WorldWideScience

Sample records for vi assessing supply

  1. The influence of Chromium supplied by tanning and wet finishing processes on the formation of cr(vi in leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fuck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium used in leather manufacturing can be oxidized from the trivalent to the hexavalent state, causing environmental concerns. In this study, the influence of Cr(III from tanning, deacidification pH, fatliquors, chrome retanning and vegetable retanning on the formation of Cr(VI in leather was analyzed by comparing natural and aged samples. In wet-blue leather, even after aging and in fatliquored leathers that did not suffer the aging process, the presence of Cr(VI was always below the detection limit of 3 mg/kg. Considering the presence of Cr(VI, the supply of chromium during the retanning step had a more significant effect than during the tanning. In the fatliquoring process with sulfites, fish and synthetic fatliquor leather samples contained Cr(VI when aged, and the highest concentration detected was 26.7 mg/kg. The evaluation of Cr(VI formation led to recommendations for regulation in the leather industry.

  2. Guyana Rice Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report is the outcome of assessment and is intended as an advisory note to the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Guyana Rice Development Board (GRDB) to enable them to identify a strategy and potential public investments to improve current risk-management practices in the rice supply chain. This report identifies the major risks facing the rice supply chain, ranks them in terms of the...

  3. Warstopper Material Supply Chain Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    Sustainability (E2S2) Symposium & Exhibition held 21-24 May 2012 in New Orleans , LA. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...qualifications – Production and material technology – Increased use of scrap vs. virgin material • Assess supply chain tiers 4 and 5 14

  4. Assessing complexity of supply chains: evidence from wholesalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Grotenhuis, R.; van Goor, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss complexity assessment in supply chains, to describe a methodology for measuring supply chain complexity in distributive trade and to illustrate the measurement of supply chain complexity and mechanisms to cope with supply chain complexity in

  5. Assessing Food Safety Risk in Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Despite many attempts in the food safety risk assessment, there are a few studies and methods to cover the entire food supply chain. This study introduce a new model to perform the food risk assessment considering human factor along the entire food supply chain. The multi-discipline methodology of risk assessment tool, in combination of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) has been applied in order to assess high safety risk point along the entire supply chain of food products. The method has be...

  6. Validation of the Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ormaechea, Inés; González, Inmaculada; Duplá, María; Andres, Eva; Pueyo, Victoria

    2014-10-01

    Visual cognitive integrative functions need to be evaluated by a behavioral assessment, which requires an experienced evaluator. The Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire was designed to evaluate these functions, both in general pediatric population or in children with high risk of visual cognitive problems, through primary caregivers' answers. We aimed to validate the PreViAs questionnaire by comparing caregiver reports with results from a comprehensive clinical protocol. A total of 220 infants (visual development, as determined by the clinical protocol. Their primary caregivers completed the PreViAs questionnaire, which consists of 30 questions related to one or more visual domains: visual attention, visual communication, visual-motor coordination, and visual processing. Questionnaire answers were compared with results of behavioral assessments performed by three pediatric ophthalmologists. Results of the clinical protocol classified 128 infants as having normal visual maturation, and 92 as having abnormal visual maturation. The specificity of PreViAs questionnaire was >80%, and sensitivity was 64%-79%. More than 80% of the infants were correctly classified, and test-retest reliability exceeded 0.9 for all domains. The PreViAs questionnaire is useful to detect abnormal visual maturation in infants from birth to 24months of age. It improves the anamnesis process in infants at risk of visual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: utility in assessment of rapid changes in the cutaneous microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Paul M.; O'Doherty, Jim; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Anderson, Chris D.; Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2010-02-01

    This report outlines results from an independent study assessing the clinical potential of an emerging, contemporary imaging technology. Tissue Viability (TiVi) imaging is an easily implemented, non-invasive, and portable technique which maps the blood circulation in the surface dermal layer. However, its routine clinical implementation awaits the development of the necessary standardised protocols. Thus the pilot study examines the efficacy of a novel TiVi imaging device within a localised skin blood flow occlusion protocol. The test was administered to the upper volar forearm of 19 healthy subjects (10:9 Female:Male) for 5 different time periods ranging from 5 to 25 seconds. Dermal areas corresponding to 100 × 100 pixels (2.89 cm2) were monitored for 60 seconds prior to, during and after each occlusal test. Our results support the relevance of a TiVi occlusion protocol for physiological assessment of the skin microcirculation.

  8. Environmental Supply Chain Management: using Life Cycle Assessment to structure supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years increasing attention has been given to environmental supply chain management (ESCM). One of the supporting instruments of ESCM is life cycle assessment (LCA). The idea of integrating LCA into supply chains is gaining more support among research institutes and companies. However, we

  9. assessment of supply chain management in nigerian construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    This paper on assessment of supply Chain Management (SCM) in. Effective Project Delivery in the Nigerian Construction Industry in Imo state focused on identifying the challenges of construction supply chain management (CSCM) for effective project delivery in Imo state and also to identify the CSCM practiced in curtailing ...

  10. Assessment of supply chain management in Nigerian construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on assessment of supply Chain Management (SCM) in Effective Project Delivery in the Nigerian Construction Industry in Imo state focused on identifying the challenges of construction supply chain management (CSCM) for effective project delivery in Imo state and also to identify the CSCM practiced in curtailing ...

  11. Assessment of chromium(VI) release from 848 jewellery items by use of a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Hamann, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    , and identified chromium(VI) release from one earring. In the present study, we used the DPC spot test to assess chromium(VI) release in a much larger sample of jewellery items (n=848), 160 (19%) of which had previously be shown to contain chromium when analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (2)....

  12. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  13. Assessing responsiveness of a volatile and seasonal supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Hvolby, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    . Assessment of the company’s product differentiation model shows that toy products are mostly innovative or ‘‘intermediate’’, but not functional. A proposed new product differentiation model using risk-influencing determinants has enabled the toy company to differentiate its new products, to deal...... with volatility, and to design for a responsive supply chain. These findings have also enabled the extension of Fisher’s Model to volatile supply chains. This new product differentiation model adds a physically responsive supply chain for ‘‘intermediate’’ products into the Fisher’s Model....

  14. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  15. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , P. Icka; , R. Damo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  16. Risk Assessment Model and Supply Chain Risk Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Borut Jereb; Tina Cvahte; Bojan Rosi

    2011-01-01

    By managing risk on the level of the supply chain we gain insight of all potential threats to all organizations involved in the chain as well as to the supply chain itself, especially to the logistics resources: flow of goods, services and information; logistics infrastructure and suprastructure; and people. Supply chain risk management should represent a crucial activity in every organization. As there is currently no standard specifically aimed at holistic supply chain risk management, we p...

  17. Use case scenarios - space based receiver assessment : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment Workshop VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This workshop presentation discusses space based receiver applications, NASA developed receivers, the TriG receiver, on-orbit assessment parameters, the TriG GNSS-RO antenna gain pattern, the GNSS-RO antenna beam Earth grazing coverage area, assessme...

  18. Flood risk assessment of fresh water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a common hazard causing damages to people, buildings and infrastructures. Often located in low-lying areas or nearby rivers, water utilities are particularly vulnerable to flooding. Water and debris can inundate the facility, thereby damaging equipment and causing power outages. Such impacts can lead to costly repairs, disruptions of service, hazardous situations for personnel and public health advisories. While flood damage evaluation to buildings and their contents is becoming increasingly available, the quantification of impact on critical infrastructures is less common. In this work, we present the flood risk assessment of a fresh water supply system considering the hazard of a riverine flooding and exposure and vulnerability of the system components (i.e. pipes, junctions, lifting stations etc.). The evaluation of flood impact on the aqueduct network is carried out for flood scenarios with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to determine their residual functionality. Above a selected threshold, the affected elements are considered as failed. The water distribution piping system is modelled through a model based on EPANET designed so as to implement Pressure-Driven Demand (PDD), which is more appropriate when modelling water distribution networks with a high number of offline nodes. Results of piping system model affected by the flood are then compared in a QGIS environment with flood depth to identify the location of service outages and potential risk of contamination. The application to the water supply system of the city of Florence (Italy), serving approximately 385000 inhabitants through 900 km of piping is presented and discussed.

  19. Oxidation of indometacin by ferrate (VI): kinetics, degradation pathways, and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlei; Wang, Yahui; Liu, Guoguang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Fengliang; Ma, Jingshuai; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Haijin; Lv, Wenying

    2017-04-01

    The oxidation of indometacin (IDM) by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) was investigated to determine the reaction kinetics, transformation products, and changes in toxicity. The reaction between IDM and Fe(VI) followed first-order kinetics with respect to each reactant. The apparent second-order rate constants (k app ) decreased from 9.35 to 6.52 M -1  s -1 , as the pH of the solution increased from 7.0 to 10.0. The pH dependence of k app might be well explained by considering the species-specific rate constants of the reactions of IDM with Fe(VI). Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that the oxidation products were primarily derived from the hydrolysis of amide linkages, the addition of hydroxyl groups, and electrophilic oxidation. The toxicity of the oxidation products was evaluated using the Microtox test, which indicated that transformation products exhibited less toxicity to the Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis calculated by the ecological structure activity relationship (ECOSAR) revealed that all of the identified products exhibited lower acute and chronic toxicity than the parent pharmaceutical for fish, daphnid, and green algae. Furthermore, Fe(VI) was effective in the degradation IDM in water containing carbonate ions or fulvic acid (FA), and in lake water samples; however, higher Fe(VI) dosages would be required to completely remove IDM in lake water in contrast to deionized water.

  20. Robust food supply supply chains : an integrated framework for vulnerability assessment and disturbance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of supply chains (SCs) has for many years been focused on efficiency, leanness and responsiveness. This has resulted in reduced slack in operations, compressed cycle times, increased productivity and minimised inventory levels along the SC. Combined with tight tolerance settings for

  1. Time well spent? Assessing nursing-supply chain activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The amount of time nurses spend providing direct patient care seems to be continually eroding. So it's little wonder a survey conducted last year of critical care, OR nurses and nurse executives found that half of the 1600 respondents feel they spend too much time on supply chain duties. Most also said their supply chain duties impact patient safe ty and their ability to provide bedside care. Experts interviewed for this report believe it's time for supply chain leaders and nurses to develop a closer working partnership. Included are their recommendations to improve performance.

  2. A Qualitative Approach for Assessing Resiliency in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikookar Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a comprehensive and competitive management system to enhance resilience capability of supply chains. In addition, the study aims to identify and eliminate barriers affecting resilience by identifying the factors may cause trouble in the near future. The theoretical framework was established to summarize the significant finding in the area of resilient supply chain and as a guideline for the empirical part. A qualitative approach based on multi criteria decision making process has been adopted in order to gather data through in-depth interviews. The developed method to evaluate resilience capability through supply chains piloted in a sample of five companies involved in an automotive supply chain.

  3. CRED REA Algal Assessment, Supply Reef 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Random collections of algae were made at 1 site at Supply Reef in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in August and September, 2003 from the NOAA vessel...

  4. Power supply risk assessment method for relay protection system faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyou Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence and the potential risk due to hidden faults of a relay protection system on power supply in distribution systems are paid more and more attention to. A probability analysis method is used to analyse fault characteristics and action mechanism of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems, and failure probability model of relay protection system is constructed and simplified. The effects of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems on the reduced power supply load power are analysed, and a probabilistic model for reduced power supply load power is constructed by three parts corresponding to dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation. A probability calculation method of power supply risk occurrence due to hidden faults of relay protecttion system is proposed considering the fault probability of the relay protection systems, the frequency of the hidden faults occurring in operation period, the reduced power supply load power or load power outage, and the connection mode of the in-lines, out-lines and transformers in a substation. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method for estimation of risk value probability of the relay protection systems is verified by two studied examples.

  5. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  6. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  7. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that only three percent (3%) of the people have access to clean and safe pipe-borne water while the remaining 97% relied on streams, rain water, wells and springs for their domestic uses. Only 26% of the people had water supply within their houses while 47% of the rural dwellers trek for over an hour to ...

  8. System assessment of Hypercoal for electricity supply in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Cottrell; Peter Scaife; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    This report compares the life cycle environmental impacts and economics for electricity supply in Japan using Hypercoal, with generation based on supercritical pulverised coal, liquefied natural gas and Ultra Clean Coal. The Hypercoal is assumed to be direct fired into a combined cycle gas turbine. 16 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Assessment of demand and supply of timber products in Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timber supply and demand balance for Benue State showed a deficit in the major products and the deficit portends dangers in sawn wood and veneers for industrial development of the state. Incidence of encroachment, lack of support from government and inadequate inventory of the resource base in Benue State are ...

  10. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  11. Introduction of water footprint assessment approach to enhance water supply management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Syazwan N.; Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, Water Footprint (WF) Approach has been used to assess the sustainability of a product's chain globally but is lacking in the services sector. Thus, this paper aims to introduce WF assessment as a technical approach to determine the sustainability of water supply management for the typical water supply treatment process (WSTP) used in Malaysia. Water supply is one of the pertinent services and most of WF accounting begins with data obtained from the water supply treatment plant. Therefore, the amount of WF will be accounted for each process of WSTP in order to determine the water utilization for the whole process according to blue, green and grey WF. Hence, the exact amount of water used in the process can be measured by applying this accounting method to assess the sustainability of water supply management in Malaysia. Therefore, the WF approach in assessing sustainability of WSTP could be implemented.

  12. A framework for assessing supply-side wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, J; Carrasco, L R; Webb, E L

    2014-02-01

    Market-based, supply-side interventions such as domestication, cultivation, and wildlife farming have been proposed as legal substitutes for wild-collected plants and animals in the marketplace. Based on the literature, we devised a list of the conditions under which supply-side interventions may yield positive conservation outcomes. We applied it to the trade of the orchid Rhynchostylis gigantea, a protected ornamental plant. We conducted a survey of R. gigantea at Jatujak Market in Bangkok, Thailand. Farmed (legal) and wild (illegal, protected) specimens of R. gigantea were sold side-by-side at market. These results suggest farmed specimens are not being substituted for wild plants in the marketplace. For any given set of physical plant characteristics (size, condition, flowers), the origin of the plants (wild vs. farmed) did not affect price. For all price classes, farmed plants were of superior quality to wild-collected plants on the basis of most physical variables. These results suggest wild and farmed specimens represent parallel markets and may not be substitutable goods. Our results with R. gigantea highlight a range of explanations for why supply-side interventions may lack effectiveness, for example, consumer preferences for wild-collected products and low financial incentives for farming. Our results suggest that market-based conservation strategies may not be effective by themselves and may be best utilized as supplements to regulation and education. This approach represents a broad, multidisciplinary evaluation of supply-side interventions that can be applied to other plant and animal species. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Assessment of Initial Technical Training for USAF Supply Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    purchase through the base contracting funLtion. Through standardized computer hardware and software, the SBSS performs inventory control, materiel...industrial management, or engineering (13:A17-21). To sarve as a Supply Managemen *t ota ftfcer (AFSC 6410:b4111), the following education 1; preferred...manage- ment, inventory procedures, document control, and use of management reports and listings to solve branch and section management problems

  14. Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain...... the applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important...... to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive...

  15. Jobs in global supply chains: a macroeconomic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kizu, Takaaki; Kühn, Stefan; Viegelahn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In its recent World Employment and Social Outlook, the ILO published estimates of the number of jobs related to global supply chains (GSCs) for 40 countries in 1995-2013. This paper provides a detailed description of the methodology that was used for the estimation and documents in more detail global linkages in production, becoming apparent on the labour market. The paper also shows new evidence on the number of jobs supported by different export destinations and analyzes the number of GSC-r...

  16. Outdoor recreation in American life: a national assessment of demand and supply trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Shela H. Mou; John C. Bergstrom; R. Jeff Teasley; Michael A. Tarrant; John Loomis

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor Recreation in American Life is the United States' only ongoing, comprehensive assessment of the trends, current situation, and likely future of outdoor recreation demand and supply. New and different aspects of national demand, resemblances to the past, and trends in the supply of outdoor recreation opportunities, both from the private and public sectors,...

  17. Assessing the marketing potential of communicating corporate social responsibility of a supply chain: method and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Kuipers, A.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This article provides a method to assess the marketing potential of communicating corporate social responsibility of (agricultural) supply chains. The willingness of small firms in agricultural supply chains to make available information about certain dimensions of CSR is measured and

  18. The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsor, Helen; MacDonald, Alan; Casey, Vincent; Carter, Richard; Wilson, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing communal supplies remains, therefore, a priority. A critical first step is to establish a sector-wide definition of borehole supply functionality and a standard method of its assessment.

  19. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , which is increasingly used for decision-support in the South African manufacturing industry, e.g. for cleaner production purposes. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the potential environmental impact profiles of ...

  1. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Geometry VI - Space-the Final Frontier. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 28-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0028-0033 ...

  2. VI KA’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen handler om hvordan man kan bruge et spil til at udvikle og måle kompetencer. Artiklen diskuterer forskellige forståelser kompetencebegrebet og diskuterer hvordan Vi Ka'-spillet bidrager til at indfange den mere aktive forståelse af kompetence, som noget du gør i en bestemt kontekst....

  3. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in WondoGenet district, Southern Ethiopia to assess the water quality of rural water supply schemes in relation to the sustainability of their service delivery. 28 functional water points were selected randomly, for their assessments. The assessments included sanitary surveillance of water points and ...

  4. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  5. Assessing "First Mile" Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koporc, Kimberly M; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G; Lin, William

    2015-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007-2012. Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled.

  6. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2000-01-01

    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development

  7. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  8. Integration of discards in the roundnose grenadier stock assessment in ICES division Vb, subaera VI, VII

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Lionel; Lorance, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We present a series of exploratory stock assessments for roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) from estimates of catch data based on information and assumption of discards and landing statistics. It is a common practice to consider landings data as a substitute of catch data to perform stock assessments. When a significant portion of the catch is discarded, this assumption is likely to be misleading as assessment methods will provide underestimated stock size.

  9. An Approach for Assessing the Benefits of IT Investments in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betz, Michaela; Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops and demonstrates a novel approach for ex-ante assessment of business benefits from IT investments in global supply chains. Extant IT assessment approaches are typically based on the assumption that benefit realization from IT investments involves a single stakeholder and are pro......-duced by the technology as an isolated product. In contrast, research on global supply chains has shown that benefits generated from IT investments in this domain are typically generated by the coor-dinated use of many stakeholders and by technologies producing complimentary effects in systemic relationships....... The assessment approach in this paper brings the contingent inter-organizational and technological dependencies of IT investments to the forefront of the assessment. It provides actors in industries relating to global supply chains the means to better apprehend the possible benefits from an IT investment...

  10. Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, D.; Costello, D.

    1980-02-01

    This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.

  11. Life cycle assessment of a commercial rainwater harvesting system compared with a municipal water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, we conducted an LCA of a commercial rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and compared it to a municipal water supply (MWS) system adapted to Washington, D.C. Eleven life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indi...

  12. Re-assessment of woodfuel supply and demand relationships in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Top, Neth; Ty, Sokhun [Forestry Administration, No. 40, Preah Norodom Blvd., Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Mizoue, Nobuya [Department of Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Satoshi; Kai, Shigetaka; Nakao, Toshio [Department of Biological Production and Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    This study re-examined a previously published relationship between supply and demand for woodfuel at different spatial scales within Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. We considered three different scales: The first was the whole area of the province. The second scale calculated village-scale data in zones of 1, 3, and 5km from each village and then aggregated for all villages of the province. The third scale also calculated data for the three zones at the village-scale, but the data were then aggregated according to three regional groupings based on population density and forest availability. When evaluating woodfuel supply, we excluded biomass increment of trees with diameter larger than 30cm because it was found that local people rarely collect trees larger than 30cm for fuel. On the demand side, dead wood, which was included in the previous assessment, and woodfuel obtained from non-forest sources were excluded to enable comparison of supply and demand that related only to living trees originating from forests. The re-assessment revealed large decreases in both supply and demand at each scale as compared with our previous assessment; supply reduced by 46% and demand by 36% at the whole province scale. However, the ratios of supply to demand at each scale examined were very similar for both assessments. This re-assessment therefore supports our previous findings: there is a deficiency in woodfuel resources in areas of high population density along the main road due to high woodfuel demand and a predominance of agricultural land and regrowth forest in close proximity to villages. This study underscores the usefulness of taking detailed woodfuel consumption patterns into account when assessing the impact of woodfuel demand on forests. For a more accurate assessment on the sustainability of woodfuel resources and utilization, further research is needed to project future woodfuel demand, not only for green wood from forested sources, but also for dead wood and

  13. Applying the Heuristic to the Risk Assessment within the Automotive Industry Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasova, Daniela; Andrejiova, Miriam; Grincova, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Risk management facilitates risk identification, evaluation, control, and by means of appropriate set of measures, risk reduction or complete elimination. Therefore, the risk management becomes a strategic factor for a company's success. Properly implemented risk management system does not represent a tool to avoid the risk; it is used to understand the risk and provide the bases for strategic decision-making. Risk management represents a key factor for the supply chain operations. Managing the risks is crucial for achieving the customer satisfaction and thus also a company's success. The subject-matter of the article is the assessment of the supply chain in the automobile industry, in terms of risks. The topicality of this problem is even higher, as after the economic crisis it is necessary to revaluate the readiness of the supply chain for prospective risk conditions. One advantage of this article is the use of the Saaty method as a tool for the risk management within the supply chain.

  14. The application of tree bark as bio-indicator for the assessment of Cr(VI) in air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L. [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X31, Rosslyn 0200 (South Africa)]. E-mail: MandiwanaKL@tut.ac.za; Resane, Tabby [School of Geosciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Panichev, Nikolay [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X31, Rosslyn 0200 (South Africa); Ngobeni, Prince [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X31, Rosslyn 0200 (South Africa)

    2006-09-21

    The impact of a chromium smelter on pollution was evaluated by determining Cr(VI) in topsoil, grass and tree bark by electhrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). It was found that bark reflected the levels of air pollution better than soil and grass due to its high accumulative ability of Cr(VI). The tree bark was contaminated with Cr(VI) by a factor of 9 than in soil. It is therefore suggested that the bark be used as an indicator of air pollution for long-term exposure. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the bark was always a fraction of the total concentration of Cr and ranges between 1.6 and 3%. The method used in the preparation of samples was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  15. The application of tree bark as bio-indicator for the assessment of Cr(VI) in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L; Resane, Tabby; Panichev, Nikolay; Ngobeni, Prince

    2006-09-21

    The impact of a chromium smelter on pollution was evaluated by determining Cr(VI) in topsoil, grass and tree bark by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). It was found that bark reflected the levels of air pollution better than soil and grass due to its high accumulative ability of Cr(VI). The tree bark was contaminated with Cr(VI) by a factor of 9 than in soil. It is therefore suggested that the bark be used as an indicator of air pollution for long-term exposure. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the bark was always a fraction of the total concentration of Cr and ranges between 1.6 and 3%. The method used in the preparation of samples was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  16. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-01-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  17. Challenging the planetary boundaries II: Assessing the sustainable global population and phosphate supply, using a systems dynamics assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdrup, Harald U., E-mail: harald.sverdrup@chemeng.lth.se [Applied Systems Analysis and Dynamics Group, Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala [Institute of Earth Sciences, School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Peak phosphorus supply behaviour. > Recycling essential for phosphorus supply. > Phosphorus supply is connected to food security. - Abstract: A systems dynamics model was developed to assess the planetary boundary for P supply in relation to use by human society. It is concluded that present day use rates and poor recycling rates of P are unsustainable at timescales beyond 100+ a. The predictions made suggest that P will become a scarce and expensive material in the future. The study shows clearly that market mechanisms alone will not be able to secure an efficient use before a large part of the resource will have been allowed to dissipate into the natural environment. It is suggested that population size management and effective recycling measures must be planned long term to avoid unpleasant consequences of hunger and necessary corrections imposed on society by mass balance and thermodynamics.

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally sialidosis and mucolipidosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (Naglazyme®), clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided. PMID:20385007

  19. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  20. Alcohol consumption in midlife and cognitive performance assessed 13 years later in the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available Associations between alcohol consumption and cognitive function are discordant and data focusing on midlife exposure are scarce.To estimate the association between midlife alcohol consumption and cognitive performance assessed 13 y later while accounting for comorbidities and diet.3,088 French middle-aged adults included in the SU.VI.MAX (1994 study with available neuropsychological evaluation 13 y later. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained from repeated 24h dietary records collected in 1994-1996. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-2009 via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests. A composite score was built as the mean of the standardized individual test scores (mean=50, SD=10. ANCOVA were performed to estimate mean differences in cognitive performance and 95% confidence intervals (CI.In women, abstainers displayed lower cognitive scores than did low-to-moderate alcohol drinkers (1 to 2 drinks/day (mean difference= -1.77; 95% CI: -3.29, -0.25. In men, heavy drinkers (>3 drinks/day had higher cognitive scores than did low-to-moderate (1 to 3 drinks/day (mean difference=1.05; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.99. However, a lower composite cognitive score was detected in male drinkers consuming ≥ 90 g/d (≈8 drinks/d. A higher proportion of alcohol intake from beer was also associated with lower cognitive scores. These associations remained significant after adjustment for diet, comorbidities and sociodemographic factors.In men, heavy but not extreme drinking was associated with higher global cognitive scores. Given the known harmful effects of alcohol even in low doses regarding risk of cancer, the study does not provide a basis for modifying current public health messages.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00272428.

  1. Forest biomass supply for bioenergy in the southeast: Evaluating assessment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Robert C. Abt

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of expanded forest biomass use in the Southeast from present year through 2036, focusing on the forest supply, industrial, and GHG emissions implications of maximizing biomass co-firing with coal. We model demand scenarios at the state, subregional, and regional levels, and assess the influence of study scale on the observed...

  2. Student Outcomes Assessment of a Logistics and Supply Chair Management Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Clyde Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of specialized programs, such as logistics and supply chain management program described here, may pose challenges because previous experience are less widely shared than in the more mainline subjects. This case study provides one model that may guide other faculties facing a similar assignment. The report detailed the steps followed to…

  3. Food Safety Risk Assessment in Whole Food Supply Chain Based on Catastrophe Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shangmei Zhao; Xuemei Yang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a food safety-risk assessment model for the whole food supply chain. In order to assess whole risk of food safety, this study designed the evaluation index system from the perspective of the food chain, which considered agricultural production, food processing and food consumption three stages. Based on catastrophe model and stability theory, the risk of agricultural production, food processing and food consumption is evaluated. This study got the va...

  4. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNETT,D.B.; PAQUETTE,D.E.; KLAUS,K.; DORSCH,W.R.

    2000-12-18

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered

  5. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.

    2013-01-01

    ) desalinated brackish water for all uses including drinking water and 4) local reclamation of rain and grey water for use in toilets and laundry. The project has been conducted by multiple stakeholders, including the municipality, landowners, the water utility, consultants, technology providers and research......Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...... the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3...

  6. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  7. [Safe drinking water supply to the Vologda Region's population using risk assessment methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, I A; Figurina, T Ia; Shadrina, S Iu

    2011-01-01

    To supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the Vologda Region. The monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the Vologda Region. The risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance makes it possible to substantiate a system of actions to organize household water use and to include scientifically grounded proposals into the developed regional and local programs.

  8. Sustainability assessment of heat supply from biomass; Nachhaltigkeitsbewertung der Waermeversorgung aus Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, Daniel; Jenssen, Till; Eltrop, Ludger [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Wassermann, Sandra [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Interdisziplinaerer Forschungsschwerpunkt Risiko und Nachhaltige Technikentwicklung am Zentrum fuer Kultur und Technikforschung

    2010-07-01

    The authors present two approaches for integrated sustainability assessment of technologies, i.e. multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and the social cost of heat supply. Both approaches were developed by an interdisciplinary scientist team in the context of a BMFB-funded project (''Energie nachhaltig konsumieren - nachhaltige Energie konsumieren'') and were applied to the example of a modernized single-family home consuming 82 kWh per square metre per annum.

  9. Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human-hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (systems at the national scale.

  10. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour5

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  11. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Min Gyung Yu; Yujin Nam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant...

  12. Assessment of disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM, Khuzestan: 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Jahanbani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Disasters are scarce events; nevertheless, to prepare organizations for events and return to normal condition the accurate planning and education is essential. This study aimed to assess disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in Khuzestan Province in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, statistical population involved the top managers of the crisis management unit, emergency medicine services (EMS and relief and rescuing center of the West Country in the Khuzestan Province. Because of the limited number of the statistical population, a census method was used. The data were collected using a checklist developed by reviewing literature and through observation and interview. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage and mean percentage and using by SPSS v.18. Results: The results indicated that generally the status of planning of humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in the response phase was good. Emergency Medicine Services (EMS and center of relief and rescuing were ranked respectively in the moderate and good situations. The dimensions of human resource and the control were respectively in the best and the worst condition. Conclusions: According to findings, disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in the response phase requires more attention in aspect of control. Generally, at the occurrence of disasters stage, particularly in supervision and control, paying attention to HSCM is necessary. So, we stress on the necessary reform of the program to ensure the proper supply of resources and cover the needs.

  13. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ASSESSMENT METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY AND WATER DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kapansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for assessing the energy efficiency of technological systems of water supply and water disposal are examined. The main tool of the existing methods is a settlement-and-analytical method, and, in accordance with the mentioned one, the determining of general and specific electric power consumption is based on actual consumption evaluation, evaluation of pressure and efficiency of the pump unit. However, in practical terms a lot of factors influence on those characteristics therefore affecting the resulting magnitude of energy efficiency and leading to errors in the calculation. These factors include the technical condition of the equipment and piping systems, alterations in the modes of operation of pumping units over time, a significant impact of the ambient temperature on the power consumption, amount of precipitation and the chemical composition of the effluent. As an object of management water supply and water disposal systems are considered as a totality; therefore the assessment of the energy efficiency of pipeline enterprises ought to be based on a systematic approach, whereas the existing methods are mainly based on an analysis of operating modes of individual electrical equipment, not on the whole technological system. The article describes the management system of energy efficiency of pipeline water supply and water disposal systems. The management system is based on information base of statistic data of power, hydraulic and industrial indexes of wastewater management. The original basic mathematical models of common costs and unit costs of electrical power in the water supply and water disposal systems, which are the basis for the solution of the problems of forecasting and the current state assessment of energy efficiency of enterprises, the selection of priority areas of energy efficiency and finding the ways to save energy resources, are presented.

  15. A methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply of entrepreneurial microcredit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Gavriel Ayayi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply for microcredit. We show that the total demand is a combination of the demand that stems from the active poor plus the demand generated by a motivator agent among the entrepreneurial non-motivated poor. We use French data to provide an illustration of the assessment of potential demand for microcredit. We also show that the proportion of the potential demand satisfied by a microfinance institution depends on its objective i.e. either it is socially oriented or a profit maximizer.

  16. Abatement of toxicity of effluents containing Cr(VI) by heterogeneous photocatalysis. Toxicity assessment by AMPHITOX assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, Jonatan Y; Meichtry, J Martín; Litter, Marta I; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2015-12-01

    Toxicity of a Cr(VI) solution before and after treatment by TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) was performed with AMPHITOX bioassay. Changes in toxicity on Rhinella arenarum larvae for 10-d were monitored after exposure to an untreated Cr(VI) solution and to the same solution after HP treatment. The HP treatment of a 41.60 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) solution reduced to 37.5% the concentration of the metal ion. A 10-fold reduction in toxicity at acute exposure (72 h) and 150-fold reduction in toxicity after 240 h was found. Further, the LOEC value increased from 0.001% for the untreated solution to 0.153% after HP treatment. Moreover, the safe concentration in untreated solution corresponded to 0.0001% sample, and it was 0.01% after the treatment, i.e., 100 times higher. A saving of water of about 100,000 L per L of effluent would be possible through dilution to allow safer concentrations for discharge; the saving would reach the highest value (1,000,000 L per L) at 240 h. Sub-lethal effects were completely absent in larvae exposed to the treated solution. The AMPHITOX test allowed to detect chronic effects at low Cr concentrations, i.e. at environmentally relevant levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An environmental assessment of food supply chains: a case study on dessert apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andy

    2002-10-01

    The contemporary food system provides consumers with convenience, extensive choice, and the year-round availability of fresh produce. In this paper these achievements are recognized within the context of the associated environmental impacts. While many analyses have considered the energy and material efficiency of various options for food production and packaging, very few studies have investigated the environmental impacts of the transport components of food supply chains. This is surprising, given that the global sourcing of food produce, centralized distribution systems, and shopping by car have become prevalent in recent decades and have contributed to an increase in the distance between producer and consumer or "food miles." In a case study the transport energy consumption is calculated for all possible ways in which dessert apples can be supplied to the UK consumer. The aim is to assess the environmental performance of the predominant fresh produce supply chains and to investigate claims that localized systems are more environmentally efficient. The main criteria used to compare the environmental efficiency in alternative food supply chains are the transport-related fossil-fuel energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions. Analysis of the empirical data shows that transportation is now responsible for a considerable fraction of the total energy consumption in the life cycle of fresh apples, and in most cases exceeds the energy consumed in commercial apple cultivation. By developing local production and marketing systems for fresh products, transport demand can be reduced and many of the environmental impacts associated with existing supply chains can be avoided. The results of the study are then discussed in relation to the wider issues of transport policy, international trade, food security, and product-related environmental information for consumers.

