilitation system on balance rehabilitation with ABI hemiparetic patients. This study describes the eBaViR system and evaluates its effectiveness considering 20 one-hour-sessions of virtual reality rehabilitation (n = 9) versus standard rehabilitation (n = 8). Effectiveness was evaluated by means of traditional static and dynamic balance scales. The final sample consisted of 11 men and 6 women. Mean ± SD age was 47.3 ± 17.8 and mean ± SD chronicity was 570.9 ± 313.2 days. Patients using eBaViR had a significant improvement in static balance (p = 0.011 in Berg Balance Scale and p = 0.011 in Anterior Reaches Test) compared to patients who underwent traditional therapy. Regarding dynamic balance, the results showed significant improvement over time in all these measures, but no significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. There were no serious adverse events during treatment in either group. The results suggest that eBaViR represents a safe and effective

  12. Surgical guidance system using hand-held probe with accompanying positron coincidence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2017-10-10

    A surgical guidance system offering different levels of imaging capability while maintaining the same hand-held convenient small size of light-weight intra-operative probes. The surgical guidance system includes a second detector, typically an imager, located behind the area of surgical interest to form a coincidence guidance system with the hand-held probe. This approach is focused on the detection of positron emitting biomarkers with gamma rays accompanying positron emissions from the radiolabeled nuclei.

  13. Fast data transmission from serial data acquisition for the GEM detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, Piotr; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Krawczyk, Rafal D.; Wojenski, Andrzej; Zabolotny, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes new method of storing data and transferring it to PC in the X-ray GEM detector system. The whole process is performed by FPGA chips (Spartan-6 series from Xilinx). Comparing to previous methods, new approach allows to store much more data in the system. New, improved implementation of the communication algorithm significantly increases transfer rate between system and PC. In PC data is merged and processed by MATLAB. The structure of firmware implemented in the FPGAs is described.

  14. A new data acquisition system for the CMS Phase 1 pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmayer, A.

    2016-12-01

    A new pixel detector will be installed in the CMS experiment during the extended technical stop of the LHC at the beginning of 2017. The new pixel detector, built from four layers in the barrel region and three layers on each end of the forward region, is equipped with upgraded front-end readout electronics, specifically designed to handle the high particle hit rates created in the LHC environment. The DAQ back-end was entirely redesigned to handle the increased number of readout channels, the higher data rates per channel and the new digital data format. Based entirely on the microTCA standard, new front-end controller (FEC) and front-end driver (FED) cards have been developed, prototyped and produced with custom optical link mezzanines mounted on the FC7 AMC and custom firmware. At the same time as the new detector is being assembled, the DAQ system is set up and its integration into the CMS central DAQ system tested by running the pilot blade detector already installed in CMS. This work describes the DAQ system, integration tests and gives an outline for the activities up to commissioning the final system at CMS in 2017.

  15. Pion-Muon Concentrating System for Detectors of Highly Enriched Uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, Sergey; Blind, Barbara; Jason, Andrew J; Neri, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    One of many possible applications of low-energy antiprotons collected in a Penning trap can be a portable muon source. Released antiprotons annihilate on impact with normal matter producing on average about 3 charged pions per antiproton, which in turn decay into muons. Existence of such negative-muon sources of sufficient intensity would bring into play, for example, detectors of highly enriched uranium based on muonic X-rays. We explore options of collecting and focusing pions and resulting muons to enhance the muon flux toward the detector. Simulations with MARS and MAFIA are used to choose the target material and parameters of the magnetic system consisting of a few solenoids.

  16. System tests of the LHCb RICH detectors in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Skottowe, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment will provide efficient particle identification over the momentum range 1-100 GeV=c. Results are presented from a beam test of the LHCb RICH system using final production pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors, the final readout electronics and an adapted version of LHCb RICH reconstruction software. Measurements of the photon yields and Cherenkov angle resolutions for both nitrogen and C4F10 radiators agree well with full simulations. The quality of the data and the results obtained demonstrate that all aspects meet the stringent physics requirements of the experiment are now ready for first data.

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy with the multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, J. G.; Joseph, C. L.; Wolf, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a series of high-resolution spectroscopic observations undertaken with a linear (1 x 1024)-pixel visible-light Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector on the Coudespectrograph of the 2.2-meter telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory and on the vacuum spectrograph of the McMath Solar telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory are described. In addition, the two-dimensional MAMA detector systems with (16 x 1024)-pixel, (24 x 1024)-pixel, and (256 x 1024)-pixel formats which are now being readied for use in a series of ground-based, balloon, and sounding-rocket observing programs are briefly described.

  18. The prototype opto-mechanical system for the Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Nozka, L.; Hrabovský, M.; Horvath, P.; Fujii, T.; Privitera, P.; Malacari, M.; Farmer, J.; Galimova, A.; Matalon, A.; Merolle, M.; Ni, X.; Bellido, J.A.; Matthews, J.N.; Thomas, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Jul (2017), 1-10, č. článku T07001. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk LE13012 Grant - others:OP VVV - AUGER-CZ(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001402 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * particle detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  19. Measurements of Low Frequency Noise of Infrared Photo-Detectors with Transimpedance Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciura Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method and results of low-frequency noise measurements of modern mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors. A type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice based detector with nBn barrier architecture is compared with a high operating temperature (HOT heterojunction HgCdTe detector. All experiments were made in the range 1 Hz - 10 kHz at various temperatures by using a transimpedance detection system, which is examined in detail. The power spectral density of the nBn’s dark current noise includes Lorentzians with different time constants while the HgCdTe photodiode has more uniform 1/f - shaped spectra. For small bias, the low-frequency noise power spectra of both devices were found to scale linearly with bias voltage squared and were connected with the fluctuations of the leakage resistance. Leakage resistance noise defines the lower noise limit of a photodetector. Other dark current components give raise to the increase of low-frequency noise above this limit. For the same voltage biasing devices, the absolute noise power densities at 1 Hz in nBn are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than in a MCT HgCdTe detector. In spite of this, low-frequency performance of the HgCdTe detector at ~ 230K is still better than that of InAs/GaSb superlattice nBn detector.

  20. An Iterative Multiuser Detector for Turbo-Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takawira Fambirai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an iterative multiuser detector for turbo-coded synchronous and asynchronous direct-sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA systems. The receiver is derived from the maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation of the single user's transmitted data, conditioned on information about the estimate of the multiple-access interference (MAI and the received signal from the channel. This multiple-access interference is reconstructed by making hard decisions on the users' detected bits at the preceding iteration. The complexity of the proposed receiver increases linearly with the number of users. The proposed detection scheme is compared with a previously developed one. The multiuser detector proposed in this paper has a better performance when the transmitted powers of all active users are equal in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel. Also, the detector is found to be resilient against the near-far effect.

  1. Development and characterisation of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Barnstedt, J

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system. The detector concept is based on standard 25 mm diameter microchannel plate image intensifiers made by Proxitronic in Bensheim (Germany). Modifications applied to these image intensifiers are the use of three microchannel plates instead of two and a high resistance ceramics plate used instead of the standard phosphor output screen. A wedge and strip anode mounted directly behind the high resistance ceramics plate was used as a read out device. This wedge and strip anode picks up the image charge of electron clouds emerging from the microchannel plates. The charge pulses are fed into four charge amplifiers and subsequently into a digital position decoding electronics, achieving a position resolution of up to 1024x1024 pixels. Mounting the anode outside the detector tube is a new approach and has the great advantage of avoiding electrical feedthroughs from the anode so that the standard image intensifier fabrication process...

  2. A beam-synchronous gated peak-detector for the LHC beam observation system

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, T E; Wehrle, U

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the bunch peak amplitude using the longitudinal wideband wall-current monitor are a vital tool used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam observation system. These peak-detected measurements can be used to diagnose bunch shape oscillations, for example coherent quadrupole oscillations, that occur at injection and during beam manipulations. Peak-detected Schottky diagnostics can also be used to obtain the synchrotron frequency distribution and other parameters from a bunched beam under stable conditions. For the LHC a beam-synchronous gated peak detector has been developed to allow individual bunches to be monitored without the influence of other bunches circulating in the machine. The requirement for the observation of both low intensity pilot bunches and high intensity bunches for physics requires a detector front-end with a high bandwidth and a large dynamic range while the usage for Schottky measurements requires low noise electronics. This paper will present the design of this detector s...

  3. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Kevin Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Starting in 2018 during the planned shutdown of the LHC, the ATLAS experiment at CERN will be deploying new optical link technology (GigaBit Transceiver links) connecting the front end electronics. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) will provide an infrastructure for the new GBT links to connect to the rest of the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system. FELIX is a PC-based system designed to route data and commands to and from the GBT links and a Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) network. In this paper, the FELIX system is described and the design of the hardware prototype and core software is presented.

  4. Control and monitoring system for TRT detector in ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hajduk, Z

    2002-01-01

    In this article we present methods and tools for design and construction of the control and monitoring system for a big particle physics experiment taking as an example one of the ATLAS subdetectors. Several requirements has been enumerated which such a system have to meet both by hardware and software. Harsh environmental conditions, difficult if not impossible access and very long exploitation time create conditions where only application of industrial standards allow for serviceability, possibility of fast and easy upgrades and intuitive running of the system by relatively non-experienced staff. (6 refs).

  5. GIOTTO DUST IMPACT DETECTOR SYSTEM DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust Impact Detection System (DIDSY) consists of six independent subsystems with the primary aim of registering the impacts of all particulates of significant mass...

  6. Qualification measurements of the voltage supply system as well as conceptionation of a state machine for the detector control of the ATLAS pixel detector; Qualifizierungsmessungen des Spannungsversorgungssystems sowie Konzeptionierung einer Zustandsmaschine fuer die Detektorkontrolle des ATLAS-Pixeldetektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, Joachim

    2007-02-15

    The supply system and the control system of the ATLAS pixel detector represent important building blocks of the pixel detector. Corresponding studies of the supply system, which were performed within a comprehensive test system, the so-called system test, with nearly all final components and the effects on the pixel detector are object of this thesis. A further point of this thesis is the coordination and further development of the detector-control-system software under regardment of the different partial systems. A main topic represents thereby the conceptionation of the required state machine as interface for the users and the connection to the data acquisition system.

  7. The CT-PPS tracking system with 3D pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ravera, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) detector will be installed in Roman pots (RP) positioned on either side of CMS, at about 200 m from the interaction point. This detector will measure forward leading protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive physics and central exclusive production in standard LHC running conditions. An essential component of the CT-PPS apparatus is the tracking system, which consists of two detector stations per arm equipped with six 3D silicon pixel-sensor modules, each read out by six PSI46dig chips. The front-end electronics has been designed to fulfill the mechanical constrains of the RP and to be compatible as much as possible with the readout chain of the CMS pixel detector. The tracking system is currently under construction and will be installed by the end of 2016. In this contribution the final design and the expected performance of the CT-PPS tracking system will be presented. A summary of the studies performed, before and after irradiation, on the 3D det...

  8. Design of the TORCH detector: A Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight system for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078663; Rademacker, Jonas

    The LHCb detector at the LHC collider has been very successfully operated over the past years, providing new and profound insights into the Standard Model, in particular through study of $b$-hadrons to achieve a better understanding of CP violation. One of the key components of LHCb is its particle identification system, comprised of two RICH detectors, which allow for high precision separation of particle species over a large momentum range. In order to retain and improve the performance of the particle identification system in light of the LHCb upgrade, the TORCH detector has been proposed to supplement the RICH system at low momentum (2-10 GeV/c). The TORCH detector provides (charged) particle identification through precision timing of particles passing through it. Assuming a known momentum from the tracking, it is possible to derive the species of a particle from the time of flight from its primary vertex. This measurement is achieved by timing and combining photons generated in a solid radiator. The geom...

  9. The PASERO Project: parallel and serial readout systems for gas proportional synchrotron radiation X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.H.J. E-mail: koch@embl-hamburg.de; Boulin, C.; Briquet-Laugier, F.; Epstein, A.; Sheldon, S.; Beloeuvre, E.; Gabriel, A.; Herve, C.; Kocsis, M.; Koschuch, A.; Laggner, P.; Leingartner, W.; Raad Iseli, C. de; Reimann, T.; Golding, F.; Torki, K

    2001-07-21

    A project aiming at producing more efficient position sensitive gas proportional detectors and readout systems is presented. An area detector with reduced electrode spacing and a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and two time to digital convertors (TDC) based on ASICs were produced. The first TDC, intended for use with linear detectors, relies on time to space conversion, whereas the second one, for area detectors, uses a ring oscillator with a phase locked loop. A parallel readout system for multi-anode detectors aiming at a maximum count rate extensively uses RISC microcontrollers. An electronic simulator of linear detectors built for test purposes and a mechanical chopper used for attenuation of the X-ray beam are also briefly described.

  10. Development of fast data processing electronics for a stacked x-ray detector system with application as a polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Daniel; Dick, Jürgen; Distratis, Giuseppe; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanz, Thomas; Tenzer, Christoph; Warth, Gabriele

    2012-09-01

    We have assembled a stacked setup consisting of a soft and hard X-ray detector with cooling capability and control-, readout-, and data processing electronics at the Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik Tübingen (IAAT). The detector system is a 64 ×64 DePFET-Matrix in front of a CdTe-Caliste module. The detectors were developed at the Max-Planck Institute Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL) in Neuperlach and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in Saclay, respectively. In this combined structure the DePFET detector works as Low Energy Detector (LED) while the Caliste module (HED) only detects the high energy photons that have passed through the LED. In this work we present the current status of the setup. Furthermore, an intended application of the detector system as a polarimeter is described.

  11. Software management of the LHC Detector Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Varela, F

    2007-01-01

    The control systems of each of the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments will contain of the order of 150 computers running the back-end applications. These applications will have to be maintained and eventually upgraded during the lifetime of the experiments, ~20 years. This paper presents the centralized software management strategy adopted by the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP) [1], which is based on a central database that holds the overall system configuration. The approach facilitates the integration of different parts of a control system and provides versioning of its various software components. The information stored in the configuration database can eventually be used to restore a computer in the event of failure.

  12. Multi-Detector Analysis System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward Lawrence; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat; Cole, Jerald Donald; Drigert, Mark William; Jewell, James Keith; Egger, Ann Elizabeth; Cordes, Gail Adele

    1999-09-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) program at INEEL is developing a system to characterize SNF for fissile mass, radiation source term, and fissile isotopic content. The system is based on the integration of the Fission Assay Tomography System (FATS) and the Gamma-Neutron Analysis Technique (GNAT) developed under programs supported by the DOE Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. Both FATS and GNAT were developed as separate systems to provide information on the location of special nuclear material in weapons configuration (FATS role), and to measure isotopic ratios of fissile material to determine if the material was from a weapon (GNAT role). FATS is capable of not only determining the presence and location of fissile material but also the quantity of fissile material present to within 50%. GNAT determines the ratios of the fissile and fissionable material by coincidence methods that allow the two prompt (immediately) produced fission fragments to be identified. Therefore, from the combination of FATS and GNAT, MDAS is able to measure the fissile material, radiation source term, and fissile isotopics content.

  13. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  14. Test of CMS tracker silicon detector modules with the ARC readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, M; Flügge, G; Franke, T; Hegner, B; Hermanns, T; Kasselmann, S T; Mnich, J; Nowack, A; Pooth, O; Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The CMS tracker will be equipped with 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules covering a surface of approximately 220 m**2. For quality control, a compact and inexpensive DAQ system is needed to monitor the mass production in industry and in the CMS production centres. To meet these requirements a set-up called APV Readout Controller (ARC) system was developed and distributed among all collaborating institutes to perform full readout tests of hybrids and modules at each production step. The system consists of all necessary hardware components, C++ based readout software using LabVIEW **1 Lab VIEW is a product of National Instruments, Austin, USA. as graphical user interface and provides full database connection to track every single module component during the production phase. Two preseries of Tracker End Cap (TEC) silicon detector modules have been produced by the TEC community and tested with the ARC system at Aachen. The results of the second series are presented.

  15. Improving the safety and protective automatic actions of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Cirkovic, Predrag; Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Dissertori, Guenther; Djambazov, Lubomir; Jovanovic, Dragoslav; Lustermann, Werner; Milenovic, Predrag; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2017-01-01

    The CMS ECAL Detector Control System (DCS) features several monitoring mechanisms able to react and perform automatic actions based on pre-defined action matrices. The DCS is capable of early detection of anomalies inside the ECAL and on its off-detector support systems, triggering automatic actions to mitigate the impact of these events and preventing them from escalating to the safety system. The treatment of such events by the DCS allows for a faster recovery process, better understanding of the development of issues, and in most cases, actions with higher granularity than the safety system. This paper presents the details of the DCS automatic action mechanisms, as well as their evolution based on several years of CMS ECAL operations.

  16. Improving the Safety and Protective Automatic Actions of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Estupinan, Raul

    2017-01-01

    The CMS ECAL Detector Control System (DCS) features several monitoring mechanisms able to react and perform automatic actions based on pre-defined action matrices. The DCS is capable of early detection of anomalies inside the ECAL and on its off-detector support systems, triggering automatic actions to mitigate the impact of these events and preventing them from escalating to the safety system. The treatment of such events by the DCS allows for a faster recovery process, better understanding of the development of issues, and in most cases, actions with higher granularity than the safety system. This paper presents the details of the DCS automatic action mechanisms, as well as their evolution based on several years of CMS ECAL operations.

  17. An Analysis of the Control Hierarchy Modeling of the CMS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Hwong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The supervisory level of the Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is implemented using Finite State Machines (FSM), which model the behaviors and control the operations of all the sub-detectors and support services. The FSM tree of the whole CMS experiment consists of more than 30.000 nodes. An analysis of a system of such size is a complex task but is a crucial step towards the improvement of the overall performance of the FSM system. This paper presents the analysis of the CMS FSM system using the micro Common Representation Language 2 (mcrl2) methodology. Individual mCRL2 models are obtained for the FSM systems of the CMS sub-detectors using the ASF+SDF automated translation tool. Different mCRL2 operations are applied to the mCRL2 models. A mCRL2 simulation tool is used to closer examine the system. Visualization of a system based on the exploration of its state space is enabled with a mCRL2 tool. Requirements such as command and state propagation are expressed using modal mu-calculus and c...

  18. Power supply system for the superconducting solenoid of the CMD-2M detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barkov, L M; Eltsov, A I; Karpov, S V; Ruban, A A

    2002-01-01

    Project of the power supply system for the thin superconducting solenoid of the CMD-2M detector is described. The operational magnetic field of the solenoid is 1.5 T at current level of 1000 A. The power supply system is based on the superconducting fullwave rectifier fluxpump with thermally controlled switches. It will provide charging and discharging of the solenoid and long-term magnetic field stabilization.

  19. Detectors course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

  20. A new Data Acquisition System for the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kornmayer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A new pixel detector will be installed in the CMS experiment during the extended technical stop of the LHC at the beginning of 2017. The new pixel detector, built from four layers in the barrel region and three layers on each end of the forward region, is equipped with upgraded front-end readout electronics, specifically designed to handle the high particle hit rates created in the LHC environment. The DAQ back-end was entirely redesigned to handle the increased number of readout channels, the higher data rates per channel and the new digital data format. Based entirely on the microTCA standard, new front-end controller (FEC) and front-end driver (FED) cards have been developed, prototyped and produced with custom optical link mezzanines mounted on the FC7 AMC and custom firmware. At the same time as the new detector is being assembled, the DAQ system is set up and its integration into the CMS central DAQ system tested by running the pilot blade detector already installed in CMS. This work describes the DAQ s...

  1. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.

    2017-01-09

    Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  2. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-02-01

    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min [1, 2]. This paper presents the design features, operational methods, calibration, and detector applications.

  3. Weld monitor and failure detector for nuclear reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1987-01-01

    Critical but inaccessible welds in a nuclear reactor system are monitored throughout the life of the reactor by providing small aperture means projecting completely through the reactor vessel wall and also through the weld or welds to be monitored. The aperture means is normally sealed from the atmosphere within the reactor. Any incipient failure or cracking of the weld will cause the environment contained within the reactor to pass into the aperture means and thence to the outer surface of the reactor vessel where its presence is readily detected.

  4. Improving the gas gain monitoring system in multiwire proportional chambers for MUON detector of LHCb experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Ruvinskaia, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    The gas gain monitoring system in multi-wire proportional chambers for MUON detector of LHCb has been constructed and commissioned. It includes an online- monitoring, tools for analysis the archived data and an alarm system on the quality of the gas mixture. Finally, it will be implemented in the main ECS of LHCb for MUON detector and as a part of safety system of LHCb as a permanent online monitor of the quality of the gas mixture in MWPCs. The main advantage of this setup is a monitoring of Gas Gain (GG) in MWPCs with radioactive sources independently from the presence of beam at LHC. It also provides an option for prompt reaction in case of a problem with the gas.

  5. The Ring of Fire - an internal illimination system for detector sensitivity and filter bandpass characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpine, Victor E.; Kent, Stephen M.; /Fermilab; Deustua, Susana E.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Sholl, Michael J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mufson, Stuart L.; /Indiana U.; Ott, Melanie N.; /NASA, Goddard; Wiesner, Matthew P.; /Northern Illinois U.; Baptitst, Brian J.; /Indiana U.

    2010-07-01

    We describe a prototype of an illumination system, the Ring of Fire (ROF), which is used as part of an internal calibration system for large focal plane detector arrays in TMA (Three Mirror Anastigmat) telescope designs. Such designs have been proposed for the SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) version of a Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM). The ROF system illuminates the focal plane with a light beam the closely matches that of the telescope and is used for creating high spatial frequency flat fields and monitoring filter bandpasses for experiments that demand a highly accurate characterization of the detectors. We present measurements of a mockup of this prototype ROF design including studies in variations in illumination across a large focal plane.

  6. Design, construction, and evaluation of new high resolution medical imaging detector/systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit

    Increasing need of minimally invasive endovascular image guided interventional procedures (EIGI) for accurate and successful treatment of vascular disease has set a quest for better image quality. Current state of the art detectors are not up to the mark for these complex procedures due to their inherent limitations. Our group has been actively working on the design and construction of a high resolution, region of interest CCD-based X-ray imager for some time. As a part of that endeavor, a Micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) was developed to serve as a high resolution, ROI X-ray imaging detector in conjunction with large lower resolution full field of view (FOV) state-of-the-art x-ray detectors. The newly developed MAF is an indirect x-ray imaging detector capable of providing real-time images with high resolution, high sensitivity, no lag and low instrumentation noise. It consists of a CCD camera coupled to a light image intensifier (LII) through a fiber optic taper. The CsI(Tl) phosphor serving as the front end is coupled to the LII. For this work, the MAF was designed and constructed. The linear system cascade theory was used to evaluate the performance theoretically. Linear system metrics such as MTF and DQE were used to gauge the detector performance experimentally. The capabilities of the MAF as a complete system were tested using generalized linear system metrics. With generalized linear system metrics the effects of finite size focal spot, geometric magnification and the presence of scatter are included in the analysis and study. To minimize the effect of scatter, an anti-scatter grid specially designed for the MAF was also studied. The MAF was compared with the flat panel detector using signal-to-noise ratio and the two dimensional linear system metrics. The signal-to-noise comparison was carried out to point out the effect of pixel size and Point Spread Function of the detector. The two dimensional linear system metrics were used to investigate the

  7. Evaluation of a computer aided neutron tomographic system incorporating a gaseous position sensitive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, M. I.; Lopes, R. T.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; de Almeida, G. L.; Barbosa, A. F.

    2003-06-01

    A position sensitive gaseous detector, formerly designed to operate with X-rays, has been modified to equip a third generation tomographic system working with a parallel thermal neutron beam. For this purpose, the original filling-gas has been replaced by 3He-enriched helium, which plays simultaneously the role of filling-gas for the ionization process and converter of neutrons into charged particles. This paper describes the modifications done to the detector, the measurements carried out to evaluate its own performance and that of the tomographic system attached to it. Some tomographic images acquired using that system are presented as well. Tomographic systems equipped with this kind of detector should require substantially much less time than those conventional ones, where a sample translation is required. The Argonauta reactor operating at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-Brazil) has been utilized as the source of neutrons, furnishing a flux of 4.5×10 5 n cm -2 s -1 at its main irradiation channel where the tomographic system has been placed.

  8. Description and operational experience of the Stern Labs flux detector removal tool system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, B.; Hadaller, G. [Stern Laboratories, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Merrifield, K. [KLM Nuclear Solutions, Port Elgin, Ontario (Canada); Ballantyne, B. [Intoo (Innovating Tooling) Solutions, Kincardine, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    The Flux Detector Removal Tool (Chopper Tool) is a system for removing and compacting Single Individually Replaceable (SIR) In-Core Flux Detectors (ICFD) from a CANDU®1 reactor. The Chopper Tool was produced in response to customer demand for a portable, modular system suitable for use with either Vertical or Horizontal Flux Detector (VFD or HFD) housings that could allow multiple ICFDs to be replaced in a single shift without modifications to the primary containment boundary. The system was developed in several phases, funded by a CANDU Owner's Group (COG) joint project, and has been successfully used at multiple CANDU® stations, most recently to remove 9 vertical ICFDs at the Darlington NGS. This paper reviews the original design constraints, outlines the final system. design, and details the tests required for factory acceptance of each tool system. Some problems with earlier versions of the Chopper Tool, and the research and development required to resolve them are highlighted. Finally the results of the most recent ICFD removal campaign are presented. The successful implementation of the Chopper Tool demonstrates Stern Laboratories' ability to research and develop new reactor maintenance tooling, and reflects well on the COG framework for pooling expertise and resources amongst CANDU® utilities. (author)

  9. Development of an automatic characterisation system for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, J; Krammer, M; Wedenig, R

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment will be equipped with the largest silicon tracker in the world. The tracker will consist of about 25,000 silicon sensors which will cover an area of more than 200 m sup 2. Four quality test centres will carry out various checks on a representative sample of sensors to assure a homogeneous quality throughout the 2((1)/(2)) years of production. One of these centres is based in Vienna. To cope with the large number of sensors a fast and fully automatic characterisation system has been realised. We developed the software in LabView and built a cost-efficient probe station in house by assembling individual components and commercial instruments. Both the global properties of a sensor and the characteristic quantities of the individual strips can be measured. The measured data are immediately analysed and sent to a central database. The mechanical and electrical set-up will be explained and results from CMS prototype sensors are presented.

  10. Spectroscopic Imaging Using Ge and CdTe Based Detector Systems for Hard X-ray Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astromskas, Vytautas

    Third generation synchrotron facilities such as the Diamond Light Source (DLS) have a wide range of experiments performed for a wide range of science fields. The DLS operates at energies up to 150 keV which introduces great challenges to radiation detector technology. This work focuses on the requirements that the detector technology faces for X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and powder diffraction experiments in I12 and I15 beam lines, respectively. A segmented HPGe demonstrator detector with in-built charge sensitive CUBE preamplifiers and a Schottky e- collection CdTe Medipix3RX detector systems were investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms that limit spectroscopic, imaging performances and stability and to find ways to overcome or minimise those limitations. The energy resolution and stability of the Ge demonstrator detector was found to have the required characteristics for XAFS measurements. Charge sharing was identified as a limiting factor to the resolution which is going to be addressed in the future development of a full detector system as well as reductions in electronic noise and cross-talk effects. The stability study of the Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX detector showed that polarization is highly dependent on temperature, irradiation duration and incoming flux. A new pixel behaviour called tri-phase (3-P) pixel was identified and a novel method for determining optimum operational conditions was developed. The use of the 3-P pixels as a criterion for depolarization resulted in a stable performance of the detector. Furthermore, the detector was applied in powder diffraction measurement at the I15 beam line and resulted in the detector diffraction pattern matching the simulated data. CdTe Medipix3RX and HEXITEC spectroscopic imaging detectors were applied in identification and discrimination of transitional metals for security application and K-edge subtraction for medical applications. The results showed that both detectors have potential

  11. A new versatile electrochemical etching chamber (VECEC) system for multi-size and multi-shape detector processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    A new versatile electrochemical etching ECE chamber (VECE) system is introduced in which the effective electrochemically etched area can have variable sizes and/or shapes required using templet etching. The flat rubber washers act as templets and holders of the etchant, and control the size and shape of the effective etched area of the detector which can be of various shapes and sizes desired. The system was operated in two operation modes A and B in which the both sides and one side of the detector were etched respectively. Detectors with etched areas having diameters from 1 to 18 cm have also been successfully etched by this system. Multi-chambers have been also designed using this principle for larger-scale multi-detector processing. The effects of etching area and time on the current through the detector have also been studied.

  12. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  13. MMC-based low-temperature detector system of the AMoRE-Pilot experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C. S.; Jeon, J. A.; Jo, H. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, I.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Lee, C.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Oh, S. Y.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are highly sensitive temperature sensors that operate at millikelvin temperatures. An energy deposit in a detector can be measured using an MMC through the induced temperature increase. The MMC signal, i.e., a variation in magnetization can then be measured using a superconducting quantum interference device. MMCs are used in particle physics experiments searching for rare processes as their high sensitivity and fast response provide high energy and timing resolutions and good particle discrimination. Low-temperature detectors consisting of molybdenum-based scintillating crystals read out via MMCs were designed and built to perform simultaneous measurements of heat and light signals at millikelvin temperatures. These detectors have been used in the advanced Mo-based rare process experiment (AMoRE) that searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo. This article provides a detailed description of the MMC-based low-temperature detector system of the AMoRE-Pilot experiment which currently uses five crystals.

  14. Physics motivations and expected performance of the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbrescia, Marcello; Aleksandrov, Andrey B; Benussi, Luigi; Beni, Noemi; Bianco, Stefano; Calabria, Cesare; Caponero, Michele; Hernandez, Alfredo Martin Castaneda; Cavallo, Francesca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Lentdecker, Gilles De; Oliveira, R; Guiducci, Luigi; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Iaydjiev, P S; Korytov, Andrey; Krutelyov, Slava; Kumar, A; Lee, Jason; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Molnar, J; Naimuddin, Md; Nuzzo, S; Pant, Lalit; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Pavlov, Borislav; Piccolo, Davide; Postema, Hans; Raffaella, Radogna; Ranieri, A; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, Mircho; Safonov, Alexei; Saviano, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Vitulo, Paolo; Colaleo, Anna; Caputo, Claudio; Errico, Filippo; Dildick, Sven; Vai, Ilaria; Magnani, Alice; Verwilligen, Piet; Altieri, Palma; Aspell, Paul; Giacomelli, Paolo; Braibant, Sylvie; Buontempo, S; Kamon, Teruki; Tatarinov, A; Celik, Ali; Gilmore, Jason; Flanagan, Will; Khotilovich, Vadim; Czellar, S; Fenyvesi, A; Jozsef Molnar@Cern Ch, Jozsef; Barria, P; Korntheuer, Michael; Lenzi, T; Maerschalk, T; Verhagen, E; Yang, Yifan; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Merlin, J; Dorney, B; Garcia, A Conde; Dabrowski, M; Marinov, A; Oliveri, E; Baranac, A Puig; Ropelewski, Leszek; Bos, J; Bally, S; Stenis, M Van; Ferry, S; Rodrigues, A; Robertis, G De; Christiansen, J; Hohlmann, M; Bhopatkar, V; Mohapatra, A; Zhang, A; Hauser, J; Tuuva, Tuure; Talvitie, J; Passeggio, G; Cassese, F; Banerjee, S; Majumdar, N; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roychowdhur, S; Salva, S; Zaganidis, N; Cimmino, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Bouhali, O; Akl, M Abi; Sturdy, J; Karchin, P; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Rashevski, G; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Acosta, D; Barashko, V; Furic, I; Madorsky, A; Korytov, A; Mitselmakher, G; Raffone, G; Radi, A; Assran, Y; Aboamer, O; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Awan, I; Hoorani, H; Muhammad, S; Sharma, R; Geonmo, R; Ryu, M S; Park, I; Jeng, Y C; Choi, M; Golovtsov, V; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Choi, S; Guilloux, F; Philipps, B

    2015-01-01

    For the LHC High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC) the CMS GEM Collaboration is planning to in- stall new large size triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system (1.5< j h |<2.2) of the CMS detector. The muon reconstruction with triple-GEM chambers information included have been successfully integrated in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. The new sub-detector will be able to cope the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. The resulting benefit in terms of triggering and tracking capabilities has been studied: the expected improvement in the performance of the muon identification and track reconstruction as well as the expected improvement coming from the low- ering of the muon p T trigger tresholds will be presented. The contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance and the impact on the physics analyses.

  15. Modelling of biological Cr(VI) removal in draw-fill reactors using microorganisms in suspended and attached growth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Akritidou, Lydia; Viennas, Anastasios; Tsiamis, George; Pavlou, Stavros; Bourtzis, Kostas; Vayenas, Dimitris V

    2013-02-01

    The kinetics of hexavalent chromium bio-reduction in draw-fill suspended and attached growth reactors was examined using sugar as substrate and indigenous microorganisms from the industrial sludge of the Hellenic Aerospace Industry. Initially, experiments in suspended growth batch reactors for Cr (VI) concentrations of 1.4-110 mg/l were carried out, to extensively study the behaviour of a mixed culture. The maximum Cr(VI) reduction rate of 2 mg/l h was achieved for initial concentration 12.85 mg/l with biomass production rate 4.1 mg biomass/l h. Analysis of the microbial structure in the batch reactor culture indicated that the dominant bacterial communities were constituted by bacterial members of Raoultella sp., Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Achromobacter sp. and Kerstersia sp. while the dominant fungal strain was that of Pichia jadinii. Experiments using the same mixed culture were also carried out in packed-bed reactors with plastic support media. High removal rates were achieved (2.0 mg/l h) even in high initial concentrations (109 mg/l). A combination of the model of Tsao and Hanson for growth enhancement and that of Aiba and Shoda for growth inhibition was used in order to describe and predict the process of Cr(VI) bio-reduction in suspended growth and packed-bed reactors. Kinetic constants of the equation obtained from both batch (or draw-fill) culture experiments. In the draw-fill experiments at the packed-bed reactor, hexavalent chromium inhibitory effects were minimized increasing the inhibitory constant value K(i)' at 148.5 mg/l, compared to suspended growth experiments which was K(i) = 8.219 mg/l. The model adequately predicts hexavalent chromium reduction in both batch reactors for all initial concentrations tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Young Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy.

  17. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örbom, Anders, E-mail: anders.orbom@med.lu.se; Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund SE-22185 (Sweden); Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo FI-02044 (Finland); Hauge, Håvard [Biomolex AS, Oslo NO-0319 (Norway); Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  18. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of the Pu (III/IV) and (IV/VI) Couples in Nitric Acid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Amanda M.; Adami, Susan R.; Casella, Amanda J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-12-18

    The solution chemistry of Pu in nitric acid is explored via electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. By utilizing and comparing these techniques, an improved understanding of Pu behavior and its dependence on nitric acid concentration can be achieved. Here the Pu (III/IV) couple is characterized using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and a spectroelectrochemical Nernst step. Results indicate the formal reduction potential of the couple shifts negative with increasing acid concentration and reversible electrochemistry is no longer attainable above 6 M HNO3. Spectroelectrochemistry is also used to explore the irreversible oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) and shine light on the mechanism and acid dependence of the redox reaction.

  19. Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Piana, A.; Carbone, B.; Renna, L.; Fallica, P. G.; Agrò, D.; Morsellino, G.; Pinto, M.; Canicattı, R.; Galioto, N.; Tomasino, A.; Adamo, G.; Stivala, S.; Parisi, A.; Curcio, L.; Giaconia, C.; Busacca, A. C.; Pagano, R.; Libertino, S.; Lombardo, S.

    2014-03-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) uses near infrared sources and detectors to measure changes in absorption due to neurovascular dynamics in response to brain activation. The use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) in a fNIRS system has been estimated potentially able to increase the spatial resolution. Dedicated SiPM sensors have been designed and fabricated by using an optimized process. Electrical and optical characterizations are presented. The design and implementation of a portable fNIRS embedded system, hosting up to 64 IR-LED sources and 128 SiPM sensors, has been carried out. The system has been based on a scalable architecture whose elementary leaf is a flexible board with 16 SiPMs and 4 couples of LEDs each operating at two wavelengths. An ARM based microcontroller has been joined with a multiplexing interface, able to control power supply for the LEDs and collect data from the SiPMs in a time-sharing fashion and with configurable temporal slots. The system will be validated by using a phantom made by materials of different scattering and absorption indices layered to mimic a human head. A preliminary characterization of the optical properties of the single material composing the phantom has been performed using the SiPM in the diffuse radial reflectance measurement technique. The first obtained results confirm the high sensitivity of such kind of detector in the detection of weak light signal even at large distance between the light source and the detector.

  20. An ion gun and detector system for ion drift surface studies on toroidal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, G. E.; Knowlton, S. F.; Gandy, R. F.; Lin, H.; Thomas, E. E.; Owens, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    An ion gun and detector system have been designed and tested to study energetic ion trajectories and single-particle confinement in the vacuum field and low-density plasma of the Compact Auburn Torsatron (CAT). Thermionic Li+ and Mg+ sources are used. The gun positioning is capable of two degrees of freedom, allowing selection of the pitch angle and initial flux surface. The injection energy of the ions is variable from 5 to 100 eV, allowing investigation of the orbits of particles with large Larmor radii. The ion currents of typical magnitude I=10 nA are detected with a movable paddle probe making use of a boxcar-averaging technique. The detected ion trajectories are compared with the predicted trajectories from a guiding center code that makes use of a detailed model of the CAT magnetic configuration. The ion gun and detector system will be used to study the effect of magnetic islands on energetic ion trajectories.

  1. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  2. Detector Construction Management and Quality Control Establishing and Using a CRISTAL System

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, J M; Bazan, A; Bityukov, S I; Chevenier, G; Estrella, F; Kovács, Z; Le Flour, T; Lieunard, S; McClatchey, R; Murray, S; Organtini, G; Vialle, J P

    1998-01-01

    The CRISTAL (Cooperating Repositories and an Information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) project is delivering a software system to facilitate the management of the engineering data collected at each stage of production of CMS. CRISTAL captures all the physical characteristics of CMS components as each sub-detector is tested and assembled. These data are retained for later use in areas such as detector slow control, calibration and maintenance. CRISTAL must, therefore, support different views onto its data dependent on the role of the user. These data viewpoints are investigated in this paper. In the recent past two CMS Notes have been written about CRISTAL. The first note, CMS 1996/003, detailed the requirements for CRISTAL, its relationship to other CMS software, its objectives and reviewed the technology on which it would be based. CMS 1997/104 explained some important design concepts on which CRISTAL is and showed how CRISTAL integrated the domains of product data man- agement and workflow manage...

  3. A location system based on two-dimensional position sensitive detector used in interactive projection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Zhou, Qian; Chen, Liangjun; Sun, Peng; Xu, Honglei; Gao, Yuan; Ma, Jianshe; Li, Yi; Liu, Minxia

    2010-11-01

    The interactive projection systems have been widely used in people's life. Currently the major type is based on interactive whiteboard (IWB). In recent years, a new type based on CCD/CMOS sensor is greatly developed. Compared to IWB, CCD/CMOS implements non-contact sensing, which can use any surface as the projection screen. This makes them more flexible in many applications. However, the main defect is that the location accuracy and tracing speed are limited by the resolution and frame rate of the CCD/CMOS. In this paper, we introduced our recent progress on constructing a new type of non-contact interactive projection system by using a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (PSD). The PSD is an analog optoelectronic position sensor utilizing photodiode surface resistance, which provides continuous position measuring and features high position resolution (better than 1.5μm) and high speed response (less than 1μs). By using the PSD, both high positioning resolution and high tracing speed can be easily achieved. A specially designed pen equipped with infrared LEDs is used as a cooperative target. A high precision signal processing system is designed and optimized. The nonlinearity of the PSD as well as the aberration of the camera lens is carefully measured and calibrated. Several anti-interference methods and algorithms are studied. Experimental results show that the positioning error is about 2mm over a 1200mm×1000mm projection screen, and the sampling rate is at least 100Hz.