  18. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  19. Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human-hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (Jordan is the most vulnerable, reporting the greatest number of characteristics (5 of 19) at critical vulnerability levels, with Yemen and Djibouti nearly as vulnerable. Surprising similarities in vulnerability were also found among geographically disparate nations such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Guatemala. Determining shared patterns of freshwater vulnerability provides insights into why water supply vulnerabilities are manifested in human-water systems at the national scale.

  20. Sustainability assessment of two chains of biomass supply from field to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    emergy analysis, a method that accounts for all forms of energy, resources and human services that contribute to the system; 2) combination of all assessment results (coming from emergy, LCA, economic and social evaluations) in a Sustainability Multicriteria Multi-scale Assessment (SUMMA) framework. We......LogistEC, “Logistics for Energy Crops biomass”, is an FP7 Project aiming at developing new or improvedtechnologies of the biomass logistics chains (http://www.logistecproject.eu/). Sustainability assessment of different biomasses is being performed by studying the environmental, economic and social...... impacts, based on the supply chain of two existing bioenergy plants, located in France (Bourgogne) and Spain (Extramadura), respectively. Our contribution to the project is part of the environmental impacts analysis and it is divided into two steps: 1) sustainability assessment of the systems by using...

  1. Critical thinking: assessing the risks to the future security of supply of critical metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Gus

    2015-04-01

    Increasing world population, the spread of prosperity across the globe and the demands of new technologies have led to a revival of concerns about the availability of raw materials needed by society. Despite scare stories about resource depletion, physical exhaustion of minerals is considered to be unlikely. However, we do need to know which materials might be of concern so that we can develop strategies to secure adequate supplies and to mitigate the effects of supply disruption. This requirement has led to renewed interest in criticality, a term that is generally used to refer to metals and minerals of high economic importance that have a relatively high likelihood of supply disruption. The European Union (EU) developed a quantitative methodology for the assessment of criticality which led to the definition of 14 raw materials as critical to the EU economy (EC, 2010). This has succeeded in raising awareness of potential supply issues and in helping to prioritise requirements for new policies and supporting research. The EU has recently assessed a larger number of candidate materials of which 20 are now identified as critical to the EU (EC, 2014). These include metals such as indium, mostly used in flat-screen displays, antimony for flame retardants and cobalt for rechargeable batteries, alloys and a host of other products. Although there is no consensus on the methodology for criticality assessments and broad analyses at this scale are inevitably imperfect, they can, nevertheless, provide early warning of supply problems. However, in order to develop more rigorous and dynamic assessments of future availability detailed analysis of the whole life-cycle of individual metals to identify specific problems and develop appropriate solutions is required. New policies, such as the Raw Materials Initiative (2008) and the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (2013), have been developed by the European Commission (EC) and are aimed at securing sustainable

  2. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  3. A critical assessment of the different approaches aimed to secure electricity generation supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, C.; Rodilla, P. [Technological Research Institute, Pontifical University of Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Since the very beginning of the power systems reform process, one of the key questions posed has been whether the market, of its own accord, is able to provide satisfactory security of supply at the power generation level or if some additional regulatory mechanism needs to be introduced, and in the latter case, which is the most suitable approach to tackle the problem. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators' agendas. In this paper, we critically review and categorize the different approaches regulators can opt for to deal with the problem of guaranteeing (or at least enhancing) security of supply in a market-oriented environment. We analyze the most relevant regulatory design elements throughout an updated assessment of the broad range of international experiences, highlighting the lessons we have learned so far in a variety of contexts. Based on the analysis, we conclude by providing a set of principles and criteria that should be considered by the regulator when designing a security of supply mechanism. (author)

  4. Dynamic Self-Assessment of Supply Chains Performance: an Emerging Market Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic self-assessment of performance on supply chains operating in emerging markets is proposed. Based on well-established key performance indicators (KPI, this paper provides a decision support aid. Although it has been validated in the automotive industry, the standardized model’s approach makes it applicable to other industries. It is the result of a large literature review and identification of best practices from the automotive industry in which the lack of dynamic tools to evaluate logistics performance of suitable supply chains to the current competitive exchange rate was detected. Developed under a system dynamics approach (DS, the model analyzes different scenarios taking into account KPI and its dynamic relationships. The results obtained were validated through the statistical technique of design of experiments (DOE. This model also considers the specific features of the automotive operations in emerging countries as well as their importance in the future development of the manufacturing industry. In this context, the tool exposed is a key backup to decision making and to dynamically evaluate the variables with major influence on manufacturing supply chains. As a conclusion, findings are discussed and future researches are presented.

  5. Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Wendy; Reed, Victoria; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-02-01

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study determined the protozoan risk of municipal surface source waters in Nova Scotia, through the use of a pre-screening risk analysis of water supplies, followed by subsequent water quality analysis of the seven highest risk supplies. The water supplies were monitored monthly for 1 year to obtain baseline data that could be used for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The QMRA model outcomes were compared to the Health Canada health target of 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years/person/year. QMRA modeling shows that the treatment facilities meet the required log reductions and disability-adjusted life year target standards under current conditions. Furthermore, based on the results of this work, Nova Scotia should maintain the current 3-log reduction standard for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results of this study show that a pre-screening step can help to inform water sources that are particularly vulnerable to protozoan contamination, which can lead to more focused, cost-effective sampling, and monitoring programs.

  6. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-01-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. During pilot plant shakedown operations, several production batch test runs were performed. These pilot tests were coupled with laboratory testing to confirm pilot results. In initial batches of operations, cellulose to glucose conversions of 62.5% and 64.8% were observed in laboratory hydrolysis. As part of this testing, lignin dewatering was tested using laboratory and vendor-supplied filtration equipment. Dewatering tests reported moisture contents in the lignin of between 50% and 60%. Dewatering parameters and options will continue to be investigated during lignin production. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. Shredding of the feed material was completed and final drying of the feed is expected to be completed by late January. Once feed drying is completed, pilot facility production will begin to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Facility modifications are expected to continue to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility continues to make progress in evaluating the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed

  7. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  8. From beans to bar: A life cycle assessment towards sustainable chocolate supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Marveggio, Davide; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    The environmental sustainability has emerged as a crucial aspect in the agri-food sector, nevertheless environmental assessments and certifications of cocoa and chocolate are still missing. Given this gap and the increasing global demand for cocoa derivatives, this study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of an Italian dark chocolate through a holistic cradle-to-grave Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The impact categories assessed are acidification potential (AC), eutrophication potential (EU), global warming potential (GW), photochemical ozone creation potential (POC), ozone layer depletion potential (OD), abiotic depletion (AD) and cumulative energy demand (CED). The obtained results highlight the relevant contributions of upstream phase (63% for the ODP, 92% for EU and 99% for the AD) and core processes (39% for the GW and 49% for the CED) on the overall impacts. Specifically, cocoa provisioning and energy supply at the manufacturing plant emerged as environmental hotspots and have been deeper investigated through a sensitivity analysis. Obtained outcomes show the significant variability of the environmental impacts due to the agricultural phase (i.e., depending on agroecosystems and practices) and environmental benefits guaranteed by an efficient trigeneration system implemented in the manufacturing plant. The quantification of the environmental impacts of chocolate through LCA, the identification of the main hotspots along the supply chain and the sensitivity analysis performed in this study could effectively support chocolate companies in their pathway towards environmentally sustainable productions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  10. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...... vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  11. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides......A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...

  12. Sustainability Assessment in Automotive and Electronics Supply Chains—A Set of Indicators Defined in a Multi-Stakeholder Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef-Peter Schöggl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In automotive and electronics supply chains, sustainability assessment is gaining increasing importance. More stringent regulations and growing customer pressure are driving the change towards more environmentally, socially and economically responsible supply chains. Since this implies a rising use of resources for data collection, monitoring, exchange and assessment, the objective of this paper is to facilitate supply chain sustainability assessment. The present paper first provides a tailored set of 69 supply chain sustainability indicators for the European automotive and electronics industries. These were derived on the basis of a systematic literature review, together with 13 semi-structured interviews and five focus group workshops, all of which involved sustainability and industry experts. Second, the paper provides a case example of software-based supply chain sustainability data exchange. The extent to which sustainability information is currently exchanged in the two industries is also analyzed. The set of indicators is scientifically relevant since it considers all three dimensions of sustainability and is intended to allow for supply chain-wide sustainability assessment in two specific industries. It is also of high practical relevance since it was developed with and validated by industry experts, and also since it considers industrial and technical requirements for supply chain sustainability assessment in order to increase the efficiency of the work processes.

  13. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  14. Pharmaceutical supply chain risk assessment in Iran using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Olfat, Laya; Hosseini, Alireza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Alaeddini, Mahdi; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical supply chain is a significant component of the health system in supplying medicines, particularly in countries where main drugs are provided by local pharmaceutical companies. No previous studies exist assessing risks and disruptions in pharmaceutical companies while assessing the pharmaceutical supply chain. Any risks affecting the pharmaceutical companies could disrupt supply medicines and health system efficiency. The goal of this study was the risk assessment in pharmaceutical industry in Iran considering process's priority, hazard and probability of risks. The study was carried out in 4 phases; risk identification through literature review, risk identification in Iranian pharmaceutical companies through interview with experts, risk analysis through a questionnaire and consultation with experts using group analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and rating scale (RS) and risk evaluation of simple additive weighting (SAW) method. In total, 86 main risks were identified in the pharmaceutical supply chain with perspective of pharmaceutical companies classified in 11 classes. The majority of risks described in this study were related to the financial and economic category. Also financial management was found to be the most important factor for consideration. Although pharmaceutical industry and supply chain were affected by current political conditions in Iran during the study time, but half of total risks in the pharmaceutical supply chain were found to be internal risks which could be fixed by companies, internally. Likewise, political status and related risks forced companies to focus more on financial and supply management resulting in less attention to quality management.

  15. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  16. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  17. Green tourism supply chain management based on life cycle impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra V. Michailidou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the most dynamic and far-reaching economic sectors in the world. Numerous different and complex activities are involved in the efficient development of tourism. These activities interrelate economic, environmental, social, cultural and political dimensions in the overall supply chain. However, apart from its key role as a driver of socio-economic progress, tourism is responsible for environmental deterioration, not only in areas popular with tourists, but also by enhancing climate change globally. This paper presents a robust method based on the Green Tourism Supply Chain Management (GTSCM concept, which can be used to estimate the effect on the environment that can be attributed to each link of the supply chain. The overall approach is based on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA theory and corresponding models. A case study to demonstrate the applicability of this approach is presented for two large seaside hotels located in Chalkidiki, Greece. Chalkidiki is the most popular tourist destination in Northern Greece. A LCIA questionnaire was developed and input data for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA obtained from the hotel managers. For this LCA SimaPro 8 software was used. The LCIA methods chosen were Eco-indicator 99 and CML 2001. The effect on fossil fuel consumption of both hotels due to their use of local transport and electricity was considerable but less than that needed for transporting the tourists by air to Chalkidiki. This paper clearly indicates that LCA and Life Cycle Thinking (LCT can form the basis for promoting GTSCM in the tourism industry.

  18. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  19. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  20. Supply chain integrated LCA approach to assess environmental impacts of food production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. USVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A process was started in the late 1990s to produce comprehensive environmental data on particular aspects of Finnish food production with the aim of analyzing the environmental impacts (at least climate change, acidification and eutrophication and some other impacts of products and locating hot spots in production chains. A supply chain integrated life cycle assessment was carried out on fodder barley, hard cheese, oat flakes, potato flour, cream cheese potato gratin, beer, honey-marinated/sliced broiler fillet and greenhouse cucumber. Methodological improvements in assessing environmental impacts of food products were evaluated in relation to ISO14040 and 14044 standards. Methods improved, especially regarding quality of cultivation data and previously reported data from the literature, impact assessment and calculations for assessment of leaching from agriculture. As a generic conclusion on the share of contributions of the various phases of production chains to environmental impact: agriculture was the most important phase, especially in terms of eutrophication potential. Work in food LCA methodology has provided a sound base for future development in assessing environmental impacts of food products. In the future providing more and more environmental information on products for customers and consumers is setting new challenges for research.;

  1. Surgeons’ assessment of internal anal sphincter nerve supply during TaTME - inbetween expectations and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Werner; Hanke, Laura; Kauff, Daniel W.; Lang, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative identification of nerve fibers heading from the inferior rectal plexus (IRP) to the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is challenging. The transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is said to better preserve pelvic autonomic nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate the nerve identification rates during TaTME by transanal visual and electrophysiological assessment. Material and methods: A total of 52 patients underwent TaTME for malignant conditions. The IRP with its posterior branches to the IAS and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (PSN) were visually assessed in 20 patients (v-TaTME). Electrophysiological nerve identification was performed in 32 patients using electric stimulation under processed electromyography of IAS (e-TaTME). Results: The indication profile for TaTME was comparable between the v-TaTME and the e-TaTME group. The identification of IRP was more meaningful under electrophysiological assessment than under visual assessment for the left pelvic side (81% vs. 45%, p = 0.008) as well as the right pelvic side (78% vs. 45%, p = 0.016). The identification rates for PSN did not significantly differ between both groups, respectively (81% vs. 75%, p = 0.420 and 84% vs. 70%, p = 0.187). Conclusions: The transanal approach facilitated visual identification of IAS nerve supply. In combination with electrophysiological nerve assessment the identification rate almost doubled. For further insights functional data are needed. PMID:27333465

  2. Surgeons' assessment of internal anal sphincter nerve supply during TaTME - inbetween expectations and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Werner; Hanke, Laura; Kauff, Daniel W; Lang, Hauke

    2016-10-01

    Intraoperative identification of nerve fibers heading from the inferior rectal plexus (IRP) to the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is challenging. The transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is said to better preserve pelvic autonomic nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate the nerve identification rates during TaTME by transanal visual and electrophysiological assessment. A total of 52 patients underwent TaTME for malignant conditions. The IRP with its posterior branches to the IAS and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (PSN) were visually assessed in 20 patients (v-TaTME). Electrophysiological nerve identification was performed in 32 patients using electric stimulation under processed electromyography of IAS (e-TaTME). The indication profile for TaTME was comparable between the v-TaTME and the e-TaTME group. The identification of IRP was more meaningful under electrophysiological assessment than under visual assessment for the left pelvic side (81% vs. 45%, p = 0.008) as well as the right pelvic side (78% vs. 45%, p = 0.016). The identification rates for PSN did not significantly differ between both groups, respectively (81% vs. 75%, p = 0.420 and 84% vs. 70%, p = 0.187). The transanal approach facilitated visual identification of IAS nerve supply. In combination with electrophysiological nerve assessment the identification rate almost doubled. For further insights functional data are needed.

  3. Dynamic Self-Assessment of Supply Chains Performance: an Emerging Market Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic self-assessment of performance on supply chains operating in emerging markets is proposed. Based on wellestablishedkey performance indicators (KPI, this paper provides a decision support aid. Although it has been validatedin the automotive industry, the standardized model’s approach makes it applicable to other industries. It is the result of alarge literature review and identification of best practices from the automotive industry in which the lack of dynamic toolsto evaluate logistics performance of suitable supply chains to the current competitive exchange rate was detected.Developed under a system dynamics approach (DS, the model analyzes different scenarios taking into account KPI andits dynamic relationships. The results obtained were validated through the statistical technique of design of experiments(DOE. This model also considers the specific features of the automotive operations in emerging countries as well astheir importance in the future development of the manufacturing industry. In this context, the tool exposed is a keybackup to decision making and to dynamically evaluate the variables with major influence on manufacturing supplychains. As a conclusion, findings are discussed and future researches are presented.

  4. Life cycle assessment of flexibly fed biogas processes for an improved demand-oriented biogas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Funda Cansu; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses concepts to facilitate a demand oriented biogas supply at an agricultural biogas plant of a capacity of 500kWhel, operated with the co-digestion of maize, grass, rye silage and chicken manure. In contrast to previous studies, environmental impacts of flexible and the traditional baseload operation are compared. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to detect the environmental impacts of: (i) variety of feedstock co-digestion scenarios by substitution of maize and (ii) loading rate scenarios with a focus on flexible feedstock utilization. Demand-driven biogas production is critical for an overall balanced power supply to the electrical grid. It results in lower amounts of emissions; feedstock loading rate scenarios resulted in 48%, 20%, 11% lower global warming (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potentials, and a 16% higher cumulative energy demand. Substitution of maize with biogenic-waste regarding to feedstock substitution scenarios could create 10% lower GWP and AP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  6. Counterfeit Drug Penetration into Global Legitimate Medicine Supply Chains: A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.; York, Peter; Kubic, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global public health risk. We assess counterfeit reports involving the legitimate supply chain using 2009–2011 data from the Pharmaceutical Security Institute Counterfeit Incident System (PSI CIS) database that uses both open and nonpublic data sources. Of the 1,510 identified CIS reports involving counterfeits, 27.6% reported China as the source country of the incident/detection. Further, 51.3% were reported as counterfeit but the specific counterfeit subcategory was not known or verifiable. The most prevalent therapeutic category was anti-infectives (21.1%) with most reports originating from health-related government agencies. Geographically, Asian and Latin American regions and, economically, middle-income markets were most represented. A total of 127 (64.8%) of a total of 196 countries had no legitimate supply chain CIS counterfeit reports. Improvements in surveillance, including detection of security breaches, data collection, analysis, and dissemination are urgently needed to address public health needs to combat the global counterfeit medicines trade. PMID:25897059

  7. THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-07-01

    and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and the output and heat rate impacts will be used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam. The preliminary steam price will be determined in the next quarter.

  8. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  9. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    OpenAIRE

    D. Karyadi

    1995-01-01

    The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  10. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  11. [Assessment of energy metabolism and nutritional supply in children with mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Qian, Suyun; Yan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To determine the resting energy expenditure on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) by indirect calorimetry, and analyze the distribution of metabolic states. The nutrition supply was assessed according to the resting energy expenditure. An observational study which was held in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from November 2013 to April 2014. Critically ill children with mechanical ventilation were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria included the following: (1) pediatric critical illness score 29 days, 24 hours; (4) volume of mechanical ventilation > 60 ml. Resting energy expenditure was determined by US Med Graphic Company CCM/D energy metabolism test system. Predictive resting energy expenditure was calculated for each subject with age-appropriate equation (Schofield-HTWT). According to the actual energy intake records and required energy intake (10% higher than the measured value) to define the nutritional status. The selected subjects were grouped according to gender, age, types of disease and nutritional status, and compared the metabolic status and nutritional supply of different groups. Sixty-eight children were enrolled in this study, 46 were boys and 22 were girls, including 25 cases of pneumonia with respiratory failure, 23 cases of central nervous system diseases complicated with respiratory failure and 20 cases of postoperative tracheal intubation. The ratio of boys and girls was 2:1. The results showed 36 patients in a low metabolic state, accounting for 53%, 23 patients in a high metabolic state, accounting for 34% and 9 patients (13%) in the metabolism of the normal state. In the male children, 12 cases (26%) were in the high metabolism and 26 cases (57%) were in the low metabolism, and 8 cases (17%) were in the normal metabolism. In the female children, 11 cases (50%) were classified into high metabolism; 10 cases (45%) into low metabolism and 1 case (5%) was classified into normal metabolism. There was no

  12. Risk Assessment along Supply Chain: A RFID and Wireless Sensor Network Integration Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Laurent; Laurent, Maryline; El Moustaine, Ethmane

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks together with Radio Frequency Identification are promising technologies for supply chain management systems. They both provide supply chain players with goods tracking and monitoring functions along the chain. Whereas RFIDs are rather focusing on identification of goods (e.g., identification, classification), WSNs are meant to monitor and control the supply chain environment. Nevertheless, despite the interest for the supply chain management systems, their integration...

  13. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a water supply system and related human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Gaffney, Vanessa; Almeida, Cristina M M; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Ferreira, Elisabete; Benoliel, Maria João; Cardoso, Vitor Vale

    2015-04-01

    A monitoring study of 31 pharmaceuticals along Lisbon's drinking water supply system was implemented, which comprised the analysis of 250 samples including raw water (surface water and groundwater), and drinking water. Of the 31 pharmaceutical compounds, only sixteen were quantified in the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 0.005 to 46 ng/L in raw water samples and 0.09-46 ng/L in drinking water samples. The human health risk assessment performed showed that appreciable risks to the consumer's health arising from exposure to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water are extremely unlikely, as RQs values were all below 0.001. Also, pharmaceuticals were selected as indicators to be used as a tool to control the quality of raw water and the treatment efficiency in the drinking water treatment plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal impact assessment of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Four alternative cases for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental impact categories from the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The cases were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark...... with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base case of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields...... situated near Copenhagen. The 4 cases studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further...

  15. Change within Purchasing and Supply Management Organisations – Assessing the Claims from Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Andreasen, Peter; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    It is a wide-held assumption that professional development and change within purchasing and supply management (PSM) organisations can be explained and guided by a maturity model. In this paper the guidance which the maturity model concept offers to understand a PSM organisation's performance...... an organisational change framework, composing 1) movement transitions, 2) scalability of change, 3) acceptability of change, and 4) the substantive element of change. The research found that extant PSM maturity models are too rigid for PSM managers to apply, and although maturity models are commonly accepted in PSM...... is assessed. The methodology is based on the outcomes of a literature review of PSM maturity models, development of an organisational change framework and the learning from three qualitative case studies. An alternative understanding of the development of the PSM organisation is offered through...

  16. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  17. Assessing End-Of-Supply Risk of Spare Parts Using the Proportional Hazard Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan); M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOperators of long field-life systems like airplanes are faced with hazards in the supply of spare parts. If the original manufacturers or suppliers of parts end their supply, this may have large impacts on operating costs of firms needing these parts. Existing end-of-supply evaluation

  18. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Electrical Engineering; Jayalath, M.S. [NEXANT SARI/Energy, A Bectel Affiliated Company, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility. (author)

  19. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  20. Risk Assessment along Supply Chain: A RFID and Wireless Sensor Network Integration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent GOMEZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks together with Radio Frequency Identification are promising technologies for supply chain management systems. They both provide supply chain players with goods tracking and monitoring functions along the chain. Whereas RFIDs are rather focusing on identification of goods (e.g., identification, classification, WSNs are meant to monitor and control the supply chain environment. Nevertheless, despite the interest for the supply chain management systems, their integration is often deterred due to the lack of interoperability. In this paper, we propose a software framework which makes easier the integration of both RFIDs and WSNs into supply chain management systems.

  1. Climate change impact assessment on Zhoshui River water supply in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Long Lee Wen-Cheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact of climate change on water resources. An integrated procedure is proposed for assessing the water resources system response to climate change on the basin scale. The Zhoshui River basin in Central Taiwan was selected for the impact assessment. Five downscaled general circulation models based on the A1B scenario for 2046 - 2065 were adopted to assess the climate change impact, including (1 the irrigation water requirement downstream of the basin, (2 the river flow upstream of the basin, and (3 the water resources utilization related to supply and demand in the basin. Rising temperatures will cause the irrigation water requirement to increase by 10%. Precipitation in the basin will substantially decrease and likely cause a 20% decrease in river flow. Thus, irrigation water shortages may become more severe in the future. As an adaptation, the Hushan Reservoir, which will begin operation in mid-2016, can assist in offsetting domestic and industrial demand. To maintain the irrigation deficit at the present level (2001 - 2010 in the future, conveyance losses should reduce to 30% and the farming area used in the second paddy growth season should be decreased by 10%.

  2. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  3. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  4. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  5. Integrated design and sustainable assessment of innovative biomass supply chains: A case-study on miscanthus in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Aurelie; Wohlfahrt, Julie; Morandi, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    economically optimized across the whole supply chain (from field to plant gate) by considering potential feedstock production (from a high-resolution map), costs, logistical constraints and product prices. Then sustainability assessment was conducted by combining recognized methodologies: economic analysis......Cost-efficient, environmental-friendly and socially sustainable biomass supply chains are urgently needed to achieve the 2020 targets of the Strategic Energy Technologies-Plan of the European Union. This paper investigated technical, social, economic, and environmental barriers to the development......, multi-regional input-output analysis, emergy assessment, and life-cycle assessment. The analysis of the case study scenarios found that expanding biomass supply from 6,000 to 30,000tons of dry matter per year did not impact the profitability, which remained around 20€perton of biomass procured...

  6. Optimal configuration assessments of hybrid renewable power supply for rural healthcare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanre Olatomiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed optimal configurations of hybrid renewable system for rural health clinic (RHC application in three grid-unconnected rural villages in Nigeria. The RHC consist of an emergency room, consulting room, nurse/injection room, male ward, female ward, a delivery room and a laboratory with average total daily energy consumption of 15.5 kWh and 2.75 kW peak demand. The assessment of configurations that optimally meet the daily load demand with zero loss of power supply probability (LPSP was carried out using HOMER software, by considering three energy resources; photovoltaic (PV, wind and diesel with battery energy storage. The result obtained revealed hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system as the most cost-effective configuration for powering rural health clinic in both Maiduguri and Enugu sites, while that of Iseyin site was found to be hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. In all the sites, the selected optimal configuration is far better than the conventional diesel stand-alone system in terms of cost and emission reduction.

  7. Cancer and non-cancer risk assessment of trihalomethanes in urban drinking water supplies of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Hira; Hashmi, Imran; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Ali Awan, M; Ghaffar, Sajeela; Khan, Zahiruddin

    2013-05-01

    This study aims at monitoring and risk assessment of trihalomethanes (THMs) such as chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, in the drinking water supplies of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. THMs were monitored at twenty locations in these twin cities using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Total concentration of THMs was ranged between 21 and 373μg/L, whereas both cities had an average total THMs concentration of 142 and 260μg/L, respectively. Chloroform was found as one the major contributor to the THMs concentration (>85%). The occurrence of THMs followed the given order: chloroform, bromodichloromethane>dibromochloromethane>bromoform. Lifetime cancer risk assessment of THMs was carried out using prediction models via different exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation and dermal). An average lifetime cancer risk was found to be 0.74×10(-4) and 1.24×10(-4) for Rawalpindi and Islamabad, respectively. The number of expected cancer cases per year could reach two cases for each city. Hazard index values were found below unity for both the cities implying that there would be no considerable non-cancer risk. Oral ingestion was found to be one of the main routes of exposure for both types of risk which was followed by inhalation and dermal routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Process Eco-Innovations in an SME Automotive Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simboli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study presented in this article is to assess, from an environmental standpoint, a set of eco-innovations applied to the production process of an automotive component. The eco-innovations were developed by a supply network of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the framework of a project named “Hi-reach”. The component considered is a motorcycle rear wheel spindle. The conventional version is obtained by machining a single forged steel part. The Hi-reach version is indeed manufactured by joining a shaft to a flange; in addition, conventional surface treatments are replaced by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD treatment and other machining steps are improved. This process was conceived with the aim of maintaining (or enhancing the technical performance of the spindle and reducing production costs. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was carried out to compare the two scenarios described. Those eco-innovations resulted in significant improvements of the environmental performance of the analysed component, ranging, on average, between 50% and 70% for the impact indicators considered. Our results also highlight the role of SMEs in promoting process eco-innovations and the increasing relevance of LCA as a tool to support decision making in manufacturing.

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Hartmann, Kilian; Bühle, Lutz; Wachendorf, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The environmental performance of biogas plant configurations for a demand - oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation is comparatively assessed in this study. Those configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54-65 g CO(2-eq) MJ(-1) and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ(-1). In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production. Using thicker biogas storage sheeting material reduces the methane permeability of up to 6m(3) d(-1) which equals a reduction of 8% of the configuration's total methane emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and

  11. Assessing “First Mile” Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koporc, Kimberly M.; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G.; Lin, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007–2012. Methodology Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Principal Findings Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. Conclusions and Significance To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled. PMID:26657842

  12. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  13. Assessment of technical equipment supply in healthcare institutions: example of Almaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuralbai K Kurakbayev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The share of healthcare-related expenditure in the Gross Domestic Product of Kazakhstan is relatively small, and it is strategically important to restructure budgetary expenses in favor of healthcare with simultaneous redistribution of resources in accordance with changing demands and prioritization of high-quality medical care. The aim of this study was to analyze resource provision to healthcare organizations in Kazakhstan and its structure and level assessment. Materials and Methods: The study is based on a comparative assessment of technical and technological equipment of medical institutions in Almaty, Kazakhstan. We analyzed the scope and structure of the financial component of the resource base in Almaty. We carried out information processing and analysis methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, as well as conducted case studies. Also, we held opinion poll among medical staff (specialists, managerial staff (n = 300 P for trend < 0.001 and patients (n = 210 P for trend < 0.001. Results: About 18.8% of patients do not receive medical care because of defects of the equipment, whereas 19.9% of patients claim that the reason of refusal of the provision of medical services is an equipment overload. Conclusion: Most of the respondents referred to on poor technical equipment, mismatch with the world standards of performance and competitiveness. Lack of advanced medical technology, inadequate financing, insufficient supply of domestic medical equipment, and inadequate procurement by tender were also noted. The obtained data point to the need for optimization and upgrading medical equipment at various levels of healthcare.

  14. Assessment of the kidney tumor vascular supply by two-phase MDCT-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Hora, Milan [Department of Urology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Dr. Edvarda Benese 13, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Hes, Ondrej [Institute of Pathology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Ferdova, Eva [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: Current kidney surgery uses less invasive laparoscopic and nephron-sparring procedures. Thus, perfect imaging of the renal vasculature is essential for surgery planning. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of 16-detector-row CT-angiography in assessing the vascular anatomy of the kidney with a tumor. Subjects and methods: Referred for computed tomography (CT) because of a suspected renal tumor, 50 consecutive patients (mean age 58.6 years; range 43-82) were enrolled into our retrospective study. All examinations were performed with 16 x 0.75 mm collimation after the intravenous application of 80 ml of a non-ionic contrast material. The imaging protocol contained two-phase scanning in the arterial and then in the venous phase. The vascular anatomy of the kidney with tumor was evaluated using volume rendered (VRT) and maximum intensity images (MIP). Findings were compared with the anatomy found during surgery. Results: Forty-seven patients underwent nephrectomy, with an advanced clinical stage (IV) found in the three remaining ones. Correct topography of the renal hilus, including a number of arteries and veins, and the anatomy of their branching, was described in 46 patients. A very small upper polar artery was overlooked in one patient. The accuracy for the only-arterial was 97.9% and only-venous anatomy was 100%. The parasitic vasculature of the tumor was discovered in 10 cases and all of them were confirmed by surgery (100% accuracy). Macroscopic intravenous spread of the tumor was discovered in two cases, but microscopic intravenous invasion was confirmed during histology of the kidney specimens in another two cases, the overall tumor staging accuracy reaching 95.7%. Conclusion: Two-phase multidetector CT is a valuable tool for assessing vascular supply of the kidney before surgery due to the tumor and can fully replace catheter-based angiography.