  4. Prototypes for components of a control system for the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boek, J; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Püllen, L; Zeitnitz, C

    2013-01-01

    inner detector of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced entirely including the pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a specific control system which complies with the strict requirements in terms of radiation hardness, material budget and space for the electronics in the ATLAS experiment. The University ofWuppertal is developing a concept for a DCS (Detector Control System) network consisting of two kinds of ASICs. The first ASIC is the DCS Chip which is located on the pixel detector, very close to the interaction point. The second ASIC is the DCS Controller which is controlling 4x4 DCS Chips from the outer regions of ATLAS via differential data lines. Both ASICs are manufactured in 130 nm deep sub micron technology. We present results from measurements from new prototypes of components for the DCS network.

  5. Recent Developments on the Silicon Drift Detector readout scheme for the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Bonazzola, G C; Bonvicini, V; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández, R; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999Recent developments of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) readout system for the ALICE Experiment are presented. The foreseen readout system is based on 2 main units. The first unit consists of a low noise preamplifier, an analog memory which continuously samples the amplifier output, an A/D converter and a digital memory. When the trigger signal validates the analog data, the ADCs convert the samples into a digital form and store them into the digital memory. The second unit performs the zero suppression/data compression operations. In this paper the status of the design is presented, together with the test results of the A/D converter, the multi-event buffer and the compression unit prototype.Summary:In the Inner Tracker System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment the third and the fourth layer of the detectors are SDDs. These detectors provide the measurement of both the energy deposition and the bi-dimensional position of the track. In terms o...

  6. An automatic system for controlling the quality of straws installed in the ATLAS TRT detector

    CERN Document Server

    Golunov, A O; Gousakov, Yu V; Kekelidze, G D; Livinski, V V; Mouraviev, S V; Parzycki, S S; Peshekhonov, V D; Price, M J; Savenkov, A A

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an automatic system to control the quality of straws installed in the wheels of the end-cap Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment. The system tests both the straightness and the electrical insulation of the straws during installation. The testing time per straw is 9s; consequently it takes about 2h to measure one layer of straws. The off-line analysis takes 20s per straw. With this system defects can be immediately detected and corrected. This clearly influences the future performance of the detector.

  7. X-ray microtomography system for small and light samples using a flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, A. B.; dos Santos, T. M. P.; Machado, A. S.; Oliveira, D. F.; Azeredo, S. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    A low-cost system able to perform microtomography of samples such as teeth, insects, or other small materials and low atomic numbers is presented. For this, a small flat panel type sensor was used. The process of characterization of the detector is detailed, as well as its main characteristics. The electromechanical control and the software used are also described. The advantages, some limitations, and comparisons with commercial systems are presented along with some three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of different materials that served as samples during the development of the system.

  8. The monitoring system for the aerogel Cherenkov counter of the BELLE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, M H R; Sumiyoshi, T; Kuniya, T; Adachi, I; Enomoto, R; Hattori, H; Iijima, T; Kaneda, K; Kawabata, R; Ooba, T; Suda, R; Suzuki, K; Watanabe, M

    1998-01-01

    We report on a design and performances of a monitoring system developed for the aerogel Cherenkov counters (ACC) of the BELLE detector. The system consists of blue LEDs, a diffuser box, and optical distributors which distribute the LED light to the ACC modules. The employed LED (NSPB series) has been observed to have high reliability on the long term stability and the temprature dependence. The diffuser box is employed to reduce the intrinsic non-uniformity of the LED light intensity. The overall performances of the present monitoring system on uniformity and intensity of the light output have been found to satisfy all the requirements for the monitoring.

  9. Development of Detector Systems for Internal and Fixed Target Heavy Ion Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with intermediate energy heavy ion reactions with the particular aim to study the nuclear matter equation of state which defines the relation between statistical parameters of a fermionic system. The development of equipment for two experiments, CA47 at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden and R16 at Kernfysisch Versneller Inst. (KVI), Groningen, The Netherlands, are described. CA47 contains the CHICSi detector, a modular, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, multi-detector system, covering a solid angle of 3pi sr around the collision point. Together with two auxiliary detector systems CHICSi is placed at the cluster-jet target chamber of the CELSIUS storage ring. This thesis gives a technical overview of the detector and the development carried out in order to achieve the desired detection performance. Some laboratory and in-beam tests are described and the analysis of the first experimental results is discussed. The nuclear intensity interferometry experiment (R16) was performed in a dedicated beam-line of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron. Small-angle two-particle correlations were measured for the E/A = 61 MeV {sup 36}Ar + {sup 27}Al, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 124}Sn reactions, together with singles spectra. The experimental energy distributions of neutrons and light charged particles for the {sup 36}Ar + {sup 27}Al reaction have been analyzed with a Maxwellian multi-source prescription. These results, together with correlation function data, are used to extract information on the size of the emitting sources and their time evolution.

  10. Interactive effects of sulfur and chromium on antioxidative defense systems and BnMP1 gene expression in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars differing in Cr(VI) tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Hakan; Yıldız, Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Plants suffer with combined stress of sulfur (S) deficiency and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in soils. There are a few reports on the interactive effects of S-deficiency and Cr(VI) stress. Therefore, the interactions between S nutrition and Cr(VI) stress were investigated in hydroponically grown canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars differing in Cr(VI) tolerance. The relatively Cr(VI)-tolerant (NK Petrol) and Cr(VI)-susceptible (Sary) cultivars were grown in S-sufficient nutrient solution and then exposed to variable S concentrations [deficient (0 mM S, -S) and sufficient (1 mM S, +S)]. The seedlings were then exposed to 100 μM Cr(VI) for 3 days. S-deficiency (-S/-Cr) and combined stress (-S/+Cr) caused a significant decrease in growth parameters of Sary than NK Petrol (P < 0.05). In -S/+Cr treatment, Cr accumulation in Sary was significantly higher than NK Petrol. The higher level of Cr in Sary increased lipid peroxidation and decreased chlorophyll content. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and cysteine content were significantly higher in NK Petrol than in Sary under combined stress. The levels of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly decreased by S deficiency. The expression level of metallothionein gene (BnMP1) in the tolerant NK Petrol was increased by -S/+Cr treatment. However, expression level of BnMP1 gene in the susceptible Sary was enhanced by +S/+Cr treatment. This result suggests metallothionein (MT) may be involved in Cr(VI) tolerance under S-deficient condition. In conclusion, S nutrition influenced Cr accumulation and enhanced tolerance caused by a positive effect on defense systems and gene expression.

  11. Development of an ASIC for Si/CdTe detectors in a radioactive substance visualizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Atsushi; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Sato, Goro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-11-01

    We report on the recent development of a 64-channel analog front-end ASIC for a new gamma-ray imaging system designed to visualize radioactive substances. The imaging system employs a novel Compton camera which consists of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel/pad detectors utilizing Si/CdTe as detector materials, and covers a dynamic range up to 1.4 MeV. The readout chip consists of 64 identical signal channels and was implemented with X-FAB 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each channel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a pole-zero cancellation circuit, a low-pass filter, a comparator, and a sample-hold circuit, along with a Wilkinson-type A-to-D converter. We observed an equivalent noise charge of 500 e- and a noise slope of 5 e-/pF (r.m.s.) with a power consumption of 2.1 mW per channel. The chip works well when connected to Schottky CdTe diodes, and delivers spectra with good energy resolution, such as 12 keV (FWHM) at 662 keV and 24 keV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV.

  12. A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity.

  13. Development of a multi-detector and a systematic imaging system on the AGLAE external beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Moignard, B.; Lemasson, Q.; Pacheco, C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Walter, P. [Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 8220, Laboratoire d’archéologie moléculaire et structurale, LAMS, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-01-01

    The New AGLAE external beamline provides analytical data for the understanding of the structure of archaeological and artistic objects, their composition, properties, and changes over time. One of the objectives of this project is to design and set up a new non-invasive acquisition system increasing the quality of the X-ray spectra and reducing the beam current on sensitive materials from work of art. To that end, the surface and the number of PIXE detectors have been increased to implement a cluster of SDD detectors. This can also provide the possibility to accomplish large and/or fast maps on artifacts with a scanning of the beam on the sample. During the mapping, a multi-parameter system saves each event from X-ray, gamma and particle detectors, simultaneously with the X and Y positions of the beam on the sample. To process the data, different softwares have been developed or updated. A first example on a decorated medieval shard highlights the perspectives of the technique.

  14. Development and test of the CO2 evaporative cooling system for the LHCb UT Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Coelli, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb detector, which will take place during the Long Shutdown 2 from mid 2018 to the end of 2019, will extend significantly the physics reach of the experiment by allowing it to run at higher instantaneous luminosity with increased trigger efficiency for a wide range of decay channels. The LHCb upgrade relies on two major changes. Firstly, the full read-out of the front-end electronics, currently limited by a Level-0 trigger to 1 MHz, will be replaced with a 40 MHz trigger system. Secondly, the upgraded LHCb detector will be designed to cope with an increase of the nominal operational luminosity by a factor five compared to the current detector. Compared to the current experiment several subsystems need to be partially rebuilt. Among these the 4 TT planes will be replaced by new high granularity silicon micro-strip planes with an improved coverage of the LHCb acceptance.The new system is called the Upstream Tracker. The radiation length of each UT plane should not exceed the value of 1 % X0...

  15. A new analogue sampling readout system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Gerassimov, S; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Kravtchuk, N; Kunne, Fabienne; Magnon, A; Neyret, D; Panebianco, S; Paul, S; Rebourgeard, P

    2008-01-01

    A new electronic readout for CsI-coated multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC), used as photon detectors in the COMPASS ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, is described. A prototype system comprising more than 5000 channels has been built and tested in high-intensity beam conditions. It is based on the APV25-S1 analogue sampling chip, and replaces the GASSIPLEX chip readout used previously. The APV25 chip, although originally designed for Silicon microstrip detectors, is shown to perform well even with “slow” signals from an MWPC, maintaining a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 9. For every trigger the system reads out three consecutive amplitudes in time, thus allowing to extract information on both the signal amplitude and its timing. This information is used to reduce pile-up events in a high-rate environment. Prototype tests of the new readout electronics on a central RICH photocathode in nominal COMPASS beam conditions showed that the effective time window is reduced from more than for the GASSIPLEX...

  16. Alignment of the inner detector and of the muon system of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Potrap, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Alignment of the ATLAS inner detector tracking system Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's largest particle accelerator. After a successful start run at 900 GeV in 2009, during 2010, LHC will collide two proton beams at an unprecedented center of mass energy of 7 TeV. ATLAS is one of the four multipurpose experiments that will record the products of the LHC proton-proton collisions. ATLAS is equipped, along others, with a charged particle tracking system built on two different technologies: silicon sensors and drift-tube based detectors constituting the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). In order to achieve its scientific goals, ATLAS has quite exigent tracking performance requirements. Thus, the goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensors location should not deteriorate the resolution of the track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. In this manner the required precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors in its most sensiti...

  17. A stationary computed tomography system with cylindrically distributed sources and detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xi, Yan; Zhao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The temporal resolution of current computed tomography (CT) systems is limited by the rotation speed of their gantries. A helical interlaced source detector array (HISDA) CT, which is a stationary CT system with distributed X-ray sources and detectors, is presented in this paper to overcome the aforementioned limitation and achieve high temporal resolution. Projection data can be obtained from different angles in a short time and do not require source, detector, or object motion. Axial coverage speed is increased further by employing a parallel scan scheme. Interpolation is employed to approximate the missing data in the gaps, and then a Katsevich-type reconstruction algorithm is applied to enable an approximate reconstruction. The proposed algorithm suppressed the cone beam and gap-induced artifacts in HISDA CT. The results also suggest that gap-induced artifacts can be reduced by employing a large helical pitch for a fixed gap height. HISDA CT is a promising 3D dynamic imaging architecture given its good temporal resolution and stationary advantage.

  18. Design of the Front-End Detector Control System of the ATLAS New Small Wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouris, Aimilianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will be upgraded during the next LHC Long Shutdown (LS2). The flagship upgrade is the New Small Wheel (NSW), which consists of 2 disks of Muon Gas detectors. The detector technologies used are Micromegas (MM) and sTGC, providing a total of 16 layers of tracking and trigger. The Slow Control Adapter (SCA) is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) - “Radiation Hard Optical Link Project” family of chips designed at CERN, EP-ESE department, which will be used at the NSW upgrade. The SCA offers several interfaces to read analog and digital inputs, and configure front-end Readout ASICs, FPGAs, or other chips. This poster gives an overview of the system, data flow, and software developed for communicating with the SCA.

  19. HEPTech Academia – Industry Matching Event on Control Systems for Accelerators and Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Anastasios Charitonidis (FP/KT), on behalf of the organizing committee

    2013-01-01

    The HEPTech AIME (Academia – Industry Matching Event) on Controls for accelerators and detectors will take place from 2 to 3 December in Athens, Greece.   The HEPTech network invites you to Demokritos NCSR to participate in an event that aims to bring together Academia and Industry to share ideas and potential applications of Controls Technology. The event will provide an overview of current Controls Systems for large scale projects including the LHC, the CMS and ATLAS detectors, medical accelerator facilities and contributions from companies active in these fields. CERN Computer Centre. The programme will also address some of the challenges faced by future High Energy Physics projects in the controls area and provide a glimpse into the future requirements of research infrastructures such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), and the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), while exploring different possible approaches to the commercialisation of controls technology. The event ...

  20. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Agapopoulou, Christina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L = 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region of the ATLAS detector. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters of ATLAS for pile-up mitigation in the offline reconstruction. An additional use of the detector as a luminometer is proposed. This device covers the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4. Four layers of Silicon sensors are foreseen to provide precision timing information with a time resolution of the order of 30 picoseconds per minimum ionizing particle in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision vertices. Each read...

  1. Comparison of silicon drift detectors made by Amptek and PNDetectors in application to the PHA system for W7-X

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia Krawczyk; Jacek Kaczmarczyk; Monika Kubkowska; Leszek Ryć

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents comparison of two silicon drift detectors (SDD), one made by Amptek, USA, and the second one by PNDetector, Germany, which are considered for a soft X-ray diagnostic system for W7-X...

  2. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  3. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  4. The type VI secretion system encoded in SPI-6 plays a role in gastrointestinal colonization and systemic spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pezoa

    Full Text Available The role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs in pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection in the chicken is poorly studied, while many studies have been completed in murine models. The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS is a recently described protein secretion system in Gram-negative bacteria. The genus Salmonella contains five phylogenetically distinct T6SS encoded in differentially distributed genomic islands. S. Typhimurium harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6, which contributes to the ability of Salmonella to colonize mice. On the other hand, serotype Gallinarum harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19 that is required for colonization of chicks. In this work, we investigated the role of T6SSSPI-6 in infection of chicks by S. Typhimurium. Oral infection of White Leghorn chicks showed that a ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant had reduced colonization of the gut and internal organs, compared with the wild-type strain. Transfer of the intact T6SSSPI-6 gene cluster into the T6SS mutant restored bacterial colonization. In addition, our results showed that transfer of T6SSSPI-19 from S. Gallinarum to the ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant of S. Typhimurium not only complemented the colonization defect but also resulted in a transient increase in the colonization of the cecum and ileum of chicks at days 1 and 3 post-infection. Our data indicates that T6SSSPI-6 contributes to chicken colonization and suggests that both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 perform similar functions in vivo despite belonging to different phylogenetic families.

  5. EnViSoRS: Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery. A User-Defined Safety Volume Tracking to Minimize the Risk of Intraoperative Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Penza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In abdominal surgery, intraoperative bleeding is one of the major complications that affect the outcome of minimally invasive surgical procedures. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins, and one of the possible risk factors falls on the surgeon’s skills. This paper presents the development and application of an Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery (EnViSoRS, based on a user-defined Safety Volume (SV tracking to minimize the risk of intraoperative bleeding. It aims at enhancing the surgeon’s capabilities by providing Augmented Reality (AR assistance toward the protection of vessels from injury during the execution of surgical procedures with a robot. The core of the framework consists in (i a hybrid tracking algorithm (LT-SAT tracker that robustly follows a user-defined Safety Area (SA in long term; (ii a dense soft tissue 3D reconstruction algorithm, necessary for the computation of the SV; (iii AR features for visualization of the SV to be protected and of a graphical gage indicating the current distance between the instruments and the reconstructed surface. EnViSoRS was integrated with a commercial robotic surgical system (the dVRK system for testing and validation. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the accuracy, robustness, performance, and usability of EnViSoRS during the execution of a simulated surgical task on a liver phantom. Results show an overall accuracy in accordance with surgical requirements (<5 mm, and high robustness in the computation of the SV in terms of precision and recall of its identification. The optimization strategy implemented to speed up the computational time is also described and evaluated, providing AR features update rate up to 4 fps, without impacting the real-time visualization of the stereo endoscopic video. Finally, qualitative results regarding the system usability indicate that the proposed system integrates well with the commercial surgical robot and

  6. Digital signal processing for CdTe detectors using VXIbus data collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Daiji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-07-01

    Recently fast signal digitizing technique has been developed, and signal waveforms with very short time periods can be obtained. In this paper, we analyzed each measured pulse which was digitized by an apparatus of this kind, and tried to improve an energy resolution of a CdTe semiconductor detector. The result of the energy resolution for {sup 137}Cs 662 keV photopeak was 13 keV. Also, we developed a fast data collection system based on VXIbus standard, and the counting rate on this system was obtained about 50 counts per second. (author)

  7. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  8. New micropattern gas detectors for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calabria, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    For the era of the high-luminosity LHC, new detectors are planned to enhance the performance of the endcap muon system of the CMS detector. We report on two types of these detectors that will be installed during the third long shutdown (LS3) of the LHC. In the pseudo-rapidity region $1.6 < \\lvert\\eta\\rvert < 2.4$, new triple-foil large-area Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors will be installed in the third of five detector stations in each endcap, the first station being closest to the interaction point. These GEM detectors are in addition to ones that will have already been installed in the second station during LS2. We present a design for the third station detectors that must cover a larger geometrical area than those in the second station, while maintaining good performance for efficiency and spatial resolution. A new innermost (first) detector station will be installed in the endcaps to extend the range of muon identification up to about $ \\lvert\\eta\\rvert = 3.0$. We describe the geometric...

  9. Development of a DAQ system for a plasma display panel-based X-ray detector (PXD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hakjae [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Sangheum [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan-si (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jungwon [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kisung, E-mail: kisung@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a novel plasma display panel (PDP)-based X-ray detector (PXD) was developed. The goal of this study is to develop a data acquisition system for use with the PXD as an imaging detector. Since the prototype detector does not have any barrier ribs or a switching device in a detector pixel, a novel pixelation scheme—the line-scan method—is developed for this new detector. To implement line scanning, a multichannel high-voltage switching circuit and a multichannel charge-acquisition circuit are developed. These two circuits are controlled by an FPGA-based digital signal processing board, from which the information about the charge and position of each pixel can be sent to a PC. FPGA-based baseline compensation and switching noise rejection algorithms are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The characteristic curve of the entire PXD system is acquired, and the correlation coefficients between the X-ray dose, and the signal intensity and the SNR were determined to be approximately 0.99 and 52.9, respectively. - Highlights: • We developed a data acquisition circuit for a novel X-ray imaging detector. • Line scan, noise rejection, and data transmission methods have been implemented by the FPGA. • The linearity and SNR of the proposed detector system have been measured quantitatively.

  10. Optoacoustic image reconstruction and system analysis for finite-aperture detectors under the wavelet-packet framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yiyong; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Rosenthal, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In optoacoustic tomography, detectors with relatively large areas are often employed to achieve high detection sensitivity. However, spatial-averaging effects over large detector areas may lead to attenuation of high acoustic frequencies and, subsequently, loss of fine features in the reconstructed image. Model-based reconstruction algorithms improve image resolution in such cases by correcting for the effect of the detector's aperture on the detected signals. However, the incorporation of the detector's geometry in the optoacoustic model leads to a significant increase of the model matrix memory cost, which hinders the application of inversion and analysis tools such as singular value decomposition (SVD). We demonstrate the use of the wavelet-packet framework for optoacoustic systems with finite-aperture detectors. The decomposition of the model matrix in the wavelet-packet domain leads to sufficiently smaller model matrices on which SVD may be applied. Using this methodology over an order of magnitude reduction in inversion time is demonstrated for numerically generated and experimental data. Additionally, our framework is demonstrated for the analysis of inversion stability and reveals a new, nonmonotonic dependency of the system condition number on the detector size. Thus, the proposed framework may assist in choosing the optimal detector size in future optoacoustic systems.