  15. A MonteCarlo approach for assessing the adequacy of the European gas transmission system under supply crisis conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforti, F.; Szikszai, A. [European Commission, JRC - Institute for Energy, Energy Security Unit, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Europe's dependency on non-EU countries' energy supply is sharply increasing. Recently, sudden supply disruption caused by international disputes outside the EU have created serious problems for some EU countries and raised concern in many others. In these situations, it is highly desirable to have a tool to assess possible outcomes of supply disruptions. This paper presents a newly developed model, MC-GENERCIS, aimed to assess the robustness of the EU transnational gas transmission system during both normal and special operating conditions, including high-demand situations and/or a supply shortage. The model has a country-by-country resolution and examines all possible dispatching choices of national TSOs on the basis of a probabilistic MonteCarlo approach. The preliminary validation of the model through its application to the 'normal' conditions for the winter 2008-2009 and to the recent supply disruption involving Ukrainian gas transit is also described. (author)

  16. Evaluating the likelihood of the adoption of an animal welfare assessment system in European agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.; Roest, de K.; Tranter, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the likelihood of adoption of a recently designed Welfare Assessment System in agri‐food supply chains and the factors affecting the adoption decision. The application is carried out for pig and poultry

  17. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, L.; Maurer, M; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)–or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)–to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system

  18. The application of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability assessment: The case study of the UK automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Azevedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the level of sustainability of the UK automotive supply chain considering simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental representing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL approach. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of the automotive SC’ sustainability is based on the framework proposed by Salvado, Azevedo, Matias and Ferreira (2011 and uses the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method to aggregate economic, environmental and social indicators into a unique index. A case study on the UK automotive industry is used and the data do perform this study is collected from the sustainability reports of the UK’ automotive companies. Findings and Originality/value: The proposed framework represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility for assessing the sustainability behaviour of its supply chain and compare it with other supply chains. Once identified the dimension of sustainability where the company or the supply chain is worst performer managers can work closer to their supply chain’ partners in order to improve the performance of those dimension of sustainability. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of the suggested approach is related to the ambiguity of the sustainability’ indicators selection and the definition of weights for each sustainability dimension. Practical implications: The assessment of the SC sustainability by using the suggested framework to compute a SC sustainability index offers managers an opportunity for assessing the level of sustainability of each individual company and the corresponding SC in a very easy way. It also represents an opportunity for improving company performance. In this way managers can use the information on the sustainability index to help adjust their company's behaviour and improve their economic, social and environmental performance. Originality/value: The proposed

  19. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  20. Towards a Tool for Assessing Supply-Chain Information Performance During Implementation of New Information Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denolf, J.M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on improved information performance, agro-food companies and supply chains want to enhance their production processes. It creates the necessity to implement additional information technologies. The implementation of information technologies is, however, a complex task because of the

  1. Supply Chain Management som interaktionel praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Leo Feddersen; Lund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    I dette bidrag undersøger vi Supply Chain Management som en interaktionel praksis forankret i kommunikation. Med udgangspunkt i e-mail korrespondancer undersøger vi, hvordan køber-leverandør forholdet kommunikativt konstitueres mellem to danske SMVer og deres kinesiske leverandører. Det...

  2. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  3. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination—High Plains Aquifer near York, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Landon, Matthew K.; Clark, Brian R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program found, in studies from 1991 to 2001, low levels of mixtures of contaminants in ground water near the water table in urban areas across the Nation. Although contaminants were detected less frequently in deeper ground water typically developed for public supply the proximity of contaminant mixtures to underlying public-water-supply sources prompted the NAWQA Program to begin, in 2001, an intensive study to assess the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination. As part of this study, the pathways and processes by which contaminants reach public-supply wells in nine aquifer systems across the country are being investigated. In addition to studying the processes that occur below land surface—whereby contaminants are mobilized or attenuated—scientists are also investigating how human activities can affect the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination. This fact sheet highlights findings from two reports on the vulnerability study of a single, representative public-supply well in York, Nebraska. The selected high-capacity well typically produces more than 720,000 gallons per day from the upper confined aquifer of the High Plains aquifer. A possible source of contamination to the well is intensive, irrigated agriculture, which can sometimes result in elevated concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water. In addition, a sampling of the selected public-supply well by the USGS in 2002 found low concentrations of the solvents trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and their degradation products, which may be linked to historical chemical use in urban and residential areas of York. Uranium and arsenic (which occur naturally in the sediments that make up the aquifers in the area) also were detected in 2002 at concentrations less than drinking-water standards but still of concern. Overall, the current NAWQA study found that three primary factors

  4. Ethylene oxide sterilization in the medical-supply manufacturing industry: assessment and control of worker exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Lin, Yi-Chang; Su, Po-Chi; Li, Lien-Hsiung; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Tang, Da-Toung; Chen, Chang-Yuh

    2007-11-01

    In 2005, the Taiwan Institute of Occupational Safety and Health started an on-site consulting program for the medical supplies manufacturing industry, which use ethylene oxide (EO) as a sterilant, with the goal of enhancing occupational hygiene practices and controlling EO-related risks. This study presents EO exposure assessment results and examines the effectiveness of control measures. Detailed surveys, including exposure monitoring, were conducted at 10 factories. Airborne EO was collected using an HBr-coated charcoal tube and analyzed using GC/MS. Sterilizer operators had an average short-term EO exposure level of 27.61 ppm during unloading; mean time-weighted average workshift exposure was 7.35 ppm. High EO concentrations were also present throughout the facilities. Specifically, mean EO concentrations in the aeration area, near the sterilizer and in the warehouse were 10.19, 5.75, and 8.78 ppm, respectively. These findings indicate that immediate controls are needed, and that EO emissions from sterilized products during storage cannot be overlooked. Worker short-term exposures during unloading was inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with the numbers of poststerilization purge cycle applied. The specific controls implemented and their usefulness is discussed. Increasing the number of poststerilization purge cycles is a simple approach to eliminating extremely high exposure during unloading. Improvements to ventilation, particularly in the aeration area and warehouse, were also effective in minimizing worker exposures. Use of effective respirator is recommended until the EO exposure levels, averaging 3.41 ppm after the controls, fall below the permissible exposure limit.

  5. Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal impact assessment of water supply technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-05-01

    Four alternative cases for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental impact categories from the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The cases were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base case of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields situated near Copenhagen. The 4 cases studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further away from the city; And seawater desalination. The standard LCA showed that the Rain & stormwater harvesting case had the lowest overall environmental impact (81.9 μPET/m(3)) followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction (123.5-137.8 μPET/m(3)), and that desalination had a relatively small but still important increase in environmental impact (204.8 μPET/m(3)). Rain & stormwater harvesting and desalination had a markedly lower environmental impact compared to the base case, due to the reduced water hardness leading to e.g. a decrease in electricity consumption in households. For a relevant comparison, it is therefore essential to include the effects of water hardness when comparing the environmental impacts of water systems of different hardness. This study also emphasizes the necessity of including freshwater withdrawal respecting the relevant affected geographical scale, i.e. by focusing the assessment on the local groundwater catchments rather than on the regional catchments. Our work shows that freshwater withdrawal methods previously used on a regional

  6. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  7. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Karyadi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  8. Assessing the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier using Cr isotope measurements and 2D reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Christoph; Zink, Sonja; Eggenberger, Urs; Mäder, Urs

    2012-04-01

    In Thun, Switzerland, a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for Cr(VI) reduction by gray cast iron was installed in May 2008. The PRB is composed of a double array of vertical piles containing iron shavings and gravel. The aquifer in Thun is almost saturated with dissolved oxygen and the groundwater flow velocities are ca. 10-15m/day. Two years after PRB installation Cr(VI) concentrations still permanently exceed the Swiss threshold value for contaminated sites downstream of the barrier at selected localities. Groundwater δ(53/52)Cr(SRM979) measurements were used to track Cr(VI) reduction induced by the PRB. δ(53/52)Cr(SRM979) values of two samples downstream of the PRB showed a clear fractionation towards more positive values compared to four samples from the hotspot, which is clear evidence of Cr(VI) reduction induced by the PRB. Another downstream sample did not show a shift to more positive δ(53/52)Cr(SRM979) values. Because this latter location correlates with the highest downstream Cr(VI) concentration it is proposed that a part of the Cr(VI) plume is bypassing the barrier. Using a Rayleigh fractionation model a minimum present-day overall Cr(VI) reduction efficiency of ca. 15% was estimated. A series of 2D model simulations, including the fractionation of Cr isotopes, confirm that only a PRB bypass of parts of the Cr(VI) plume can lead to the observed values. Additionally, the simulations revealed that the proposed bypass occurs due to an insufficient permeability of the individual PRB piles. It is concluded that with this type of PRB a complete and long-lasting Cr(VI) reduction is extremely difficult to achieve for Cr(VI) contaminations located in nearly oxygen and calcium carbonate saturated aquifer in a regime of high groundwater velocities. Additional remediation action would limit the environmental impact and allow to reach target concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been......Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields....... A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondarywater supply in the area...

  10. Developing a Taxonomy and Model to Transfer and Assess Best Practices for Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Myrna; Mendoza, Ana; Lavin, Victor; Flores, Benito

    Supply Chain Management can be briefly defined as the orchestration of a network of entities such as suppliers, distributors and clients to achieve a common goal: delivering cost efficient products and services exceeding customers’ expectations. Therefore, firms should consider all those End-to-End processes enabling an efficient integration and interoperability of partners collaborating in such Supply Chain when designing their Business Process Architecture (BPA). One key enabler to accomplish this goal is the identification, documentation and sharing of best practices. This paper describes the outcomes of a collaborative project carried out by CEMEX Research Group and the Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM), which focused on developing taxonomy to document best practices for the supply chain management together with a generic model to evaluate their level of implementation.

  11. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: Linking agent-based demand — With material flow supply modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeri, Christof, E-mail: c.knoeri@leeds.ac.uk [Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS5 9JT Leeds (United Kingdom); Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Weil, Marcel [Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a ‘snapshot’ of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. - Highlights: ► Current criticality assessment methods provide a ‘snapshot’ at one point in time. ► They do not account for dynamic interactions between demand and supply. ► We propose a conceptual framework to overcomes these limitations. ► The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model with a dynamic material flow model. ► The approach proposed

  12. Lean, agile, resilient and green supply chain management interoperability assessment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Pedro Emanuel Botelho Espadinha da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção de grau de Mestre em Engenharia e Gestão Industrial (MEGI) Supply Chain Management has become a tactic asset for the current global competition situation. Innovative strategies such as Lean, Agile, Resilient and Green emerged as a response, requiring high levels of cooperation and of great complexity. However, the strategic alignment of operations with partners in supply chains is affected by lack of interoperability. The present work provides a framework to enhan...

  13. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model – a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armaș

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model. Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  14. Pilot assessment of supply chains for pharmaceuticals and medical commodities for malaria, tuberculosis and HIV infection in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gabriel; Tegegnework, Hailu; Demissie, Tsion; Reithinger, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data on the drug supply management system in Ethiopia, selected facilities were assessed for the availability of essential drugs and commodities for malaria, TB and HIV. Of the 48 surveyed hospitals and health centers, 9 (19%), 9 (19%) and 10 (21%) did not have malaria, TB or HIV drugs, respectively. Similarly, of 27 health posts, 9 (33%) and 6 (22%) did not have rapid diagnostic tests and antimalarial drugs, respectively. The findings indicated an inadequate availability of essential drugs and commodities in the surveyed facilities as well as weaknesses in human resources and training. Assessments of commodity supply chains to ensure operational program success and impact are important. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An assessment of the supply chain management for HIV/AIDS care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Access toART in Kilombero and Ulanga districts has some critical imbalances in the supply chain and management for HIV/AIDS care and treatment. Potential strategies to overcome the barriers are discussed in relation to routine health management information system, investments into mobile-health and ...

  16. Workforce planning for DOE/EM: Assessing workforce demand and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to bringing its facilities into regulatory compliance and restoring the environment of sites under its control by the year 2019. Responsibility for accomplishing this goal is vested with the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Concerns regarding the availability of workers with the necessary technical skills and the prospect of retraining workers from other programs within DOE or other industries are addressed in this report in several ways. First, various workforce projections relevant to EM occupations are compared to determine common findings and resolve inconsistencies. Second, case studies, interviews, and published data are used to examine the potential availability of workers for these occupations via occupational mobility, training/retraining options, and salary adjustments. Third, demand and supply factors are integrated in a framework useful for structuring workforce analyses. The analyses demonstrate that workforce skills are not anticipated to change due to the change in mission; science, engineering, and technician occupations tend to be mobile within and across occupational categories; experience and on-the-job training are more crucial to issues of worker supply than education; and, the clarity of an organization`s mission, budget allocation process, work implementation and task assignment systems are critical determinants of both workforce need and supply. DOE is encouraged to create a more stable platform for workforce planning by resolving organizational and institutional hindrances to accomplishing work and capitalizing on workforce characteristics besides labor {open_quotes}supply{close_quotes} and demographics.

  17. An assessment of the supply chain management for HIV/AIDS care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were to evaluate the supply chain of the CTCs, key aspects of patient management and the coping strategies of the CTC ... are discussed in relation to routine health management information system, investments into mobile- ..... Tang, M.W. & Shafer, R.W. (2012) HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance: scientific principles and clinical.

  18. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  19. Assessing the utility of ultraviolet irradiation to reduce bacterial biofilms in fish hatchery well water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of bacterial biofilms and consequent clogging of screens, pipes, and heat exchanger equipment is problematic for water supply systems contaminated with iron bacteria and other slime forming bacteria. Despite the ubiquitous threat posed by iron bacteria contamination in groundwater s...

  20. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: linking agent-based demand--with material flow supply modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeri, Christof; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Weil, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a 'snapshot' of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, R L; Harmsen, A B; Fabriek, M

    2009-02-01

    Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection model, communication training on history taking was designed. Objectives were to develop rating criteria for assessment of the students' level of reflection and to collect student evaluations of the reflective cycle components in the communication training. All second year medical students recorded a consultation with a simulated patient. In DiViDU, a web-based ICT program, students reviewed the video, identified and marked three key events, attached written reflections and provided peer-feedback. Students' written reflections were rated on four reflection categories. A reflection-level score was based on a frequency count of the number of categories used over three reflections. Students filled out an evaluation questionnaire on components of the communication training. Data were analyzed of 304 (90.6%) students. The four reflection categories Observations, Motives, Effects and Goals of behaviour were used in 7-38%. Most students phrased undirected questions for improvement (93%). The average reflection score was 2.1 (S.D. 2.0). All training components were considered instructive. Acting was preferred most. Reviewing video was considered instructive. Self-reflection was considered more difficult than providing written feedback to the reflections of peers. Reflection on communication behaviour can be systematically implemented and measured in a structured way. Reflection levels were low, probably indicating a limited notion of goal-oriented attributes of communication skills. Early introduction of critical self-reflection facilitates acceptance of an important ability for physicians for continued life-long learning and becoming mindful practitioners.

  2. A Comprehensive Approach in Assessing the Performance of an Automobile Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah Udoncy Olugu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecological issues arising from manufacturing operations have led to the focus on environmental sustainability in manufacturing. This can be addressed adequately using a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC. To attain an effective and efficient CLSC, it is necessary to imbibe a holistic performance measurement approach. In order to achieve this, there is a need to adopt a specific approach for a particular product rather than being generic. Since sustainability has direct environmental footprints that involve organizational stakeholders, suppliers, customers and the society at large, complexities surrounding supply chain performance measurement have multiplied. In this study, a suitable approach has been proposed for CLSC performance measurement in the automotive industry, based on reviewed literature. It is believed that this approach will result in increased effectiveness and efficiency in CLSC performance measurement.

  3. Assessment of potable water supply sources in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Musa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution system plays a vital role in preserving and providing a desirable life quality to the public. In this regards, the reliability of supply is a major component. This study was conducted using the investigative research approach method; 5000 questionnaires which were randomly distributed round the township of Ilorin and 4658 93.16% were returned. Among them, 2350 respondents said that they have their own wells dugged in their respective homes, 1100 respondents had their taps running at specific periods of the week, 750 individuals said that they have boreholes available, 308 people declared that they make use of the streams and rivers running around their areas while about 150 of the remaining buy water from the water vendors so they cannot tell the exact source of the water. It was discovered that majority of the residential areas in Ilorin do not depend on the tap water supply rather they depend on dugged wells and bore holes.

  4. Supply Chain Modeling: Downstream Risk Assessment Methodology (DRAM) Demonstration of Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Teck Cominco Metal Ltd) China Production ( Antimony Trioxide and Pentoxide) 51 US companies Flame Retardant Products Secondary Production (Indium...Stern & Stern Industries) US (W. L. Gore & Assoc, Inc.) Secondary Production (Lead- Antimony Alloy) US (Sharp Manufacturing) US (American Elements...chain this way. It has been IDA’s experience that, at times, acquiring supply chain data is difficult. Companies often consider their production

  5. Assessing environmental performance of humidification technology used in supply of fresh fruit and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Serena; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Distributions chains in Europe of most fresh fruit and vegetables follow a pattern where fruit or vegetables produced in southern European countries are typically transported to countries in the central or northern parts of Europe. The relatively complex supply and distribution chain with many actors involved (from farmers, through wholesalers, to retailers) highlights the need for minimizing food loss in the post-harvest to optimize the overall environmental performance of agricultural syste...

  6. Supply Chain Resilience: Assessing Resilience over the Life Cycle of Capital Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-09

    Business Review, I (8), 1-4. Sheffi, Y. (2005b). The resilient enterprise: overcoming vulnerability for competitive advantage . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press...even gain advantage from-<lisruptions" (Sheffi, 2005a: I). Why the interest in supply chain resi lience? According to Christopher and Peck, "in an...Applications normal until six months after the str ike ended. This I 0-day strike did not interrupt Dell Computer’s operations like it d id for many of

  7. Assessing the prospects for physician supply and demand in Canada: Wishing it was rocket science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Owen; Chauhan, Tara S; Buske, Lynda

    2017-07-01

    "It's not rocket science" is an often used phrase to describe tasks that are not very difficult. Although rocketry has proven to be an exacting science with highly predictable results, the same cannot be said for physician workforce planning in Canada. The "boom" in physician supply in the 1960s and 1970s was followed by a "bust" in the early 1990s and a further boom in the 2000s. A large generational shift in the physician population is anticipated between now and 2030; the proportion of "boomers" (1946-1964) will drop from 43% to 16% of the practising profession. Canada has not been alone in increasing physician supply. Any judgement as to whether too many or too few physicians are being trained must consider the drivers and mitigators of both supply and demand. Although there are current concerns about a shortage of practice opportunities for some specialties, the available data do not indicate a physician surplus on the horizon in Canada.

  8. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  9. A Sustainable Performance Assessment Framework for Plastic Film Supply Chain Management from a Chinese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Academics’ and practitioners’ interest in sustainable supply chain management has received great concern in recent years. The application of biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP plastic film has had a significant influence on the economic, environmental and social performance of supply chain management. However, research on the integration of these three sustainable dimensions is still rare in this field. In this paper, we identify sustainability criteria based on a triple bottom line approach (economic benefit, environmental protection and social responsibility from the supply chain perspective, develop a hybrid multi-criteria decision making framework to evaluate the criteria and select alternatives and apply the proposed approach to a real case study at a focal BOPP plastic film company in China. In the framework, a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP is used to determine the performance criteria weights and a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is applied to rank the alternatives. The case study finds that the economic dimension was the most important aspect with environmental second and social third. The results also verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. This paper develops an effective and systematic approach for decision makers to conduct evaluations and select optimal alternatives for focal plastic film companies.

  10. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems. SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure a step change in operational practices, which will improve the efficiency and sustainability of supply chain logistics. In the paper we present the first results of this project. Aim of this paper is (1 to present a sustainability research framework for food supply chains logistics including drivers, strategies, performance indicators, metrics and improvement opportunities to measure and potentially enhance sustainability performances; and (2 to analyse and diagnose the current status of Dutch food & drinks companies and logistics service providers using this framework. Results are found via a literature review, web-based research and structured interviews with Dutch food and logistics service industry.

  11. Risk assessment in the upstream crude oil supply chain: Leveraging analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles Awoala

    For an organization to be successful, an effective strategy is required, and if implemented appropriately the strategy will result in a sustainable competitive advantage. The importance of decision making in the oil industry is reflected in the magnitude and nature of the industry. Specific features of the oil industry supply chain, such as its longer chain, the complexity of its transportation system, its complex production and storage processes, etc., pose challenges to its effective management. Hence, understanding the risks, the risk sources, and their potential impacts on the oil industry's operations will be helpful in proposing a risk management model for the upstream oil supply chain. The risk-based model in this research uses a three-level analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multiple-attribute decision-making technique, to underline the importance of risk analysis and risk management in the upstream crude oil supply chain. Level 1 represents the overall goal of risk management; Level 2 is comprised of the various risk factors; and Level 3 represents the alternative criteria of the decision maker as indicated on the hierarchical structure of the crude oil supply chain. Several risk management experts from different oil companies around the world were surveyed, and six major types of supply chain risks were identified: (1) exploration and production, (2) environmental and regulatory compliance, (3) transportation, (4) availability of oil, (5) geopolitical, and (6) reputational. Also identified are the preferred methods of managing risks which include; (1) accept and control the risks, (2) avoid the risk by stopping the activity, or (3) transfer or share the risks to other companies or insurers. The results from the survey indicate that the most important risk to manage is transportation risk with a priority of .263, followed by exploration/production with priority of .198, with an overall inconsistency of .03. With respect to major objectives the most

  12. Assessing Risk Management Capability of Public Sector Organizations Related to PPP Scheme Development for Water Supply in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangeran M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Public Private Partnership (PPP for water supply investment is inseparable from the capability of risk management of the parties within the project. This study investigates the risk management capability of Indonesian local public sector organizations that are potentially involved in PPP schemes for water supply. A risk management maturity model based assessment tool probing the culture, process, experience, application and partnership aspects is used in the survey. The model describes risk management capability in four levels (ad-hoc, initial, competent, excellent. The survey shows that their risk management capability is still in-average at the initial stage (level 2, meaning that the adopted risk management postures are mostly supported only by unstructured, ad-hoc and non-formal processes. The result of this study can help decision makers in choosing appropriate risk management methods and tools to be used by the local public authorities for managing risks in PPP schemes.

  13. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Lisa; Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)-to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability), desirability (value), and distinguishability (value range) of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water supply planning

  14. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Scholten

    Full Text Available We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT-to integrated assessment (IA models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability, desirability (value, and distinguishability (value range of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water

  15. Assessment of supply-side alternatives for the Handlova heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The goals of this study were to: (1) perform technical and economical analyses for three alternatives for the production and distribution of thermal energy in the town of Handlova, Slovakia, (2) perform and economic evaluation for the main parameters for each alternative at the given required rate of return, (3) evaluate the sensitivity of the cost of delivered energy to several parameters, such as the thermal energy demand, cost of fuels and real interest rate, and (4) provide this information to the town officials for their decisions about the future development of the heat supply for space heating and water heating in the residential and non-residential sectors.

  16. Assessing environmental performance of humidification technology used in supply of fresh fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbri, Serena; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    -harvest losses of fruit and vegetables. Humidifiers release a fine mist thereby reducing the difference in water vapour pressure at the surface of the fruit or vegetable and in the air, preventing dry-out of fruits and deterioration. In addition, humidification provides cooling as a result of the evaporation...... is driven by the humidifier production and disposal stages rather than agriculture. Thus, depending on the performance of humidifying units, humidification may have the potential to reduce environmental impacts stemming from supply of fresh fruit and vegetables in Europe....

  17. and dioxouranium(vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with atomic radii of 1.65 and .... to ν(NH) vibrations. Practically no effect on these frequencies after complexation precludes the possibility of metal-coordination at this group. The absorptions at 1600 ... observation suggests involvement of unsaturated nitrogen atoms of the two azomethine groups.

  18. Sustainability Assessment and Identification of Determinants in Community-Based Water Supply Projects using Partial Least Squares Path Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, the sustainability of community-based water supply projects in four different states in Sudan was assessed using a set of multidimensional indicators. A sustainability index was developed using a set of sustainability criteria including technical, reliability/risk, social, organisational, financial as well as sustainability. Basic sustainability criteria were selected based on literature review and stakeholders discussion. For each criterion a set of observable indicators was identified, in total 23 indicators were identified. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis and model development was carried out to identify main sustainability determinants for community-based water supply projects in Sudan. Partial least squares-path modelling was used to determine and quantify relationships between the sustainability criteria. The results showed that although all analyzed projects were relatively young projects (1 to 4 years, all projects showed low sustainability performance. This was mainly due to organizational as well as financial aspects, which also was confirmed by path modeling analysis, the sustainability of community-based water supply projects was directly related to organizational aspects, but indirectly related to financial issues. There is a need to give more attention to the communities’ organizational and financial abilities and to leverage their ability through governmental and/or non-governmental organization support especially after project implementation phase.

  19. Assessment of Water Supply as an Ecosystem Service in a Rural-Urban Watershed in Southwestern Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujnovsky, Julieta; González-Martínez, Teresa Margarita; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique Arturo; Almeida-Leñero, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Studies from the ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful framework because they allow us to fully examine the benefits that humans obtain from socio-ecological systems. Mexico City, the second largest city in the world, has faced severe problems related to water shortages, which have worsened due to increasing population. Demand for space has forced changes in land cover, including covering areas that are essential for groundwater recharge. The city has 880 km2 of forest areas that are crucial for the water supply. The Magdalena River Watershed was chosen as a model because it is a well-preserved zone within Mexico City and it provides water for the population. The general aim of this study was to assess the ecosystem service of the water supply in the Magdalena River Watershed by determining its water balance (SWAT model) and the number of beneficiaries of the ecosystem services. The results showed that the watershed provides 18.4 hm3 of water per year. Baseflow was dominant, with a contribution of 85%, while surface runoff only accounted for 15%. The zone provides drinking water to 78,476 inhabitants and could supply 153,203 potential beneficiaries. This work provides an example for understanding how ecosystem processes determine the provision of ecosystem services and benefits to the population in a rural-urban watershed in Mexico City.

  20. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  1. Climate change impact assessment on Zhoshui River water supply in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jyun-Long Lee Wen-Cheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of climate change on water resources. An integrated procedure is proposed for assessing the water resources system response to climate change on the basin scale. The Zhoshui River basin in Central Taiwan was selected for the impact assessment. Five downscaled general circulation models based on the A1B scenario for 2046 - 2065 were adopted to assess the climate change impact, including (1) the irrigation water requirement downstream of the basin, (2) the river ...

  2. Efficient Assessment of Social Hotspots in the Supply Chains of 100 Product Categories Using the Social Hotspots Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benoît Norris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories during just a few months’ time, adopting a streamlined approach was essential. The Social Hotspots Database system was developed by New Earth over 5 years. It includes a Global Input Output (IO model derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project, a Worker Hours Model constructed using annual wage payments and wage rates by country and sector, and Social Theme Tables covering 22 themes within five Social Impact Categories—Labor Rights and Decent Work, Health and Safety, Human Rights, Governance and Community Impacts. The data tables identify social risks for over 100 indicators. Both the ranking of worker hour intensity and the risk levels across multiple social themes for the Country Specific Sectors (CSS within a product category supply chain are used to calculate Social Hotspots Indexes (SHI using an additive weighting method. The CSS with the highest SHI are highlighted as social hotspots within the supply chain of the product in question. This system was tested in seven case studies in 2011. In order to further limit the number of hotspots, a set of prioritization rules was applied. This paper will review the method implemented to study the social hotspots of the 100 product categories and provide one detailed example. Limitations of the approach and recommended research avenues will be outlined.

  3. Carbon credit supply potential beyond 2012. A bottom-up assessment of mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, S.J.A.; Bole, T. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Arvanitakis, A.G. [PointCarbon, Oslo (Norway); Van de Brug, E.; Doets, C.E.M.; Gilbert, A. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    In the context of climate change mitigation commitments and post-2012 negotiations questions have arisen around the potential and dynamics of the carbon market beyond 2012. This study focuses on gaining insight in the supply side of carbon credits after 2012 by studying potential and costs of greenhouse gas reduction options in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and other flexible mechanisms. An elaborate analysis of future demand for credits is outside the scope of this report. It is concluded that the potential for greenhouse gas reduction options in non-Annex I countries in 2020 is likely to be large. This study has also made clear that the extent to which this potential can be harnessed by the CDM strongly depends on future eligibility decisions, notably for avoided deforestation, the application of the additionality criterion, and to a lesser extent the success of programmatic CDM and the adoption rate of technologies. Compared to this market potential, demand for carbon credits could be in the same order of magnitude, depending on the post-2012 negotiations and domestic reductions in countries with commitments. In addition to CDM, Joint Implementation projects in Russia and Ukraine and banked and new Assigned Amount Units may play a significant role in post-2012 carbon markets.

  4. VI Nukitsa konkurss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    VI Nukitsa konkursi auhinnad: Kirjanikud: I - Henno Käo ("Kusagil mujal"); II - Aidi Vallik ("Kuidas elad, Ann?"); III - Artur Jurin ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Kunstnikud: I - Karel Korp (Leelo Tungla ja Karel Korbi "Tema amet"); II - Edgar Valter ("Kuidas õppida vaatama?"); III - Artur Jurin - ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Täiskasvanute küsitluse võitis nii teksti kui piltidega Ene-Maris Tali ja Tarmo Tali "Tähtraamat. Aastaring Maarjamaal"

  5. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low.

  6. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain Oxygen Supply Parameters in the Risk Assessment of Cerebral Complications During Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskaya, Oksana V; Loginova, Irina Yu; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether preoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and the decrease in rSO2 during carotid clamping were predictive of the risk for neurologic complications in carotid endarterectomy and to determine the cutoff values of the studied parameters. Cohort, prospective, nonrandomized trial. Research Institute of Circulation Pathology, Novosibirsk, Russia. The study comprised 466 adults who underwent carotid endarterectomy since 2012. None. Patient characteristics, postoperative complications, and brain oxygen supply during carotid endarterectomy were analyzed. The primary endpoints were the perioperative and early postoperative neurologic complications. Ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 1.5% of patients, and cognitive disorders were reported in 2.6% of patients. Preoperative rSO2 of 50% was the cutoff value for the prediction of stroke outcome after carotid endarterectomy, with a sensitivity of 90.7% and specificity of 66.7%. A 20% decrease in rSO2 during temporary carotid clamping was the cutoff value for the prediction of stroke, with a sensitivity of 86.0% and specificity of 57.1%, and for the prediction of cognitive disorders, with a sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 58.3%. Preoperative rSO2 less than 50% and a decrease in rSO2 of at least 20% during temporary carotid artery clamping caused a significant increase in the hospitalization period. A 20% or more decrease in rSO2 during temporary internal carotid artery clamping during carotid endarterectomy caused a 10-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke and an 8-fold increased risk of cognitive disorders, whereas preoperative rSO2 less than 50% resulted in a 6-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke in the perioperative and early postoperative periods of carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range) concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4) Becquerel/liter (Bq/L). Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range) concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3) Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range) concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9) Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL). The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended. PMID:22243625

  9. Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Zabadi Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4 Becquerel/liter (Bq/L. Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3 Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9 Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL. The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended.

  10. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Nestmann, F.

    2016-09-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project " Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. This karst area, widely known as " Java's poorhouse", is located on the southern coast of Java Island and distinctly suffers from the mentioned constraints. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the conceptual and technical achievements of the "IWRM Indonesia" joint research project are characterized by a high potential for multiplication not only for karst areas but also for non-karst regions. One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. Referring to the plant's innovative character and the demanding conditions on-site, the implementation was a highly iterative process leading to today's autonomous operation by an Indonesian public authority. Based on the experiences gained during design, construction, operation and monitoring phase, this paper introduces an implementation approach for adapted technologies as well as a comprising technical and economical assessment of the plant's operation.

  11. A spatially explicit whole-system model of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain: an assessment of decentralised processing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnett, Alex J; Adjiman, Claire S; Shah, Nilay

    2008-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol technologies exhibit significant capacity for performance improvement across the supply chain through the development of high-yielding energy crops, integrated pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation technologies and the application of dedicated ethanol pipelines. The impact of such developments on cost-optimal plant location, scale and process composition within multiple plant infrastructures is poorly understood. A combined production and logistics model has been developed to investigate cost-optimal system configurations for a range of technological, system scale, biomass supply and ethanol demand distribution scenarios specific to European agricultural land and population densities. Results Ethanol production costs for current technologies decrease significantly from $0.71 to $0.58 per litre with increasing economies of scale, up to a maximum single-plant capacity of 550 × 106 l year-1. The development of high-yielding energy crops and consolidated bio-processing realises significant cost reductions, with production costs ranging from $0.33 to $0.36 per litre. Increased feedstock yields result in systems of eight fully integrated plants operating within a 500 × 500 km2 region, each producing between 1.24 and 2.38 × 109 l year-1 of pure ethanol. A limited potential for distributed processing and centralised purification systems is identified, requiring developments in modular, ambient pretreatment and fermentation technologies and the pipeline transport of pure ethanol. Conclusion The conceptual and mathematical modelling framework developed provides a valuable tool for the assessment and optimisation of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain. In particular, it can provide insight into the optimal configuration of multiple plant systems. This information is invaluable in ensuring (near-)cost-optimal strategic development within the sector at the regional and national scale. The framework is flexible and can thus

  12. Data Envelopment Analysis to Assess Productivity in the United States Air Force Medical Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    operationalized as application of the appropriate strategy “to get the job done,” was assessed as a function of lead time using average delivery days...37 Data Alibis and Additional Analysis...productivity measurements are given. This research provides AFMOA with an analysis of the current structure as a function of efficiency where sales

  13. Towards a Value-based Method for Risk Assessment in Supply Chain Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lingzhe); H.A.M. Daniels (Hennie)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a risk assessment framework as a research road-map, with the aim of developing a protocol that integrates the risk management requirements from the perspectives of the business and the government. We take the viewpoint of value modeling and interpret the risk

  14. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  15. Skill Assessment of Water Supply Outlooks in the Colorado River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Harrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water-supply outlooks that predict the April through July (snowmelt runoff and assist in estimating the total water-year runoff, are very important to users that rely on the major contributing watersheds of the Colorado River. This study reviewed the skill level of April through July forecasts at 28 forecast points within the Colorado River basin. All the forecasts were made after 1950, with considerable variation in time period covered. Evaluations of the forecasts were made using summary measures, correlation measures and categorical measures. The summary measure, a skill score for mean absolute error, indicated a steady increase in forecast skill through the forecast season of January to May. The width of the distribution for each monthly forecast over the 28 locations remained similar through the forecast season. The Nash-Sutcliffe score, a correlation measure, showed similar results, with the Nash-Sutcliffe median showing an increase from 0.4 to 0.8 during the forecast season. The categorical measures used a three-section partition of the April through July runoff. The Probability of Detection for low and high flows showed an increase in skill from approx. 0.4 to 0.8 during the forecast season. The same score for mid-flow years showed limited increase in skill. The low False Alarm Rate illustrated the under forecast of high-flow years. The Bias of the mid-runoff forecasts indicated over forecast early in the forecast season (January to March, with lower Bias later in the forecast season (April and May, ending the forecast season at 1.0, indicating no Bias. Forecasts for both low and high runoff were under forecast early in the season with a Bias near 0.5, improving to nearly 1.0 by the end of the forecast season. The Hit Rate measure illustrated the difficulty of mid-flow forecasts, starting at 0.5 in January and increasing to 0.75 in May due to the forecasting assumption of normal climatology for the remaining forecast period. There was no

  16. Microbiological risk assessment of Agios Georgios source supplies in Northwestern Greece based on faecal coliforms determination and sanitary inspection survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulis, N; Maipa, V; Konstantinou, I; Albanis, T; Dimoliatis, I

    2005-03-01

    The assessment of potential risks from microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies is of greatest concern to human health. The study involves the examination of water samples from Agios Georgios source that supplies the capitals, the major towns and several villages of Arta, Preveza and Lefkada prefectures, in Northwestern Greece. The study includes the sanitary inspection survey of the source and the microbiological examination of water samples on a monthly basis during the period February 1996-June 1999 except of Augusts (n=38). The microbiological risk assessment (MRA) approach of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was applied to enhance the source protection. The faecal contamination of the source water was quantified using faecal coliforms (FC) as indicator bacteria. Microbiological analyses indicate that of the 38 samples analyzed the FC failure rate (positive samples) was 63.2% according to the limit set by the 98/83 directive of the European Union. The 36.8% of the source water samples was found in conformity with WHO guidelines, 42.1% of low risk, 21.1% of intermediate risk while there was not found samples of high or very high risk. Failure rates displayed a seasonal trend being greater during the winter, decreased during spring and autumn and lower during summer. This observation was explained partially by a significant positive relationship with the rainfall amount (r(Spearmann)=0.890, P=0.001). The sanitary inspection score was found 5/10 during the whole survey period that corresponds to an intermediate risk of source contamination. The color-code classification for FC contamination was found 36.8% A (blue, no risk), 42.1% B (green, low risk) and 21.1% C (yellow, intermediate risk). The previous risks were combined for the assessment of waterborne risk, which was determined as intermediate to high; therefore there is a need for high action priority. The potential remedial actions were also suggested in order to improve the source

  17. Spatial analysis method of assessing water supply and demand applied to energy development in the Ohio River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, A.D.

    1979-08-01

    The focus of the study is on water availability for energy development in the Ohio River Basin; however, the techniques developed are applicable to water supply investigations for other regions and uses. The study assesses the spatial association between water supply and demand for future energy development in the Basin. The problem is the development of a method that accurately portrays the actual spatial coincidence of water availability and use within a basin. The issues addressed involve questions of scale and methods used to create a model distribution of streamflow and to compare it with projected patterns of water requirements for energy production. The analysis procedure involves the compilation of streamflow data and calculation of 7-day/10-year low-flow estimates within the Basin. Low-flow probabilities are based on historical flows at gaging stations and are adjusted for the effects of reservoir augmentation. Once streamflow estimates have been determined at gaging stations, interpolation of these values is made between known data points to enable direct comparison with projected energy water-use data. Finally, a method is devised to compare the patterns of projected water requirements with the model distribution of streamflow, in sequential downstream order.

  18. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops......, there are many different types of crops significantly varies in terms of energy potential yields, production and provision methods, etc. To this end, a thoroughly assessment of the energy inputs and outputs of each potential energy crop is necessary. In this paper, the Giant Reed is evaluated energetically...... as a potential energy crop. The assessment regards a 10 year period. The considered energy elements include direct inputs (e.g. fuel consumption) as well as indirect inputs (e.g. embodied energy of materials and machinery). According to the results, the balance between the estimated total energy input...

  19. Comparative environmental assessment of current and future electricity supply technologies for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2007-07-01

    The environmental performance of a portfolio of eighteen technologies for electricity generation including renewable, fossil, and nuclear systems was analyzed for two reference years 2000 and 2030. The assessment covers large centralized and smaller decentralized power plants in Switzerland and few other European countries (for electricity imports). Evolutionary technology development was assumed between today and 2030. Full life cycle inventories were established for all energy chains, using 'ecoinvent' as the background inventory database. The average European electricity mix in 2030 was adapted using a business-as-usual scenario. The environmental assessment was part of a more comprehensive interdisciplinary sustainability evaluation using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. Results from this evaluation for the environment area alone are herewith compared using Eco-indicator'99 as representative LCIA method as well as external cost assessment. In general the rankings from different aggregation methodologies converge when considering common indicators. However, putting different emphasis or weight on impact categories and individual indicators introduces variation in the ranking. Superior environmental performance of hydro power is ascertained by all approaches. Nuclear follows hydro as top performer based on Eco-indicator 99 (H, A) and external costs. Fossil systems score worst and biomass shows mostly worse performance than other renewables. (author)

  20. Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint in the Wine Supply-Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattara, Claudio; Raggi, Andrea; Cichelli, Angelo

    2012-06-01

    Global warming represents one of the most critical internationally perceived environmental issues. The growing, and increasingly global, wine sector is one of the industries which is under increasing pressure to adopt approaches for environmental assessment and reporting of product-related greenhouse gas emissions. The International Organization for Vine and Wine has recently recognized the need to develop a standard and objective methodology and a related tool for calculating carbon footprint (CF). This study applied this tool to a wine previously analyzed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The objective was to test the tool as regards both its potential and possible limitations, and thus to assess its suitability as a standard tool. Despite the tool's user-friendliness, a number of limitations were noted including the lack of accurate baseline data, a partial system boundary and the impossibility of dealing with the multi-functionality issue. When the CF and LCA results are compared in absolute terms, large discrepancies become obvious due to a number of different assumptions, as well as the modeling framework adopted. Nonetheless, in relative terms the results seem to be quite consistent. However, a critical limitation of the CF methodology was its focus on a single issue, which can lead to burden shifting. In conclusion, the study confirmed the need for both further improvement and adaptation to additional contexts and further studies to validate the use of this tool in different companies.

  1. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination—Edwards aquifer near San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Lindgren, Richard J.; Fahlquist, Lynne; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    pathogenic microorganisms (which have limited survival times in aquifers), the microorganisms may be able to persist to the well. Features formed or enlarged by dissolution of bedrock allow most of the water reaching the well field to travel rapidly from the recharge zone to the supply wells along fast pathways rather than through the aquifer matrix. Supporting evidence includes (1) geophysical logging and flowmeter measurements in public-supply well W4 and in nearby monitoring wells showing that most of the flow volume into and out of the wells occurs in three horizontal zones, thought to be dissolution-enlarged bedding planes; and (2) fluctuations in groundwater chemistry that can be correlated to individual precipitation events. Analysis of water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep zones of the Edwards aquifer at public-supply well W4 and from nearby monitoring wells reveal that water in the vicinity of the selected well field is notably well mixed throughout the sampled thickness of the Edwards aquifer, showing little of the chemical variation with depth that is commonly seen in other aquifers. Contaminants were found at all depths, and they did not enter the well through a specific horizon. The well-mixed nature of the Edwards aquifer is caused by the recharge characteristics of the area combined with fast flow paths through karst features. Constituents of concern in the Edwards aquifer for the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource include the nutrient nitrate and anthropogenic contaminants such as atrazine, PCE, and chloroform. A scenario of hypothetical contaminant loading in the aquifer recharge zone was evaluated by using results from groundwater-flow-model particle tracking to assess the response of the aquifer to potential contamination. Results indicate that the concentrations at public-supply well W4 would begin to respond to contaminant loading in the recharge zone within 1 year because of short traveltimes through fast flow

  2. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  3. Hexavalent and total chromium at low reporting concentrations in source-water aquifers and surface waters used for public supply in Illinois, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Cobb, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of their recent review of the human health effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in public drinking water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is considering the need for Federal regulation of Cr(VI). Presently, only total chromium is regulated, at a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 100 micrograms per liter (µg/L). The occurrence of Cr(VI) in groundwater and surface waters generally is attributed to industrial sources, but can be of natural origin. California’s recently established MCL for Cr(VI) of 10 µg/L illustrates the drinking-water concerns associated with Cr(VI). To improve understanding of the possible impact of a Cr(VI)-specific standard that approximates the California level on the management of Illinois’ public drinking water, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, assessed the occurrence and distribution of Cr(VI) in the State’s public-water supplies.

  4. Combining particle-tracking and geochemical data to assess public supply well vulnerability to arsenic and uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Thomas, Mary Ann; Brown, Craig J.; McCarthy, Kathy A.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Rosen, Michael R.; Katz, Brian G.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryFlow-model particle-tracking results and geochemical data from seven study areas across the United States were analyzed using three statistical methods to test the hypothesis that these variables can successfully be used to assess public supply well vulnerability to arsenic and uranium. Principal components analysis indicated that arsenic and uranium concentrations were associated with particle-tracking variables that simulate time of travel and water fluxes through aquifer systems and also through specific redox and pH zones within aquifers. Time-of-travel variables are important because many geochemical reactions are kinetically limited, and geochemical zonation can account for different modes of mobilization and fate. Spearman correlation analysis established statistical significance for correlations of arsenic and uranium concentrations with variables derived using the particle-tracking routines. Correlations between uranium concentrations and particle-tracking variables were generally strongest for variables computed for distinct redox zones. Classification tree analysis on arsenic concentrations yielded a quantitative categorical model using time-of-travel variables and solid-phase-arsenic concentrations. The classification tree model accuracy on the learning data subset was 70%, and on the testing data subset, 79%, demonstrating one application in which particle-tracking variables can be used predictively in a quantitative screening-level assessment of public supply well vulnerability. Ground-water management actions that are based on avoidance of young ground water, reflecting the premise that young ground water is more vulnerable to anthropogenic contaminants than is old ground water, may inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability to natural contaminants due to the tendency for concentrations of many natural contaminants to increase with increasing ground-water residence time.

  5. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  6. Combining particle-tracking and geochemical data to assess public supply well vulnerability to arsenic and uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, S.R.; Kauffman, L.J.; Thomas, M.A.; Brown, C.J.; McCarthy, K.A.; Eberts, S.M.; Rosen, Michael R.; Katz, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Flow-model particle-tracking results and geochemical data from seven study areas across the United States were analyzed using three statistical methods to test the hypothesis that these variables can successfully be used to assess public supply well vulnerability to arsenic and uranium. Principal components analysis indicated that arsenic and uranium concentrations were associated with particle-tracking variables that simulate time of travel and water fluxes through aquifer systems and also through specific redox and pH zones within aquifers. Time-of-travel variables are important because many geochemical reactions are kinetically limited, and geochemical zonation can account for different modes of mobilization and fate. Spearman correlation analysis established statistical significance for correlations of arsenic and uranium concentrations with variables derived using the particle-tracking routines. Correlations between uranium concentrations and particle-tracking variables were generally strongest for variables computed for distinct redox zones. Classification tree analysis on arsenic concentrations yielded a quantitative categorical model using time-of-travel variables and solid-phase-arsenic concentrations. The classification tree model accuracy on the learning data subset was 70%, and on the testing data subset, 79%, demonstrating one application in which particle-tracking variables can be used predictively in a quantitative screening-level assessment of public supply well vulnerability. Ground-water management actions that are based on avoidance of young ground water, reflecting the premise that young ground water is more vulnerable to anthropogenic contaminants than is old ground water, may inadvertently lead to increased vulnerability to natural contaminants due to the tendency for concentrations of many natural contaminants to increase with increasing ground-water residence time.

  7. Immunohistochemical assessment of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in biopsy samples of the bovine uterine wall collected during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, A

    2000-01-01

    Uterine biopsies were collected at cycle days 1 (oestrous), 8, 15 and 19 in six cows. Unfixed cryostat sections were used to immunolocalise collagen types I, III, IV and VI by an indirect FITC method. Collagen I was sparsely found in the endometrium where it formed a fine meshwork of thin fibres directly below the surface epithelium, clearly visible only at cycle days 8 and 15. Collagen III formed the bulk of connective tissue fibres and was arranged in fine aggregates within the superficial endometrial stroma, while in the deeper areas it consisted of many thick fibre bundles. Collagen IV was found in basement membranes underlying all endometrial epithelia. Furthermore, it surrounded smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. A few single fibrils also stained positively within the endometrial stroma, more numerous at cycle days 1 and 19 as compared to days 8 and 15. Collagen VI formed a mesh of fine and pericellularly situated fibrils within the endometrial stroma. The contribution of the collagen types studied to the connective tissue of caruncles, blood vessels, lymph follicles, and myometrium is also reported. The results of the present study indicate that the connective tissue of the bovine uterine wall is composed of different collagen types, which exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern each. The day of cycle may influence amounts and organisation of collagen types I and IV as demonstrated here at the light-microscopical level. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Assessing the Usefulness of the Effect-oriented Supply Chain Risk Management Approach in a High Impact Low Frequency Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus; Uhre, Mads; Kinra, Aseem

    Whilst there is a surge of mergers and acquisitions across different industries, little is known about their supply chain implications. This research investigates how supply chains can be reconfigured during post-merger period. In so doing, a recent M&A was investigated using a supply chain...... perspective. The research contributes to the literature by developing an empirically grounded, theory-based narrative of post-merger supply chain integration process. In particular, the paper demonstrates how the supply chain as a whole drew on structural, cognitive and relational elements of social capital...

  9. Organic compounds assessed in Neuse River water used for public supply near Smithfield, North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Michelle C.

    2012-01-01

    Organic compounds studied in a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of water samples from the Neuse River and the public supply system for the Town of Smithfield, North Carolina, generally are manmade and include pesticides, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. Of the 277 compounds assessed, a total of 113 compounds were detected in samples collected approximately monthly during 2002–2005 at the drinking-water intake for the town's water-treatment plant on the Neuse River. Fifty-two organic compounds were commonly detected (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water and (or) finished water. The diversity of compounds detected suggests a variety of sources and uses, including wastewater discharges, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others. Only once during the study did an organic compound concentration exceed a human-health benchmark (benzo[a]pyrene). A human-health benchmark is a chemical concentration specific to water above which there is a risk to humans, however, benchmarks were available for only 18 of the 42 compounds with detected concentrations greater than 0.1 micrograms per liter. On the basis of this assessment, adverse effects to human health are assumed to be negligible.

  10. Vi tror, vi forstår hinanden, men det gør vi ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2016-01-01

    Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den......Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den...

  11. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  12. Food safety management and risk assessment in the fresh produce supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.; Allende, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper is the output of several years of scientific research coordinated by Laboratory of Food Preservation and Food Microbiology at UGent, within the EU FP7 Research project Veg-i-trade (www.vegitrade.org), in collaboration with among other partners, Wageningen University and Cebas-CSIC. Fresh produce and derived products are globally traded and subjected to an inherent sensitive towards enteric pathogens as Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli due to their cultivation practices. As fruits and vegetables are increasingly being consumed raw, a potential health risk towards consumers is present. In the Veg-i-Trade project the extend of presence of pathogens in leafy greens and strawberry fruit and their cultivation environment (as water, soil, manured soil, etc.) was analysed. Insight in the food safety management system enlighted the need for further fostering and guidance towards farmers in good practices in order to reduce the potential pressure of the presence of the pathogens both in EU and non EU countries. Exposure assessment calculations demonstrated the usefulness of mathematic modelling to gain more insight in fragmented microbiological analysis and information of cultivation practices, as such the impact of contamination of irrigation water and the impact of a flooding event. Veg-i-Trade was a challenging project both in scientific and management perspective as 23 partners collaborated.

  13. Assessment of efficiency of water supply system in Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaivisit, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of efficiency of water production system in Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, was conducted in this study. Topics covered include 1 quality and quantity of raw water, 2 water productionprocess, 3 management and maintenance of water production system, and 4 quality of finished water. Totally, 494 water samples were collected during the study. All water samples were analyzed for turbidity,pH, temperature, conductivity, TDS, total coliforms, fecal coliforms and residual chlorine. In addition to the mentioned parameters, 30 of these water samples were also analyzed for hardness, chloride, nitratenitrogen,sulfate and heavy metals (manganese, copper, zinc, iron, chromium, cadmium, lead and mercury. All water samples were collected during November, 2004 (rainy season and March, 2005 (summer season.It was found that the quality of the water in the Sritrang reservoir fell into Class 2 of Thailand Surface Water Quality Standard that requires ordinary water treatment processes prior to consumptions.Cadmium, lead and mercury were not detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP method. There are 2 sets of water production system. The first set consists of 4 pressure filters which could reduce turbidity atvarying efficiencies: 33.83%, 18.26%, 42.76% and 65.67% depending mainly on the extent of chemical dosing control and the maintenance of the filter media. Another system employed sedimentation tank andrapid sand filter, which could remove turbidity at 89.28%. When combined finished water from both systems were analyzed, it was found that removals of manganese, copper, zinc, iron and chromium were 42.65%,30.02%, 19.54%, 56.82% and 15.12%, respectively. Residual chlorine concentration of the finished water was not more than 0.2 mg/L and no total coliforms or fecal coliforms were detected. The plant had sufficientand competent personnel to carry out their normal tasks but occasional negligence and lack of specific water testing or

  14. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  15. Organic compounds assessed in Chattahoochee River water used for public supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. Brian; Younker, Cristal L.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program characterized the occurrence of 266 organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Chattahoochee River, which is the main water-supply source for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Source water is stream water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment, and finished water is water that has passed through treatment processes prior to distribution. Samples were collected approximately monthly during 2004-05 and included 15 paired source-water and finished-water samples. Samples were collected during winter-spring high flow and summer-fall low flow, but storm events were not targeted during this Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) study. Samples were analyzed for pesticides and degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, disinfection by-products, personal care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor regulated organic compounds under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998); however, most compounds included in this study are not regulated by Federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The Chattahoochee River study is part of an ongoing NAWQA investigation of community water systems across the United States. Additional details about the national study are given in Carter and others (2007).

  16. Assessing the Supply Chain Governance Scenario in the Agri-food Sector: Development of a Measurement Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Rota, Cosimo; Zanasi, Cesare; Reynolds, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    Defining a supply chain governance structure able to adapt to the supply chain technical and organizational characteristics positively influences the relationships between the agents and its overall competitiveness. The present study proposes a tool for the evaluation of the impact on the supply chain governance structure resulting from the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector. Two different approaches, proposed by (...

  17. Protostars and Planets VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    Protostars and Planets series, the field of star and planet formation has progressed enormously. The advent of new space observatories like Spitzer and more recently Herschel have opened entirely new windows to study the interstellar medium, the birthplaces of new stars, and the properties of protoplanetary disks. Millimeter and radio observatories, in particular interferometers, allow us to investigate even the most deeply embedded and youngest protostars. Complementary to these observational achievements, novel multi-scale and multi-physics theoretical and numerical models have provided new insights into the physical and chemical processes that govern the birth of stars and their planetary systems. Sophisticated radiative transfer modeling is critical in order to better connect theories with observations. Since the last Protostars and Planets volume, more than 1000 new extrasolar planets have been identified and there are thousands more waiting to be verified. Such a large database allows for the first time a statistical assessment of the planetary properties as well as their evolution pathways. These investigations show the enormous diversity of the architecture of planetary systems and the properties of planets. High-contrast imaging at short and long wavelengths has resolved protoplanetary disks and associated planets, and transit spectroscopy is a new tool that allows us to study even the physical properties of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. The understanding of our own solar system has also progressed enormously since 2005. For instance, the sample-return Stardust mission has provided direct insight into the composition of comets and asteroids, and has demonstrated the importance of mixing processes in the early solar system. And much more is now known about the origin and role of short-lived nuclides at these stages of the solar system. For generations of astronomers, the Protostars and Planets volumes have served as an essential resource for our understanding of

  18. Avaliação comparativa do desempenho de três cadeias de suprimentos em manufatura Comparative performance assessment in three supply-chains in manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um caso de avaliação do desempenho de três cadeias de suprimentos em manufatura. Este tipo de avaliação pode realimentar ações de controle que visem a atingir objetivos estratégicos da cadeia e pode ser útil em benchmarking. A metodologia proposta parte do modelo SCOR de gestão de cadeias de suprimento. As idéias do modelo foram estruturadas e associadas a dimensões de desempenho, cujas importâncias relativas foram calculadas por especialistas, com o auxílio do AHP. As dimensões foram estruturadas em vinte e cinco indicadores categóricos, avaliados pelos pesquisadores e por gestores das cadeias. A metodologia foi aplicada em três cadeias de suprimentos com similaridades. Os resultados foram analisados e entende-se que possam servir como passo intermediário em direção a uma eventual futura teoria sobre medição de desempenho em cadeias de suprimentos.This paper presents a case in which the performance of three supply-chains in manufacturing had been assessed. Performance assessment can feedback strategic control in supply-chain management and can be useful in benchmarking processes. The employed methodology is derived from the SCOR model supply-chain management reference model. Ideas from the model were structured and associated to performance dimensions in supply-chains, prioritized by experts with the aid of AHP. Dimensions were structured in twenty-five categorical indicators, assessed by researchers and managers of the supply-chains. The methodology was applied in three supply-chains, with similarities. Results were analyzed and we think that can perform an intermediate step toward a future theory regarding performance measurements in supply-chains.

  19. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  20. Improving Sustainability in Global Supply Chains with Private Certification Standards: Testing An Approach for Assessing Their Performance and Impact Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Walter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072613335; Metselaar, Janneke

    Sustainable supply chain governance approaches aim for improvement of environmental and community living conditions at the developing country's side of the global supply chains. Impact evaluation in remote and multiple sourcing countries is hardly done in practice because of its complexity and

  1. Info-gap decision theory for assessing the management of catchments for timber production and urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2007-04-01

    While previous studies have examined how forest management is influenced by the risk of fire, they rely on probabilistic estimates of the occurrence and impacts of fire. However, nonprobabilistic approaches are required for assessing the importance of fire risk when data are poor but risks are appreciable. We explore impacts of fire risk on forest management using as a case study a water catchment in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) (southeastern Australia). In this forested area, urban water supply and timber yields from exotic plantations are potential joint but also competing land uses. Our analyses were stimulated by extensive wildfires in early 2003 that burned much of the existing exotic pine plantation estate in the water catchment and the resulting need to explore the relative economic benefits of revegetating the catchment with exotic plantations or native vegetation. The current mean fire interval in the ACT is approximately 40 years, making the establishment of a pine plantation economically marginal at a 4% discount rate. However, the relative impact on water yield of revegetation with native species and pines is very uncertain, as is the risk of fire under climate change. We use info-gap decision theory to account for these nonprobabilistic sources of uncertainty, demonstrating that the decision that is most robust to uncertainty is highly sensitive to the cost of native revegetation. If costs of native revegetation are sufficiently small, this option is more robust to uncertainty than revegetation with a commercial pine plantation.

  2. Improved biostability assessment of drinking water with a suite of test methods at a water supply treating eutrophic lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Martijn, Bram; Schaap, Peter G; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J

    2015-12-15

    Assessment of drinking-water biostability is generally based on measuring bacterial growth in short-term batch tests. However, microbial growth in the distribution system is affected by multiple interactions between water, biofilms and sediments. Therefore a diversity of test methods was applied to characterize the biostability of drinking water distributed without disinfectant residual at a surface-water supply. This drinking water complied with the standards for the heterotrophic plate count and coliforms, but aeromonads periodically exceeded the regulatory limit (1000 CFU 100 mL(-1)). Compounds promoting growth of the biopolymer-utilizing Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 accounted for c. 21% of the easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration (17 ± 2 μg C L(-1)) determined by growth of pure cultures in the water after granular activated-carbon filtration (GACF). Growth of the indigenous bacteria measured as adenosine tri-phosphate in water samples incubated at 25 °C confirmed the low AOC in the GACF but revealed the presence of compounds promoting growth after more than one week of incubation. Furthermore, the concentration of particulate organic carbon in the GACF (83 ± 42 μg C L(-1), including 65% carbohydrates) exceeded the AOC concentration. The increased biomass accumulation rate in the continuous biofouling monitor (CBM) at the distribution system reservoir demonstrated the presence of easily biodegradable by-products related to ClO2 dosage to the GACF and in the CBM at 42 km from the treatment plant an iron-associated biomass accumulation was observed. The various methods applied thus distinguished between easily assimilable compounds, biopolymers, slowly biodegradable compounds and biomass-accumulation potential, providing an improved assessment of the biostability of the water. Regrowth of aeromonads may be related to biomass-turnover processes in the distribution system, but establishment of quantitative relationships is needed for

  3. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  4. Analytical Assessment of Voltage Support via Reactive Power from new Electric Vehicles Supply Equipment in Radial Distribution Grids with Voltage-Dependent Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    Grid operators have to cope with secure electric vehicles integration in the power system, which may lead to violations of the allowed voltage band. This work intends to provide an analytical assessment and guidelines for distribution system operators when evaluating new electric vehicle supply...

  5. ASTA - A method for multi-criteria evaluation of water supply technologies to Assess the most SusTainable Alternative for Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Albrechtsen, H-J; Rygaard, M

    2018-03-15

    Utilities in larger cities have to make complex decisions planning future investments in urban water infrastructure. Changes are driven by physical water stress or political targets for environmental water flows e.g. through the implementation of the European water framework directive. To include these environmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions we introduce a novel multi-criteria assessment method for evaluation of water supply technologies. The method is presented and demonstrated for four alternatives for water supply based on groundwater, rain- & stormwater or seawater developed for augmenting Copenhagen's current groundwater based water supply. To identify the most sustainable technology, we applied rank order distribution weights to a multi-criteria decision analysis to combine the impact assessments of environment, economy and society. The three dimensions were assessed using 1) life-cycle assessment, 2) cost calculations taking operation and maintenance into account and 3) the multi-criteria decision analysis method Analytical hierarchy process. Specialists conducted the life-cycle assessment and cost calculations and the multi-criteria decision analyses were based on a stakeholder workshop gathering stakeholders relevant for the specific case. The workshop reached consensus on three sets of ranked criteria. Each set represented stakeholder perspectives with first priority given to one of the three sustainability dimensions or categories. The workshop reached consensus and when the highest weight was assigned to the environmental dimension of sustainability then the alternative of 'Rain- & stormwater harvesting' was the most sustainable water supply technology; when the highest weight was assigned to the economy or society dimensions then an alternative with 'Groundwater abstraction extended with compensating actions' was considered the most sustainable water supply technology. Across all three sets of ranked weights, the establishment of

  6. ViFiLite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ViFiLite is a wireless infrastructure that utilizes the advantages of a V-band technology in supporting data gathering for structural health monitoring as well as...

  7. An approach to including protein quality when assessing the net contribution of livestock to human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Zollitsch, W

    2016-11-01

    evaluating the net contribution of livestock to the human food supply. Furthermore, these differences in protein quality might also need to be considered when choosing a functional unit for the assessment of environmental impacts of the production of different proteins.

  8. Report: EPA’s and Mississippi’s Efforts to Assess and Restore Public Drinking Water Supplies after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00011, February 14, 2006. The Mississippi Department of Health and drinking water system operators provided the public with timely and accurate information about the safety and proper treatment of public drinking water supplies.

  9. Skal vi have flere krondyr?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Vi kunne have væsentligt flere krondyr i den danske natur end vi har i øjeblikket. Den primære årsag er jagt. Det viser en ny undersøgelse fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet. Bestanden af krondyr er ganske vist steget meget siden 1970, men der er både plads og føde til mange...

  10. The relevance of measuring O2 supply and O2 consumption for assessment of regional tissue oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Hellmann, A; Hannemann, L; Schaffartzik, W; Specht, M; Spies, C; Reinhart, K

    1994-01-01

    Septic shock and ARDS are associated with disturbed tissue oxygenation. It has been suggested to increase O2 supply (DO2) above the normal level (> 600 ml/min/m2) to compensate for the tissue hypoxia. The lack of a rise in O2 consumption (VO2) after increases of DO2 has been presumed to indicate adequate tissue oxygenation (negative O2 flux test). We were interested in whether a negative O2 flux test precludes an improvement of regional tissue oxygenation. The pH value of the gastric mucosa (pHi) is considered to be a sensitive marker for hypoxia in the splanchnic region. We measured pHi as well as DO2 and VO2 in 10 patients with hyperdynamic septic shock to assess the effect of volume substitution on tissue oxygenation. The initial therapeutic approach (volume substitution and catecholamines) led to a DO2 of 717 +/- 187 ml/min/m2. However, all patients had pHi values < 7.35 indicating regional tissue hypoxia. An additional increase of DO2 by colloidal volume substitution caused a significant rise of pHi from 7.20 +/- 0.05 to 7.25 +/- 0.05 but did not change VO2. We conclude that a negative O2 flux test does not rule out regional tissue hypoxia, and second, an increase in DO2 may improve tissue oxygenation without measurable changes in VO2. Furthermore, adequate volume substitution is an important step in the treatment of septic shock to increase total body blood flow and more specifically regional blood flow.

  11. ASTA - A method for multi-criteria evaluation of water supply technologies to Assess the most SusTainable Alternative for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Utilities in larger cities have to make complex decisions planning future investments in urban water infrastructure. Changes are driven by physical water stress or political targets for environmental water flows e.g. through the implementation of the European water framework directive. To include...... these environmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions we introduce a novel multi-criteria assessment method for evaluation of water supply technologies. The method is presented and demonstrated for four alternatives for water supply based on groundwater, rain- & stormwater or seawater developed...... weight was assigned to the environmental dimension of sustainability then the alternative of 'Rain- & stormwater harvesting' was the most sustainable water supply technology; when the highest weight was assigned to the economy or society dimensions then an alternative with 'Groundwater abstraction...