  11. Distributed modular RT-systems for detector DAQ, trigger and control applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vinogradov, V I

    2001-01-01

    A modular approach to development of distributed modular system architecture for detector control, data acquisition and trigger data processing is proposed. A multilevel parallel-pipeline model of data acquisition, processing and control is proposed and discussed. Multiprocessor architecture with SCI-based interconnections is proposed as good high-performance system for parallel-pipeline data processing. A network (Ethernet -100) can be used for loading, monitoring and diagnostic purposes independent of basic interconnections. The modular cPCI-based structures with high speed modular interconnections are proposed for DAQ and control applications. For distributed control RT-systems, to construct the effective (cost-performance) systems the same platform of an Intel compatible processor board should be used. The basic computer multiprocessor nodes consist of high-power PC MB (Industrial Computer Systems), which are interconnected by SCI modules and link to embedded microprocessor-based sub-systems for control a...

  12. Semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  13. System test and noise performance studies at the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarten, J.

    2007-09-15

    The central component of the ATLAS Inner Tracker is the pixel detector. It consists of three barrel layers and three disk-layers in the end-caps in both forward directions. The innermost barrel layer is mounted at a distance of about 5 cm from the interaction region. With its very high granularity, truly two-dimensional hit information, and fast readout it is well suited to cope with the high densities of charged tracks, expected this close to the interaction region. The huge number of readout channels necessitates a very complex services infrastructure for powering, readout and safety. After a description of the pixel detector and its services infrastructure, key results from the system test at CERN are presented. Furthermore the noise performance of the pixel detector, crucial for high tracking and vertexing efficiencies, is studied. Measurements of the single-channel random noise are presented together with studies of common mode noise and measurements of the noise occupancy using a random trigger generator. (orig.)

  14. VLSI architecture of a K-best detector for MIMO-OFDM wireless communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Haifang; Shi Yin, E-mail: jhf@semi.ac.c [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The K-best detector is considered as a promising technique in the MIMO-OFDM detection because of its good performance and low complexity. In this paper, a new K-best VLSI architecture is presented. In the proposed architecture, the metric computation units (MCUs) expand each surviving path only to its partial branches, based on the novel expansion scheme, which can predetermine the branches' ascending order by their local distances. Then a distributed sorter sorts out the new K surviving paths from the expanded branches in pipelines. Compared to the conventional K-best scheme, the proposed architecture can approximately reduce fundamental operations by 50% and 75% for the 16-QAM and the 64-QAM cases, respectively, and, consequently, lower the demand on the hardware resource significantly. Simulation results prove that the proposed architecture can achieve a performance very similar to conventional K-best detectors. Hence, it is an efficient solution to the K-best detector's VLSI implementation for high-throughput MIMO-OFDM systems.

  15. Optimization, Synchronization, Calibration and Diagnostic of the RPC PAC Muon Trigger System for the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bunkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid is one of the four experiments that will analyse the results of the collisions of the protons accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The collisions of proton bunches occur in the middle of the CMS detector every 25 ns, i.e. with a frequency of 40 MHz. Such a high collision frequency is needed because the probability of interesting processes, which we hope to discover at the LHC (such as production of Higgs bosons or supersymmetric particles) is very small. The objects that are the results of the proton-proton collisions are detected and measured by the CMS detector. Out of each bunch crossing the CMS produces about 1 MB of data; 40 millions of bunch collisions per second give the data stream of 40 terabytes (1013) per second. Such a stream of data is practically not possible to record on mass storage, therefore the first stage of the analysis of the detector data is performed in real time by the dedicated trigger system. Its task is to select potentially interesting events (...

  16. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  17. A GaAs pixel detectors-based digital mammographic system: Performances and imaging tests results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annovazzi, A.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Colombo, F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M. E.; Gilberti, A.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavagna, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Paternoster, G.; Pieracci, M.; Poletti, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2007-06-01

    The prototype presented in this paper is based on GaAs pixel detectors read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIX I circuit. The active area of a sensor is about 1 cm 2 therefore to cover the typical irradiation field used in mammography (18×24 cm 2), 18 GaAs detection units have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each and moved by a stepper motor in the orthogonal direction. The system is integrated in a mammographic equipment which comprehends the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies, Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS), CAEN, Gilardoni, LABEN and Poli.Hi.Tech., in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma "La Sapienza", Pisa and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization and the first imaging test results of the digital mammographic system. To assess the imaging capability of such a detector we have built a phantom, which simulates the breast tissue with malignancies. The radiographs of the phantom, obtained by delivering an entrance dose of 4.8 mGy, have shown particulars with a measured contrast below 1%.

  18. A proposal of a counting and recording system for cosmic ray muon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C. R.; Campos, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Dal Lago, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multidirecional high energy cosmic ray (muon) telescope is operational at the Southern Space Observatory, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil. This telescope is part of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and aims to study and forecast Space Weather. This paper proposes a new counting, correlation and recording solution based on an embedded system able to interface observational data by internet for remote monitoring. It is built around a Rabbit 3000 microcontroller with TCP/IP Ethernet 10Base-T connectivity. It is able to detect and count 200 ns pulses generated by the sensor system (scintillator plastics coupled with photomultipliers) during a specified period of time (generally one second). A preliminary version of a monitoring web page was developed and it is able to show the cosmic ray (muon) data of one detector in real time. The current system is an attempt to improve the reliability of the telescope when comparing to the recording system based on a personal computer, currently under operation. One advantage is the easy maintenance, since all the counting and correlation boards currently under operation can be replaced by an embedded system. Besides, as the hardware is off-the-shelf, it is only necessary to develop software routines, which is based on royalty-free libraries.

  19. A real-time spectrum acquisition system design based on quantum dots-quantum well detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. H.; Guo, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the structure characteristics of quantum dots-quantum well photodetector with response wavelength range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity, low dark current and the high conductance gain. According to the properties of the quantum dots-quantum well photodetectors, we designed a new type of capacitive transimpedence amplifier (CTIA) readout circuit structure with the advantages of adjustable gain, wide bandwidth and high driving ability. We have implemented the chip packaging between CTIA-CDS structure readout circuit and quantum dots detector and tested the readout response characteristics. According to the timing signals requirements of our readout circuit, we designed a real-time spectral data acquisition system based on FPGA and ARM. Parallel processing mode of programmable devices makes the system has high sensitivity and high transmission rate. In addition, we realized blind pixel compensation and smoothing filter algorithm processing to the real time spectrum data by using C++. Through the fluorescence spectrum measurement of carbon quantum dots and the signal acquisition system and computer software system to realize the collection of the spectrum signal processing and analysis, we verified the excellent characteristics of detector. It meets the design requirements of quantum dot spectrum acquisition system with the characteristics of short integration time, real-time and portability.

  20. SemiSPECT: A Small-animal Imaging System Based on Eight CdZnTe Pixel Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd E; Kim, Hyunki; Crawford, Michael J; Gershman, Benjamin M; Hunter, William C J; Barber, H Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Woolfenden, James M; Barrett, Harrison H

    We have constructed a SPECT system for small animals that utilizes eight CdZnTe pixel detectors. The eight detectors are arranged in a single octagonal ring, where each views the object to be imaged through a single pinhole. Additional projections are obtained via rotation of the animal. Each CdZnTe detector is approximately 2 mm in thickness and is patterned on one surface into a 64×64 array of pixels with 380 micron pitch. We have designed an electronic readout system capable of collecting data from the eight detectors in listmode. In this scheme each event entry for a gamma-ray hit includes the pulse height of the pixel with the largest signal and the pulse height for each of its eight nearest neighbors. We present details of the overall design, the electronics, and system performance.

  1. Dosimetric characterization of the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector through comparison with an in-house developed scintillator system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, Claus F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2014-01-01

    New commercial dosimetry systems need careful characterization and can benefit from the comparison with similar, in-house developed solutions. A comparison between such two dosimetry systems, both based on fibre-coupled organic plastic scintillator detectors, is presented. One system is the Exradin...... W1, fully commercialized by Standard Imaging, while the other system is the non-commercial ME40 system, developed by DTU Nutech with the aim of fundamental dosimetric research. Both systems employ plastic scintillator detectors that can be considered similar in design, calibrated using the same....... © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  2. First Assessment of Reliability Data for the LHC Accelerator and Detector Cryogenic System Components

    CERN Document Server

    Perinic, G; Alonso-Canella, I; Balle, C; Barth, K; Bel, J F; Benda, V; Bremer, J; Brodzinski, K; Casas-Cubillos, J; Cuccuru, G; Cugnet, M; Delikaris, D; Delruelle, N; Dufay-Chanat, L; Fabre, C; Ferlin, G; Fluder, C; Gavard, E; Girardot, R; Haug, F; Herblin, L; Junker, S; Klabi , T; Knoops, S; Lamboy, J P; Legrand, D; Metselaar, J; Park, A; Perin, A; Pezzetti, M; Penacoba-Fernandez, G; Pirotte, O; Rogez, E; Suraci, A; Stewart, L; Tavian, L J; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Van Weelderen, R; Vauthier, N; Vullierme, B; Wagner, U

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cryogenic system comprises eight independent refrigeration and distribution systems that supply the eight 3.3 km long accelerator sectors with cryogenic refrigeration power as well as four refrigeration systems for the needs of the detectors ATLAS and CMS. In order to ensure the highest possible reliability of the installations, it is important to apply a reliability centred approach for the maintenance. Even though large scale cryogenic refrigeration exists since the mid 20th century, very little third party reliability data is available today. CERN has started to collect data with its computer aided maintenance management system (CAMMS) in 2009, when the accelerator has gone into normal operation. This paper presents the reliability observations from the operation and the maintenance side, as well as statistical data collected by the means of the CAMMS system.

  3. Development and implementation of a new trigger and data acquisition system for the HADES detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Jan

    2012-11-16

    One of the crucial points of instrumentation in modern nuclear and particle physics is the setup of data acquisition systems (DAQ). In collisions of heavy ions, particles of special interest for research are often produced at very low rates resulting in the need for high event rates and a fast data acquisition. Additionally, the identification and precise tracking of particles requires fast and highly granular detectors. Both requirements result in very high data rates that have to be transported within the detector read-out system: Typical experiments produce data at rates of 200 to 1,000 MByte/s. The structure of the trigger and read-out systems of such experiments is quite similar: A central instance generates a signal that triggers read-out of all sub-systems. The signals from each detector system are then processed and digitized by front-end electronics before they are transported to a computing farm where data is analyzed and prepared for long-term storage. Some systems introduce additional steps (high level triggers) in this process to select only special types of events to reduce the amount of data to be processed later. The main focus of this work is put on the development of a new data acquisition system for the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer HADES located at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. Fully operational since 2002, its front-end electronics and data transport system were subject to a major upgrade program. The goal was an increase of the event rate capabilities by a factor of more than 20 to reach event rates of 20 kHz in heavy ion collisions and more than 50 kHz in light collision systems. The new electronics are based on FPGA-equipped platforms distributed throughout the detector. Data is transported over optical fibers to reduce the amount of electromagnetic noise induced in the sensitive front-end electronics. Besides the high data rates of up to 500 MByte/s at the design event rate of 20 kHz, the

  4. Pulse pile-up in hard X-ray detector systems. [for solar X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datlowe, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    When pulse-height spectra are measured by a nuclear detection system at high counting rates, the probability that two or more pulses will arrive within the resolving time of the system is significant. This phenomenon, pulse pile-up, distorts the pulse-height spectrum and must be considered in the interpretation of spectra taken at high counting rates. A computational technique for the simulation of pile-up is developed. The model is examined in the three regimes where (1) the time between pulses is long compared to the detector-system resolving time, (2) the time between pulses is comparable to the resolving time, and (3) many pulses occur within the resolving time. The technique is used to model the solar hard X-ray experiment on the OSO-7 satellite; comparison of the model with data taken during three large flares shows excellent agreement. The paper also describes rule-of-thumb tests for pile-up and identifies the important detector design factors for minimizing pile-up, i.e., thick entrance windows and short resolving times in the system electronics.

  5. Development of an integrated four-channel fast avalanche-photodiode detector system with nanosecond time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjie; Li, Qiuju; Chang, Jinfan; Ma, Yichao; Liu, Peng; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. E.; Xu, Wei; Tao, Ye; Wu, Chaoqun; Zhou, Yangfan

    2017-10-01

    A four-channel nanosecond time-resolved avalanche-photodiode (APD) detector system is developed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation. It uses a single module for signal processing and readout. This integrated system provides better reliability and flexibility for custom improvement. The detector system consists of three parts: (i) four APD sensors, (ii) four fast preamplifiers and (iii) a time-digital-converter (TDC) readout electronics. The C30703FH silicon APD chips fabricated by Excelitas are used as the sensors of the detectors. It has an effective light-sensitive area of 10 × 10 mm2 and an absorption layer thickness of 110 μm. A fast preamplifier with a gain of 59 dB and bandwidth of 2 GHz is designed to readout of the weak signal from the C30703FH APD. The TDC is realized by a Spartan-6 field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) with multiphase method in a resolution of 1ns. The arrival time of all scattering events between two start triggers can be recorded by the TDC. The detector has been used for nuclear resonant scattering study at both Advanced Photon Source and also at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. For the X-ray energy of 14.4 keV, the time resolution, the full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the detector (APD sensor + fast amplifier) is 0.86 ns, and the whole detector system (APD sensors + fast amplifiers + TDC readout electronics) achieves a time resolution of 1.4 ns.

  6. Precision electronics for a system of custom MCPs in the TORCH Time of Flight detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2017-03-01

    The TORCH detector will provide charged particle pi/K/p identification up to 10 GeV/c, combining Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on a scalable design, a Time-of-Flight electronics readout system has been developed to instrument a novel customized 512-channel Micro Channel Plate (MCP) device. A Gigabit Ethernet-based readout scheme that operates the TORCH demonstration unit consisting of ten such MCPs will be reported. The trigger and clock distribution will also be discussed.

  7. RBF multiuser detector with channel estimation capability in a synchronous MC-CDMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K; Choi, S; Kang, C; Hong, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors propose a multiuser detector with channel estimation capability using a radial basis function (RBF) network in a synchronous multicarrier-code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system. The authors propose to connect an RBF network to the frequency domain to effectively utilize the frequency diversity. Simulations were performed over frequency-selective and multi-path fading channels. These simulations confirmed that the proposed receiver can be used both for the channel estimation and as a multi-user receiver, thus permitting an increase in the number of active users.

  8. Very high voltage power supply system for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanellia, F; Gracco, V; Gys, T; Jost, B; Minì, G; Neufeld, N; Petrolini, A; Piedigrossi, D; Sannino, M

    2009-01-01

    A modular power supply system is described, for use in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detectors of the LHCb experiment. The main characteristics of the supply are very good time stability and voltage resolution, full programmability, floating supplies, self protection and remote control. The choice of a commercial HV module with standard control inputs allows easy customisation to adapt our design to different requirements. The realisation shown here supplies voltages up to 20 kV with a maximum current of 0.5 mA and up to 32 channels on a single crate.

  9. Consistency analysis for the performance of planar detector systems used in advanced radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanan Jassal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the performance linked to the consistency of a-Si EPID and ion-chamber array detectors for dose verification in advanced radiotherapy.Methods: Planar measurements were made for 250 patients using an array of ion chamber and a-Si EPID. For pre-treatment verification, the plans were generated on the phantom for re-calculation of doses. The γ-evaluation method with the criteria: dose-difference (DD ≤ 3% and distance-to-agreement (DTA ≤ 3 mm was used for the comparison of measurements. Also, the central axis (CAX doses were measured using 0.125cc ion chamber and were compared with the central chamber of array and central pixel correlated dose value from EPID image. Two types of statistical approaches were applied for the analysis. Conventional statistics used analysis of variance (ANOVA and unpaired t-test to evaluate the performance of the detectors. And statistical process control (SPC was utilized to study the statistical variation for the measured data. Control charts (CC based on an average , standard deviation ( and exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA were prepared. The capability index (Cpm was determined as an indicator for the performance consistency of the two systems.Results: Array and EPID measurements had the average gamma pass rates as 99.9% ± 0.15% and 98.9% ± 1.06% respectively. For the point doses, the 0.125cc chamber results were within 2.1% ± 0.5% of the central chamber of the array. Similarly, CAX doses from EPID and chamber matched within 1.5% ± 0.3%. The control charts showed that both the detectors were performing optimally and all the data points were within ± 5%. EWMA charts revealed that both the detectors had a slow drift along the mean of the processes but was found well within ± 3%. Further, higher Cpm values for EPID demonstrate its higher efficiency for radiotherapy techniques.Conclusion: The performances of both the detectors were seen to be of high quality irrespective of the

  10. Extra lightweight mechanical support structures with the integrated cooling system for a new generation of vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zherebchevsky, V I; Krymov, E B; Maltsev, N A; Makarov, N A; Feofilov, G A

    2014-01-01

    The performance of new extra lightweight mechanical support structures with the integrated liquid cooling system for monolithic silicon pixel detectors has been investigated. These detectors will be used to upgrade the inner tracking system in the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The extra lightweight mechanical support structures, together with the novel pixel detectors, provide a record-breaking total radiation length of 0.3% X 0 per layer, which will make it possible to considerably extend the physical program of investigations of the quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. This is particularly important in measuring the yields of heavy-flavor hadrons and low-mass dileptons with low transverse momenta. The experimental results of the thermal tests and the comparative analysis of five samples of extra lightweight mechanical support structures for monolithic silicon pixel detectors are presented. The high efficiency of heat drain using th...

  11. Monitoring System for the Gold Target by Radiation Detectors in Hadron Experimental Facility at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Ryotaro; Agari, Keizo; Aoki, Kazuya; Bessho, Kotaro; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Hirose, Erina; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iwasaki, Ruri; Katoh, Yohji; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Minakawa, Michifumi; Morino, Yuhei; Saito, Kiwamu; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawada, Shin'ya; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Akihisa; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Yamanoi, Yutaka

    2017-09-01

    At the Hadron Experimental Facility in J-PARC, we inject a 30-GeV proton beam into a gold target to produce secondary particle beams required for various particle and nuclear physics experiments. The gold target is placed in a hermetic chamber, and helium gas is circulated in the chamber to monitor the soundness of the target. The radioactivity in helium gas is continuously monitored by gamma-ray detectors such as a germanium detector and a NaI(Tl) detector. Beam operations with those target-monitoring systems were successfully performed from April to June and October to December 2015, and from May to June 2016. In this paper, the details of the helium gas circulation system and gamma-ray detectors and the analysis results of the obtained gamma-ray spectra are reported.

  12. A Charrelation Matrix-Based Blind Adaptive Detector for DS-CDMA Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongqiang; Zhu, Lidong

    2015-08-14

    In this paper, a blind adaptive detector is proposed for blind separation of user signals and blind estimation of spreading sequences in DS-CDMA systems. The blind separation scheme exploits a charrelation matrix for simple computation and effective extraction of information from observation signal samples. The system model of DS-CDMA signals is modeled as a blind separation framework. The unknown user information and spreading sequence of DS-CDMA systems can be estimated only from the sampled observation signals. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the improved performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the existing conventional algorithms used in DS-CDMA systems. Especially, the proposed scheme is suitable for when the number of observation samples is less and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low.

  13. A Charrelation Matrix-Based Blind Adaptive Detector for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a blind adaptive detector is proposed for blind separation of user signals and blind estimation of spreading sequences in DS-CDMA systems. The blind separation scheme exploits a charrelation matrix for simple computation and effective extraction of information from observation signal samples. The system model of DS-CDMA signals is modeled as a blind separation framework. The unknown user information and spreading sequence of DS-CDMA systems can be estimated only from the sampled observation signals. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the improved performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the existing conventional algorithms used in DS-CDMA systems. Especially, the proposed scheme is suitable for when the number of observation samples is less and the signal to noise ratio (SNR is low.