  12. The blood supply to the femoral head after posterior fracture/dislocation of the hip, assessed by CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotorowicz, M; Czubak, J; Caban, A; Kozinski, P; Boguslawska-Walecka, R

    2013-11-01

    The femoral head receives blood supply mainly from the deep branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA). In previous studies we have performed anatomical dissections of 16 specimens and subsequently visualised the arteries supplying the femoral head in 55 healthy individuals. In this further radiological study we compared the arterial supply of the femoral head in 35 patients (34 men and one woman, mean age 37.1 years (16 to 64)) with a fracture/dislocation of the hip with a historical control group of 55 hips. Using CT angiography, we identified the three main arteries supplying the femoral head: the deep branch and the postero-inferior nutrient artery both arising from the MFCA, and the piriformis branch of the inferior gluteal artery. It was possible to visualise changes in blood flow after fracture/dislocation. Our results suggest that blood flow is present after reduction of the dislocated hip. The deep branch of the MFCA was patent and contrast-enhanced in 32 patients, and the diameter of this branch was significantly larger in the fracture/dislocation group than in the control group (p = 0.022). In a subgroup of ten patients with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, we found a contrast-enhanced deep branch of the MFCA in eight hips. Two patients with no blood flow in any of the three main arteries supplying the femoral head developed AVN.

  13. An Assessment of the Security of China’s Natural Gas Supply System Using Two Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climate change, natural gas is becoming increasingly important for low-carbon development in China. The gap between the demand and supply of natural gas, domestically, and China’s high dependence on foreign sources, highlights the importance of ensuring a secure system for supplying natural gas in the country. This study applied ecological network analysis, a powerful systems-oriented method, to simulate interactions between different nodes of the natural gas supply system and to evaluate the system’s security level. Two network models were constructed at the regional and national layers, respectively, by dividing external natural gas suppliers into multiple regions and countries. These models were used to evaluate the overall security level and related characteristics of China’s natural gas supply system from 2000 to 2012. The results showed stable improvement in the system’s security during this period. With the exceptions of some specific indicators (e.g., the mutualism index (MI, analyses of network information and structure yielded the mostly similar results for the two models. In conclusion, a regional layer (RL network model is considered more economical than a national layer (NL model for evaluating the overall security of China’s natural gas supply system, especially when available data are limited.

  14. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  16. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate

  17. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A probabilistic framework for assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change: The case of the US water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a probabilistic framework for vulnerability analysis and use it to quantify current and future vulnerability of the US water supply system. We also determine the contributions of hydro-climatic and socio-economic drivers to the changes in projected vulnerability. For all scenarios and global climatemodels examined, the US Southwest including California and...

  19. SAInt – A novel quasi-dynamic model for assessing security of supply in coupled gas and electricity transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Cakir Erdener, Burcin; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into existing electric power systems is connected with an increased interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks. To analyse this interdependence and its impact on security of supply, we developed a novel quasi-dynamic

  20. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  1. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  2. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination--Glacial aquifer system in Woodbury, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Brown, Craig J.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Woodbury, Connecticut. The well typically produces water at the rate of 72 gallons per minute from the glacial aquifer system in the Pomperaug River Basin. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained several types of undesirable constituents, including 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrate, pesticides, uranium, and radon. Most of these constituents were detected at concentrations below drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Only concentrations of the VOC trichlorethylene exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 micrograms per liter (ug/L) established by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Radon concentrations exceeded a proposed-but not finalized-MCL of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Overall, the study findings point to four main factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Woodbury: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) the percentage of recharge received through urban areas; (3) the percentage of recharge received through dry wells and their proximity to the public-supply well; and (4) natural geochemical processes occurring within the aquifer system; that is, processes that affect the amounts and distribution of chemical substances in aquifer sediments and groundwater. A computer-model simulation of groundwater flow to the public-supply well was used to estimate the age of water particles entering the well along the length of the well screen. About 90 percent of the simulated flow to the well consists of water that entered the aquifer 9 or fewer years ago. Such young water is vulnerable to contaminants resulting from human activities

  3. Assessing stability and performance of a digitally enabled supply chain: Retrospective of a pilot in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Thakare, Neeraj; Ramanujapuram, Arun; Akkihal, Anup

    2017-04-19

    Immunization supply chains in low resource settings do not always reach children with necessary vaccines. Digital information systems can enable real time visibility of inventory and improve vaccine availability. In 2014, a digital, mobile/web-based information system was implemented in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. This retrospective investigates improvements and stabilization of supply chain performance following introduction of the digital information system. All data were collected via the digital information system between March 2014 and September 2015. Data included metadata and transaction logs providing information about users, facilities, and vaccines. Metrics evaluated include adoption (system access, timeliness and completeness), data quality (error rates), and performance (stock availability on immunization session days, replenishment response duration, rate of zero stock events). Stability was defined as the phase in which quality and performance metrics achieved equilibrium rates with minimal volatility. The analysis compared performance across different facilities and vaccines. Adoption appeared sufficiently high from the onset to commence stability measures of data quality and supply chain performance. Data quality stabilized from month 3 onwards, and supply chain performance stabilized from month 13 onwards. For data quality, error rates reduced by two thirds post stabilization. Although vaccine availability remained high throughout the pilot, the three lowest-performing facilities improved from 91.05% pre-stability to 98.70% post-stability (p<0.01; t-test). Average replenishment duration (as a corrective response to stock-out events) decreased 52.3% from 4.93days to 2.35days (p<0.01; t-test). Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine was significantly less likely to be stocked out than any other material. The results suggest that given sufficient adoption, stability is sequentially achieved, beginning with data quality, and then performance

  4. The Impacts of Biofuel Targets on Land-Use Change and Food Supply : A Global CGE Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Beghin, John C.; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the long-term impacts of large-scale expansion of biofuels on land-use change, food supply and prices, and the overall economy in various countries or regions using a global computable general equilibrium model, augmented by a land-use module and detailed representation of biofuel sectors. The study finds that an expansion of global biofuel production to meet currently ...

  5. Assessment of indicators of pollution of soil and water and its implications in supply system of public Juazeiro North - CE

    OpenAIRE

    Joelma Lima Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the indicators of soil and water and its implications for the public supply of Juazeiro system pollution from interactions between aquifers and soils that makes up part of the drainage area of the stream of the Apes. For this, a characterization of the soils of the area as the physical, chemical and biological aspects was conducted through qualitative indicators of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, basal respiration and C / N ratio. Surface waters were also characteri...

  6. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; F. Nestmann

    2016-01-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project ‘‘Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia’’, funded by the German Fe...

  7. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Renewable Stand-Alone Energy Supply System Using Multi-objective Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dohyun; Han, Seulki; Kim, Jiyong Kim [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to propose a new optimization-based approach for design and analysis of the stand-alone hybrid energy supply system using renewable energy sources (RES). In the energy supply system, we include multiple energy production technologies such as Photovoltaics (PV), Wind turbine, and fossil-fuel-based AC generator along with different types of energy storage and conversion technologies such as battery and inverter. We then select six different regions of Korea to represent various characteristics of different RES potentials and demand profiles. We finally designed and analyzed the optimal RES stand-alone energy supply system in the selected regions using multiobjective optimization (MOOP) technique, which includes two objective functions: the minimum cost and the minimum CO{sub 2} emission. In addition, we discussed the feasibility and expecting benefits of the systems by comparing to conventional systems of Korea. As a result, the region of the highest RES potential showed the possibility to remarkably reduce CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the conventional system. Besides, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the RES-based energy system is identified to be slightly higher than conventional energy system: 0.35 and 0.46 $/kWh, respectively. However, the total life-cycle emission of CO{sub 2} (LCECO{sub 2}) can be reduced up to 470 gCO{sub 2}/kWh from 490 gCO{sub 2}/kWh of the conventional systems.

  8. Methods of Assessing the Risks Associated with Lack of Water Supplies, Water Safety Plan for National Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Sławomir

    2012-06-01

    Article shows the desire to obtain risk-control options, and bringing it to a tolerable level. Subjects were ways of managing and dealing with risk. Methods of dealing with aspects of the protection of industrial buildings and high-risk critical infrastructure vulnerability analysis methodology to the loss of integrity. Also a set method to deal with aspects of the protection of industrial buildings and high-risk critical infrastructure that is the analysis of susceptibility to loss of integrity. The article also presents the basic principles of water safety plan based on national and foreign research publications. In the next part of article WSP methodology was concluded, outlining the actions which use significantly reduces the risk of threats that could lead to supply of contaminated tap water or total interruption of its supply. In further considerations the most important steps in creating WSP were presented. In the final section the principle of modular computer system operation that is used for network management for urban water supply in Rzeszow was presented.

  9. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  10. VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaal / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    15.-17. IX Tallinnas Niguliste kirikus toimuval VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil esinevad inglise arhitektuurikriitik Peter Davey, šveitsi arhitekt Peter Zumthor, soome arhitekt Juha Leviskä, eesti arhitekt Vilen Künnapu, eesti kunstiajaloolane Juhan Maiste jt. Külastatakse KUMU, tutvutab autor Pekka Vapaavuori

  11. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  12. Design of the Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study: a randomized controlled trial of care management for PTSD among predominantly Latino patients in safety net health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Green, Bonnie L; Kaltman, Stacey; Wong, Eunice C; Han, Bing; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common problem in primary care. Although effective treatments are available, little is known about whether such treatments are effective within the context of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that serve as national "safety nets" for providing primary care for low income and underinsured patients. The Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the impact of a care management intervention for treating PTSD in FQHCs. To develop a PTSD management intervention appropriate for lower resource FQHCs and the predominantly Latino patients they serve, formative work was conducted through a collaborative effort between researchers and an FQHC practice-based research network. This article describes how FQHC stakeholders were convened to review, assess, and prioritize evidence-based strategies for addressing patient, clinician, and system-level barriers to care. This multi-component care management intervention incorporates diagnosis with feedback, patient education and activation; navigation and linkage to community resources; clinician education and medication guidance; and structured cross-disciplinary communication and continuity of care, all facilitated by care managers with FQHC experience. We also describe the evaluation design of this five-year RCT and the characteristics of the 404 English or Spanish speaking patients enrolled in the study and randomized to either the intervention or to usual care. Patients are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months to examine intervention effectiveness on PTSD, other mental health symptoms, health-related quality-of-life, health care service use; and perceived barriers to care and satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the 'North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health' Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. 'Mixed methods' research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1926.1126 Section 1926.1126 Labor... Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms... objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1915.1026 Section 1915.1026 Labor... § 1915.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI... cement; or (4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or...

  16. Importance of c-Type cytochromes for U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leang Ching

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to study the mechanism of U(VI reduction, the effect of deleting c-type cytochrome genes on the capacity of Geobacter sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI with acetate serving as the electron donor was investigated. Results The ability of several c-type cytochrome deficient mutants to reduce U(VI was lower than that of the wild type strain. Elimination of two confirmed outer membrane cytochromes and two putative outer membrane cytochromes significantly decreased (ca. 50–60% the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI. Involvement in U(VI reduction did not appear to be a general property of outer membrane cytochromes, as elimination of two other confirmed outer membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcC, had very little impact on U(VI reduction. Among the periplasmic cytochromes, only MacA, proposed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane to the periplasm, appeared to play a significant role in U(VI reduction. A subpopulation of both wild type and U(VI reduction-impaired cells, 24–30%, accumulated amorphous uranium in the periplasm. Comparison of uranium-accumulating cells demonstrated a similar amount of periplasmic uranium accumulation in U(VI reduction-impaired and wild type G. sulfurreducens. Assessment of the ability of the various suspensions to reduce Fe(III revealed no correlation between the impact of cytochrome deletion on U(VI reduction and reduction of Fe(III hydroxide and chelated Fe(III. Conclusion This study indicates that c-type cytochromes are involved in U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The data provide new evidence for extracellular uranium reduction by G. sulfurreducens but do not rule out the possibility of periplasmic uranium reduction. Occurrence of U(VI reduction at the cell surface is supported by the significant impact of elimination of outer membrane cytochromes on U(VI reduction and the lack of correlation between periplasmic uranium accumulation and the capacity for uranium

  17. Hemodynamic assessment of paravalvular aortic regurgitation after TAVI: estimated myocardial supply-demand ratio and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsalis, Polykarpos C; Konorza, Thomas F M; Al-Rashid, Fadi; Plicht, Björn; Hildebrandt, Heike A; Wendt, Daniel; Thielmann, Matthias; Jakob, Heinz G; Eggebrecht, Holger; Heusch, Gerd; Erbel, Raimund; Kahlert, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A relevant (at least moderate) paravalvular regurgitation (PAR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is found in up to 20% of cases and associated with increased mortality. The ratio of the diastolic over the systolic pressure time integral (DPTI:SPTI) has been proposed to reflect an estimate of myocardial oxygen supply versus demand and the propensity for myocardial ischemia. We have now evaluated the potential of this ratio to predict PAR-associated cardiovascular mortality after TAVI, retrospectively analyzing data from 167 consecutive TAVI patients. PAR was graded angiographically, and the myocardial supply-demand ratio was estimated from the planimetric integration of the diastolic and systolic pressure-time area (DPTI and SPTI), respectively. PAR was observed in 113 patients (67%) and angiographically graded as mild in 89 (78.8%), moderate in 21 (18.6%) or moderate to severe in 3 (2.7%) cases. The DPTI:SPTI ratio decreased with increasing Sellers grade of PAR (P 0.7 (42 vs. 2% and 63 vs. 3%, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, DPTI:SPTI provides an excellent cutoff value of ≤0.7 for the prediction of PAR-associated mortality.

  18. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  19. Determination of chromium (VI) in primary and secondary fertilizer and their respective precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver; Fiedler, Francesca; Adam, Christian; Vogel, Christian; Senz, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium species (Cr(VI)) are often carcinogenic, of high acute toxicity, highly mobile, and thus pose a severe risk to health and environment. Fertilizers usually contain significant amounts of chromium. Therefore, a reliable analysis of chromium and the fraction of Cr(VI) are crucial for safe use of fertilizers. This problem is expected to increase in the future, since more and more recycled fertilizers emerge due to increasing fertilizer demand and respective supply risks. However, existing analytical methods have been developed for conventional fertilizers and have to be tested whether they are suitable for the new materials. Thus, we performed a wet-chemical extraction for Cr(VI) on several matrices as well as respective quality control experiments including spiking with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) compounds. We found the Cr(VI) amounts to be below 2 mg/kg except for a thermally post-treated sewage sludge ash (SSA) that showed 12.3 mg/kg. The presence of organic matter e.g. in sludge or precipitated struvite caused a reduction of spiked Cr(VI) and thus no satisfying recovery for quality control. Cr(VI) reduction was also observed for SSA, presumably due to the presence of Fe(II) compounds. Even though the tested procedure can be hampered in some recycled fertilizer matrices, it might be adapted to be applicable also for these complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual and Group Extension Methods: Perspectives from Vi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of group and individual extension methods in delivering agroforestry technologies at Vi-Agroforestry project, Masaka district. Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) tools including semi-structured questionnaires were administrated to 90 randomly selected farmers who had ...

  1. Consideration of food wastage along the supply chain in lifecycle assessments: A mini-review based on the case of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna Karin; Cánovas, Alba; Valle, Rogerio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, increased light has been shed on the large amounts of food wasted along the food supply chain (FSC). As lifecycle assessments (LCAs) are commonly used for estimations of environmental impacts from food production, it is relevant to investigate and discuss how such wastage is reflected in foodstuff LCAs. The objective of the present paper is to review a larger set of LCAs of foodstuff in order to (1) investigate if and how wastage along the FSC is addressed and (2) explore the importance of including wastage accumulated along the FSC in terms of environmental impacts. Twenty-eight LCA case studies and two review papers, focusing on tomatoes, were reviewed and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions chosen as indicator for the second objective. Only one third of the studies consider wastage at some part of the supply chain, in many cases in an inconsistent manner, and only in nine cases were GHG emissions from wastage included in overall systems GHG emissions. In these, wastage accounts for between 2 and 33% of total contribution to climate change. Omitting wastage when conducting LCA of foodstuff could result in underestimations of environmental impacts. Occurrence of wastage along all phases of the supply chain should be acknowledged in order to estimate environmental benefits from prevention and to identify areas where strategies with the aim of reducing wastage could be most efficient.

  2. Report: EPA Needs to Assess the Quality of Vulnerability Assessments Related to the Security of the Nation’s Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2003-M-00013, September 24, 2003. In connection with our ongoing evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) activities to enhance the security of the Nation’s water supply, we noted an issue that requires your immediate attention.

  3. Målstyring i Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2012-01-01

    Hvordan måler og dokumenterer du dine aktiviteter i Supply Chain? Hvad er konsekvensen af at gøre det – eller at lade være? Vi sætter fokus på udfordringer og formål med brug af nøgletal i forsyningskæder.......Hvordan måler og dokumenterer du dine aktiviteter i Supply Chain? Hvad er konsekvensen af at gøre det – eller at lade være? Vi sætter fokus på udfordringer og formål med brug af nøgletal i forsyningskæder....

  4. Hvad bruger vi tiden til?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2016-01-01

    I denne artikel kaster vi et antropologisk blik på samtidsarkæologi ved at diskutere måder, hvorpå antropologiske analyser kan adressere tid, fortidige hændelser og historiske processer. Vi argumenterer for, at en radikal nutidsorientering er en afgørende kvalitet ved det antropologiske feltarbej...... komplicerer en ide om fortidige (gamle eller nyere) objekter som nogle, der kan udgraves......., hvis sigte det er løbende at generere sit materiale nu og her med henblik på at skabe nye forståelser, historier og forslag til mangeartede sammenhænge. En implikation af dette er, at uanset hvor ’historisk’ et antropologisk materiale end måtte være, må det altid ses som samtidigt og ufærdigt, hvilket...

  5. Method for selecting parameters and assessing efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for autonomous electrical supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Masolov, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an original technique for selecting parameters and evaluating the efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for isolated power supply systems. The initial data to perform energy calculations are simulation models of electric load and wind speed. The load is simulated using typical schedules of electric loads of a decentralized consumer, taking into account a random component for each hour of the day. To create a simulation model of the wind, a typical climatic series of wind speeds at a prospective site of the power plant has been constructed according to the data of long-term meteorological observations. The proposed technique was verified through the example of choosing a wind-diesel power plant for the village of Ust-Olenyok of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  6. Motor systems energy efficiency supply curves: A methodology for assessing the energy efficiency potential of industrial motor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee [Industrial Energy Analysis, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali, E-mail: AHasanbeigi@lbl.gov [China Energy Group, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States, Canada, the European Union, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil, bottom-up energy efficiency supply curve models were constructed to estimate the cost-effective electricity efficiency potentials and CO{sub 2} emission reduction for three types of motor systems (compressed air, pumping, and fan) in industry for the selected countries/region. Based on these analyses, the share of cost-effective electricity saving potential of these systems as compared to the total motor system energy use in the base year varies between 27% and 49% for pumping, 21% and 47% for compressed air, and 14% and 46% for fan systems. The total technical saving potential varies between 43% and 57% for pumping, 29% and 56% for compressed air, and 27% and 46% for fan systems. - Highlights: > Development of conservation supply curves for the industrial motor systems. > An innovative approach combining available aggregate country-level data with expert opinion. > Results show both cost-effective and technical potential for energy saving and their costs. > Policy implication of the results are briefly discussed.

  7. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination: Rio Grande aquifer system in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Heywood, Charles E.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Albuquerque, New Mexico (hereafter referred to as “the study well”). The study well produces about 3,000 gallons of water per minute from the Rio Grande aquifer system. Water samples were collected at the study well, at two other nearby public-supply wells, and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the study well. Untreated water samples from the study well contained arsenic at concentrations exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrate also were detected, although at concentrations at least an order of magnitude less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary influences on the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Albuquerque: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer), (2) groundwater development (introduction of manmade recharge and discharge sources), (3) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer, and (4) seasonal pumping stresses. Concentrations of the isotope carbon-14 indicate that groundwater from most sampled wells in the local study area is predominantly water that entered, or recharged, the aquifer more than 6,000 years ago. However, the additional presence of the age tracer tritium in several groundwater samples at concentrations above 0.3 tritium units indicates that young (post-1950) recharge is reaching the aquifer across broad areas beneath Albuquerque. This young recharge is mixing with the thousands-of-years-old water, is migrating to depths as great as 245 feet below the water table, and is traveling to some (but not all) of the public-supply wells sampled. Most groundwater samples containing a

  8. Emergy and end-point impact assessment of agricultural and food production in the United States:a supply chain-linked ecologically-based life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Shin; Eğilmez, Gökhan; Küçükvar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The concept of tracing the ecologically-based life cycle impacts of agricultural and food industries (AFIs)has become a topic of interest worldwide due to their criticalassociation with the climate change,water and land footprint, and food security. In this study, an indepth analysis of ecology resourceconsumption, atmospheric emissions, land and water footprints of 54 agricultural and food industriesinthe U.S. were examined extensively. Initially, the supply-chain linked ecological life cycl...

  9. Oxidation of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin by ferrate(VI): Products identification, and toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin, E-mail: Bin.Yang@csiro.au [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); Kookana, Rai S.; Williams, Mike [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); Ying, Guang-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Du, Jun; Doan, Hai; Kumar, Anupama [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) has been known to react with emerging organic contaminants containing electron-rich organic moieties, such as phenols, anilines, olefins, reduced sulfur and deprotonated amines. Oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin (ENR), by Fe(VI) were investigated for their reaction products and toxicity changes as well as biodegradability of these products. Ten products were identified for both CIP and ENR reactions with Fe(VI) using a high-resolution accurate-mass Orbitrap mass analyzer. Structural changes to the CIP and ENR molecule included dealkylation, formation of alcohols and amides in piperazine ring and oxygen transfer to the double bond in quinolone structure. An enamine formation mechanism was tentatively proposed to facilitate the interpretation of CIP and ENR oxidation pathways. Toxicity evaluation using Microbial Assay for toxicity Risk Assessment (MARA) bioassay indicated that Fe(VI) oxidation products of CIP and ENR contributed negligible antibacterial potency and Fe(VI) oxidation treatment can remove the residual toxicity of CIP and ENR impacted source waters. The Fe(VI) oxidation treatment resulted in formation of relatively more biodegradable products (based on in silico assessment) than their corresponding parent compounds. The results showed that Fe(VI) has a good potential to degrade fluoroquinolone antibiotics and their antimicrobial potency in natural waters.

  10. Costing analysis and anthropological assessment of the vaccine supply chain system redesign in the Comé District (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao Xian; Guillermet, Elise; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Alfa, Daleb Abdoulaye; Gbodja, Romule; Sossou, Adanmavokin Justin; Jaillard, Phillippe

    2017-04-19

    At the end of 2013, a pilot experiment was carried out in Comé health zone (HZ) in an attempt to optimize the vaccine supply chain. Four commune vaccine storage facilities were replaced by one central HZ facility. This study evaluated the incremental financial needs for the establishment of the new system; compared the economic cost of the supply chain in the Comé HZ before and after the system redesign; and analyzed the changes induced by the pilot project in immunization logistics management. The purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample from 37 health facilities in the zone for costing evaluation. Data on inputs and prices were collected retrospectively for 2013 and 2014. The analysis used an ingredient-based approach. In addition, 44 semi-structured interviews with health workers for anthropological analysis were completed in 2014. The incremental financial costs amounted to US$55,148, including US$50,605 for upfront capital investment and US$4543 for ongoing recurrent costs. Annual economic cost per dose administered (including all vaccines distributed through the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)) in the Comé HZ increased from US$0.09 before system redesign to US$0.15 after implementation, mainly due to a high initial investment and the operational cost of HZ mobile warehouse. Interviews with health workers suggested that the redesigned system was associated with improvements in motivation and professional awareness due to training, supportive supervision, and improved work conditions. The system redesign involved a considerable investment at HZ level. Benefits were found in the reduction of transportation costs to health posts (HP) and commune health center (CHC) levels, and the strengthening of health workers professional skills at all levels in Comé. The redesigned system contributed to a decrease in funding needs at HP and CHC levels. The benefits of the investment need to be examined after the introduction of new vaccines and after a

  11. The application of impedance measurement to assess biofilm development on technical materials used for water supply system construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of biological stability of water which is introduced into the network, leads primarily to its secondary contamination during transport to the consumer. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the inner surface of pipelines by microorganisms and adhesion of their products (biocorrosion. The studies was conducted using the identified microorganisms isolated from the water supply network which accounted inocula in continuous culture of biofilm in CDC reactor. As a result of studies it was revealed the presence of biofilm formed on different materials polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polybutylene. Microbiological biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm of the diversity of nucleic acids was used. It was observed the amount of the psychrophilic bacteria oscillation in the effluent from the reactor. It was also determined the affinity of various bacteria to the plastic through adhesion measurement using impedance spectroscopy. For impedance measurements apparatus SIGNAL RECOVERY 7280 DSP LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER was used, recording impedance components (real and imaginary. The results will allow for the creation of biosensor systems that can be used in predicting health risks in connection with drinking water and taking corrective actions.

  12. The application of impedance measurement to assess biofilm development on technical materials used for water supply system construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mirela; Traczewska, Teodora; Grzebyk, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    The lack of biological stability of water which is introduced into the network, leads primarily to its secondary contamination during transport to the consumer. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the inner surface of pipelines by microorganisms and adhesion of their products (biocorrosion). The studies was conducted using the identified microorganisms isolated from the water supply network which accounted inocula in continuous culture of biofilm in CDC reactor. As a result of studies it was revealed the presence of biofilm formed on different materials polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polybutylene. Microbiological biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm of the diversity of nucleic acids was used. It was observed the amount of the psychrophilic bacteria oscillation in the effluent from the reactor. It was also determined the affinity of various bacteria to the plastic through adhesion measurement using impedance spectroscopy. For impedance measurements apparatus SIGNAL RECOVERY 7280 DSP LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER was used, recording impedance components (real and imaginary). The results will allow for the creation of biosensor systems that can be used in predicting health risks in connection with drinking water and taking corrective actions.

  13. Assessing the Impact of a Vinasse Pilot Plant Scale-Up on the Key Processes of the Ethanol Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Ramos-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the byproducts generated in the cane sugar production is molasses, which is used for ethanol distillation. However, one of the problems of distilleries is vinasse. Vinasse is highly water pollutant and is dumped untreated in lakes or rivers and damages the environment. The company FALA developed a pilot plant that uses vinasse to produce a type of livestock feed called MD60. In this paper, the impact of the pilot plant’s scale-up in the key processes of the company’s supply chain is analyzed. With the help of a sensitivity analysis, this study finds the values that would allow the company to improve its order fulfillment indicator and to increase profits, assuming an expected demand by the introduction of this new product into the market. The results show that (1 the pilot plant fulfills 32% of the orders, (2 according to the current vinasse storage capacity, it is possible to fulfill up to 77% of the orders by scaling up the pilot plant, (3 to satisfy 100% of the orders, it is necessary to use all the vinasse generated, and (4 the highest profit is reached by processing all the vinasse and by considering the upper sale price.

  14. Assessment of physico-chemical quality of borehole and spring water sources supplied to Robe Town, Oromia region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigut, Dagim Abera; Liknew, Geremew; Irge, Dejene Disasa; Ahmad, Tanweer

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to find the physico-chemical water quality of borehole and spring water supplied to Robe Town. For this study, a total of six water samples were collected from three borehole and three spring water sources. The analyses for 14 physico-chemical parameters, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids total hardness cations (Ca2+, Mg2+), anions (NO2 -, NO3 -, SO4 2- and PO4 3-) and heavy metals (Fe and Mn), were done in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association (APHA). Descriptive statistics were used to describe data, while Pearson correlation was used to determine the influences of the physico-chemical variables. The single factor analysis of variance ( t test) was used to determine possible differences between the borehole and spring water, while means plots were used for further structure detection. From the total samples analyzed, most of the samples comply with the water quality guidelines of Ethiopian limit, WHO and U.SEPA. The pH of the water samples from borehole groundwater source was found to be slightly acidic and bove the maximum permissible limit (MPL). High concentration of Fe and Mn that exceeds the MPL set by WHO was found in the three boreholes. The spring water sources were found to be better for drinking than borehole water sources.

  15. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  16. Assessing the Sustainability of EU Timber Consumption Trends: Comparing Consumption Scenarios with a Safe Operating Space Scenario for Global and EU Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan O’Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for wood to meet EU renewable energy targets has increasingly come under scrutiny for potentially increasing EU import dependence and inducing land use change abroad, with associated impacts on the climate and biodiversity. This article builds on research accounting for levels of primary timber consumption—e.g., toward forest footprints—and developing reference values for benchmarking sustainability—e.g., toward land use targets—in order to improve systemic monitoring of timber and forest use. Specifically, it looks at future trends to assess how current EU policy may impact forests at an EU and global scale. Future demand scenarios are based on projections derived and adapted from the literature to depict developments under different scenario assumptions. Results reveal that by 2030, EU consumption levels on a per capita basis are estimated to be increasingly disproportionate compared to the rest of the world. EU consumption scenarios based on meeting around a 40% share of the EU renewable energy targets with timber would overshoot both the EU and global reference value range for sustainable supply capacities in 2030. Overall, findings support literature pointing to an increased risk of problem shifting relating to both how much and where timber needed for meeting renewable energy targets is sourced. It is argued that a sustainable level of timber consumption should be characterized by balance between supply (what the forest can provide on a sustainable basis and demand (how much is used on a per capita basis, considering the concept of fair shares. To this end, future research should close data gaps, increase methodological robustness and address the socio-political legitimacy of the safe operating space concept towards targets in the future. A re-use of timber within the economy should be supported to increase supply options.

  17. Har vi brug for hovedregning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    Hvor ofte har vi brug for at regne noget i hoved? Har de fleste af os ikke altid et elektronisk hjælpemiddel ved hånden enten som en lille lommeregner eller telefonen? Selvom det umiddelbart kan synes unødvendigt at træne hovedregning, viser det sig, at netop træning af hovedregning støtter...... udvikling af hurtige regnestrategier, hvorfor det faktisk er en god ide at investere tid og energi i at træne netop dette....

  18. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microbial community at the Hanford site did not include S. barnesii it did have probes for detecting other Sulfurospirillum species (e.g., S. multivorans, S. halorespirans). For D. desulfuricans, again, redox active proteins such as dissimilatory nitrite reductase and dissimilary sulfite reductase are effectively oxidized by Cr(VI) thus inhibiting their reductive potential. More physiological and biochemical data are needed before a possible strategy can be designed and assessed.

  19. Baseline sustainability assessment of the current state of livestock/fish and fruit/vegetables supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Hornborg, Sara; Ziegler, F.; Tetens, I.; Leip, Adrian; Kuiper, M.H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To assess different possible future directions for the EU food system, potential pathways based on a set of innovations need to be identified. The aim of WP5 is to define different pathways towards more sustainable and healthy diets within the EU, without negative implications in the rest of world.

  20. First-arterial-pass dual-energy CT for assessment of myocardial blood supply: do we need rest, stress, and delayed acquisition? Comparison with SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; De Cecco, Carlo N; Schoepf, U Joseph; Nance, John W; Silverman, Justin R; Flowers, Brian A; Henzler, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To compare the relative contributions of rest, stress, and delayed acquisitions with the accuracy of dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) for the assessment of myocardial blood supply. With institutional review board approval and HIPAA compliance, 55 consecutive patients (10 women, 45 men; mean age, 62 years ± 10) clinically referred for cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) who were known to have or were suspected of having coronary artery disease were prospectively enrolled. DE CT studies were acquired during adenosine stress, at rest, and after 6-minute delay. The DE CT iodine distribution maps were visually assessed for perfusion deficits or late iodine enhancement. Per-segment agreement between modalities was investigated with κ statistics. Test characteristics for the detection of perfusion deficits were calculated for combinations of rest, stress, and delayed DE CT acquisition, with SPECT as reference standard. At SPECT, 714 segments were considered normal, 192 showed fixed perfusion defects, and 29 showed reversible perfusion deficits. Sensitivity of rest-only DE CT was 92%, and specificity was 98%. Stress-only, rest-stress, stress and delayed, and the combination of all three had a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97%. Of 29 segments with reversible perfusion deficits at SPECT, 13 (45%) were misclassified by using rest-stress DE CT as fixed perfusion deficits. With stress DE CT plus delayed acquisition, 13 of 192 (7%) segments with fixed perfusion deficits at SPECT were misclassified as reversible. Rest-stress acquisition should be the protocol of choice for assessment of the myocardial blood supply in DE CT. The accuracy of DE CT is not increased by the addition of a delayed DE CT acquisition, which may therefore be omitted to reduce radiation exposure. With rest-stress DE CT, almost one-half of defects that are reversible at SPECT were classified as fixed; radiologists and clinicians need to be aware of this

  1. Impact of carbohydrate supply on stem growth, wood and respired CO2 delta13C: assessment by experimental girdling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoury-Danger, Florence; Fresneau, Chantal; Eglin, Thomas; Berveiller, Daniel; François, Christophe; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Damesin, Claire

    2010-07-01

    The present study examines the impact of the C source (reserves vs current assimilates) on tree C isotope signals and stem growth, using experimental girdling to stop the supply of C from leaves to stem. Two-year-old sessile oaks (Quercus petraea) were girdled at three different phenological periods during the leafy period: during early wood growth (Girdling Period 1), during late wood growth (Girdling Period 2) and just after growth cessation (Girdling Period 3). The measured variables included stem respiration rates, stem radial increment, delta(13)C of respired CO(2) and contents of starch and water-soluble fraction in stems (below the girdle) and leaves. Girdling stopped growth, even early in the growing season, leading to a decrease in stem CO(2) efflux (CO(2R)). Shift in substrate use from recently fixed carbohydrate to reserves (i.e., starch) induced (13)C enrichment of CO(2) respired by stem. However, change in substrate type was insufficient to explain alone all the observed CO(2R) delta(13)C variations, especially at the period corresponding to large growth rate of control trees. The below-girdle mass balance suggested that, during girdling periods, stem C was invested in metabolic pathways other than respiration and stem growth. After Girdling Period 1, the girdle healed and the effects of girdling on stem respiration were reversed. Stem growth restarted and total radial increment was similar to the control one, indicating that growth can be delayed when a stress event occurs early in the growth period. Concerning tree ring, seasonal shift in substrate use from reserves (i.e., starch) to recently fixed carbohydrate is sufficient to explain the observed (13)C depletion of tree ring during the early wood growth. However, the inter-tree intra-ring delta(13)C variability needs to be resolved in order to improve the interpretation of intra-seasonal ring signals in terms of climatic or ecophysiological information. This study highlighted, via carbohydrate

  2. Anti-Candida activity assessment of Pelargonium graveolens oil free and nanoemulsion in biofilm formation in hospital medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Janice Luehring; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Gündel, André; Gomes, Patrícia; Steppe, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms. Geranium oil (GO) has proven antimicrobial activity. Because of this, the aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions containing this oil (NEG) and evaluate its activity after the biofilm formation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei in hospital medical supplies. For quantification of the biofilm, crystal violet, total protein, and ATP-bioluminescence assays were used. The results revealed that GO and NEG showed lower MIC for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The biofilms formed by different species of Candida on the surfaces of polyethylene and polyurethane were quantified. GO and NEG significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms in all species tested on the surfaces of polyethylene. However, NEG antibiofilm has had better activity than GO for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, according to the surface potential analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis of the biofilm formation on the polyethylene surface by ATP-bioluminescence and CFU showed similar results. In both methods the formation of biofilm in the catheter occurred in greater quantity for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. GO did not significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms only in C. krusei, although NEG significantly increased this activity GO in all species tested when compared to the control training biofilm. The following study shows that the development of NEG may become an effective

  3. Supply-side dimensions and dynamics of integrating HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care: a facility assessment from Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Selena J; George, Asha S; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mpembeni, Rose; Mosha, Idda; Mohan, Diwakar; Yang, Ann; Chebet, Joy; Lipingu, Chrisostom; Baqui, Abdullah H; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J; Kilewo, Charles

    2015-10-04

    Integration of HIV into RMNCH (reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health) services is an important process addressing the disproportionate burden of HIV among mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess the structural inputs and processes of care that support HIV testing and counselling in routine antenatal care to understand supply-side dynamics critical to scaling up further integration of HIV into RMNCH services prior to recent changes in HIV policy in Tanzania. This study, as a part of a maternal and newborn health program evaluation in Morogoro Region, Tanzania, drew from an assessment of health centers with 18 facility checklists, 65 quantitative and 57 qualitative provider interviews, and 203 antenatal care observations. Descriptive analyses were performed with quantitative data using Stata 12.0, and qualitative data were analyzed thematically with data managed by Atlas.ti. Limitations in structural inputs, such as infrastructure, supplies, and staffing, constrain the potential for integration of HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care services. While assessment of infrastructure, including waiting areas, appeared adequate, long queues and small rooms made private and confidential HIV testing and counselling difficult for individual women. Unreliable stocks of HIV test kits, essential medicines, and infection prevention equipment also had implications for provider-patient relationships, with reported decreases in women's care seeking at health centers. In addition, low staffing levels were reported to increase workloads and lower motivation for health workers. Despite adequate knowledge of counselling messages, antenatal counselling sessions were brief with incomplete messages conveyed to pregnant women. In addition, coping mechanisms, such as scheduling of clinical activities on different days, limited service availability. Antenatal care is a strategic entry point for the delivery of critical tests and counselling messages

  4. Use of external cost assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis for comparative evaluation of options for electricity supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U

    2001-03-01

    The paper addresses external cost and multi-criteria analyses carried out for selected future electricity generating systems of interest under the Swiss conditions. The external cost estimates are based on an application of the 'impact pathway approach', enhanced by earlier experience from extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The estimated total costs, i.e. the sum of internal and external costs, may serve as a measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems. The multi-criteria approach allows a more explicit consideration of the social dimension, which is highly important for the decision-making process. The applications of multi-criteria analyses illustrate the sensitivity of the results to the range of preferences expressed in the energy debate. Certain patterns in system ranking can be observed in spite of these sensitivities. Both total cost assessment and multi-criteria analysis are found to be useful, complementary instruments to support procedures for decision-making. (author)

  5. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and Insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Varuttamaseni, Athi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, Joo-Seok [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pepper, Susan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This paper provides an approach for developing potential attacks on I and C systems of NPPs and assessing their consequences. An important concept is that the NPPs were not designed to cope with Stuxnet-type of attacks (and any other cyber attacks). That is, the plants were only designed for design basis accidents. The safety margins and redundancies built in the design are all based on design basis accidents. They may be helpful in mitigating cyberattacks, but may not be adequate.

  6. Managing Public Water Utilities: an assessment of bureaucratic and New Public Management models in the water supply and sanitation sectors in low- and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Schwartz (Klaas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite strong encouragement of many international financing and development agencies to stimulate private sector involvement in the water supply and sanitation sector, the overwhelming majority of water supply and sanitation services are still provided by public sector organizations

  7. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  8. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  9. Vi tror ikke noget, vi undersøger det

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Winther Johannsen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    I diskussionerne om, hvad der kan betegnes som god viden i forhold til udvikling af pædagogisk ud-vikling og kvalitet, er yderpunkterne kridtet op. Begreber som ”evidensbaseret” og ”datainformeret” synes at udfordre det pædagogiske felts egen forståelse af faglighed og pædagogisk kvalitet. I proj...... tager afsæt i det konkrete projekt og samarbejdet med døgntilbuddene. Vi viser, at arbejdet med datainformeret metode på denne måde ikke er en udradering af pædagogisk faglighed knyttet til fagprofessionel dømmekraft – snarere tværtimod...

  10. Supply Management Analysis of the Chilean Navy Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SYSTEM 6. AUTHOR(S) Felipe Garbarini Ibanez 7. PERFORMING OR GANIZATION NA:i\\ IIE (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORiVIING OR GANI ZATION Naval Postgraduate...Reduce transactional costs. Routine Consumable commodities. Many altematives and sources of supply. Low value, unspecified and everyday uses

  11. Can the case-control method be used to assess the impact of water supply and sanitation on diarrhoea? A study in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, J; Briscoe, J; Mesola, V; Moe, C; Solon, F; Vanderslice, J; Young, B

    1988-01-01

    This study had 2 objectives: 1) to determine whether a case-control approach is an effective measure for assessing the effect of improved sanitation on bacterial diarrhea, and 2) to assess the effects of environmental sanitation on diarrheal disease in Cebu. The study took place during the warm, rainy months (July-September) of 1985. The study population consisted of 281 children under 2 who were treated at 1 of 16 clinics for diarrhea due to Escherichia coli, salmonella, shigella, and Vibrio cholerae. The controls were 384 children under 2 who were brought to the clinics for respiratory ailments and did not have diarrhea. Environmental sanitation was classed as "good" if the bacterial count in the water supply was low (i.e., water was obtained from the municipal water supply or bore holes) and if excreta disposal was adequate (i.e., there were flush toilets, sealed latrines, or pit latrines). Water quantity was measured by the number of times the child was bathed. The effects of the exposure variables on the study children were determined by logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounding variables, which included sex, educational level of the household, breast feeding, attendance at well-baby clinics, number of children under 5 in the household, and frequency of bathing the child. The results of the study showed that improved sanitation reduced the episodes of bacterial diarrhea by 40%, and that case-control studies with sample sizes of about of about 500 cases and 500 controls are adequate to detect disease reductions of 33% or more.

  12. Applications of Ferrate(VI) to Wastewater Reclamation and Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, J.; Kim, I.

    2010-12-01

    The estimated amount of water resources is about 63 billion cubic meters in Korea. However, due to the lack of precipitation during the dry season, natural flows are not enough for the water supply. In addition, since the lack of water affects water quality, environmental problems are occurred in natural and social systems. In this study, we investigated the application feasibility of ferrate(VI) systems to water and wastewater treatment. And we'd like to suggest an alternative solution for conservation and efficient reuse of the limited water resources. In the research area of environmental applications, a primary interest has been focused to the power of ferrate(VI) systems in the decomposition of pollutants in wastewater and industrial effluents due to its potential use as a strong, relatively non-toxic, and oxidizing agent for diverse environmental contaminants. Also ferrate(VI) has additional advantages as a very efficient coagulant and a sorbent of pollutants. We have analysed and compared several ferrate(VI) manufacturing processes, especially focused on the electro chemical methods(Fig. 1). And we have investigated the applications of the manufactured ferrate(VI) in our own laboratory and the commercial ferrate(VI) to decomposition of persistent organic pollutants in water. Under optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of 2-chlorophenol and benzothiophene were above 90%(Fig. 2). The ferrate system(VI) is promising and can be one of the most efficient alternatives among the advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) for degradation of persistent organic pollutants, and is an innovative technology for the wastewater reclamation, water reusing systems, and water treatment systems. Fig 1. Comparison of Electro-Chemical Ferrate(VI) manufacturing Processes Fig 2. Degradation of 2-Chlorophenol and Bezothiophene by Ferrate. (Experimental Conditions : 2-CP = 3ppm, BT = 5ppm, NaClO4 = 0.05M)

  13. EXPRESS-ASSESSMENT OF TOXISITY OF WATERS FROM SURFACE WATER SUPPLY SOURCES WITH THE USE OF DANIO RERIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Arystarkhova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An increase in the informativeness and shortening of the timing required for biotesting of water from surface water sources in the city of Zhytomyr with the use of Danio rerio Hamilton-Buchanan instead of the traditional test object Poecilia reticulata Peters and observation of their ethology using the «time sampling» method. Methods. Water samples were collected from reservoirs of the Teteriv river in April 2016. They were used placed in aquaria (10 dm3, where control and experimental groups were formed according to the following scheme: control group – samples with settled (24 hours tap water; experimental group D-1 - water samples from the Denishivsky reservoir; experimental group D-2 – from water intake Vidsichne. Test specimens were females of P. reticulata and D. rerio, in which the parameters of typical and non-typical motor activity and feeding behavior were determined. Fish were exposed to water for 12 hours. Water toxicity indexes were determined for both experimental and control groups. Findings. The studies showed the possibility of using the "time sampling" method for rapid assessment of the water toxicity of surface water sources of Zhytomyr with the use of P. reticulata and D. rerio, which consists in the instantaneous fixation of the number of individuals preferring different behavior acts. D. rerio were more susceptible to the combined action of pollutants in experimental waters than the traditional test object guppies regarding the test reactions of increasing the vector movement and reducing the activity of consumed feed (in 12 hours after the start of biotesting on average by 8,43% in the group D1 and by 11,71% in the group D2. The calculation of toxicity indexes based on the above-mentioned ethological acts, which exceeded 50%, detected an average level of pollution of the experimental water. Originality. For the first time, the rapid assessment of the water toxicity of surface water sources in the city

  14. Semi-quantitative method for the assessment of debris supply from slopes to river in ungauged catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Zerbato, Marina; Graziadei, Maria; Barbero, Secondo; Cremonini, Roberto; Silvestro, Chiara; Bodrato, Giulia; Tresso, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated empirical methodology for assessing the amount of sediment transported from slopes to the main river in absence of a sediment transport monitoring system. The amount of transported sediment is calculated through the characterization of the sediment source areas including the identification of the slope phenomena responsible for the sediment propagation to the main river: shallow landslides, channelized debris flows and deep-seated rotational slides. On this basis, several scenarios related to the climatic conditions are defined: they indicate the number of possible slope phenomena and potential volumes of mobilized unconsolidated material from sediment source areas to the main river. This methodology was finalized and tested in the Maira River basin (south-western Italian Alps) with quite good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Community Needs Assessment After Microcystin Toxin Contamination of a Municipal Water Supply - Lucas County, Ohio, September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Carolyn L; Nelson, Leigh; Eitniear, Samantha; Zgodzinski, Eric; Zabala, Amanda; Billing, Laurie; DiOrio, Mary

    2016-09-09

    On August 1, 2014, routine testing at the Collins Park Water Treatment Plant in Lucas County, Ohio, revealed microcystin toxin levels in drinking water had reached 3.19 μg/L, surpassing the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water advisory threshold of 1.0 μg/L. Microcystin is a hepatoxin released by cyanobacteria in certain harmful algal blooms. Exposure to microcystin has been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic illness in both humans and animals (1-3). On August 2, a do-not-drink advisory was issued, warning community members not to drink, boil, or use the water for cooking or brushing teeth. Public health officials used traditional and social media outlets to disseminate public health messages to affected communities. On August 4, 2014, the advisory was lifted after multiple water samples confirmed microcystin toxin levels had dropped below the advisory threshold. To assess communication strategies, water exposure, and household needs, the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) and Toledo-Lucas County Health Department (TLCHD) conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in Lucas County. Most households (88.1%) reported hearing about the advisory the morning it was issued, but 11% reported drinking and 21% reported brushing teeth with municipal water during the advisory. Household members reported physical (16%) and mental (10%) health concerns that they believed were related to the advisory and activity disruptions including temporarily staying outside of the home (6%) during the advisory and continued use of alternative water sources after the advisory was lifted (82%). During a do-not-drink advisory, governmental agencies and community partners need to engage in joint prevention and response efforts to decrease water exposure and prevent activity disruptions.

  16. Mens vi venter på finansloven ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2011-01-01

    Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning.......Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning....

  17. Når vi taler om 68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Metz, Georg

    Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi......Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi...

  18. MURALS WITH A ViBe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The ViBe District in Virginia Beach is a hub for the local arts community. There is a fenced area in the ViBe District that features a whole row of murals created by professional artists, amateurs, and student groups from all over...

  19. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars, Based on Modeling Supply Chain Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Franz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference

  20. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  1. Dissimilatory Reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas Isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Sani, R.

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain (Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  2. Dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, R K; Peyton, B M; Smith, W A; Apel, W A; Petersen, J N

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain ( Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  3. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Collagen VI-related myopathy Collagen VI-related myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders ...

  4. Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (VI) concentration profiles inside porous aquifer media columns. The model was thereafter used to calculate Cr(VI) removal rate for a range of Cr(VI) loadings. Internal concentration profiles were modelled against data collected from ...

  5. Infrastructure Improvements for Snowmelt Runoff Forecasting and Assessments of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supplies in the Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Steele, C. M.; Demouche, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Southwest US, the southern Rocky Mountains provide a significant orographic barrier to prevailing moisture-laden Westerly winds, which results in snow accumulation and melt, both vitally important to the region’s water resources. The inherent variability of meteorological conditions in the Southwest, during both snowpack buildup and depletion, requires improved spatially-distributed data. The population of ground-based networks (SNOTEL, SCAN, and weather stations) is sparse and does not satisfactorily represent the variability of snow accumulation and melt. Remote sensing can be used to supplement data from ground networks, but the most frequently available remotely sensed product with the highest temporal and spatial resolution, namely snow cover, only provides areal data and not snow volume. Fortunately, the Snowmelt Runoff Model(SRM), which was developed in mountainous regions of the world, including the Rio Grande basin, accepts snow covered area as one of its major input variables along with temperature and precipitation. With the growing awareness of atmospheric warming and the southerly location of Southwest watersheds, it has become apparent that the effects of climate change will be especially important for Southwestern water users. The NSF-funded EPSCoR project “Climate Change Impacts on New Mexico’s Mountain Sources of Water” (started in 2009) has focused on improving hydrometeorological measurements, developing basin-wide and sub-basin snow cover mapping methods, generating snowmelt runoff simulations, forecasts, and long-term climate change assessments, and informing the public of the results through outreach and educational activities. Five new SNOTEL and four new SCAN sites are being installed in 2009-2010 and 12 existing basic SNOTEL sites are being upgraded. In addition, 30 automated precipitation gages are being added to New Mexico measurement networks. The first phase of snow mapping and modeling has focused on four sub basins

  6. Hydrological WEAP Modeling of the Upper Basin of the Apurimac River Basin, in Peru. An Assessment of Available Water Resources and Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Sandoval Solis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Designing sustainable water resources systems is challenging given the natural scarcity of this resources in certain region and the increasing anthropogenic water demand for economic purposes. The overall goal of this study is to develop an empirical hydrologic model (one bucket model) that can adequately represent the hydrology and water resources management in the Apurimac River Basin (ARB) in Peru. The specific objectives are to: (a) develop the empirical hydrologic model, calibrate and validate it (b) build a water allocation model (c) evaluate their water supply performance with different series of scenarios (i) current and future water demands, (ii) with and without the construction of the reservoir under different hydrologic conditions (normal, dry and wet). Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) was used to build the model and evaluate different water allocation strategies, new infrastructure, and assess current and future water needs based on the requirement of the Regional Government of Cuzco and Arequipa. The proposed hydrologic model is a one-bucket model, where the processes of direct runoff, interflow and baseflow are represented and the process of groundwater recharge is the vertical outflow from the bottom of the bucket. Also, this model includes groundwater component which is an imperative process to consider in the valley of this basin because it provides adequate results, as shown later for this basin. Water allocation model estimate the quantity of water available to different demand sites within a river basin at different times. This study explains their impact in the analysis of the water availability and water supply for current and future water demands in the ARB with and without reservoir.

  7. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    role. Erosion and biomass accumulation sustainability targets were determined from the literature. As an example finding, under continuous corn and CT at 0% residue harvest, erosion is the only concern for 35% of the sampling points. Regional variation is strong, with most of the erosion-prone areas in the rolling topography outside of the glaciated Des Moines Lobe. For the same scenario at 100% residue harvest, biomass accumulation is a concern for all points, with erosion an added concern for 43% of points. Fuel GHG fuel emissions were highest for CT (both types of rotations) and continuous corn IT. Fuel costs ($$ and GHG) increased with tillage intensity. This study has provided an initial framework for conducting a life cycle assessment at the field scale, as well as at the state-wide scale. Field specific and site specific decisions (i.e., by farmers), however, will require appropriate technology and equipment, which means more refined resolution. Developing this approach should be the topic of future investigations.

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.107 - Priorities for use of supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... below in descending order of priority: (1) Supplies. (i) Agency inventories; (ii) Excess for other...), the Defense Logistics Agency (see subpart 101-26.6), the Department of Veterans Affairs (see § 101-26.704), and military inventory control points (see § 101-26.606); (vi) Mandatory Federal Supply...

  9. Using of environmental isotopes and hydrochemical application for assessment water resources of Karstic aquifer of the Grate Caucasus for an improved drinking water supply of Kakheti region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepkhvadze, Sopio; Melikadze, George; Todadze, Mariam; Cahnkvetadze, Aleksandre

    2017-04-01

    Main goal of the research is spatial and temporal distribution of environmental (18O and 2H) and geochemical (major ions and gases) tracers in karstic groundwaters, to setup their sustainable monitoring network on the territory of Kakheti and to use the data in the investigation of the karstic aquifer belt along the Southern slope of Great Caucasus for assessment of potential drinking water resources. The monitoring network of environmental tracers, mapping and monitoring data under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using for groundwater flow numerical modeling of Southern slope of Great Caucasus. The environmental tracer data coupled with numerical groundwater flow modeling provide conceptual and numerical models of groundwater recharge, origin and flow, estimate the groundwater age and renewal rate in these aquifers for potential water supply of the adjacent cities. Methodical recommendations to water resources management in Kakheti region will be elaborated on how to apply environmental tracers for assessment of water resources and evaluation of their vulnerability.

  10. Cr(VI) reduction at rutile-catalyzed cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Lu, Anhuai; Ding, Hongrui; Yan, Yunhua; Wang, Changqiu; Zen, Cuiping; Wang, Xin [The Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jin, Song [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Cathodic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and simultaneous power generation were successfully achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) containing a novel rutile-coated cathode. The selected rutile was previously characterized to be sensitive to visible light and capable of both non-photo- and photocatalysis. In the MFCs containing rutile-coated cathode, Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced in the cathode chamber in presence and absence of light irradiation; and the rate of Cr(VI) reduction under light irradiation was substantially higher than that in the dark. Under light irradiation, 97% of Cr(VI) (initial concentration 26 mg/L) was reduced within 26 h, which was 1.6 x faster than that in the dark controls in which only background non-photocatalysis occurred. The maximal potential generated under light irradiation was 0.80 vs. 0.55 V in the dark controls. These results indicate that photocatalysis at the rutile-coated cathode in the MFCs might have lowered the cathodic overpotential, and enhanced electron transfer from the cathode to Cr(VI) for its reduction. In addition, photoexcited electrons generated during the cathode photocatalysis might also have contributed to the higher Cr(VI) reduction rates when under light irradiation. This work assessed natural rutile as a novel cathodic catalyst for MFCs in power generation; particularly it extended the practical merits of conventional MFCs to cathodic reduction of environmental contaminants such as Cr(VI). (author)

  11. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  12. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: galhardo@ufpa.br, E-mail: jtpinho@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  13. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  14. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana; Carolina Ando Matsuno; Marta Wey Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB), responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs), que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI). A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética...

  15. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  16. Herbaceous biomass supply chains : assessing the greenhouse gas balance, economics and ILUC effects of Ukrainian biomass for domestic and Dutch energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Galytska, M.; Jamblinne, de P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the supply chain performance for three types of biomass feedstock (reed, straw and switchgrass) and for three sustainability aspects, i.e. the greenhouse gas balance, economics and Indirect Land Use change effects (ILUC). Calculations are based on a fictional supply chain

  17. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95th percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates.

  18. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  19. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Khamis, Mustafa; Manassra, Adnan; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A.; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite) or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI) removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques. PMID:24222757

  20. Removal of Cr(VI from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Qurie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques.

  1. Derfor elsker og hader vi positiv psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog.......Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog....

  2. Kan vi forebygge en kompliceret sorgreaktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Pårørende til alvorligt syge patienter er i en sårbar situation og risikerer selv at blive syge. Som sundhedsprofessionelle har vi mulighed for at støtte pårørende i palliative forløb, og vi vil i denne artikel beskrive mulige prædiktorer for kompliceret sorg og depression hos den pårørende efter...

  3. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til? Link: http://videnskab.dk/kultur-samfund/hvad-skal-vi-med-trump-satire...

  4. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  5. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain.

  6. Analysis of Pooled FIA and Remote Sensing Data for Fiber Supply Assessment at the Warnell School of Forest Resources at the University of Georgia - Other Studies and Effective Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Cieszewski; Michael Zasada; Tripp Lowe; Bruce Borders; Mike Clutter; Richard F. Daniels; Robert I. Elle; Robert Izlar; Jarek Zawadzki

    2005-01-01

    We provide here a short description of the origin, current work, and future outlook of the Fiber Supply Assessment program at the D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, whose work includes various analyses of FIA data. Since 1997, the program has intended to assist the implementation of the new Southern Annual Forest Inventory System through...

  7. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  8. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  9. Development of a wild game meat supply chain: assessment of the food safety of large wild ungulates’ meat by interviews with hunters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Elena Marescotti; Anna Gaviglio; Eugenio Demartini; Alberto Pirani

    2016-01-01

    Despite the population of wild ungulates is rapidly growing (Ramanzin et al., 2010) and the Italian production has the predisposition to the high quality food, there is no food supply chain for hunted game in the Italian territory...

  10. Assessment of major ions and trace elements in groundwater supplied to the Monterrey metropolitan area, Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Monterrey metropolitan area (MMA) is the third greatest urban area and the second largest economic city of Mexico. More than four million people living in this megacity use groundwater for drinking, industrial and household purposes. Thus, major ion and trace element content were assessed in order to investigate the main hydrochemical properties of groundwater and determine if groundwater of the area poses a threat to the MMA population. Hierarchical cluster analysis using all the groundwater chemical data showed five groups of water. The first two groups were classified as recharge waters (Ca-HCO 3 ) coming from the foothills of mountain belts. The third group was also of Ca-HCO 3 water type flowing through lutites and limestones. Transition zone waters of group four (Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 ) flow through the valley of Monterrey, whereas discharge waters of group 5 (Ca-SO 4 ) were found toward the north and northeast of the MMA. Principal component analysis performed in groundwater data indicates four principal components (PCs). PC1 included major ions Si, Co, Se, and Zn, suggesting that these are derived by rock weathering. Other trace elements such as As, Mo, Mn, and U are coupled in PC2 because they show redox-sensitive properties. PC3 indicates that Pb and Cu could be the less mobile elements in groundwater. Although groundwater supplied to MMA showed a high-quality, high mineralized waters of group 5 have NO 3 - concentrations higher than the maximum value proposed by international guidelines and SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and total dissolved solid concentrations higher than the maximum levels allowed by the Mexican normative.

  11. The Use of Supply Chains and Supply Chain Management in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Peter Schmitz

    PLAN assesses the supply chain with regards to resources, demand requirements, planning the sourcing, production and delivery and the capacity to fulfil the demand on the supply chain. It also aligns the supply chains to the financial strategies of the company. SOURCE looks at the selections of suppliers, the acquisition ...

  12. Speciation of Cr(VI) in environmental samples in the vicinity of the ferrochrome smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedumedi, Hilda N. [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa); Mandiwana, Khakhathi L., E-mail: MandiwanaKL@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa); Ngobeni, Prince; Panichev, Nikolay [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-12-30

    The impact of ferrochrome smelter on the contamination of its environment with toxic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), was assessed by analyzing smelter dusts, soil, grass and tree barks. For the separation of Cr(VI) from Cr(III), solid samples were treated with 0.1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and filtered through hydrophilic PDVF 0.45 {mu}m filter prior to the determination of Cr(VI) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Ferrochrome smelter dust was found to contain significant levels of Cr(VI), viz. 43.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} (cyclone dust), 2710 {mu}g g{sup -1} (fine dust), and 7800 {mu}g g{sup -1} (slimes dust) which exceeded the maximum acceptable risk concentration (20 {mu}g g{sup -1}). The concentration of Cr(VI) in environmental samples of grass (3.4 {+-} 0.2), soil (7.7 {+-} 0.2), and tree bark (11.8 {+-} 1.2) collected in the vicinity of the chrome smelter were higher as compared with the same kind of samples collected from uncontaminated area. The results of the investigation show that ferrochrome smelter is a source of environmental pollution with contamination factors of Cr(VI) ranging between 10 and 50.

  13. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Imran; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ochiai, R Leon; Habib, Mohammad Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Nizami, S Qamaruddin; Acosta, Camilo J; Clemens, John D; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-08-03

    Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid fever. A cluster randomized trial was conducted in three low socioeconomic urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan between 2002 and 2007. Subsamples were followed up for assessment of immune response and adverse events after vaccination. The study participants were similar in a wide variety of socio-demographic and economic characteristics at baseline. A total of 27,231 individuals of the total target population of 51,965 in 120 clusters either received a ViCPS vaccine (13,238 [52% coverage]) or the control Hepatitis A vaccine (13,993 [53%]). Typhoid fever was diagnosed in 30 ViCPS vaccine recipients and 49 Hepatitis A vaccine recipients with an adjusted total protective effectiveness of 31% (95%CI: -28%, 63%). The adjusted total vaccine protective effectiveness was -38% (95%CI: -192%, 35%) for children aged 2-5 years and 57% (95%CI: 6%, 81%) for children 5-16 years old. The ViCPS vaccine did not confer statistically significant protection to children in the study areas, and there was a decline in antibody response 2 years post-vaccination. However, the ViCPS vaccine showed significant total protection in children 5-16 years of age, which is consistent with other studies of ViCPS vaccine conducted in India, Nepal, China and South Africa. These findings suggest that ViCPS vaccination of school-aged children will protect the children of urban, typhoid endemic areas against typhoid fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro Orozco, A.M., E-mail: mferro@cidca.org.ar [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA) CCT La Plata CONICET - Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ) La Plata (Argentina); Contreras, E.M.; Zaritzky, N.E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA) CCT La Plata CONICET - Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ) La Plata (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, UNLP. 47 y 1 (B1900AJJ) - La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q{sub Cr}) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey {approx} lactose > glucose > citrate > acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  15. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by wetland plants: Potential for in situ heavy metal detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, C.M.; Qian, J.H.; Hansen, D.; Zayed, A.; Terry, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lytle, F.W. [The EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States); Yang, N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Reduction of heavy metals in situ by plants may be a useful detoxification mechanism for phytoremediation. Using X-ray spectroscopy, the authors show that Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), supplied with Cr(VI) in nutrient culture, accumulated nontoxic Cr(III) in root and shoot tissues. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) appeared to occur in the fine lateral roots. The Cr(III) was subsequently translocated to leaf tissues. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of Cr in leaf and petiole differed when compared to Cr in roots. In roots, Cr(III) was hydrated by water, but in petiole and more so in leaf, a portion of the Cr(III) may be bound to oxalate ligands. This suggests that E. crassipes detoxified Cr(VI) upon root uptake and transported a portion of the detoxified Cr to leaf tissues. Cr-rich crystalline structures were observed on the leaf surface. The chemical species of Cr in other plants, collected from wetlands that contained Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater, was also found to be Cr(III). The authors propose that this plant-based reduction of Cr(VI) by E. crassipes has the potential to be used for the in situ detoxification of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastestreams.

  16. Long-term integrating samplers for indoor air and sub slab soil gas at VI sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion (VI) site assessments are plagued by substantial spatial and temporal variability that makes exposure and risk assessment difficult. Most risk-based decision making for volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure in the indoor environment is based on health benchmark...

  17. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  18. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars, based on modeling supply chain logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; Franz, E

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference between simulating supply chain logistics (MOD) and assuming fixed storage times (FIX) in microbial risk estimation for the supply chain of fresh-cut leafy green vegetables destined for working-canteen salad bars. The results of the FIX model were previously published (E. Franz, S. O. Tromp, H. Rijgersberg, and H. J. van der Fels-Klerx, J. Food Prot. 73:274-285, 2010). Pathogen growth was modeled using stochastic discrete-event simulation of the applied logistics concept. The public health effects were assessed by conducting an exposure assessment and risk characterization. The relative growths of Escherichia coli O157 (17%) and Salmonella enterica (15%) were identical in the MOD and FIX models. In contrast, the relative growth of Listeria monocytogenes was considerably higher in the MOD model (1,156%) than in the FIX model (194%). The probability of L. monocytogenes infection in The Netherlands was higher in the MOD model (5.18×10(-8)) than in the FIX model (1.23×10(-8)). The risk of listeriosis-induced fetal mortality in the perinatal population increased from 1.24×10(-4) (FIX) to 1.66×10(-4) (MOD). Modeling the probabilistic nature of supply chain logistics is of additional value for microbial risk assessments regarding psychrotrophic pathogens in food products for which time and temperature are the postharvest preventive measures in guaranteeing food safety.