  14. Portable digital electronic radiography system with a solid-state area-imaging detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicka, B D; Sonnenburg, K

    1999-01-01

    A digital system for radiographic inspection was constructed in a portable version suitable for field use. The system uses typical film radiography sources, including sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 1r and X-ray generators. Radiographic images are formed using an area-imaging scintillating detector coupled to a charge-coupled device camera and a portable industrial computer. Compared to film radiography, this technology offers imaging without wet-film processing, shorter exposure times, larger dynamic range, and digital imaging that permits compact archiving, easy data access and mathematical image processing to improve sensitivity. System performance is illustrated for typical applications, i.e., for radiographing valves and pipes. Using ' sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir, the system works well on smaller water-filled valves and pipes; larger valves have to be drained. Work is under way to address this problem.

  15. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  16. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  17. An event-based neurobiological recognition system with orientation detector for objects in multiple orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new multiple orientation event-based neurobiological recognition system is proposed by integrating recognition and tracking function in this paper, which is used for asynchronous address-event representation (AER image sensors. The characteristic of this system has been enriched to recognize the objects in multiple orientations with only training samples moving in a single orientation. The system extracts multi-scale and multi-orientation line features inspired by models of the primate visual cortex. An orientation detector based on modified Gaussian blob tracking algorithm is introduced for object tracking and orientation detection. The orientation detector and feature extraction block work in simultaneous mode, without any increase in categorization time. An addresses lookup table (addresses LUT is also presented to adjust the feature maps by addresses mapping and reordering, and they are categorized in the trained spiking neural network. This recognition system is evaluated with the MNIST dataset which have played important roles in the development of computer vision, and the accuracy is increase owing to the use of both ON and OFF events. AER data acquired by a DVS are also tested on the system, such as moving digits, pokers, and vehicles. The experimental results show that the proposed system can realize event-based multi-orientation recognition.The work presented in this paper makes a number of contributions to the event-based vision processing system for multi-orientation object recognition. It develops a new tracking-recognition architecture to feedforward categorization system and an address reorder approach to classify multi-orientation objects using event-based data. It provides a new way to recognize multiple orientation objects with only samples in single orientation.

  18. Suspension-thermal noise in spring–antispring systems for future gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.

    2018-01-01

    Spring–antispring systems have been investigated in the context of low-frequency seismic isolation in high-precision optical experiments. These systems provide the possibility to tune the fundamental resonance frequency to, in principle, arbitrarily low values, and at the same time maintain a compact design. It was argued though that thermal noise in spring–antispring systems would not be as small as one may naively expect from lowering the fundamental resonance frequency. In this paper, we present calculations of suspension-thermal noise for spring–antispring systems potentially relevant in future gravitational-wave detectors, i.e. the beam-balance tiltmeter, and the Roberts linkage. We find a concise expression of the suspension-thermal noise spectrum, which assumes a form very similar to the well-known expression for a simple pendulum. For systems such as the Roberts linkage foreseen as passive seismic isolation, we find that while they can provide strong seismic isolation due to a very low fundamental resonance frequency, their thermal noise is determined by the dimension of the system and is insensitive to fine-tunings of the geometry that can strongly influence the resonance frequency. By analogy, i.e. formal similarity of the equations of motion, this is true for all horizontal mechanical isolation systems with spring–antispring dynamics. This imposes strict requirements on mechanical spring–antispring systems for seismic isolation in potential future low-frequency gravitational-wave detectors as we discuss for the four main concepts, atom-interferometric, superconducting, torsion-bars, and conventional laser interferometer, and generally suggests that thermal noise needs to be evaluated carefully for high-precision experiments implementing spring–antispring dynamics.

  19. Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F. C.; Rigon, L.; Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2011-12-01

    A single-photon counting detector read-out system for mammography with synchrotron radiation has been developed with the aim to meet the needs of the mammographic imaging station of the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. The system called PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) is a modular detector that implements a read-out system with MYTHEN II ASICs, an embedded Linux-based controller board and a Scientific Linux acquisition workstation. The system architecture and characteristics are herein presented. The system was tested at the SYRMEP beamline and achieved a frame rate of 33 Hz for 8448 channels at 24-bit dynamic range, and it is capable of continuously acquiring up to 2000 frames. Standard mammographic phantoms were imaged and good quality images were obtained at doses comparable with what is delivered in conventional full field mammographic systems.

  20. CMS Muon System Phase 2 Upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has an extensive muon system which provides information simultaneously for identification, track reconstruction and triggering of muons. As a consequence of the extreme particle rate and high integrated charge, the essentiality to upgrade the LHC has given rise to the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) project so that the CMS muon system will be upgraded with superior technological challenges. The CMS GEM collaboration offers a solution to equip the high-eta region of the muon system for Phase 2 (after the year 2017) with large-area triple-layer Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, since GEMs have the ability to provide robust and redundant tracking and triggering functions with an excellent spatial resolution of order 100 micron and a high particle rate capability, with a close to 100pct detection efficiency. In this contribution, the present status of the triple-GEM project will be reviewed, and the signifi...

  1. The LHCb RICH system: current detector performance and status of the upgrade program

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    LHCb is a precision experiment devoted to the study of CP violation and rare decays of b and c quarks, and to the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system is a key component of the LHCb experiment: it consists of two RICH detectors that provide charged particle identification over a wide momentum range (2-100 GeV/c) and angular acceptance (15-300 mrad). The LHCb RICH system has been performing extremely well during Run 1 and is providing the LHCb experiment also in Run 2 with a robust, reliable and precise particle identification system. Performance of the RICH detectors measured from data will be presented, with special reference to its dependence on calibration parameters and event multiplicities. The LHCb experiment is preparing for an upgrade during the second LHC long shutdown (2019-2020) in order to fully exploit the LHC flavour physics potential. A five-fold increase in instantaneous luminosity is foreseen reac...

  2. Tests of a new CCD-camera based neutron radiography detector system at the reactor stations in Munich and Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E.; Pleinert, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schillinger, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Koerner, S. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    The performance of the new neutron radiography detector designed at PSI with a cooled high sensitive CCD-camera was investigated under real neutronic conditions at three beam ports of two reactor stations. Different converter screens were applied for which the sensitivity and the modulation transfer function (MTF) could be obtained. The results are very encouraging concerning the utilization of this detector system as standard tool at the radiography stations at the spallation source SINQ. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Experimental MRI-SPECT insert system with Hybrid Semiconductor detectors Timepix for MR animal scanner Bruker 47/20

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíček, J.; Burian, M.; Soukup, P.; Novák, Vladimír; Macko, M.; Jakůbek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, January (2017), č. článku P01015. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Gamma camera * SPECT * PET PET/CT * coronary CT angiography (CTA) * Gamma detectors (scintillators, CZT, HPG, HgI etc) * multi-modality systems * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/P01015

  4. VgrG-5 is a Burkholderia type VI secretion system-exported protein required for multinucleated giant cell formation and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sandra; Singh, Pragya; Robertson, Johanna D; LeRoux, Michele; Skerrett, Shawn J; Goodlett, David R; West, T Eoin; Mougous, Joseph D

    2014-04-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has emerged as a critical virulence factor for the group of closely related Burkholderia spp. that includes Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis. While the genomes of these bacteria, referred to as the Bptm group, appear to encode several T6SSs, we and others have shown that one of these, type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS-5), is required for virulence in mammalian infection models. Despite its pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the Bptm group, the effector repertoire of T6SS-5 has remained elusive. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the secretome of wild-type B. thailandensis to that of a mutant harboring a nonfunctional T6SS-5. This analysis identified VgrG-5 as a novel secreted protein whose export depends on T6SS-5 function. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that VgrG-5 is a specialized VgrG protein that harbors a C-terminal domain (CTD) conserved among Bptm group species. We found that a vgrG-5 ΔCTD mutant is avirulent in mice and is unable to stimulate the fusion of host cells, a hallmark of the Bptm group previously shown to require T6SS-5 function. The singularity of VgrG-5 as a detected T6SS-5 substrate, taken together with the essentiality of its CTD for virulence, suggests that the protein is critical for the effector activity of T6SS-5. Intriguingly, we show that unlike the bacterial-cell-targeting T6SSs characterized so far, T6SS-5 localizes to the bacterial cell pole. We propose a model whereby the CTD of VgrG-5-, propelled by T6SS-5-, plays a key role in inducing membrane fusion, either by the recruitment of other factors or by direct participation.

  5. Mid-Infrared Tunable Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zogg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared detectors that are sensitive only in a tunable narrow spectral band are presented. They are based on the Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detector (RCED principle and employing a thin active region using IV-VI narrow gap semiconductor layers. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by two mirrors. The active layer is grown onto one mirror, while the second mirror can be displaced. This changes the cavity length thus shifting the resonances where the detector is sensitive. Using electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors, a very compact tunable detector system has been fabricated. Mirror movements of more than 3 μm at 30V are obtained. With these mirrors, detectors with a wavelength tuning range of about 0.7 μm have been realized. Single detectors can be used in mid-infrared micro spectrometers, while a detector arrangement in an array makes it possible to realize Adaptive Focal Plane Arrays (AFPA.

  6. Design of soft-X-ray tomographic system in WEST using GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, Didier, E-mail: Didier.Mazon@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chernyshova, Maryna [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jiolat, Guillaume [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarski, Tomasz [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malard, Philippe [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Jablonski, Slawomir; Figacz, Waldemar; Zagorski, Roman; Kubkowska, Monika [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Larroque, Sébastien; Verger, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); O’Mullane, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mlynar, Jan [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Byszuk, Adrian; Wojenski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Interplay between particle transport and MHD in tokamaks might lead to disruption. • Studying such phenomena is essential to achieve stationary discharges. • SXR measurement provides valuable information on particle transport and MHD. • New SXR GEM diagnostic design for the WEST project is presented. • Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector are presented. - Abstract: In metallic tokamaks, the interplay between particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) activity might lead to impurities accumulation and finally to disruption. Studying such phenomena is thus essential if stationary discharges are to be achieved. Measuring the soft X-ray (SXR) radiation ([0.1 keV; 20 keV]) of magnetic fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport and MHD. Generally, like at Tore Supra (TS), the analysis is performed with a 2D tomographic system composed of several cameras equipped with silicon barrier diodes (SBD). On WEST the installation of an upper divertor masks many of the actual TS vertical diodes so that no proper tomography is possible. This paper presents the design of a new SXR diagnostic for the WEST project developed in collaboration with IPPLM (Poland) and the Warsaw University of Technology, based on a triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector and its electronics inside the vertical thimble are also presented, in particular estimation of magnetic field and temperature variation affecting GEM spatial resolution and signal quality. As a conclusion, perspectives about tomographic capabilities of the new system for studying impurity transport are given.

  7. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    cooled device without liquid nitrogen in very demanding environmental conditions. A successful test of this device was performed on sky on the PIONIER 4 telescopes beam combiner on the VLTi at ESOParanal in June 2014. First Light Imaging, which will commercialize a camera system using also APD infrared arrays in its proprietary wavefront sensor camera platform. These programs are held with several partners, among them are the French astronomical laboratories (LAM, OHP, IPAG), the detector manufacturers (e2v technologies, Sofradir, CEA/LETI) and other partners (ESO, ONERA, IAC, GTC, First Light Imaging). Funding is: Opticon FP7 from European Commission, ESO, CNRS and Université de Provence, Sofradir, ONERA, CEA/LETI the French FUI (DGCIS), the FOCUS Labex and OSEO.

  8. Selective removal of chromium (VI) from sulphates and other metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... (Leonberg, Germany) equipped with a Lambda 1010 UV-Vis absorbance detector was ... AG 7 (4 x 50 mm) guard column and Dionex IonPac® AS7 (4 x. 250 mm) analytical ...... and equilibrium characterization of uranium(VI) adsorption onto .... netic nanoparticles in a polyvinylpyridine matrix. Polymer 41.

  9. Performance characterization of the Micromegas detector for the New Small Wheel upgrade and Development and improvement of the Muon Spectrometer Detector Control System in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349891

    The ATLAS, an abbreviation for A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS, detector is one of the two general purpose high luminosity experiments (along with CMS) that have been built for probing p-p and Pb-Pb or p-Pb collisions in the LHC. The muon spectrometer encircles the rest of the ATLAS detector subsystems defining the ATLAS overall dimensions. Its principle of operation is based on the magnetic deflection of muon tracks by a system of superconducting air-core toroid magnets providing high resolution muon momentum measurement. The upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer is primarily motivated by the high background radiation expected during Run-3 (2021) and ultimately at $\\mathcal{L}=7\\times 10^{34}\\,\\mathrm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ in HL-LHC (2026). Owing to this the detectors that occupy the innermost muon station called Small Wheel (SW), MDT, CSC \\& TGC, will go beyond their design luminosity limit. In addition, the muon trigger rate will exceed the available bandwidth because of the fake endcap muon triggers ($90\\%$ is c...

  10. High-Speed Focus Inspection System Using a Position-Sensitive Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Xuan Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Precise and rapid focus detection is an essential operation in several manufacturing processes employing high-intensity lasers. However, the detection resolution of existing methods is notably low. This paper proposes a technique that provides a rapid-response, high-precision, and high-resolution focus inspection system on the basis of geometrical optics and advanced optical instruments. An ultrafast interface position detector and a single-slit mask are used in the system to precisely signal the focus position with high resolution. The reflected images on the image sensor are of a high quality, and this quality is maintained persistently when the target surface is shifted along the optical axis. The proposed system developed for focus inspection is simple and inexpensive, and is appropriate for practical use in the industrial production of sophisticated structures such as microcircuits and microchips.

  11. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestling, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.wuestling@kit.ed [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P. [Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Steidl, M [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement ({Delta}E/E=5x10{sup -5}) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay (E{sub max}=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area ({approx}80 cm{sup 2}), a certain energy resolution ({Delta}E=600 eV - 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution ({approx}3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm{sup 2}) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. , this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement . The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3x10{sup -3} cps/cm{sup 2} in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10{sup 5} and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  12. Development and Operation of a Liquid Scintillator Purification System for a Solar Neutrino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Benziger, J. B.; Calaprice, F. P.; Darnton, N.; Johnson, M.; Loeser, F.; Vogelaar, R. B.

    1996-10-01

    An on-line purification system for a large-scale, liquid scintillator detector has been developed for the Counting Test Facility (CTF), a five-ton prototype of the Borexino solar neutrino detector at Gran Sasso. This purification system was operated to remove radioactive impurities from the pseudocumene-based scintillator in the CTF. Counter-current water extraction was performed to remove ionic impurities from the scintillator. Notably, the radon daughters ^210Bi and ^210Po were identified prior to purification and were successfully removed by water extraction. Vacuum distillation of the entire scintillator mixture allowed high radiopurity and chemical purity to be maintained; in addtion, it enabled a test of the origin of ^14C in the scintillator mixture to be performed. Finally, nitrogen stripping was utilized to remove noble gas radioactive isotopes, such as ^85Kr and ^222Rn. The results of the CTF purification activities and an overview of the purification scheme for the Borexino solar neutrino experiment will be presented.

  13. Prototypes and system test stands for the Phase1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073564

    2015-01-01

    The CMS pixel phase-1 upgrade project replaces the current pixel detector with an upgraded system with faster readout electronics during the extended year-end technical stop of 2016/17. New electronics prototypes for the system have been developed, and tests in a realistic environment for a comprehensive evaluation are needed. A full readout test stand with either the same hardware as used in the current CMS pixel detector or the latest prototypes of upgrade electronics has been built. The setup enables the observation and investigation of a jitter increase in the data line as the trigger rate increase. This increase is due to the way in which the clock and trigger distribution is implemented in CMS. A new prototype of the electronics with a PLL based on a voltage controlled quartz crystal oscillator (QPLL), which works as jitter filter, in the clock distribution path was produced. With the test stand, it was confirmed that the jitter increase is not seen with the prototype, and also good performance was conf...

  14. Implementation and Performance of the Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Kollar, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's largest particle accelerator. After a successful initial run at 900 GeV in 2009, during 2010, LHC has collided proton beams at an unprecedented centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the products of the LHC collisions. To reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built on two different technologies: silicon planar sensors and drift-tube based detectors, constituting the ATLAS Inner Detector. In order to achieve its scientific goals, ATLAS tracking performance requirements are quite exigent. The goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensor locations should not deteriorate the resolution of the track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. Thus the required precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The alignment of the ATLAS tracking system re...

  15. Design, construction and commissioning of the Thermal Screen Control System for the CMS Tracker detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E; Tsirou, A

    The CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) laboratory is currently building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Four international collaborations have designed (and are now constructing) detectors able to exploit the physics potential of this collider. Among them is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general purpose detector optimized for the search of Higgs boson and for physics beyond the Standard Model of fundamental interactions between elementary particles. This thesis presents, in particular, the design, construction, commissioning and test of the control system for a screen that provides a thermal separation between the Tracker and ECAL (Electromagnetic CALorimeter) detector of CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid experiment). Chapter 1 introduces the new challenges posed by these installations and deals, more in detail, with the Tracker detector of CMS. The size of current experiments for high energy physics is comparable to that of a small industrial plant: therefore, the techniques used for controls a...

  16. Applicability of a submersible microbial fuel cell for Cr(VI) detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyeonyong; Ju, Won Jung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2016-11-01

    Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to study the applicability of MFCs for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) detection in water. The microbial acetate oxidation in the anode and the Cr(VI) reduction in the cathode together generated voltages, which were used to indicate the change in Cr(VI) concentrations of the cathode under varying conditions of pH, ionic strength, co-existing Fe(II) concentration, and organic matter concentration. The MFC-based Cr(VI) detector showed a significant change in voltage with increasing Cr(VI) concentration at pH 1 and 2, but not at higher pH conditions. The detector also successfully measured the changes in Cr(VI) concentration at a range of ionic strength (i.e., 10-300 mM), and in the presence of different concentrations of fulvic acid (0-50 mg/L), which was used as a surrogate of organic matters, without interference. The Cr(VI) detection was not interfered by the presence of Fe(II) at the Cr(VI)/Fe(II) ratio of 1:1 and 1:15, but it was interfered at higher ratios (i.e., 1:164 and 1:848). The detector could measure the Cr(VI) concentration from 0.1 to 15 mg/L at pH 2. Overall, the MFC-based Cr(VI) detector may be applied to meet the growing need of real-time Cr(VI) monitoring in water.

  17. In-Flight Performance of the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Detector System on ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Carolina A.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SXS instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS spectrometer is based on a high sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and sub-orbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In pre-flight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous band-pass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 microsecond. In addition, a solid-state anti-coincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain-stability, and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7 eV FWHM at 6 keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in pre-flight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  18. System for automatic checking of nuclear radiation detectors of sparkle type; Sistema para verificacion automatico de detectores de radiacion nuclear tipo centelleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez O, E.; Vilchis P, A.; Romero G, M.; Torres B, M.A.; Garcia H, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work an automatic system of checking of nuclear detectors of sparkle type is described. This system is used in laboratory for the checking of the parameters which define the reliable operation of each detector, also it compares the obtained results with those proportionated by the manufacturer for the operator can emit the acceptance or rejection criteria. The checking system consists of an acquisition data card with a digital signal processor (DSP) as central device, a programmable high voltage source and an insertion and conversion module. These components interact with a personal computer to provide to the operator the energy spectra, the nuclear pulse form and the merit figure. The obtained results are showed in graphic form and/or numerical values and it is possible store them in a data file and/or in printed form. For facilitating the interaction of the computer with the user, the system software was realized with a commercial language of graphic programming (virtual instrumentation). (Author)

  19. Comparison of silicon drift detectors made by Amptek and PNDetectors in application to the PHA system for W7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparison of two silicon drift detectors (SDD, one made by Amptek, USA, and the second one by PNDetector, Germany, which are considered for a soft X-ray diagnostic system for W7-X. The sensitive area of the first one is 7 mm2 × 450 μm and the second one is 10 mm2 × 450 μm. The first detector is cooled by a double-stage Peltier element, while the second detector is cooled by single-stage Peltier element. Each one is equipped with a field-effect transistor (FET. In the detector from Amptek, the FET is mounted separately, while in the detector from PNDetector, the FET is integrated on the chip. The nominal energy resolution given by the producers of the first and the second one is 136 eV@5.9 keV (at -50°C and 132 eV@5.9 keV (at -20°C, respectively. Owing to many advantages, the investigated detectors are good candidates for soft X-ray measurements in magnetic confinement devices. They are suitable for soft X-ray diagnostics, like the pulse height analysis (PHA system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, which has been developed and manufactured at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM, Warsaw, in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, Greifswald. The diagnostic is important for the measurements of plasma electron temperature, impurities content, and possible suprathermal tails in the spectra. In order to choose the best type of detector, analysis of technical parameters and laboratory tests were done. Detailed studies show that the most suitable detector for the PHA diagnostics is the PNDetector.