  19. Vi overser hjertepatienter med ondt i livet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted-Rasmussen, Morten; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen......Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen...

  20. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  1. Removal of Cr(VI) by surfactant modified Auricularia auricula spent substrate: biosorption condition and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liying; Jin, Yu; Song, Tao; Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Xin; Yu, Sumei; Teng, Chunying; Wang, Xin; Qu, Juanjuan; Huang, Xiaomei

    2017-07-01

    Auricularia auricula spent substrate (AASS) modified by didodecyldimethylammonium bromide(DDAB) was used as adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Based on a single-factor experiment and response surface methodology, the optimal conditions were adsorbent dosage of 1.5 g/L, pH value of 4.0, initial Cr(VI) concentration of 19 mg/L, temperature of 25 °C, biosorption time of 120 min, rotational speed of 150 r/min, respectively, under which biosorption capacity could reach 12.16 mg/g compared with unmodified AASS (6.058 mg/g). DDAB modification could enlarge the specific surface area and porous diameter of the adsorbents, and supply hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups capable of adsorbing at the interfaces. In addition, DDAB increased ionic exchange and complex formation demonstrated by variations of elemental contents, shifts of carboxyl, amine groups, hydroxyl, alkyl chains, and phosphate groups as well as the crystal structure of the Cr-O compounds. Variations of peaks and energy in XPS analysis also testified the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).The biosorption behavior of modified AASS was in line with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equation. The final regeneration efficiency was 62.33% after three biosorption-desorption cycles. Apparently, DDBA is a eximious modifier and DDBA-modified AASS was very efficient for Cr(VI) removal.

  2. Analisis Pemilihan Pemasok dengan Metode Analitycal Hierarchy Process di Proyek Indarung VI PT Semen Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Oktri Viarani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry is an industry that is desperately needed by the public. Cement always used to make houses, buildings, bridges and other buildings. Heightened demand for cement, making PT Semen Padang, which is one of the largest producers of cement in Indonesia, wants to increase the productivity of cement annually. One way is to set up a new cement plant that is able to meet consumer demand. The establishment of a new plant would require careful planning, especially planning development and planning costs. To set up a new plant, also required the planning of goods and services to be used in its manufacture. Therefore, it is necessary a good supplier that is able to provide the needs according to required specifications. The Indarung Project VI, PT Semen Padang requires the right supplier selection method, so as to provide quality goods and services. The method of procurement of goods and services performed Indarung Project VI, PT Semen Padang today is the commonly used method of procurement. AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process is a systematic method and does not require a long time, and can show priority weights of criteria and selected suppliers. This study using AHP to select suppliers of goods and services in the Indarung Project VI, PT Semen Padang. Based on supplier selection has been made, PT ABB Industrial Way elected as a supplier to supply substations for the Indarung Project VI, PT Semen Padang.

  3. Global Supply Chain Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary Jo Lamberti; Mary Costello; Kenneth Getz

    2012-01-01

    ... clinical supplies will be needed. Some clinical supply managers have been using just-in-time or on-demand packaging and labeling2 or regional depots to address changes in the clinical supply chain strategy or forecasting during a trial...

  4. Assessment of hydrogeologic terrains, well-construction characteristics, groundwater hydraulics, and water-quality and microbial data for determination of surface-water-influenced groundwater supplies in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2016-08-30

    In January 2014, a storage tank leaked, spilling a large quantity of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol into the Elk River in West Virginia and contaminating the water supply for more than 300,000 people. In response, the West Virginia Legislature passed Senate Bill 373, which requires the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (WVDHHR) to assess the susceptibility and vulnerability of public surface-water-influenced groundwater supply sources (SWIGS) and surface-water intakes statewide. In response to this mandate for reassessing SWIGS statewide, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the WVDHHR, Bureau of Public Health, Office of Environmental Health Services, compiled available data and summarized the results of previous groundwater studies to provide the WVDHHR with data that could be used as part of the process for assessing and determining SWIGS.

  5. Exploring the scope for transboundary collaboration in the Blue Nile river basin: assessing downstream willingness to pay for upstream land use change to improve irrigation water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, A.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we model the preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) of downstream farmers in one of the largest irrigation schemes worldwide in Sudan for improved irrigation water supply through transboundary collaboration with farmers upstream in Ethiopia. In a choice experiment, Sudanese farmers

  6. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  7. Does wave VI of BAEP pertain to the prognosis of coma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, A; Wedekind, C; Klug, N

    2001-12-01

    The significance of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) wave VI for the outcome of comatose patients was assessed and compared to the prognostic impact of median nerve evoked somatosensory potential (MSEP) recording. One hundred sixteen patients in a comatose state due to traumatic brain injury (n = 57) and to intracerebral hemorrhage or tumours (n = 59) were investigated prospectively. Outcome was assessed 3 months after the onset of coma using Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). Standard BAEP and MSEP recordings were obtained within 24 h after coma onset. The frequency of findings was correlated with outcome by means of non-parametric statistical analysis. Additionally, 27 healthy volunteers were studied to confirm the constant presence of wave VI in normal BAEP. In healthy controls, wave VI was present in 53/54 ears stimulated. Outcome correlation analysis revealed a significantly (p bears prognostic information in comatose patients.

  8. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  9. Fresh groundwater for Wajir – ex-ante assessment of uncertain benefits for multiple stakeholders in a water supply project in Northern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike eLuedeling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in development rarely considers uncertainty in project benefits and costs and the risk of project failure. Lack of appropriate tools for ex-ante analysis under conditions of data scarcity constrains the ability of decision-makers to anticipate project outcomes. Business analysis techniques can help in such situations, but they have rarely been applied in development contexts. We use the principles of Applied Information Economics to develop a decision model for a water supply intervention.In the proposed Habaswein-Wajir Water Supply Project in Northern Kenya, water is to be extracted from a major aquifer near Habaswein and piped to the city of Wajir. A team of eight experts developed a model including all costs, benefits and risks considered important for project success. After estimation training, these experts expressed their uncertainty for about 100 variables in the model with probability distributions. We used Monte Carlo simulation to project decision outcomes, and Partial Least Squares regression to identify critical uncertainties affecting the decision.The project was found to be risky for most stakeholders, mainly due to the risk of political interference caused by water supply concerns in Habaswein and due to unclear profitability of the water supply business. Uncertainties about how to value decreasing infant mortality and reduction in water-borne disease incidence were also critical. The greatest hydrological risk was salt water intrusion into the aquifer. Careful well design, inclusive project planning and benefit sharing could raise the chance of project success.The analysis improved understanding of the decision by all stakeholders, some of which changed their opinions on the pipeline, requested more measurements, or proposed alternative water supply options. Decision analysis can help clarify decision uncertainties and outcome expectations and thereby improve decision-making processes, especially in data

  10. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) USING IMMOBILIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... water and air. It affects the growth of flora and fauna which in turn affect human health negatively. Chromium could also bio-accumulate in plants and animals and this becomes ... The sorption kinetic models of Cr (VI) onto the biosorbents were examined with ... bulk density, moisture and ash contents.

  11. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... for FTA staff to make oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an... proposed Circular would incorporate lessons learned from triennial reviews, discretionary Title VI... Implementation Plan for Limited English Proficient (LEP) persons now contains a summary of the DOT LEP guidance...

  12. Resúmenes Presentaciones Orales VI ECAP

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Arana, Editor Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones orales del VI Ecuentro Científico de la Amazonía Peruana, desarrollado el 27 y 28 de cotubre de 2015 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  13. Vi har selv designet naturens love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    ForskerZonenNaturlovene er universelt gyldige i de flestes øjne. De gælder altid, uanset hvad vi tænker. Men dette billede står ikke uimodsagt i videnskabsfilosofien, og der er meget, der tyder på, at det ikke er specielt empirisk korrekt...

  14. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... enforcement of Title VI disparate impact regulations, it did not undermine the validity of those regulations... streamlined this process. We have modified the definition of ``disparate impact'' for clarity. We decline to... process reengineering. In response, FTA will review the public engagement plan and its implementation when...

  16. Hvem er vi? Hvem er de?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Kommentaren tager afsæt i initiativer i de pædagogiske faglige foreninger i Europa EERA) og i Norden (NERA) og argumenterer for at det er forpligtelse for os som nordiske og europæiske pædagogiske forskere at gå op imod de stadigt mere ekskluderende vi-konstruktioner, som er blevet formuleret i for...

  17. Virtual phantom magnetic resonance imaging (ViP MRI) on a clinical MRI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Bordelois, Alejandro; Gambarota, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    system. One of the major advantages of ViP MRI over previous approaches is that the generation and transmission of RF signals can be achieved with a self-contained apparatus. As such, the ViP MRI technique is transposable to different platforms (preclinical and clinical) of different vendors. It is also shown here that ViP MRI could be used to generate signals whose characteristics cannot be reproduced by physical objects. This could be exploited to assess MRI system properties, such as the vendor distortion correction field. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Can iron oxides remove Cr(VI) from drinking water at sub-ppb levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprara, Efthymia; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Samaras, Petros; Zouboulis, Anastasios; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2013-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has long been recognized as a potential carcinogen via inhalation, in contrast to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] which is 100 times less toxic and also a necessary nutrient, essential to human glucidic metabolism. Nowadays there is an increasing concern that Cr(VI) is also carcinogenic by the oral route of exposure, while an increased number of publications indicate that Cr(VI) is a common natural pollutant. Hexavalent chromium formation is attributed to natural oxidation of Cr(III) in ultramafic derived soils and ophiolithic rocks. To verify this theory, drinking water samples were collected from targeted areas of Greece e.g. areas in which the geological background is predominated by ultramafic minerals and the water supply depends mainly on groundwater resources. Valuable guide for the samples collection was the geological map of Greece and emphasis was given to regions where the natural occurrence of Cr(VI) is thought to be more possible. A wide range of Cr concentrations (2-100 μg/L) were detected in the areas studied, with most of them ranging below the current limit of 50 μg/L, and the Cr(VI) concentration being more than 90% of the total. Since the Cr(VI) affects significant part of population worldwide, a debate was established concerning the enforcement of stringent regulation, which also demands the drinking water treatment processes re-evaluation in view of Cr(VI) removal at sub-ppb level. In this regard, adsorption has evolved as the front line of defense for chromium removal. The motivation of this work was to investigate the efficiency of iron oxides for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from drinking water and its removal at sub-ppb levels. The adsorbents examined included iron oxy-hydroxides and magnetite prepared using common low cost iron salts. Their effectiveness as Cr(VI) adsorbents was evaluated through the decrease of a Cr(VI) concentration of 100μg/L prepared in NSF water at pH 7. Preliminary batch experiments did not

  19. In vitro evaluation of bioremediation capacity of a commercial probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, for chromium (VI and lead (II toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoti Belapurkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bioaccumulation of heavy metals including chromium (VI (Cr (VI and lead (II (Pb (II causes fatal toxicity in humans. Some naturally occurring bacterial genera such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas help in bioremediation of these heavy metals and some of the species of Bacillus are proven probiotics. However, no study has been conducted on Bacillus coagulans, which is a proven probiotic species of genus Bacillus. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to assess the potential of a proven probiotic, B. coagulans, marketed as “Sporlac-DS,” to survive in the presence of Cr (VI and Pb (II and its ability to reduce its concentration in vitro. Materials and Methods: The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the organism for Cr (VI and Pb (II was determined followed by its biochemical and morphological characterization. Its antibiotic sensitivity and probiotic efficacy were assessed. Further, its bioremediation capacity was observed in vitro by determining the residual Cr (VI and Pb (II concentration after 72 h. Results: B. coagulans could tolerate up to 512 ppm concentration of Cr (VI and had an MIC of 128 ppm for Pb (II. After 72 h, the organism reduced 32 ppm Cr (VI and 64 ppm Pb (II by 93% and 89%, respectively. When B. coagulans was studied before and after growing on Cr (VI and Pb (II for 24 h, an increase was seen in sensitivity toward the tested antibiotics whereas no change was observed in morphological and biochemical characters. It also showed no change in their bile and acid tolerance, indicating that it retains its probiotic efficacy. Conclusion: The tested probiotic B. coagulans may have a potential role in bioremediation of Cr (VI and Pb (II, in vivo.

  20. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into an expression vector ... recombinant protein can be used to detect specific anti-Vi antibody produced by typhoid patients. Overall, the His-Vi ... E-mail: khchua@um.edu.my. Tel.:603-. 79676607.

  1. Bioreduction of Cr (VI) by potent novel chromate resistant alkaliphilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Cr (VI) resistant alkaliphilic bacteria from sediment and water samples collected from Wadi Natrun hypersaline Soda lakes (located in northern Egypt), resulted in isolation of several alkaliphilic bacterial strains that can tolerate up to 2.94 g/l of Cr (VI) in alkaline medium. However, with increasing Cr (VI) ...

  2. Assessment And Proposal Of Innovative Waste Water Supply System For Informal Settlement Residences ‘The Case Of Ikuti Sub-Urbs, Mbeya City – Tanzania’

    OpenAIRE

    Yazidi Hassan Bakari Mwishwa

    2013-01-01

    The problem of informal settlement that is characterized by low quality houses and inadequate infrastructure has continued to affect societies; Ikuti Sub-Urbs is inseparable of this. In Ikuti sub-urbs, waste water is noticeable flowing along the adjacent houses of the residences, a problem is even exacerbate with the built-in informal settlements. Such situation creates unpleasant and discomfort living condition to the households. This study investigates performance of waste water supply syst...

  3. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  4. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been surveyed. For the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an Ad-hoc Group has discussed relevant topics after the 1st conference of the Parties. Meetings of the Group primarily focused on what objectives to set for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in and in and after 2000. IPCC completed their Technical Paper in November 1996 in which technologies and measures to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance GHG sinks were analyzed and evaluated in various aspects. This Paper discusses about each sector of institutional buildings sector, transport sector, industrial sector, and energy supply sector. Especially, in the energy supply sector, promising approaches to reduce future emission include more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, switching to low-carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of flue gas and fuels, CO2 storage, switching to nuclear energy, and switching to renewable sources of energy. 5 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Study of the involved sorption mechanisms of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species onto dried Salvinia auriculata biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2017-04-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) species by dried biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Salvinia auriculata was studied in order to understand the involved sorption mechanisms. Kinetic tests were carried out under the conditions such as concentration range of Cr(VI) from 50 to 250 mg L-1 and a temperature of 30 °C. Modification of the biosorbent by the presence of Cr(VI) species was assessed by analysis of its porosity, density and infrared molecular absorption spectrum. A series of experimental approaches involving directed chemical modifications on the biosorbent surface was performed. The main functional groups involved in the sorption mechanisms were identified. The gas sorption analyser was applied and proved that a strong chemical effect of Cr(VI) species on the surface took place, resulting in a leaching organic matter with an obvious and significant increase in the porosity parameters. The intra-particle diffusion model revealed different mass transfer zones into the adsorbent during Cr(VI) removal. New combined Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was the best to fit the equilibrium data of Cr(VI) species removal. Finally, Cr(VI) removal was mainly mediated by a redox process where Cr(III) species were formed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unsubsidised Self-Supply in Eastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. MacCarthy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply is widely reported across various contexts, filling gaps left by other forms of water supply provision. This study assesses mature and unsubsidised Self-supply markets in an urban context in Madagascar. Locally manufactured drilling and pumping technologies are widely provided by the local private sector, enabling households to access shallow groundwater. The market for Pitcher Pump systems (suction pumps fitted onto hand-driven boreholes has developed over several decades, reaching a level of maturity and scale. In the eastern port city of Tamatave, 9000 of these systems are estimated to be in use and Self-supply constitutes a primary domestic water source for the majority of the city’s 280,000 inhabitants. The market is supplied by more than 50 small businesses that manufacture and install the systems at lower cost (US$35-100 than a connection to the piped water supply system. Mixed methods are used to assess the performance of the Pitcher Pump system and the characteristics of the market. Discussion includes a description of the manufacturing process and sales network that supply Pitcher Pump systems, environmental health concerns related to water quality, pump performance, and system management. In a context where urban piped water supplies are unlikely to be accessible to all anytime soon, recommendations are made for further research and potential technology developments to improve the performance of Self-supply.

  7. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  8. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  9. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the mid-range projection, Series C Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. How a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico) is examined in this report. This scenario assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel-switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the realization of the Series C Scenario. This discussion should serve as a basis for further assessments, as it identifies some issues of major concern for Region VI that must be addressed in more depth.

  10. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  11. Reactive transport modeling of chromium isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H; Amos, Richard T; Blowes, David W

    2012-12-18

    Chromium isotope fractionation is indicative of mass-transfer processes, such as reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during groundwater remediation. Laboratory experiments comparing batch and column treatment of Cr(VI) using organic carbon suggest that the associated isotope fractionation may be influenced by solute-transport mechanisms. These batch and column experiments were simulated using the reactive transport model MIN3P to further evaluate the effects of Cr reduction and transport on isotope fractionation under saturated flow conditions. Simulation of the batch experiment provided a good fit to the experimental data, where a fractionation factor (α₅₃) of 0.9965 was attributed to a single, dominant Cr(VI) removal mechanism. Calibration of the column simulations to the experimental results suggested the presence of a second, more rapid Cr(VI) removal mechanism with α₅₃ = 0.9992. Results from this study demonstrate that the interpretation of Cr isotope fractionation during reduction can be complex, particularly where multiple removal mechanisms are evident. Reactive transport modeling of Cr isotope fractionation can provide a quantitative assessment of the contaminant removal mechanisms, thus improving the application of Cr isotope measurements as a tool to track Cr(VI) migration and attenuation in groundwater.

  12. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  13. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program on Pediatric Obesity: The CEMHaVi Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jeremy; Mikulovic, Jacques; Fardy, Paul; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Marchand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of the unique 1-year health-wellness program of exercise and health education for obese youth on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The CEMHaVi program included 74 obese children. Participants, 19 girls and 18 boys, and controls, 17 girls and 20 boys, were assigned to treatment. The…

  14. Polypyrrole-coated halloysite nanotube clay nanocomposite: synthesis, characterization and Cr(VI) adsorption behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ballav, N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A polypyrrole-coated halloysite nanotube nanocomposite (PPy-HNTs NC) was prepared via in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in the dispersion of HNTs and assessed for the removal of toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. ATR-FTIR and XRD results...

  15. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  16. Inventory management within the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    2000-05-01

    How can a company reduce its inventory costs as much as 35 to 50% of its current assets? The key to reducing inventory is to evaluate the entire supply chain, including an assessment of procurement, production, and distribution.

  17. Noget vi kan tro på

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2016-01-01

    Situationen er alvorlig. Verden står over for enorme udfordringer med pres på naturressourcer, klima, befolkningsvækst, flygtninge og konflikter. Det er svært at se, hvordan disse problemer kan håndteres inden for den nuværende menneskelige bevidstheds rammer. Vi må derfor foretage et bevidstheds......Situationen er alvorlig. Verden står over for enorme udfordringer med pres på naturressourcer, klima, befolkningsvækst, flygtninge og konflikter. Det er svært at se, hvordan disse problemer kan håndteres inden for den nuværende menneskelige bevidstheds rammer. Vi må derfor foretage et...

  18. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?......Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?...

  19. CPE OF URANIUM (VI USING IONIC LIQUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANAA NAÏT-TAHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE was used to extract uranium (VI from an aqueous solution in acetate media. The methodology used is based on the formation of uranyl-ionic liquid (I complexes and uranyl-D2EHPA soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100. The uranium (VI complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid (IL used as a chelating agent was synthesized and characterized in this study. It is composed of N-butyl N’-triethoxy methyl imidazolium cation and diethylhexylphosphate (D2EHPA-H as anion. The effect of the IL on the extraction efficiency was studied in presence and in absence of IL’s cation in acetate medium.

  20. Multi-criteria assessment of technologies for electricity and heat supply; Multikriterielle Bewertung von Technologien zur Bereitstellung von Strom und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschmidt, Julia

    2010-08-26

    The present thesis deals with how decisions concerning the future energy supply can be effectively, transparently and comprehensibly supported, against the backdrop of sometimes conflicting objectives. The relevance of the question is first of all explained in the context of important framework conditions for decisions in the energy sector. Subsequently, the most significant technology paths which already contribute to today''s energy supply or represent potential future options are shown. However, none of these options alone can meet the demands for a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and reliable energy supply. Rather, their strengths and weaknesses should be carefully weighed against each other in the light of the specific framework conditions. This gives rise to the need for a multi-criteria decision-making support tool, in order to be able to evaluate energy technologies while simultaneously comparing and considering several objectives. An in-depth analysis of known applications of multi-attribute methods in the energy sector shows that methods for multi-attribute decision aiding are already established in the energy industry and energy policy. Weaknesses of known applications lie primarily in the fact that in many cases technological change has not yet been adequately addressed. Therefore, in the present thesis a multi-criteria method is developed which allows established and innovative technologies to be systematically compared, together with the consideration of criteria weighting depending on different technology cycle phases. The proposed method is implemented in a decision support system (DSS), which is validated using two case studies. In the first case study, alternative energy supply concepts for a bio-energy village are compared. In the second case study, technologies for stationary electricity storage are compared. The results show that criteria weightings depending on varying technology cyclephases produce different results than

  1. Corneal hysteresis in mucopolysaccharidosis I and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnehjelm, Kristina Teär; Chen, Enping; Winiarski, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    High intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma are often suspected in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). To determine corneal hysteresis (CH) and IOP in children with mucopolysaccharidosis I-Hurler (MPS I-H) and MPS VI. Clinical measurements with ocular response analyzer (ORA). In seven patients, five with MPS I-H treated with stem cell transplantation (SCT), and two with MPS VI, one treated with SCT and the other with enzyme therapy, the IOP was examined with ORA. Ocular response analyzer measurements were made at a median age of 8.7 years in the patients with MPS I-H and at a median age of 9.3 years in the patients with MPS VI. Earlier measurements had raised suspicion of high IOP in one patient. The ORA showed an increased CH and a falsely high IOP values in all 14 eyes. The recalculated IOPs were normal in all 14 eyes. Mild to severe corneal opacities were present in all 14 eyes. Optic disc areas, borders and cupping were clinically normal in the 12 of 14 eyes that were possible to examine. Severe corneal opacities hampered optic disc evaluation in the older patient with MPS VI. Three eyes in two patients had normal thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer measured with scanning laser polarimetry with corneal compensation (GDx VCC). No patient was diagnosed or treated for glaucoma. The IOPs are often falsely high because of an increased resistance of the cornea and correlate to the extent of corneal clouding. In this small, cross-sectional study, it appears that corneal resistance is directly correlated with corneal clouding, although a longitudinal study that evaluates resistance as the cornea clears with treatment would provide more direct evidence that corneal deposits are directly related to resistance. A correct measured IOP can avoid unnecessary medical or surgical hypotensive treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2013-08-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s22s22p6) 3s23p5, 3s3p6, 3s23p43d, 3s3p53d, 3s23p33d2, 3s23p44s, 3s23p44p and 3s23p44d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested.

  3. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  4. 48 CFR 8.002 - Priorities for use of Government supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in descending order of priority— (1) Supplies. (i) Agency inventories; (ii) Excess from other... Services Administration (GSA) (see 41 CFR 101-26.3), the Defense Logistics Agency (see 41 CFR 101-26.6), the Department of Veterans Affairs (see 41 CFR 101-26.704), and military inventory control points; (vi...

  5. Multi-exposure cancer and non-cancer risk assessment of trihalomethanes in drinking water supplies - A case study of Eastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Minashree; Gupta, S K; Mishra, B K

    2015-03-01

    The lifetime cancer risk and the hazard index of trihalomethanes (THMs) through oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation exposure from supply water of five WTPs were analysed. THMs concentration varied from plant to plant and was found to be in the range of 274-511µg/l, which is much higher than the prescribed USEPA standards of 80µg/l. Chloroform was the most dominant THM followed by bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). Cancer risk analysis through multi-pathways exposure reveals that residents had a higher cancer risk through oral ingestion than other two routes of exposure. The lifetime cancer risks of THMs from supply water were 100 times higher than prescribed USEPA guidelines. The higher cancer risk found for Indian context than those reported for other countries like USA, UK, Japan, Australia, is mainly due to the higher concentration level of THMs, water intake and average body weight. The study also revealed that amongst different THMs, chloroform is the major THMs causing cancer risk through both oral and dermal route of exposure whereas in case of inhalation it was mainly because of BDCM. Average lifetime cancer risk analysis indicated that females are more prone to cancer risk than males. Oral ingestion is a major route indicating the potential impact of non-cancer risk while it was insignificant through dermal exposure. Sensitivity analysis of THMs revealed that chloroform is the predominant parameter followed by body weight and exposure duration influencing cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The right to water in rural Punjab: assessing equitable access to water in the context of the ongoing Punjab Rural Water Supply Proejct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Shamsher; Crowley, Julia; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-15

    Although India is poised to meet its Millennium Development Goal for providing access to safe drinking water, there remains a worrying discrepancy in access between urban and rural areas. In 2006, 96% of the urban population versus 86% of the rural population obtained their drinking water from an improved water source. To increase access to potable water in rural areas, the World Bank and the state of Punjab have implemented the Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRWSS) to improve or construct water supply systems in 3,000 villages deemed to have inadequate access to clean drinking water. This study aimed to examine whether the right to water was fulfilled in six towns in rural Punjab during implementation of the PRWSS. The normative content of the right to water requires that water be of adequate quantity, safety, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability in terms of quality. While our findings suggest that the PRWSS improved water quality, they also indicate that access to water was limited due to affordability and the low socioeconomic status of some people living in the target communities. Copyright © 2011 Samra, Crowley, and Smith Fawzi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  7. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction in Initially Oxidizing, Contaminated Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K.

    2008-06-10

    Remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sediments through in-situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO{sub 2} is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubility through complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1}, and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1} was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubility was enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community, the Fe reducing community, and the sulfate reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC

  8. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extrem...

  9. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  10. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  11. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  12. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  13. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  14. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB, responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs, que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI. A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética. A principal causa de óbito é insuficiência cardíaca, ocorrendo na segunda ou terceira década de vida. Relato de Caso: Masculino, 4 anos, portador de MP VI, há 3 dias com febre e sinais flogísticos em sítio de acesso central, colocado para reposição enzimática, com flutuação e saída de material purulento. Ultrassom evidenciou coleção laminar e borramento de planos gordurosos. Ecocardiograma demonstra hipertensão pulmonar discreta decorrente de prolapso valvar mitral com refluxo discreto, além de endocardite da valva mitral. Optou-se por retirada cirúrgica do dispositivo e administração de vancomicina e amicacina. Durante internação, evoluiu bem, sem complicações pós operatórias. Conclusão: A MP VI têm inteligência preservada, baixa estatura e alterações osteomusculares, como no caso relatado. Não há correlação entre a gravidade clínica e a atividade residual enzimática. Dificuldade respiratória pode levar a hipóxia crônica, hipertensão pulmonar e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva. Das alterações cardíacas, encontramos valvulopatias, insuficiência cardíaca e hipertensão pulmonar, observadas no caso. O tratamento se faz com transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas e terapia de reposição enzimática.

  15. An Overview on Production and Applications of Ferrate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaiekhozani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection are essential processes in water and waste treatment. A chemical that can be applied for all the above mentioned purposes is ferrate(VI. Although there are many studies about ferrate(VI, no comprehensive review paper can be found about ferrate(VI from production to applications. The aim of this study was to review ferrate(VI production, measurement, stability and utilization in water and wastewater treatment. Evidence Acquisition In acidic conditions, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. New researches have provided the technology of using ferrate(VI for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, which can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Results Despite the existence of these technologies, there is no full-scale application of ferrate(VI in the water and wastewater industry which it is due to difficulties associated with I, the lack of adequate researches that have demonstrated its capabilities and advantages over the existing water and wastewater treatment methods; ii, the instability of ferrate(VI depending on its method of preparation, and iii, the relatively low yield of ferrate(VI. Conclusions To solve the above mentioned difficulties, fundamental study most be carried out to discover the novel methods of ferrate(VI production, focusing on increasing the product stability and the production yield.

  16. Energy Transfer between U(VI) and Eu(III) Ions Adsorbed on a Silica Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. K.; Cha, W.; Cho, H. R.; Im, H. J.; Jung, E. C.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Understanding of chemical behavior of actinide in a groundwater flow is important for assessing the possibility of their migration with water flows in a radioactive waste disposal site. Uranium is ubiquitous in the environment and a major actinide in a nuclear fuel cycle. Americium and curium having isotopes of long half life are minor actinides in a spent fuel. If a minor actinide coexists with uranium in a groundwater flow, some interactions between them could be expected such as minor actinide adsorption onto uranium precipitates and competition with each other for an adsorption to a mineral surface site. Eu(III) ion is frequently used as a chemical analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III) ions in a migration chemistry. The luminescent spectra of U(VI) and Eu(III) ions show a dependency on the coordination symmetry around them, and the changes in intensity or bandwidth of spectra can yield valuable information on their local environment. The luminescent lifetime also strongly depends on the coordination environment, and its measurement is valuable in probe studies on micro-heterogeneous systems. The excited U(VI) ion can be quenched through Stern.Volmer process, hydrolysis of excited species, exciplex formation, electron transfer or energy transfer. In case of U(VI)-Eu(III) system, the interaction between two ions can be studied by measuring the effect of Eu(III) ion on the quenching of U(VI) ion luminescence. There are only a few investigations on the interaction between an excited U(VI) ion and a lanthanide(III) ion. In perchlorate solution, the energy transfer to Eu(III) ion occurred only in solutions of pH>3.87. In this study, the quenching of U(VI) luminescence by Eu(III) on a silica surface was measured. The results will be discussed on the basis of a chemical interaction between them

  17. Uranium(VI) Binding Forms in Selected Human Body Fluids: Thermodynamic Calculations versus Spectroscopic Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alfatih A A; Geipel, Gerhard; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert

    2015-02-16

    Human exposure to uranium increasingly becomes a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Knowledge about uranium chemical binding forms(speciation) in human body fluids can be of great importance to understand not only its biokinetics but also its relevance in risk assessment and in designing decorporation therapy in the case of accidental overexposure. In this study, thermodynamic calculations of uranium speciation in relevant simulated and original body fluids were compared with spectroscopic data after ex-situ uranium addition. For the first time, experimental data on U(VI) speciation in body fluids (saliva, sweat, urine) was obtained by means of cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K. By using the time dependency of fluorescence decay and the band positions of the emission spectra, various uranyl complexes were demonstrated in the studied samples. The variations of the body fluids in terms of chemical composition, pH, and ionic strength resulted in different binding forms of U(VI). The speciation of U(VI) in saliva and in urine was affected by the presence of bioorganic ligands, whereas in sweat, the distribution depends mainly on inorganic ligands. We also elucidated the role of biological buffers, i.e., phosphate (H(2)PO(4−)/HPO(4)(2−)) on U(VI) distribution, and the system Ca(2+)/UO(2)(2+)/PO(4)(3−) was discussed in detail in both saliva and urine. The theoretical speciation calculations of the main U(VI) species in the investigated body fluids were significantly consistent with the spectroscopic data. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy showed success and reliability for direct determination of U(VI) in such biological matrices with the possibility for further improvement.