  20. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Agapopoulou, Christina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 30 pico-seconds per readout cell in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision verti...

  1. The Seismic Attenuation System (SAS) for the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stochino, Alberto [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NW 22, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: stochino@ligo.caltech.edu; Abbot, Benjamin [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NW 22, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aso, Yoichi [Columbia University in the City of New York, 1009 Pupin Laboratory, New York, 10027 NY (United States); Barton, Mark; Bertolini, Alessandro [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boschi, Valerio [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Coyne, Dennis; DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Galli, Carlo [Galli and Morelli s.r.l. Via Cristofani 558-loc. Acquacalda 55100 Lucca (Italy); Huang Yumei [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Ivanov, Alex [LIGO Lab., California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marka, Szabolcs [Columbia Univ. in the City of New York, 1009 Pupin Lab., New York, 10027 NY (United States); Ottaway, David [LIGO Lab., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., NW 22, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sannibale, Virginio [LIGO Lab., California Inst. of Tech., MS 18-34, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vanni, Chiara [Galli and Morelli s.r.l. Via Cristofani 558-loc. Acquacalda 55100 Lucca (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-01-21

    New seismic pre-isolation systems will have to be included in the forthcoming gravitational wave interferometers of Advanced LIGO as part of the strategy to increase the sensitivity in the entire frequency range. In this perspective the LIGO Seismic Attenuation System (SAS) Group designed a new kind of seismic attenuation platforms for the Horizontal Access Module (HAM) and Basic Symmetric Chamber (BSC) vacuum chambers of the interferometers. HAM-SAS, a specific prototype for the HAM chambers, was constructed and installed in a test-bench laboratory. At the end of the commissioning time the prototype achieved many of the Advanced LIGO requirements about seismic isolation, stability and reliability. The lab experience also enabled us to finalize the design and indicated SAS as a solution worth considering for the seismic isolation of the advanced detectors.

  2. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  3. Signal processing system based on FPGAs for neutron imaging detectors using scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebine, M.; Katagiri, M. E-mail: kata@stsp2a0.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Birumachi, A.; Matsubayashi, M.; Sakasai, K.; Sato, S

    2004-08-21

    A signal processing system based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) was developed for a 64 channelx64 channel neutron imaging device using a wavelength shifting fiber read-out based on a photon-counting method. Light signals detected by 64 channel multi-anode photomultipliers are amplified and converted to digital photon signals containing incident-position and time information of neutron by using high-speed amplifiers and discriminators. By using coincidence circuits made in FPGAs, the incident position of neutron is determined based on these digital signals. A neutron imaging detector composed of the signal processing system and a neutron imaging device with a ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF scintillator was evaluated by using neutron beam. It was confirmed that the signal processing based on FPGAs was effective to determine a precise incident position of neutron with high speed and many channel.

  4. Innovative low-mass cooling systems for the ALICE ITS Upgrade detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Marzoa, Manuel

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the LHC to full design luminosity, planned for 2019 at CERN, requires the modernisation of the experiments around the accelerator. The Inner Tracking System (ITS), the innermost detector at the ALICE experiment, will be upgraded by replacing the current apparatus by new silicon pixels arranged in 7 cylindrical layers. Each layer is composed by multiple independent modules, named staves, which provide mechanical support and cooling to the chips. This thesis aims to develop and validate experimentally an ultra-lightweight stave cooling system for the ITS Upgrade. The moderate thermal requirements, with a nominal power density of 0.15 W/cm^2 and a maximum chip temperature of 30ºC, are counterweighted by extreme low-mass restrictions, obliging to resort to lightweight, non-metallic materials, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymers and plastics. Novel lightweight stave concepts were developed and experimentally validated, meeting the thermal requirements with minimal material inventory. T...

  5. Photomultiplier pulse Read Out system for the preshower detector of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Cornat, R; Deschamps, O; Lecoq, J; Monteil, S; Perret, P

    2003-01-01

    The second generation experiment for CP violation studies in B decays, LHCb, is a 20-m-long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition to a performance trigger system able to cope with high flux. The first level of trigger is mainly based on the fast response of the calorimetric subsystem. Of major importance is the 6000 channels preshower detector that aims to validate the electromagnetic nature of calorimetric showers. It consists of two- radiation-length lead sheet in front of a scintillator plane. Scintillator signals are extracted from plastic cells using wavelength-shifting fibres coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The preshower Read Out system has to cope with fluctuating photomultiplier pulses caused by small amounts of photoelectrons, in addition to strong constraints imposed by the 40 MHz LHC bunch- crossing frequency. A special Read...

  6. and dioxouranium(vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with atomic radii of 1.65 and .... to ν(NH) vibrations. Practically no effect on these frequencies after complexation precludes the possibility of metal-coordination at this group. The absorptions at 1600 ... observation suggests involvement of unsaturated nitrogen atoms of the two azomethine groups.

  7. INTEGRATING CONTROLS FRAMEWORKS: CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR NA62 LAV DETECTOR TEST BEAMS

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, O; Golonka, P; Gonzalez-Berges, M; Milcent, H

    2011-01-01

    The detector control system for the NA62 experiment at CERN, to be ready for physics data-taking in 2014, is going to be built based on control technologies recommended by the CERN Engineering group. A rich portfolio of the technologies is planned to be showcased and deployed in the final application, and synergy between them is needed. In particular two approaches to building controls application need to play in harmony: the use of the high-level application framework called UNICOS, and a bottom-up approach of development based on the components of the JCOP Framework. The aim of combining the features provided by the two frameworks is to avoid duplication of functionality and minimize the maintenance and development effort for future controls applications. In the paper the result of the integration efforts obtained so far are presented; namely the control applications developed for beam-testing of NA62 detector prototypes. Even though the delivered applications are simple, significant conceptual and developm...

  8. Components of the CMS magnet system at the detector's assembly site.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photos 01, 05: Outer cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank. The vacuum tank consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. As can be seen, the cylinder is attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke. Photos 02, 04: CMS end-cap yoke. The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke).Photo 03: Inner cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank. The vacuum tank consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the outer cylinder already attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke.

  9. Integrating Controls Frameworks: Control Systems for NA62 LAV Detector Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Oliver; Golonka, Piotr; Gonzalez-Berges, Manuel; Milcent, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The detector control system for the NA62 experiment at CERN, to be ready for physics data-taking in 2014, is going to be built based on control technologies recommended by the CERN Engineering group. A rich portfolio of the technologies is planned to be showcased and deployed in the final application, and synergy between them is needed. In particular two approaches to building controls application need to play in harmony: the use of the high-level application framework called UNICOS, and a bottom-up approach of development based on the components of the JCOP Framework. The aim of combining the features provided by the two frameworks is to avoid duplication of functionality and minimize the maintenance and development effort for future controls applications. In the paper the result of the integration efforts obtained so far are presented; namely the control applications developed for beam-testing of NA62 detector prototypes. Even though the delivered applications are simple, significant conceptual and developm...

  10. Two-level system noise reduction for Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid; Gao, Jiansong; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.

    2009-12-01

    Noise performance is one of the most crucial aspects of any detector. Superconducting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have an "excess" frequency noise that shows up as a small time dependent jitter of the resonance frequency characterized by the frequency noise power spectrum measured in units of Hz2/Hz. Recent studies have shown that this noise almost certainly originates from a surface layer of two-level system (TLS) defects on the metallization or substrate. Fluctuation of these TLSs introduces noise in the resonator due to coupling of the TLS electric dipole moments to the resonator's electric field. Motivated by a semi-empirical quantitative theory of this noise mechanism, we have designed and tested new resonator geometries in which the high-field "capacitive" portion of the CPW resonator is replaced by an interdigitated capacitor (IDC) structure with 10-20 μm electrode spacing, as compared to the 2 μm spacing used for our more conventional CPW resonators. Measurements show that this new IDC design has dramatically lower TLS noise, currently by about a factor of ˜29 in terms of the frequency noise power spectrum, corresponding to an improvement of about a factor of √29 in NEP. These new devices are replacing the CPW resonators in our next design iteration in progress for MKIDCam. Opportunities and prospects for future reduction of the TLS noise will be discussed.

  11. NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS: beams and detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bogusz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Christakoglou, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ereditato, A.; Fabich, A.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Jokovic, D.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kielczewska, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Koversarski, P.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Maćkowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Manglunki, D.; Manic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.J; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, R.; Skrzypczak, E.; Słodkowski, M.; Sosin, Z.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarz, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2014-01-01

    NA61/SHINE (SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is a multi-purpose experimental facility to study hadron production in hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. It recorded the first physics data with hadron beams in 2009 and with ion beams (secondary 7Be beams) in 2011. NA61/SHINE has greatly profited from the long development of the CERN proton and ion sources and the accelerator chain as well as the H2 beamline of the CERN North Area. The latter has recently been modified to also serve as a fragment separator as needed to produce the Be beams for NA61/SHINE. Numerous components of the NA61/SHINE set-up were inherited from its predecessors, in particular, the last one, the NA49 experiment. Important new detectors and upgrades of the legacy equipment were introduced by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration. This paper describes the state of the NA61/SHINE facility - the beams and the detector system - before the CERN Long Shutdown I, which started in March ...

  12. A readout system for the micro-vertex-detector demonstrator for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Christoph

    2011-06-09

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment (CBM) is a fixed target heavy ion experiment currently in preparation at the future FAIR accelerator complex in Darmstadt. The CBM experiment focuses on the measurements of diagnostic probes of the early and dense phase of the fireball at beam energies from 8 up to 45 AGeV. As observables, rare hadronic, leptonic and photonic probes are used, including open charm. Open charm will be identified by reconstructing the secondary decay vertex of the corresponding short lived particles. As the central component for track reconstruction, a detector system based on silicon semiconductor detectors is planned. The first three stations of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) make up the so-called Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) operating in moderate vacuum. Because of the well-balanced compromise between an excellent spatial resolution (few {mu}m), low material budget ({proportional_to}50 {mu}m Si), adequate radiation tolerance and readout speed, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on CMOS technology are more suited than any other technology for the reconstruction of the secondary vertex in CBM. A new detector concept has to be developed. Two MVD-Demonstrator modules have been successfully tested with 120 GeV pions at the CERN-SPS. The main topic of this thesis is the development of a control and readout concept of several MVD-Demonstrator modules with a common data acquisition system. In order to achieve the required results a front-end electronics device has been developed which is capable of reading the analogue signals of two sensors on a ex-print cable. The high data rate of the MAPS sensors (1.2 Gbit per second and sensor by 50 MHz and 12 bit ADC resolution) requires a readout system which processes the data on-line in a pipeline to avoid dead times. In order to implement the pipeline processing an FPGA is used, which is located on an additional hardware platform. In order to integrate the MVD-Demonstrator readout board in the

  13. Progress in the development of a S RETGEM-based detector for an early forest fire warning system

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Peskov, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a prototype of a Strip Resistive Thick GEM photosensitive gaseous detector filled with Ne and ethylferrocene vapours at a total pressure of 1 atm for an early forest fire detection system. Tests show that it is one hundred times more sensitive than the best commercial ultraviolet flame detectors and therefore, it is able to reliably detect a flame of 1.5x1.5x1.5 m3 at a distance of about 1km. An additional and unique feature of this detector is its imaging capability, which in combination with other techniques, may significantly reduce false fire alarms when operating in an automatic mode. Preliminary results conducted with air filled photosensitive gaseous detectors are also presented. The approach main advantages include both the simplicity of manufacturing and affordability of construction materials such as plastics and glues specifically reducing detector production cost. The sensitivity of these air filled detectors at certain conditions may be as high as those filled with Ne and...

  14. Radiation dose reduction using a CdZnTe-based computed tomography system: comparison to flat-panel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Huy, Q; Ducote, Justin L; Molloi, Sabee

    2010-03-01

    Although x-ray projection mammography has been very effective in early detection of breast cancer, its utility is reduced in the detection of small lesions that are occult or in dense breasts. One drawback is that the inherent superposition of parenchymal structures makes visualization of small lesions difficult. Breast computed tomography using flat-panel detectors has been developed to address this limitation by producing three-dimensional data while at the same time providing more comfort to the patients by eliminating breast compression. Flat panels are charge integrating detectors and therefore lack energy resolution capability. Recent advances in solid state semiconductor x-ray detector materials and associated electronics allow the investigation of x-ray imaging systems that use a photon counting and energy discriminating detector, which is the subject of this article. A small field-of-view computed tomography (CT) system that uses CdZnTe (CZT) photon counting detector was compared to one that uses a flat-panel detector for different imaging tasks in breast imaging. The benefits afforded by the CZT detector in the energy weighting modes were investigated. Two types of energy weighting methods were studied: Projection based and image based. Simulation and phantom studies were performed with a 2.5 cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylinder filled with iodine and calcium contrast objects. Simulation was also performed on a 10 cm breast specimen. The contrast-to-noise ratio improvements as compared to flat-panel detectors were 1.30 and 1.28 (projection based) and 1.35 and 1.25 (image based) for iodine over PMMA and hydroxylapatite over PMMA, respectively. Corresponding simulation values were 1.81 and 1.48 (projection based) and 1.85 and 1.48 (image based). Dose reductions using the CZT detector were 52.05% and 49.45% for iodine and hydroxyapatite imaging, respectively. Image-based weighting was also found to have the least beam hardening effect. The results

  15. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  16. Final Report: A CdZnTe detector for MRI-compatible SPECT Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2012-12-27

    The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During the past three years, we have developed (a) a MRI-compatible ultrahigh resolution gamma ray detector and associated readout electronics, (b) a theoretical approach for modeling the effect of strong magnetic field on SPECT image quality, and (c) a maximum-likelihood (ML) based reconstruction routine with correction for the MR-induced distortion. With this support, we have also constructed a four-head MR-compatible SPECT system and tested the system inside a 3-T clinical MR-scanner located on UI campus. The experimental results obtained with this system have clearly demonstrated that sub-500um spatial resolution can be achieved with a SPECT system operated inside a 3-T MRI scanner. During the past three years, we have accomplished most of the major objectives outlined in the original proposal. These research efforts have laid out a solid foundation the development of future MR-compatible SPECT systems for both pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.

  17. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  18. Superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: System Model of the Readout Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the readout electronics needed by superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs. MKIDs are typically implemented in the form of cryogenic-cooled high quality factor microwave resonator. The natural frequency of these resonators changes as a millimeter or sub-millimeter wave radiation impinges on the resonator itself. A quantitative system model of the readout electronics (very similar to that of a vector network analyzer has been implemented under ADS environment and tested by several simulation experiments. The developed model is a tool to further optimize the readout electronic and to design the frequency allocation of parallel-connected MKIDs resonators. The applications of MKIDs will be in microwave and millimeter-wave radiometric imaging as well as in radio-astronomy focal plane arrays.

  19. Modular data acquisition system and its use in gas-filled detector readout at ESRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, F.; Epaud, F.; Poncet, F.; Grave, M.; Rey-Bakaikoa, V.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1992, 18 ESRF beamlines are open to users. Although the data acquisition requirements vary a lot from one beamline to another, we are trying to implement a modular data acquisition system architecture that would fit with the maximum number of acquisition projects at ESRF. Common to all of these systems are large acquisition memories and the requirement to visualize the data during an acquisition run and to transfer them quickly after the run to safe storage. We developed a general memory API handling the acquisition memory and its organization and another library that provides calls for transferring the data over TCP/IP sockets. Interesting utility programs using these libraries are the `online display' program and the `data transfer' program. The data transfer program as well as an acquisition control program rely on our well-established `device server model', which was originally designed for the machine control system and then successfully reused in beamline control systems. In the second half of this paper, the acquisition system for a 2D gas-filled detector is presented, which is one of the first concrete examples using the proposed modular data acquisition architecture.

  20. Modular data acquisition system and its use in gas-filled detector readout at ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, F.; Epaud, F.; Poncet, F.; Grave, M.; Rey-Bakaikoa, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    1996-09-01

    Since 1992, 18 ESRF beamlines are open to users. Although the data acquisition requirements vary a lot from one beamline to another, we are trying to implement a modular data acquisition system architecture that would fit with the maximum number of acquisition projects at ESRF. Common to all of these systems are large acquisition memories and the requirement to visualize the data during an acquisition run and to transfer them quickly after the run to safe storage. We developed a general memory API handling the acquisition memory and its organization and another library that provides calls for transferring the data over TCP/IP sockets. Interesting utility programs using these libraries are the {open_quote}online display{close_quote} program and the {open_quote}data transfer{close_quote} program. The data transfer program as well as an acquisition control program rely on our well-established {open_quote}device server model{close_quote}, which was originally designed for the machine control system and then successfully reused in beamline control systems. In the second half of this paper, the acquisition system for a 2D gas-filled detector is presented, which is one of the first concrete examples using the proposed modular data acquisition architecture. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. A Versatile Readout System for Small to Medium Scale Gaseous and Silicon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Denis

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a readout system for gaseous and silicon detectors built for the Minos nuclear physics experiment. A major constraint was to provide a multi-thousand channel, high performance readout system with low manpower effort and tight cost. This was achieved by the re-use of some earlier ASIC and front-end card (FEC) developments, the design of a new digital readout card, called the Feminos, and the use of commercial off-the-shelf components. The proposed system fully exploits the capability of the existing 72-channel AFTER chip designed for the T2K experiment and allows seamless migration to the 64-channel AGET chip, a pin-compatible evolution under production by the GET collaboration. The Feminos is a low complexity card designed to read out a FEC equipped with four AFTER chips (T2K model) or a newly assembled FEC populated with four AGET chips. The trigger clock module (TCM) is a synchronization board that allows system scaling up to 6912 channels with 24 Feminos and FECs, a commercial Gigabit Ethernet switch, and a data acquisition PC. The design of the Feminos hardware, firmware and embedded software are detailed and it is explained how high performance, rapid development and low cost were reached. System operation and data acquisition throughput scaling with multiple Feminos are investigated.

  2. Development of an X-ray imaging system with SOI pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ryutaro, E-mail: ryunishi@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IPNS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hirano, Keiichi; Kishimoto, Shunji; Hashimoto, Ryo [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-09-21

    An X-ray imaging system employing pixel sensors in silicon-on-insulator technology is currently under development. The system consists of an SOI pixel detector (INTPIX4) and a DAQ system based on a multi-purpose readout board (SEABAS2). To correct a bottleneck in the total throughput of the DAQ of the first prototype, parallel processing of the data taking and storing processes and a FIFO buffer were implemented for the new DAQ release. Due to these upgrades, the DAQ throughput was improved from 6 Hz (41 Mbps) to 90 Hz (613 Mbps). The first X-ray imaging system with the new DAQ software release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays for three-dimensional computerized tomography. The results of these tests are presented. - Highlights: • The X-ray imaging system employing the SOI pixel sensor is currently under development. • The DAQ of the first prototype has the bottleneck in the total throughput. • The new DAQ release solve the bottleneck by parallel processing and FIFO buffer. • The new DAQ release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays.

  3. Characterization of the diamond detector for commissioning the Eclipse Planning System; Caracterizacao do detector de diamante para comissionamento do Sistema de Planejamento Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, Guilherme A.; Cardoso, Domingos de O.; Fontes, Gladson S., E-mail: pavanguilherme@gmail.com [Grupo COI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear SE7

    2017-11-01

    Diamond detectors are an option in the commissioning of linear accelerators, especially in small field measurements due to characteristics such as: small sensitive volume (0.004mm{sup 3}) and low energy dependence, desirable attributes for PDP measurements, output factors and profiles. The purpose of this study was to characterize PTW microDiamond 60019 diamond detector in relation to linearity, dependencies: energy, directional and with dose rate; Besides comparing measurements of PDP, output factors and profiles with some ionization and diode chambers. We also analyzed two models of the Eclipse planning system, performed with data from the commissioning of a TrueBeam accelerator obtained with the CC13 camera and with the diamond. Linearity deviations less than 0.5% were obtained in the range of 50cGy to 20Gy for energies of 6,10 and 15MV. Variations smaller than 0.5% for energy dependence and dose rate and angular dependence less than 0.5% in the axial and polar directions were observed. In the small-field output factors the diamond presented higher relative readings to the chambers: CC13, PintPoint3D and CC01 and similar to the diode. In the PDP it showed superiority in the definition of the buildup and surface regions. In the small field profiles it was shown a better definition of the penumbra in relation to the ionization chambers and in relation to the diode was equivalent, being superior in the tail region of large fields. In both models of Eclipse there were no significant differences for 1%3mm gamma analysis for PDP and profiles, although the diamond presented smaller mean gamma errors. The Collimator Backscatter Factors (CBSF) analysis for the two sets of measures showed differences mainly for small fields. The results of this study indicate that the diamond detector is one of the most versatile on the market in different commissioning situations, especially for small field measurements. (author)

  4. UVA1 for diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis in a Fitzpatrick skin type VI patient: outcomes in the modified Rodnan skin score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Roque Ferreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous sclerosis can lead to important mobility impairment. Ultraviolet (UV A1 phototherapy may improve skin sclerosis, although most of the studies have been with Caucasian patients. Material and Methods: A 44-year-old patient, Fitzpatrick skin type VI, was being followed up with the diagnosis of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. He had significant mobility impairment, especially of the right hand and arm. In 2015 he started UVA1 phototherapy daily, Monday until Friday (Waldmann® 7001 UVA cabin equipped with 40 Philips TL/10R lamps − spectral irradiation between 340 and 400 nm. The initial dose was 10 J/cm2, rapidly increased up to a steady dose of 35 J/cm2. Results: After 40 sessions of UVA1, active fingers flexion and abduction of the right arm significantly improved and the modified Rodnan skin score changed from 26 to 11. Conclusion: The modified Rodnan skin score is a practical and useful tool during the follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis. UVA1 phototherapy improves cutaneous sclerosis, and the related mobility impairment, and a dose of 35 J/cm2 is effective, even in higher phototypes, having a good safety profile.

  5. Implementation of an image acquisition and processing system based on FlexRIO, CameraLink and areaDetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquembri, S.; Ruiz, M. [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Sanz, D.; Bustos, A. [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Castro, R.; Vega, J. [National Fusion Laboratory, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The system presented acquires and process images from any CameraLink compliant camera. • The frame grabber implanted with FlexRIO technology have image time stamping and preprocessing capabilities. • The system is integrated into EPICS using areaDetector for a flexible configuration of image the acquisition and processing chain. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. - Abstract: Image processing systems are commonly used in current physics experiments, such as nuclear fusion experiments. These experiments usually require multiple cameras with different resolutions, framerates and, frequently, different software drivers. The integration of heterogeneous types of cameras without a unified hardware and software interface increases the complexity of the acquisition system. This paper presents the implementation of a distributed image acquisition and processing system for CameraLink cameras. This system implements a camera frame grabber using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), a reconfigurable hardware platform that allows for image acquisition and real-time preprocessing. The frame grabber is integrated into Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) using the areaDetector EPICS software module, which offers a common interface shared among tens of cameras to configure the image acquisition and process these images in a distributed control system. The use of areaDetector also allows the image processing to be parallelized and concatenated using: multiple computers; areaDetector plugins; and the areaDetector standard type for data, NDArrays. The architecture developed is fully compatible with ITER Fast Controllers and the entire system has been validated using a camera hardware simulator that stream videos from fusion experiment databases.

  6. Remote control mine-detection system with GPR and metal detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashov, Sergey I.; Makarenkov, V. I.; Masterkov, A. V.; Razevig, Vladimir V.; Sablin, Vyacheslav N.; Sheyko, Anton P.; Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we describe a method of minefield reconnaissance with the use of the multi-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) combined with a metal detector. This method allows the mine images in the soil to be obtained in the band of the mine detector sensors. An experimental installation with remote control and scanning sensors has been designed and built. A mine detector of this kind can be used in peacekeeping and humanitarian operations.

  7. Development of a Test System for the Quality Assurance of Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The inner tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is being built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will be equipped with two different technologies of silicon detectors. While the innermost tracker will be composed of silicon pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors are envisaged for the outer tracker architecture. The silicon microstrip tracker will house about 15,000 single detector modules each composed of a set of silicon sensors, the readout electronics (front end hybrid), and a support frame. It will provide a total active area of 198 m2 and ten million analogue channels read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. This large number of modules to be produced and integrated into the tracking system is an unprecedented challenge involving industrial companies and various research institutes from many different countries. This thesis deals with the physics of silicon sensors and the preparation of ...

  8. VI Nukitsa konkurss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    VI Nukitsa konkursi auhinnad: Kirjanikud: I - Henno Käo ("Kusagil mujal"); II - Aidi Vallik ("Kuidas elad, Ann?"); III - Artur Jurin ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Kunstnikud: I - Karel Korp (Leelo Tungla ja Karel Korbi "Tema amet"); II - Edgar Valter ("Kuidas õppida vaatama?"); III - Artur Jurin - ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Täiskasvanute küsitluse võitis nii teksti kui piltidega Ene-Maris Tali ja Tarmo Tali "Tähtraamat. Aastaring Maarjamaal"

  9. Integrating LWDAQ into the Detector Control Systems of the LHC Experiments at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Holme, Oliver; Golonka, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    The LWDAQ (Long-Wire Data Acquisition) software and hardware from Brandeis University, Mass., USA provides access to a powerful suite of measurement instruments. Two high precision monitors used to measure the relative alignment between a source and a sensor are included. The BCAM (Brandeis CCD Angle Monitor) cameras take images of point light sources and the Rasnik (Red Alignment System of NIKhef) cameras take images of the NIKHEF developed Rasnik mask. Both systems are used in the LHC experiments at CERN. Brandeis University provides a tool called Acquisifier to script the data acquisition process and to analyse the images to determine the alignment data. In order to incorporate the resulting data from the alignment system into the Detector Control System (DCS) of the LHC experiments a new software component of the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP) Framework was developed. It provides a TCP/IP interface between LWDAQ and the SCADA tool PVSS so that the results of the data acquisition process can easily be retur...

  10. A novel straightness measurement system applied to the position monitoring of large Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Goudard, R; Ribeiro, R; Klumb, F

    1999-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, CMS, is one of the two general purpose experiments foreseen to operate at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The experiment aims to study very high energy collisions of proton beams. Investigation of the most fundamental properties of matter, in particular the study of the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking and the origin of mass, is the experiment scope. The central Tracking System, a six meter long cylinder with 2.4 m diameter, will play a major role in all physics searches of the CMS experiment. Its performance depends upon the intrinsic detector performance, on the stability of the supporting structure and on the overall survey, alignment and position monitoring system. The proposed position monitoring system is based on a novel lens-less laser straightness measurement method able to detect deviations from a nominal position of all structural elements of the Central Tracking system. It is based on the recipr...

  11. Measurement of environmental radiation using medical scintillation detector in well counter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Min Jeong; Ham, Eun Hye; Yoon, Ji Yeol; Kim, Hyun in; Min, Jung Hwan; Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, concerns about radiation by people are increasing rapidly. If people could know how much they will be exposed by radiation, it may help them avoiding it and understand what exactly radiation is. By doing this, we were helping to reduce the anxiety of radiation contamination. In this study, we have researched figures of radioactivity with ‘Captus-3000 thyroid uptake measurement systems’ in well counter detector system. The materials were measured with Briquette, Shiitake, Pollock, Button type battery, Alkaline battery, Topsoil, Asphalt, Gasoline, Milk powder, Pine, Basalt stone, Pencil lead, Wasabi, Coarse salt, Tuna(can) Cigar, Beer, and then we categorized those samples into Land resources, Water resources, Foodstuff and Etc (Beer classified as a water resources has been categorized into Foodstuff). Also, we selected the standard radiation source linear 137Cs to measure the sensitivity of well counter detector. After that, we took cpm(counter per minute) for the well counter detector of thyroid uptake system’s sensitivity. Then we compared the results of each material’s cpm and converted those results to Bq/kg unit. There were a little limitation with the measurement equipment because it has less sensitivity than other professional equipment like ‘High purity germanium radiation detector’. Moreover, We didn’t have many choices to decide the materials. As a result, there are macroscopic differences among the rates of material’s spectrum. Therefore, it had meaningful results that showed how much each material had emitted radiation. To compare the material’s cpm with BKG, we’ve compounded their spectrums. By doing that, we were able to detect some differences among the spectrums at specific peak section. Lastly, Button type battery, Alkaline Battery, Briquette, Asphalt and Topsoil showed high value. There were classified emitting high radiation Group A and emitted lower radiation Group B. The Group A

  12. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjaer, Per; Mieritz, Rune Mygind; Skallgård, Tue; Kent, Peter

    2017-03-21

    Wireless, wearable, inertial motion sensor technology introduces new possibilities for monitoring spinal motion and pain in people during their daily activities of work, rest and play. There are many types of these wireless devices currently available but the precision in measurement and the magnitude of measurement error from such devices is often unknown. This study investigated the concurrent validity of one inertial motion sensor system (ViMove) for its ability to measure lumbar inclination motion, compared with the Vicon motion capture system. To mimic the variability of movement patterns in a clinical population, a sample of 34 people were included - 18 with low back pain and 16 without low back pain. ViMove sensors were attached to each participant's skin at spinal levels T12 and S2, and Vicon surface markers were attached to the ViMove sensors. Three repetitions of end-range flexion inclination, extension inclination and lateral flexion inclination to both sides while standing were measured by both systems concurrently with short rest periods in between. Measurement agreement through the whole movement range was analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects regression model to calculate the root mean squared errors and the limits of agreement were calculated using the Bland Altman method. We calculated root mean squared errors (standard deviation) of 1.82° (±1.00°) in flexion inclination, 0.71° (±0.34°) in extension inclination, 0.77° (±0.24°) in right lateral flexion inclination and 0.98° (±0.69°) in left lateral flexion inclination. 95% limits of agreement ranged between -3.86° and 4.69° in flexion inclination, -2.15° and 1.91° in extension inclination, -2.37° and 2.05° in right lateral flexion inclination and -3.11° and 2.96° in left lateral flexion inclination. We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further

  13. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH4)2SO4-H2O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tricritical phenomena in quasi-binary mixtures. VI. The binary system ethane + n-eicosane and some revised scaling parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, M. Cynthia; Scott, Robert L.; Knobler, Charles M.

    1988-08-01

    The three-phase coexistence curve for the binary system ethane + n-eicosane has been measured and its relation to the tricritical point in the quasi-binary system ethane +(n-heptadecane+n-octadecane) is discussed. In order to fit the curve into the scaling scheme developed from an extended classical theory of tricritical phenomena, it is necessary to include terms derived from a ninth-order free-energy polynomial.

  15. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  16. Renal stone characterization using high resolution imaging mode on a photon counting detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Gutjahr, R.; Henning, A.; Kappler, S.; Halaweish, A.; Abdurakhimova, D.; Peterson, Z.; Montoya, J.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C.

    2017-03-01

    In addition to the standard-resolution (SR) acquisition mode, a high-resolution (HR) mode is available on a research photon-counting-detector (PCD) whole-body CT system. In the HR mode each detector consists of a 2x2 array of 0.225 mm x 0.225 mm subpixel elements. This is in contrast to the SR mode that consists of a 4x4 array of the same subelements, and results in 0.25 mm isotropic resolution at iso-center for the HR mode. In this study, we quantified ex vivo the capabilities of the HR mode to characterize renal stones in terms of morphology and mineral composition. Forty pure stones - 10 uric acid (UA), 10 cystine (CYS), 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 10 apatite (APA) - and 14 mixed stones were placed in a 20 cm water phantom and scanned in HR mode, at radiation dose matched to that of routine dual-energy stone exams. Data from micro CT provided a reference for the quantification of morphology and mineral composition of the mixed stones. The area under the ROC curve was 1.0 for discriminating UA from CYS, 0.89 for CYS vs COM and 0.84 for COM vs APA. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the percent UA in mixed stones was 11.0% with a medium-sharp kernel and 15.6% with the sharpest kernel. The HR showed qualitatively accurate characterization of stone morphology relative to micro CT.

  17. Design of an advanced positron emission tomography detector system and algorithms for imaging small animal models of human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs

    Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the

  18. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Eryn E; Turnsek, Maryann A; Wilson, Sarah K; Tarr, Cheryl L; Hammer, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing of Escherichia coli prey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. DESIGNING A FINITE STATE MACHINE SIMULATOR TO DETECT LOOPS FOR ALICE DETECTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Yogatama, Bobbi Winema

    2017-01-01

    This paper present the design and implementation of a Finite State Machine simulator to provoke loops in ALICE Detector Control System (DCS). Loops in a Finite State Machine can be very harmful for the control system and need to be prevented. One way to prevent loops is to simulate the designed Finite State Machine using a simulator that can detect all of the possible conditions that can provoke loops. Further correction can then be made after the loops are detected in the control system. The proposed simulator is able to get the structure of any unknown FSM, get every datapoint elements that are associated with the FSM, and find every possible datapoint combinations that can provoke loops in the FSM. At the end of the project, we tested the simulator on a sample FSM with loops and a real FSM that belongs to the ALICE PHOton Spectrometer (PHOS). The testing results indicate that the simulator is able to detect every possible condition that can cause loops in the FSM.

  20. Towards a high sensitivity small animal PET system based on CZT detectors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Levin, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) is a biological imaging technology that allows non-invasive interrogation of internal molecular and cellular processes and mechanisms of disease. New PET molecular probes with high specificity are under development to target, detect, visualize, and quantify subtle molecular and cellular processes associated with cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, the limited uptake of these targeted probes leads to significant reduction in signal. There is a need to advance the performance of small animal PET system technology to reach its full potential for molecular imaging. Our goal is to assemble a small animal PET system based on CZT detectors and to explore methods to enhance its photon sensitivity. In this work, we reconstruct an image from a phantom using a two-panel subsystem consisting of six CZT crystals in each panel. For image reconstruction, coincidence events with energy between 450 and 570 keV were included. We are developing an algorithm to improve sensitivity of the system by including multiple interaction events.

  1. Construction of a wireless communication contact closure system for liquid chromatography with multiple parallel mass spectrometers and other detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A contact closure system has been constructed and implemented that utilizes two contact closure sender boards that communicate wirelessly to four contact closure receiver boards to distribute start signals from two or three liquid chromatographs to fourteen instruments, pumps, detectors, or other co...

  2. Detector physics and performance simulations of the MWPCs for the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, W

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses some basic detector physics and performance parameters of the Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) for LHCb that were developed at PNPI. Detector physics topics like chamber geometries, potentials and fields, sensitivity to imperfections, electrostatic stability, wire diameter, gas properties and signal formation are discussed. Electronics issues concerning noise, peaking time and deadtime are described as well.

  3. A Large-Acceptance Detector System for Electron Scattering from Polarized Internal targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, E.; Bouwhuis, M.; Choi, S.; Zhou, Z.L.; Alarcon, R.; Anghinolfi, M.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Doets, M.; Ent, R.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; Higinbotham, D.W.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Nikolenko, D.; Nooren, G.J.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.; Ripani, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Taiuti, M.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.

    1997-01-01

    The design and the performance of a non-magnetic detector setup for internal target physics at the NIKHEF electron-scattering facility is described. The detector setup, used in the first internal-target experiment at the AmPS ring, measures the spin dependence in the elastic and break-up reaction

  4. LHCb: High Voltage system for the LHCb calorimeter detectors at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Konoplyannikov, A

    2006-01-01

    All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600 -00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. Similar photo-detectors are widely used in the Molecular Imaging applications.

  5. Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray∕MR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this x-ray∕MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is ∼0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner. PMID:18841840

  6. Test beam studies of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for the upgrade of CMS endcap muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional high instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\geq 1.5$ of the CMS detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^{2}$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS collaboration has decided to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the LS2 of the LHC and the next one will be installed in the GE2/1 region $(1.6 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.5)$, during the LS3. Towards this goal, full-size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_{2}$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_{2}/CF_{4}$ (40/15/45). In 2014 and 2016, ...

  7. Detectors for scanning video imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Hughes, George W.

    1993-11-01

    In scanning video imagers, a single detector sees each pixel for only 100 ns, so the bandwidth of the detector needs to be about 10 MHz. How this fact influences the choice of detectors for scanning systems is described here. Some important parametric quantities obtained from manufacturer specifications are related and it is shown how to compare detectors when specified quantities differ.

  8. JACoW Design of the front-end detector control system of the ATLAS New Small Wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will be upgraded during the next LHC Long Shutdown (LS2). The flagship upgrade is the New Small Wheel (NSW) [1], which consists of 2 disks of Muon Gas detectors. The detector technologies used are Micromegas (MM) and sTGC, providing a total of 16 layers of tracking and trigger. The Slow Control Adapter (SCA) is part of the Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) - “Radiation Hard Optical Link Project” family of chips designed at CERN, EP-ESE department [2,3], which will be used at the NSW upgrade. The SCA offers several interfaces to read analogue and digital inputs, and configure front-end Readout ASICs, FPGAs, or other chips. The design of the NSW Detector Control System (DCS) takes advantage of this functionality, as described in this paper.

  9. Robustness test of a system of MSGC+GEM detectors at the cyclotron facility of the Paul Scherrer institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Barvich, T.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bouvet, D.; Brom, J.M.; Charles, F.; Coffin, J.; Contardo, D.; Daubie, E.; Didierjean, F.; Erdmann, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Devroede, O.; De Troy, J.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Fahrer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gottschalk, M.; Helleboid, J.M.; Huss, D.; Iacopi, F.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Juillot, P. E-mail: juillot@in2p3.fr; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Martin, C.; Mirabito, L.; Moreau, S.; Mueller, T.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Perries, S.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Roederer, F.; Schulte, R.; Shekhtman, L.; Simonis, H.J.; Struczinski, W.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Udo, F.; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, C. van; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Weiler, T.; Zander, A.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    2001-10-01

    A system of detector modules consisting of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), coupled to Micro Strip Gas Counters (MSGC), has been exposed to a pion beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute Cyclotron facility. As part of a CMS tracker milestone, the aim of this test was to investigate the robustness of such detectors when exposed to experimental conditions close to what is expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Eighteen detector modules have been operated at voltage settings corresponding to 98% detection efficiency for Minimum Ionizing Particles during a period of 5 weeks. Sparking rates and strip losses have been monitored throughout the exposure. An operation margin of at least a factor of three with respect to the required gas gain has been demonstrated.

  10. GridPix: An integrated readout system for gaseous detectors with a pixel chip as anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Harry van der [NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl

    2007-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector in which a Micro Pattern Gas Detector is combined with a CMOS pixel chip. In a next step, a procedure to construct a grid onto a Si wafer, using chip production technology ('wafer post-processing'), has been developed. Protection against discharges are under study, and an ageing test of a Micromegas chamber has been carried out, after verifying the chamber's proportionality at a very high dose rate. The GridPix detector can be applied as X-ray imaging device. With a drift gap of only 1 mm, GridPix could be well applied as radiation hard, low power, (and therefore) low-mass vertex (track) detector. New developments in CMOS pixel chips, forming the core of the detector, are presented.

  11. GridPix: An integrated readout system for gaseous detectors with a pixel chip as anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Harry

    2007-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector in which a Micro Pattern Gas Detector is combined with a CMOS pixel chip. In a next step, a procedure to construct a grid onto a Si wafer, using chip production technology ('wafer post-processing'), has been developed. Protection against discharges are under study, and an ageing test of a Micromegas chamber has been carried out, after verifying the chamber's proportionality at a very high dose rate. The GridPix detector can be applied as X-ray imaging device. With a drift gap of only 1 mm, GridPix could be well applied as radiation hard, low power, (and therefore) low-mass vertex (track) detector. New developments in CMOS pixel chips, forming the core of the detector, are presented.

  12. Personal medical electronic devices and walk-through metal detector security systems: assessing electromagnetic interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guag, Joshua; Addissie, Bisrat; Witters, Donald

    2017-03-20

    There have been concerns that Electromagnetic security systems such as walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) can potentially cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in certain active medical devices including implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable neurostimulators. Incidents of EMI between WTMDs and active medical devices also known as personal medical electronic devices (PMED) continue to be reported. This paper reports on emission measurements of sample WTMDs and testing of 20 PMEDs in a WTMD simulation system. Magnetic fields from sample WTMD systems were characterized for emissions and exposure of certain PMEDs. A WTMD simulator system designed and evaluated by FDA in previous studies was used to mimic the PMED exposures to the waveform from sample WTMDs. The simulation system allows for controlled PMED exposure enabling careful study with adjustable magnetic field strengths and exposure duration, and provides flexibility for PMED exposure at elevated levels in order to study EMI effects on the PMED. The PMED samples consisted of six implantable cardiac pacemakers, six implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), five implantable neurostimulators, and three insulin pumps. Each PMED was exposed in the simulator to the sample WTMD waveforms using methods based on appropriate consensus test standards for each of the device type. Testing the sample PMEDs using the WTMD simulator revealed EMI effects on two implantable pacemakers and one implantable neurostimulator for exposure field strength comparable to actual WTMD field strength. The observed effects were transient and the PMEDs returned to pre-exposure operation within a few seconds after removal from the simulated WTMD exposure fields. No EMI was observed for the sample ICDs or insulin pumps. The findings are consistent with earlier studies where certain sample PMEDs exhibited EMI effects. Clinical implications were not addressed in this study. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential PMED

  13. Performance of the lead/liquid argon shower counter system of the mark II detector at SPEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, G S; Breidenbach, M; Briggs, D D; Carithers, W C; Dieterle, W E; Dorfan, J M; Eaton, M W; Hanson, G; Hitlin, D G; Jenni, Peter; Lankford, A J; Lüth, V; Pang, C Y; Vella, E N

    1980-01-01

    The shower counter system of the SLAC-LBL Mark II detector is a large lead-liquid argon system of the type pioneered by Willis and Radeka (1974); however, it differs in most details and is much larger than other such detectors currently in operation. It contains, for example, 8000 liters of liquid argon and 3000 channels of low noise electronics, which is about eight times the size of the system of Willis et al. in the CERN ISR. The authors report, with little reference to design, on the operation and performance of the Mark II system during approximately a year and a half of operation at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's e/sup +/-e/sup -/ facility, SPEAR. The design and construction of the system have previously been described, Abrams et al. (1978) and a detailed discussion of all aspects-design, construction, operation, and performance-is in preparation. (8 refs).

  14. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  15. A label-free detector for liquid chromatography systems using mm-wave technology: First proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Declerck, S; Mangelings, D; He, G; Matvejev, V; Vander Heyden, Y; Stiens, J

    2017-09-22

    The development of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) technology has enabled the study of bio-molecular interactions by means of electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 30 and 300GHz. In this study, an attempt has been made to exploit the possibility of mm-wave technology as alternative detection technique for liquid chromatographic (LC) systems. The goal is to design and fabricate a label-free mm-wave detector that is compatible with LC systems. As proof-of-concept experiments, the UV absorbing compounds praziquantel and trans-stilbene-oxide as well as a non-UV absorbing compound sorbitol are injected in an open capillary as well as a capillary with stationary phase and measured by both mm-wave and UV detectors. The in-house developed mm-wave detector is capable of detecting all compounds without the need for labelling. Although the detection limit of such detector still needs to be verified and occasionally improved in the future, it already shows great potential as an additional detection technique for LC systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  17. Design and Test of an Event Detector for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  18. Characterisation of the Photon Detection System for the LHCb RICH Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097582; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Easo, Sajan

    The LHCb Experiment will be upgraded during Long Shutdown II of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2019 and 2020. The goal of the upgrade is to efficiently use the increased instantaneous luminosity in LHC Run 3 and to collect data at the proton collision rate of 40 MHz. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) particle identification detectors will be upgraded to perform in the new operating conditions with continuing reliability. The photon detection system will be replaced using multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MaPMTs) and associated read-out electronics. The photon detection chain was studied at CERN using a pulsed laser to test the system under high event rates and high photon intensities. The behaviour of two types of MaPMTs which are foreseen for the upgrade is presented for varying rates and intensities, and different applied bias voltages. A simulation was created to model the photon detection chain using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. The RICH Upgrade test beam using 180 GeV positive hadrons from CERN SP...

  19. Aligning the CMS Muon Endcap Detector with a System of Optical Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hohlmann, Marcus; Guragain, Samir; Andreev, Valery; Yang, Xiaofeng; Bellinger, James; Carlsmith, Duncan; Feyzi, Farshid; Loveless, Richard J; Northacker, David; Eartly, David P; Prokofiev, Oleg; Sknar, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The positions and orientations of one sixth of 468 large cathode strip chambers in the endcaps of the CMS muon detector are directly monitored by several hundred sensors including 2-D optical sensors with linear CCDs illuminated by cross-hair lasers. Position measurements obtained by photogrammetry and survey under field-off conditions show that chambers in the +Z endcap have been placed on the yoke disks with an average accuracy of $\\approx 1$ mm in all 3 dimensions. We reconstruct absolute Z$_{CMS}$ positions and orientations of chambers at B=0T and B=4T using data from the optical alignment system. The measured position resolution and sensitivity to relative motion is about 60 $\\mu m$. The precision for measuring chamber positions taking into account mechanical tolerances is \\mbox{$\\approx 270 \\mu m$}. Comparing reconstruction of optical alignment data and photogrammetry measurements at B=0T indicates an accuracy of $\\approx$ 680 $\\mu m$ currently achieved with the hardware alignment system. Optical positi...

  20. Evaluation of Detection Performance under Employment of the Generalized Detector in Radar Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shbat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection performance of the generalized detector (GD constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing in noise is evaluated under homogeneous and non-homogeneous noise. The GD adaptive threshold is derived and defined applying an appropriate noise power estimation using the sliding window technique. The direct close expressions for the GD average probability of detection and probability of false alarm are also derived. Typical constant false alarm rate (CFAR detectors, namely, the cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR detector, the ordered statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR detector, the generalized censored mean level (GCML detector, and the adaptive censored greatest-of CFAR (ACGO-CFAR detector are compared with the GD by detection performance under both homogenous and non-homogeneous noise conditions, i.e. when the interfering targets are absent or present, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate a superiority of GD in detection performance in comparison with the above mentioned CFAR detectors under both homogeneous and non-homogeneous noise conditions.

  1. Cholesterol and host cell surface proteins contribute to cell-cell fusion induced by the Burkholderia type VI secretion system 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Liam; Haug, Maria; Klein, Kristina; Willmann, Matthias; Bohn, Erwin; Chiantia, Salvatore; Schwarz, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Following escape into the cytoplasm of host cells, Burkholderia pseudomallei and the related species Burkholderia thailandensis employ the type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS-5) to induce plasma membrane fusion with an adjacent host cell. This process leads to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and facilitates bacterial access to an uninfected host cell in a direct manner. Despite its importance in virulence, the mechanism of the T6SS-5 and the role of host cell factors in cell-cell fusion remain elusive. To date, the T6SS-5 is the only system of bacterial origin known to induce host-cell fusion. To gain insight into the nature of T6SS-5-stimulated membrane fusion, we investigated the contribution of cholesterol and proteins exposed on the host cell surface, which were shown to be critically involved in virus-mediated giant cell formation. In particular, we analyzed the effect of host cell surface protein and cholesterol depletion on the formation of multinucleated giant cells induced by B. thailandensis. Acute protease treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages during infection with B. thailandensis followed by agarose overlay assays revealed a strong reduction in the number of cell-cell fusions compared with EDTA treated cells. Similarly, proteolytic treatment of specifically infected donor cells or uninfected recipient cells significantly decreased multinucleated giant cell formation. Furthermore, modulating host cell cholesterol content by acute cholesterol depletion from cellular membranes by methyl- β-cyclodextrin treatment or exogenous addition of cholesterol impaired the ability of B. thailandensis to induce cell-cell fusions. The requirement of physiological cholesterol levels suggests that the membrane organization or mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer influence the fusion process. Altogether, our data suggest that membrane fusion induced by B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis involves a complex interplay between the T6SS-5 and the host cell.

  2. Francisella IglG protein and the DUF4280 proteins: PAAR-like proteins in non-canonical Type VI secretion systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Lays

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type VI secretion systems (T6SS are bacterial molecular machines translocating effector proteins into target cells. T6SS are widely present in Gram-negative bacteria where they predominantly act to kill neighboring bacteria. This secretion system is reminiscent of the tail of contractile bacteriophages and consists of a contractile sheath anchored in the bacterial envelope and an inner tube made of stacks of the Hcp protein. The Hcp tube is capped with a VgrG trimer and a spike protein termed PAAR, which acts as the membrane-puncturing device. Francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia, is an intracellular bacterium replicating within the host cytosol. Upon entry into the host cell, F. tularensis rapidly lyses the host vacuolar membrane to reach the host cytosol. This escape is dependent on the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI, which is encoding an atypical T6SS. Among the 17 proteins encoded by the FPI, most of them required for virulence, eight have some homology to canonical T6SS proteins. We recently identified the function of one protein of unknown function encoded within the FPI, IglG. By three-dimensional modelling and following validation by different techniques, we found that IglG adopts a fold resembling the one of PAAR proteins. Importantly, IglG features a domain of unknown function DUF4280, present in numerous bacterial species. We thus propose to rename this domain of unknown function, PAAR-like domain, and discuss here the characteristics of this domain and its distribution in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Cholesterol and host cell surface proteins contribute to cell-cell fusion induced by the Burkholderia type VI secretion system 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Whiteley

    Full Text Available Following escape into the cytoplasm of host cells, Burkholderia pseudomallei and the related species Burkholderia thailandensis employ the type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS-5 to induce plasma membrane fusion with an adjacent host cell. This process leads to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and facilitates bacterial access to an uninfected host cell in a direct manner. Despite its importance in virulence, the mechanism of the T6SS-5 and the role of host cell factors in cell-cell fusion remain elusive. To date, the T6SS-5 is the only system of bacterial origin known to induce host-cell fusion. To gain insight into the nature of T6SS-5-stimulated membrane fusion, we investigated the contribution of cholesterol and proteins exposed on the host cell surface, which were shown to be critically involved in virus-mediated giant cell formation. In particular, we analyzed the effect of host cell surface protein and cholesterol depletion on the formation of multinucleated giant cells induced by B. thailandensis. Acute protease treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages during infection with B. thailandensis followed by agarose overlay assays revealed a strong reduction in the number of cell-cell fusions compared with EDTA treated cells. Similarly, proteolytic treatment of specifically infected donor cells or uninfected recipient cells significantly decreased multinucleated giant cell formation. Furthermore, modulating host cell cholesterol content by acute cholesterol depletion from cellular membranes by methyl- β-cyclodextrin treatment or exogenous addition of cholesterol impaired the ability of B. thailandensis to induce cell-cell fusions. The requirement of physiological cholesterol levels suggests that the membrane organization or mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer influence the fusion process. Altogether, our data suggest that membrane fusion induced by B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis involves a complex interplay between the T6SS-5 and

  4. Implementation of a Large Scale Control System for a High-Energy Physics Detector: The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Control systems for modern High-Energy Physics (HEP) detectors are large distributed software systems managing a significant data volume and implementing complex operational procedures. The control software for the LHC experiments at CERN is built on top of a commercial software used in industrial automation. However, HEP specific requirements call for extended functionalities. This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of the control system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker but presents some general strategies that have been applied in other contexts. Specific design solutions are developed to ensure acceptable response times and to provide the operator with an effective summary of the status of the devices. Detector safety is guaranteed by proper configuration of independent hardware systems. A software protection mechanism is used to avoid the widespread intervention of the hardware safety and to inhibit dangerous commands. A wizard approach allows non expert operators to recover error situations...

  5. Protostars and Planets VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the

  6. AFP and ALFA detectors as a momentum spectrometer system - feasibility study

    CERN Document Server

    ABDUL KHALEK, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    We consider a possibility to measure a leading proton momentum using simultaneously the AFP and ALFA detectors. The idea is based on the simple fact that the proton trajectory through the magnetic field between the AFP and ALFA$_{1}$ detectors, depends on the proton's momentum loss $\\xi$. The feasibility of the proton momentum measurement is directly related to the availability of the magnetic fields and their configuration, the overlap between ALFA and AFP detectors and their resolutions as well as energy losses and the multiple scattering effect that could wash away little actions from the magnets on the proton.

  7. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichenberger Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional

  8. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Roberts, Jeremy A.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional measurement of

  9. A new detector system for low energy X-ray fluorescence coupled with soft X-ray microscopy: First tests and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bufon, Jernej; Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Altissimo, Matteo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Borghes, Roberto; Carrato, Sergio; Cautero, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Sergio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Giuressi, Dario; Kourousias, George; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Picciotto, Antonino; Piemonte, Claudio; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rashevskaya, Irina; Stolfa, Andrea; Vacchi, Andrea; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The last decades have witnessed substantial efforts in the development of several detector technologies for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) applications. In spite of the increasing trend towards performing, cost-effective and reliable XRF systems, detectors for soft X-ray spectroscopy still remain a challenge, requiring further study, engineering and customization in order to yield effective and efficient systems. In this paper we report on the development, first characterization and tests of a novel multielement detector system based on low leakage current silicon drift detectors (SDD) coupled to ultra low noise custom CMOS preamplifiers for synchrotron-based low energy XRF. This new system exhibits the potential for improving the count rate by at least an order of magnitude resulting in ten-fold shorter dwell time at an energy resolution similar to that of single element silicon drift detectors.

  10. Assessment of applicability of portable HPGe detector with in situ object counting system based on performance evaluation of thyroid radiobioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Seok; Kwon, Tae Eun; Pak, Min Jung; Park, Se Young; Ha, Wi Ho; Jin, Young Woo [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Different cases exist in the measurement of thyroid radiobioassays owing to the individual characteristics of the subjects, especially the potential variation in the counting efficiency. An In situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was developed to perform an efficiency calibration based on the Monte Carlo calculation, as an alternative to conventional calibration methods. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of ISOCS to thyroid radiobioassays by comparison with a conventional thyroid monitoring system. The efficiency calibration of a portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was performed using ISOCS software. In contrast, the conventional efficiency calibration, which needed a radioactive material, was applied to a scintillator-based thyroid monitor. Four radioiodine samples that contained 125I and 131I in both aqueous solution and gel forms were measured to evaluate radioactivity in the thyroid. ANSI/HPS N13.30 performance criteria, which included the relative bias, relative precision, and root-mean-squared error, were applied to evaluate the performance of the measurement system. The portable HPGe detector could measure both radioiodines with ISOCS but the thyroid monitor could not measure 125I because of the limited energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) scintillator. The 131I results from both detectors agreed to within 5% with the certified results. Moreover, the 125I results from the portable HPGe detector agreed to within 10% with the certified results. All measurement results complied with the ANSI/HPS N13.30 performance criteria. The results of the intercomparison program indicated the feasibility of applying ISOCS software to direct thyroid radiobioassays. The portable HPGe detector with ISOCS software can provide the convenience of efficiency calibration and higher energy resolution for identifying photopeaks, compared with a conventional thyroid monitor with a NaI(Tl) scintillator. The application of ISOCS software in a radiation

  11. Development of noise-suppressed detector for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Tamotsu; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A noise-suppressed detector for single ion detection has been developed, and combined with the heavy ion microbeam apparatus. This detector consists of a pair of micro channel plates (MCP`s) and a very thin carbon foil. The detection signal is formed by the coincidence of the signals from these MCP`s, so that this detector and the coincidence measurement unit can reduce miscounting in the circuit. The detection efficiency for 15 MeV heavy ions was evaluated to be comparable to that of a silicon surface-barrier detector (SSD) and the miscounting rate was 4 orders lower than the noise rate of a single MCP. The rise time of the detection signal was also estimated. (author)

  12. Development of HEROICs: High-Sensitivity, High-Dynamic Range Detector Systems for Ultraviolet Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose a four-year program for the fabrication and characterization of high dynamic range, low background photon counting detectors that will support the next...

  13. Using wheel temperature detector technology to monitor railcar brake system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Wheel temperature detector technology has been used extensively in the railroad industry for the past several decades. The : technology has traditionally been used to identify wheels with elevated temperatures. There is currently a movement in the : ...

  14. The FLUKA geometry of the TOTEM Roman Pot detector system at the LHC (Version 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, V

    2012-01-01

    During the design phase of the TOTEM experiment, several Roman Pot detector models were simulated in FLUKA to address radiation damage and radiation protection issues as well as to define specific accidental scenarios involving beam losses in the Roman Pot components. These FLUKA models, often implemented “ad-hoc” for a given calculation and with the best knowledge of the detector at a given time, lack consistency and nowadays do not properly reflect all final detector components installed at the LHC. In this note, we describe a new FLUKA geometry built in the framework of the FLUKA accelerator generator and based on the most updated version of the integration model of the TOTEM Roman Pot detector.

  15. LHCb: Magnetic Distortion Measurement System of the LHCb RICH2 Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Storaci, B

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the CERN LHC collider is optimized for the study of CP violation and rare B-decays. Two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors provide particle identification in the momentum range 1-100 GeV/c

  16. Vi tror, vi forstår hinanden, men det gør vi ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2016-01-01

    Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den......Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den...

  17. Portable Heart Rate Detector Based on Photoplethysmography with Android Programmable Devices for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Kin Lao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a miniature portable heart rate detector system is implemented by modern hardware ICs and simple sensor circuit with software executable on both PC and Android platform. The biosignal is first extracted via photoplethysmography (PPG principle into electric signal. Then a microprocessor is used to covert biosignal from analog to digital format, suitably for feeding into an RF module (nRF24L01 for RF transmission. On the receiver end, the computer and/or smart phone can analyze the data using a robust algorithm that can detect peaks of the PPG waveform, hence to calculating the heart rate. Some application software running on Windows and Android phone have been developed to display heart rate information and time domain waveform to users for health care monitoring. In the future, pure Bluetooth technology will be used for wireless personal communications instead of RF modules. At the same time, the data can be sent to computer console using existing available networks (3G, 4G, WiFi, etc. for health database logging purpose.

  18. Fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation of vehicle mounted metal detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeynayake, Canicious; Tran, Minh D.

    2015-05-01

    Vehicle Mounted Metal Detector (VMMD) systems are widely used for detection of threat objects in humanitarian demining and military route clearance scenarios. Due to the diverse nature of such operational conditions, operational use of VMMD without a proper understanding of its capability boundaries may lead to heavy causalities. Multi-criteria fitness evaluations are crucial for determining capability boundaries of any sensor-based demining equipment. Evaluation of sensor based military equipment is a multi-disciplinary topic combining the efforts of researchers, operators, managers and commanders having different professional backgrounds and knowledge profiles. Information acquired through field tests usually involves uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision due to variations in test and evaluation conditions during a single test or series of tests. This report presents a fuzzy logic based methodology for experimental data analysis and performance evaluation of VMMD. This data evaluation methodology has been developed to evaluate sensor performance by consolidating expert knowledge with experimental data. A case study is presented by implementing the proposed data analysis framework in a VMMD evaluation scenario. The results of this analysis confirm accuracy, practicability and reliability of the fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation framework.

  19. Read-out concepts for FPGA-based sub-systems within the CBM detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Jan [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) to be built at FAIR consists of several individual sub-detectors. Some are based on custom ASICs as front-ends. Others employ FPGA based modules where extensive slow control features can be implemented to ease the recording of data and to allow for fast detection of any kind of error condition. Being designed as a free-running data acquisition, the demands also include a synchronized read-out, i.e. distribution of a common clock signal to all modules. To reduce the complexity of wiring, this is to be done sharing the same optical fibers as the data transport. During the past years, TrbNet has been designed and is used in various experiments, initially for the HADES experiment at FAIR. This protocol can now serve as a platform for the CBM read-out. In several steps, synchronous links with deterministic latency, as well as a free-streaming data transport can be included. At the same time, modifications to improve bandwidth and provide compatibility to the CERN GBTx links used for ASIC based sub-systems are to be developed. This contribution shows the planned steps as well as the current status of development.

  20. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)