  18. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H.; Nielsen, T.S.; Soegaard, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  19. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  20. KEKB electromagnet power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masato; Kubo, Tadashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Numbers of electromagnet power supply for KEKB are 2,243 except BT. To satisfy stability, DAC in the current control circuit, current detector, R and D of small thermostatic bath and a calibration method of current using CPU were introduced. They satisfied needs. With producing R and D apparatus of switching source, problems of ripple, stability and noise were solved, so that we began mass production. In this paper, many kinds of R and D and performance and troubles after operation of KEKB power source are described. A plan of design of power supply consisted of seven items such as high accuracy, serial communication of interface, small type, high affectivity, easy maintenance, independence of current setting and current detector for monitor and control of radiation and conduction noise of switching power supply. These items were satisfied by development of interface board of ARCNET communication, introduction of double buffer method for interface through CPU, power supply unit by air-cooled method using a switching method and small thermostatic oven for bending and quadrupole electromagnet. R and D of DCCT, burden and shunt resistance, DAC, thermostatic bath, power supply, offset and gain calibration by double buffer method, specification of power supply, various kinds of measurements of mass production apparatus at rising, after long operation and problems before and after operation are reported. The results of R and D made satisfy the specification of stability and ripple of power supply. Although many switching power supply were operated, there was no noise and troubles at the initial period decreased. However, in order to use many power supply, the performance measurement and maintenance are very important at long shut down. (S.Y.)

  1. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  2. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  3. Needed: a strategic approach to supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Jamie C

    2009-06-01

    When devising a supply chain strategic plan, consider these points: Frame the supply chain broadly to include all possible components and expenses. Recognize how each part of the supply chain affects other parts. Engage all parties and customers in strategic discussions. Educate all involved. Objectively assess the current state. Visualize an unencumbered future state. Quantify quality, productivity, and financial goals.

  4. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

    2008-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr(VI

  5. Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N

    2008-12-15

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr(VI

  6. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  7. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  8. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will need: Diapers: (8 to 10 per day). Baby wipes: Unscented, alcohol free. You may want to start with a small supply because some babies are sensitive to them. Vaseline (petroleum jelly): Good ...

  9. Radioisotope Power Supply Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  10. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...... Maritime report “Offshore Supply Chain Dynamics – The main drivers in the energy sector and the value chain characteristics for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind”, which constitutes the first part of mapping project D. It offers insights into the main drivers in the energy sector (macro level...

  11. Farvel til globaliseringen som vi kendte den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Vi er endt med en krise, som rækker langt ud over det globale monetære system, fordi den ideologiske ortodoksi, der skabte den, har ført til udflytning af millioner af arbejdspladser, tæring af nationalstaternes sammenhængskraft og overgreb på naturen. Kronikken refererer bl.a. til John Maynard...... Keynes og en artikel af økonomen Robert Skidelsky i The American Prospect. Udgivelsesdato: 12. januar 2009...

  12. "LICENS ER NOGET VI GIVER TIL HINANDEN"

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Nana Lysbo; Birksholm, Sarah Schlander; Rosendahl, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Nadja Loran

    2013-01-01

    This study consists of a rhetorical analysis of how the Danish Broadcasting Corporation argues for the compulsory license fee in their campaign video: ’Licens er noget vi giver til hinanden’. On the assumption that a visual product can argue on equal terms with the spoken language, the paper will look at the specific visual tools that are used in the argumentation and the portrayal of the concept of public service and the license fee. In extension to this the paper will examine if the vid...

  13. Solar mobile power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Libian

    2014-01-01

    The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as well as other important components. Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly improve the function of the power system.

  14. Oral–Facial–Digital Syndrome type VI with self mutilations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 2.5 year old female, 2nd in order of birth of 1st cousin consanguineous marriage, with the typical features of Oral–Facial–Digital Syndrome type VI (OFDS VI including midline pseudo cleft upper lip, sublingual nodule, molar tooth sign by MRI brain, bilateral mesoaxial polydactyly (hexadactyly, and developmental delay. The patient had self mutilations which was not reported before in OFDS VI except once.

  15. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress and toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons at different stages of development and protective effect of Rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Abolfazl; Soodi, Maliheh; Amani, Nahid

    2016-03-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a widespread metal ion in the workplace, industrial effluent, and water. The toxicity of chromium (VI) on various organs including the liver, kidneys, and lung were studied, but little is known about neurotoxicity. In this study, neurotoxic effects of Cr (VI) have been investigated by cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Immature and mature neurons were exposed to different concentrations of potassium dichromate for 24 h and cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. In addition, immature neurons were exposed for 5 days as regards cytotoxic effect in development stages. The reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the protective effect of Rosmarinic acid on mature and immature neurons exposed to potassium dichromate, were measured. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and acetylcholinesterase activity in mature neurons were assessed following exposure to potassium dichromate. The results indicate that toxicity of Cr (VI) dependent on maturation steps. Cr (VI) was less toxic for immature neurons. Also, Cr (VI) induced MMP reduction and ROS production in both immature and mature neurons. In Cr (VI) treated neurons, increased lipid peroxidation and GPx activity but not acetylcholinesterase activity was observed. Interestingly, Rosmarinic acid, as a natural antioxidant, could protect mature but not immature neurons against Cr (VI) induced toxicity. Our findings revealed vulnerability of mature neurons to Cr (VI) induced toxicity and oxidative stress. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  18. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  19. Environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, May-Helen; Cochrane, Sabine; Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    There has been an environmental investigation in Region VI Halten Bank. This report presents the results of the chemical and biological assays performed on samples from a total of 316 stations in 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (AG)

  20. Environmental Survey in Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Summary report; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    An environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, has been carried out. This report presents the results from the analyses carried out on samples from a total of 316 stations at 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of the environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (Author)

  1. Fremtidens lavenergibyggeri - kan vi gøre som vi plejer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen

    2011-01-01

    Stramninger af kravene til energiforbruget i vores boliger medfører stor fokus på energiberegningen, men erfaringer fra lavenergiboliger opført i dag viser, at vi, for at sikre succes for fremtidens boliger, også skal inddrage dokumentation af indeklimaet og forbedre samarbejdet mellem arkitekter...

  2. Impact of carbohydrate supply on stem growth, wood and respired CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C : assessment by experimental girdling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury-Danger, F. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Paul Verlaine-Metz Univ., Metz (France). Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes; Fresneau, C.; Eglin, T.; Berveiller, D.; Francois, C.; Damesin, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Lelarge-Trouverie, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Inst. de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome

    2010-07-15

    In trees, carbohydrate storage and remobilization may affect the carbon isotope signals of sugars exported from leaves, tree organic matter and respired carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study characterized the impact of a change in the carbon (C) source used for stem functioning on the {delta}{sup 13} C of stem organic matter and respired CO{sub 2}. Girdling experiments were carried out on 2-year old oaks that consisted in removing the bark and phloem around the stem so that the sap would cease to flow. The stem was therefore forced to use its own C reserves to maintain metabolic activity. Trees were girdled at 3 different periods, notably just after budburst, during stem growth, and just after cessation of stem radial growth. Stem radial growth and respiration rate were measured throughout the year. Other measured variables included {delta}{sup 13} C of respired CO{sub 2} and contents of starch and water-soluble fraction in stems and leaves. The study showed that girdling stopped growth, even early in the growing season, leading to a decrease in stem CO{sub 2} efflux. The study demonstrated that leaf carbohydrate supply versus reserve use could be an important factor controlling stem growth and {delta}{sup 13} C of both ring and stem CO{sub 2} efflux. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Operating Strategy for Local-Area Energy Systems Integration Considering Uncertainty of Supply-Side and Demand-Side under Conditional Value-At-Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the energy usage efficiency of terminals, energy systems integration (ESI has become an important paradigm in the energy structure evolution. Power, gas and heat systems are becoming tightly interlinked with each other in ESI. The dispatching strategy of local-area ESI has significant impact on its operation. In this paper, a local-area ESI operational scheduling model based on conditional value-at-risk (CVaR is proposed to minimize expected operational cost, which considers the uncertainty of energy supply-side and demand-side as well as multi-energy network constraints, including electrical network, thermal network and gas network. The risk cost is analyzed comprehensively under the condition of under- or overestimated cost. On this basis, a hybrid method combining particle swarm optimization with interior point algorithm is executed to compute the optimal solutions of two-stage multi-period mixed-integer convex model. Finally, a case study is performed on ESI to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. GeoViQua: quality-aware geospatial data discovery and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, L.; Papeschi, F.; Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    GeoViQua (QUAlity aware VIsualization for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems) is a recently started FP7 project aiming at complementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) with rigorous data quality specifications and quality-aware capabilities, in order to improve reliability in scientific studies and policy decision-making. GeoViQua main scientific and technical objective is to enhance the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) providing the user community with innovative quality-aware search and evaluation tools, which will be integrated in the GEO-Portal, as well as made available to other end-user interfaces. To this end, GeoViQua will promote the extension of the current standard metadata for geographic information with accurate and expressive quality indicators, also contributing to the definition of a quality label (GEOLabel). GeoViQua proposed solutions will be assessed in several pilot case studies covering the whole Earth Observation chain, from remote sensing acquisition to data processing, to applications in the main GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas. This work presents the preliminary results of GeoViQua Work Package 4 "Enhanced geo-search tools" (WP4), started in January 2012. Its major anticipated technical innovations are search and evaluation tools that communicate and exploit data quality information from the GCI. In particular, GeoViQua will investigate a graphical search interface featuring a coherent and meaningful aggregation of statistics and metadata summaries (e.g. in the form of tables, charts), thus enabling end users to leverage quality constraints for data discovery and evaluation. Preparatory work on WP4 requirements indicated that users need the "best" data for their purpose, implying a high degree of subjectivity in judgment. This suggests that the GeoViQua system should exploit a combination of provider-generated metadata (objective indicators such as summary statistics), system-generated metadata (contextual

  5. Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress. Vi vil nemlig nå det hele og presser konstant nye aftaler ind i vores kalender. Det eneste, der hjælper, er at ’gøre intet’ – men kan man overhovedet det? Udgivelsesdato: 30.09.09......Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress. Vi vil nemlig nå det hele og presser konstant nye aftaler ind i vores kalender. Det eneste, der hjælper, er at ’gøre intet’ – men kan man overhovedet det? Udgivelsesdato: 30.09.09...

  6. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  7. Remediation of Cr(VI) in solution using vitamin C*

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Yong; Xu, Xin-hua; He, Ping

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of vitamin C in treating Cr(VI)-contaminated water is being evaluated. Cr(VI) is an identified pollutant of some soils and groundwater. Vitamin C, an important biological reductant in humans and animals, can be used to transform Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). The removal efficiency was 89% when the mass concentration of vitamin C was 80 mg/L in 60 min, and nearly 100% Cr(VI) was removed when the mass concentration was 100 mg/L. Our data demonstrated that the removal...

  8. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type VI collagen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cintron, C; Hong, BS

    1988-01-01

    .... These physical characteristics, together with the susceptibility of these polypeptides to collagenase and their amino acid composition, identified the high molecular weight aggregate as type VI collagen...

  9. Wood fiber supply and demand in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Peter J. Ince; Richard W. Haynes

    1998-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service is preparing a national assessment of supply and demand for wood fiber resources in the United States. Based in part on preliminary results of this assessment and partly on our 1993 Assessment, this paper outlines trends and gives an outlook for demand and trade for timber and fiber products, changes in technology, and wood fiber resource supply...

  10. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  11. Supply chain planning with sustainability considerations: an integrative framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Akkerman, Renzo; Birkved, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a modelling framework for combining supply chain planning and sustainability assessment, illustrating how sustainability assessments of logistic activities can be improved by supply chain planning input, and supply chain planning can in turn make use of the results from...... sustainability assessments. We use mathematical programming for the supply chain planning and life cycle assessment for the modelling and quantification of the environmental impacts. We illustrate the benefits of our integrated framework for a case of production, distribution and storage of food products...... produced on industrial scale, studying several important planning decisions like temperature treatments and choice of packaging materials....

  12. [The study of medical supplies automation replenishment algorithm in hospital on medical supplies supplying chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xi

    2012-07-01

    The thesis aims to study the automation replenishment algorithm in hospital on medical supplies supplying chain. The mathematical model and algorithm of medical supplies automation replenishment are designed through referring to practical data form hospital on the basis of applying inventory theory, greedy algorithm and partition algorithm. The automation replenishment algorithm is proved to realize automatic calculation of the medical supplies distribution amount and optimize medical supplies distribution scheme. A conclusion could be arrived that the model and algorithm of inventory theory, if applied in medical supplies circulation field, could provide theoretical and technological support for realizing medical supplies automation replenishment of hospital on medical supplies supplying chain.

  13. Assessment of the blood supply using the indocyanine green fluorescence method and postoperative endoscopic evaluation of anastomosis of the gastric tube during esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Iwabu, Jun; Fujisawa, Kazune; Uemura, Sunao; Tsuda, Sachi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-15

    Postoperative anastomotic leakage is a severe complication after gastric tube reconstruction during esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of postoperative endoscopic assessment of anastomosis and its correlation with intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence assessment of the gastric tube. We retrospectively reviewed 72 consecutive patients who underwent gastric tube reconstruction using the ICG fluorescence method during esophagectomy. Forty-six patients underwent the ICG line-marking method (LMM group; ICG before gastric tube creation). The other 26 underwent the conventional procedure and comprised the control group (ICG after gastric tube creation). Postoperative endoscopic assessment (PEA) of anastomosis was performed 7 days after surgery and results were classified as follows: grade 1 (normal or partial white coat), grade 2 (ulcer comprising less than half the circumference), and grade 3 (ulcer comprising more than half the circumference). Anastomotic leakage occurred in 7 of 72 patients (9.7%). The incidence of anastomotic leakage in the LMM group was tended to be lower than those in the control group (6.5% vs. 15.4%; P = 0.244). Of the 40 patients who underwent PEA, 3 (7.5%) had leakage. PEA grading was significantly associated with anastomotic leakage (P assessment was significantly associated with better endoscopic assessment grade (P = 0.041). Intraoperative ICG assessment of the gastric tube was associated with PEA grading on anastomosis during esophagectomy.

  14. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  15. Late Neanderthals at Jarama VI (central Iberia)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Martin; Burow, Christoph; Hilgers, Alexandra; Navazo, Marta; Pastoors, Andreas; Weniger, Gerd-Christian; Wood, Rachel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.

    2013-09-01

    Previous geochronological and archaeological studies on the rock shelter Jarama VI suggested a late survival of Neanderthals in central Iberia and the presence of lithic assemblages of Early Upper Paleolithic affinity. New data on granulometry, mineralogical composition, geochemical fingerprints and micromorphology of the sequence corroborate the previous notion that the archaeological units JVI.2.1 to JVI.2.3 are slackwater deposits of superfloods, which did not experience significant post-depositional changes, whereas the artifact-rich units JVI.3 and JVI.1 mainly received sediment inputs by sheetwash and cave spall. New AMS radiocarbon measurements on three samples of cut-marked bone using the ultrafiltration technique yielded ages close to, or beyond, the limit of radiocarbon dating at ca. 50 14C ka BP, and hence suggest much higher antiquity than assumed previously. Furthermore, elevated temperature post-IR IRSL luminescence measurements on K feldspars yielded burial ages for subunits JVI.2.2 and JVI.2.3 between 50 and 60 ka. Finally, our reappraisal of the stone industry strongly suggests that the whole sequence is of Mousterian affinity. In conclusion, Jarama VI most probably does not document a late survival of Neanderthals nor an Early Upper Paleolithic occupation in central Iberia, but rather indicates an occupation breakdown after the Middle Paleolithic.

  16. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, S; Nasiri, M; Mesbahi, A; Khani, M H

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Interaction of monosaccharides and related compounds with oxocations of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) studied by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Castro, M.M.C.A.; Saraiva, M.E.; Aureliano, M.; Dias, B.A.

    1988-05-01

    Proton, /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the complexation of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) oxocations with various aldoses, cyclic polyols and ribose-5-phosphate in aqueous solution. The aldoses D-mannose, D-lyxose and D-ribose form tridentate complexes with Mo(VI) and W(VI) at pH similarly ordered 5, via the 1,2,3-hydroxyl groups, which are cis to each other in these sugars. Other aldoses, like D-arabinose, D-glucose, D-xylose and D-galactose form weaker bidentate complexes with those ions because they can only use the 1 and 3-cis hydroxyl groups in metal binding. These bidentate interactions also take place in the binding of U(VI) to D-mannose and D-ribose, at pH similarly ordered 10. However, sugars having 1,3,5-hydroxyl groups in the cis position do not form stable chelates with these oxocations, possibly due to steric crowding. In the case of ribose-5-phosphate, the phosphate group is the exclusive binding site for the three oxocations, except for U(VI) at very basic pH (pH > 10), where the hydroxyl groups also interact with UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/.

  18. A comparison of sampling sites, digesta and microbial markers, and microbial references for assessing the postruminal supply of nutrients in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipharraguerre, I R; Reynal, S M; Liñeiro, M; Broderick, G A; Clark, J H

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of some methodological factors on the flows of nutrients at the omasal canal and duodenum of dairy cows fed corn-based diets. Three ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows were assigned to an incomplete 4 x 4 Latin square with four 14-d periods and fed diets formulated to contain different amounts and ruminal degradabilities of crude protein. Samples from the omasal canal and duodenum were obtained and processed according to methodologies routinely used in our laboratories and elsewhere. Methodological factors that were evaluated included microbial references and markers, digesta markers, and sampling sites (techniques). Considerable variation was found for the compositions of microbial references and their impact on the intestinal supply of microbial nonammonia nitrogen. Likewise, it appears that variation in measuring the ruminal outflow of nitrogen fractions of microbial and dietary origin could be reduced by using 15N rather than purines as microbial markers. Sampling from the omasum and duodenum resulted in differences for ruminal outflow and site of digestion as well as digestibility of some nutrients, particularly nitrogen fractions and starch. A sizable portion of this variation was associated with deviations from the assumed ideal behavior of digesta markers and collection of samples that were unrepresentative of true digesta. Collectively, outcomes from this study indicate that more research will be required to determine the accuracy of nutrient flows and the agreement between measurements at the omasal canal and duodenum when dairy cows are fed a variety of diets under different feeding systems. Therefore, caution is recommended when extrapolating or interpreting the underlying biology of published results as well as the results of their application (e.g., model parameters and predictions).

  19. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the production of greenhouse fruiting-cuttings and in vitro organ culture techniques. 13C and 15N labelling experiments showed that this system enables the intact detached berries actively to absorb and utilize carbon and nitrogen from the culture medium. It was further used to study the effects of sugars on anthocyanin accumulation. A sucrose concentration >2% could induce anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of additional exogenous abscisic acid. The higher the sucrose concentration, the earlier was the induction of anthocyanin accumulation. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose increased anthocyanin accumulation, with glucose and fructose being more effective than sucrose. This increase was not due to an increase in its precursor level, since the phenylalanine content was decreased by a high sugar supply. Instead, genome-wide transcriptome analysis suggests that the sugar-induced enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation results from altered expression of regulatory and structural genes (especially UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase), together with massive reprogramming in signalling transduction pathways. This in vitro system may serve to study the response of berry composition to nutrient factors and hormones, and their interaction with environmental factors (e.g. light and temperature), which can all be finely tuned and controlled. PMID:24477640

  20. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Celina; Gibani, Malick M; Moore, Maria; Juel, Helene B; Jones, Elizabeth; Meiring, James; Harris, Victoria; Gardner, Jonathan; Nebykova, Anna; Kerridge, Simon A; Hill, Jennifer; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Blohmke, Christoph J; Yu, Ly-Mee; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-12-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi. In this single-centre, randomised controlled, phase 2b study, using an established outpatient-based human typhoid infection model, we recruited healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 60 years, with no previous history of typhoid vaccination, infection, or prolonged residency in a typhoid-endemic region. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-conjugate (Vi-TT), Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), or control meningococcal vaccine with a computer-generated randomisation schedule (block size 6). Investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocation, and an unmasked team of nurses administered the vaccines. Following oral ingestion of S Typhi, participants were assessed with daily blood culture over a 2-week period and diagnosed with typhoid infection when meeting pre-defined criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants diagnosed with typhoid infection (ie, attack rate), defined as persistent fever of 38°C or higher for 12 h or longer or S Typhi bacteraemia, following oral challenge administered 1 month after Vi-vaccination (Vi-TT or Vi-PS) compared with control vaccination. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324751, and is ongoing. Between Aug 18, 2015, and Nov 4, 2016, 112 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 34 to the control group, 37 to the Vi-PS group, and 41 to the Vi-TT group. 103 participants

  3. Perioperative supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  4. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  5. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  6. Squaring the circle of healthcare supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Tillmann; Williams, Sharon; Childerhouse, Paul; Deakins, Eric; Towill, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use a systems lens to assess the comparative performance of healthcare supply chains and provide guidance for their improvement. A well-established and rigorous multi-method audit methodology, based on the uncertainty circle model, yields an objective assessment of value stream performance in eight Australasian public sector hospitals. Cause-effect analysis identifies the major barriers to achieving smooth, seamless flows. Potentially high-leverage remedial actions identified using systems thinking are examined with the aid of an exemplar case. The majority of the healthcare value streams studied are underperforming compared with those in the European automotive industry. Every public hospital appears to be caught in the grip of vicious circles of system uncertainty, in large part being caused by problems of their own making. The single exception is making good progress towards seamless functional integration, which has been achieved by elevating supply chain management to a core competence; having a clearly articulated supply chain vision; adopting a systems approach; and, managing supplies with accurate information. The small number of cases limits the generalisability of the findings at this time. Hospital supply chain managers endeavouring to achieve smooth and seamless supply flows should attempt to elevate the status of supplies management within their organisation to that of a core competence, and should use accurate information to manage their value streams holistically as a set of interwoven processes. A four-level prism model is proposed as a useful framework for thus improving healthcare supply delivery systems. Material flow concepts originally developed to provide objective assessments of value stream performance in commercial settings are adapted for use in a healthcare setting. The ability to identify exemplar organisations via a context-free uncertainty measure, and to use systems thinking to identify high

  7. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../ecological features (such as floodplain, wetlands, coastal zones, wildlife refuges, and endangered species); (ii) Air quality; (iii) Sound levels; (iv) Water supply, wastewater treatment and water runoff; (v) Energy requirements and conservation; (vi) Solid waste; (vii) Transportation; (viii) Community facilities...

  8. Hvad skal vi med skønlitteraturen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Oksbjerg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    didaktiske læremidler, der produceres i disse år, lægges der ikke op til en udnyttelse af skønlitteraturens potentiale for at danne eleverne til demokratiske borgere. I denne artikel beskriver vi, hvad der er galt med læremidlerne. Desuden skitserer vi kriterier for formulering af elevopgaver, der lægger op...

  9. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the removal of chromium (VI) from highly saline coastal water used for aquacultural practices using brackish water. Five different products prepared from bagasse were evaluated for the detoxification of Cr(VI) ...

  10. Biosorption of chromium(VI) using immobilized Bacillius subtilis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the batch removal of Cr (VI) from environment water bodies becomes necessary. Its removal from aqueous solution using immobilized Bacillus subtilis (IBBS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IPBS), mixed biomass (IMBS) and Alginate alone (IABS) was carried out. The conditions of influence of initial Cr (VI) ...

  11. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the treatment of the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings has been investigated in terms of contact time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. Homogenizing 1 g of the activated carbon with 100 ml of the flocculation ...

  12. Moderate selenium dosing inhibited chromium (VI) toxicity in chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Yongxia; Wan, Huiyu; Zhu, Yiran; Chen, Peng; Hao, Pan; Cheng, Ziqiang; Liu, Jianzhu

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of selenium (Se) on chromium (VI) [Cr(VI)]-induced damage in chicken liver. A total of 105 chickens were randomly divided into seven groups of 15. Group I received deionized water; group II received Cr(VI) (7.83 mg/kg/d) alone; and other groups orally received both Cr(VI) (7.83 mg/kg/d) and Se of different doses (0.14, 0.29, 0.57, 1.14, and 2.28 mg/kg/d). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), Ca2+ -ATPase, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured. Results showed that Cr(VI) increased MDA content and decreased GSH content, T-SOD activity, Ca2+ -ATPase activity, and MMP level. Meanwhile, Se co-treatment (0.14, 0.29, and 0.57 mg/kg/d) increased the viability of the above indicators compared with Cr(VI)-treatment alone. In addition, histopathologic examination revealed that Cr(VI) can cause liver damage, whereas Se supplementation of moderate dose inhibited this damage. This study confirmed that Se exerted protective effect against Cr(VI)-induced liver damage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Kandinsky's "Composition VI": Heideggerian Poetry in Noah's Ark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    The author will begin his investigation of Wassily Kandinsky's painting "Composition VI" with Kandinsky's own commentary on the painting. He will then turn to the analysis of Kandinsky and the "Compositions" in John Sallis's book "Shades." Using this analysis as his point of departure, the author will consider how "Composition VI" resonates with…

  14. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  15. Developing a model for agile supply: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API.

  16. Developing a Model for Agile Supply: an Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  17. From green buildings to green supply chains:an integrated input-output life cycle assessment and optimization framework for carbon footprint reduction policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdul Ghani, N. Muhammad Aslaam; Eğilmez, Gökhan; Küçükvar, Murat; S. Bhutta, M. Khurrum

    2017-01-01

    Purpose–ThepurposeofthispaperistofocusontracingGHGemissionsacrossthesupplychainindustries associated with the US residential, commercial and industrial building stock and provides optimized GHG reduction policy plans for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach – A two-step hierarchical approach is developed. First, Economic Input-Output-based Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) is utilized to quantify the GHG emissions associated with the US residential, commercial and industrial bui...

  18. Assessing Green and Blue Water Footprints in the Supply Chain of Cocoa Production: A Case Study in the Northeast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Naranjo-Merino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is an important commercial crop in the tropics, and estimating the water footprint to target areas of improvement is a worthwhile effort. The main goal of this paper was to assess the regional green and blue water footprints (WF of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. production in the department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Water footprint assessment was based on the Water Footprint Assessment Manual. The results show that the green water footprint was about 13,189 m3/ton, and the blue water footprint was 5687 m3/ton. The WF proposed method can be a good approximation for the uses of water for different crops, but weather conditions and hydrological modeling must be considered in extreme conditions, which would permit a much more detailed analysis for a region. This study allowed us to provide data on the cocoa water footprint, principally concentrating on elevated grain production in the department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. In addition, some of these results may positively contribute to water resource management improvement, especially regarding food security and water scarcity, both at the local and national levels. Therefore, the cocoa production process was analyzed from agronomic practices in settled crops, through the primary processing of the grain, to the procedures of grain selection and packaging. Thus, taking into consideration that most cocoa crops produced in Colombia are not irrigated, it is possible to implement productivity enhancement programs.

  19. Museo del oro: viñetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Field

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2011 convocamos a un grupo internacional de académicos/activistas para discutir en Colombia las complejidades de la relación entre arqueología, excavaciones “ilícitas”, museos y comunidades indígenas desde una mirada comparativa. El taller de tres días tuvo lugar en Bogotá y Villa de Leyva. Uno de los eventos programados durante los dos días de la parte bogotana del taller fue una visita al Museo del Oro. En el restaurante del museo conversamos sobre lo que acabábamos de ver, sentir y pensar, y surgieron estas impresiones en las que el estupor convive con un fuerte deseo por decir algo. En Villa de Leyva nació la idea de que cada uno de nosotros transcribiera sus emociones en formato de viñeta.

  20. A Video Tour through ViSta 6.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriel Molina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a visual tour throughout ViSta 6.4, a freeware statistical program based on Lisp-Stat and focused on techniques for statistical visualization (Young 2004. This travel around ViSta is based on screen recordings that illustrate the main features of the program in action. The following aspects of ViSta 6.4 are displayed: the program's interface (ViSta's desktop, menubar and pop-up menus, help system; its data management capabilities (data input and editing, data transformations; features associated to data analysis (data description, statistical modeling; and the options for Lisp-Stat development in ViSta. The video recordings associated to this tour (.wmv files can be visualized at http://www.jstatsoft.org/v13/i08/ using the Internet Explorer navigator, or by clicking on the figures in the paper.

  1. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingsong, E-mail: xhwjs@163.co [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China) and Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hu Xinjiang [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie Shuibo [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Bao Zhenglei [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L{sup -1}. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  2. The ternary system U(VI) / humic acid / Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Claudia

    2013-07-23

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is discussed worldwide as the main strategy for nuclear waste management. To ensure the confinement of the nuclear waste, a multiple barrier system which consists of engineered, geo-engineered, and geological barriers will be applied. Thereby, in Germany the definition of the isolating rock zone represents an important safety function indicator. Clay rock is internationally investigated as potential host rock for a repository and represents a part of the geological barrier. In the present work, the natural clay rock Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri rock laboratory, Switzerland, was studied. In Germany, the direct disposal of the spent nuclear fuel without the reprocessing of the spent fuel is preferred. In case of water ingress, radionuclides can be released from the nuclear waste repository into its surroundings, namely the host rock of the repository. Humic acids, ubiquitous in nature, can be found associated with the inorganic components in natural clay rock (1.5 x 10{sup -3} wt.% in Opalinus Clay). They can be released under certain conditions. Due to their variety of functional groups, humic acids are very strong complexing agents for metal ions. They have inherent redox abilities and a colloidal conformation in solution. Because of these characteristics, humic acids can affect the mobility of metal ions such as actinides. Furthermore, in the near-field of a repository elevated temperatures have to be considered due to the heat production resulting from the radioactive decay of the various radionuclides in the nuclear waste. This work focuses on the interaction of uranium, as main component of spent nuclear fuel, with Opalinus Clay and studies the influence of humic acid and elevated temperature on this interaction. Thus, the collected sorption and diffusion data are not only relevant for safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories but also for any clay-containing system present in the environment

  3. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  4. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  5. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  6. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  7. ADSORPTION OF Cr(VI ON BLACK WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasti Januarita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of initial concentration of Cr(VI on adsorption to black water of Gambut, District of Banjar, South Borneo has been investigated, as well as interaction between Cr(VI species and functional black water organic fraction. The initial work was optimization of Cr(VI determination using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry with diphenylcarbacide as complexing agent and preparation of black water using mixture of 2% HCl and 5% HF with HCl-HF ratio of 1 : 1 (v/v. The quantity of Cr(VI species adsorbed on black water was calculated by determining the amount of Cr(VI species in solution before and after interaction. The functional groups in interaction between Cr(VI species and black water organic fraction was studied qualitatively using infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that optimum condition for Cr(VI species analysis using UV-Visible spectrophotometry with diphenylcarbacide as complexing agent was at wave length of 540 nm, pH 1,5, 15 - 60 minutes at which complex remain stable, and minimum mol ratio of diphenylcarbacide : Cr(VI 45 : 1, and has a sensitivity of 1.134 mg/L and detection limit of 0.00495 mg/L. The analysis was not affected by the presence of Cr(III in concentration less than 40 times of Cr(VI concentration. After treatment with HCl-HF the quantity of black water organic fraction showing humic acid properties decreased 0,1998 percent. Organic fraction of black water used adsorpted Cr(VIwith capacity of 4,050 mg/g.   Keywords: Adsorption, Cr(VI, Black Water

  8. Methodology for assessment of characteristics of PV water pumping systems using a DC power supply; Metodologia de levantamento de caracteristicas de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento d'agua utilizando fonte de alimentacao CC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro; Fraidenraich, Naum [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (FAE/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Fontes Alternativas de Energia. Dept. de Energia Nuclear], Emails: ocv@ufpe.br, nf@ufpe.br; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    This article describes a methodology which was used to reduce the time required to perform experimental assessment of characteristic curves (flowrate vs. solar irradiance) of PV water pumping systems showing different configurations. The characteristic curves are proposed to be obtained from two other types of curves: flowrate vs. DC power - measured using a DC power supply adjusted to simulate the operation of the PV panel in the system, and DC power vs. solar irradiance - obtained through outdoors measurements using PV panels. It is demonstrated how is possible to reduce the number of days of outdoor measurements necessary for obtaining these curves when the systems under test show configurations using the same pumping heights or the same PV panels. The flowrates, thus also the daily pumped volumes, calculated using the curves obtained through this methodology are considered the upper limits of system performance. (author)

  9. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  10. Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Die Produktionslogistik hat im Rahmen der Materialbeschaffung und der Belieferung von externen Kunden vielfältige Beziehungen zu Lieferanten und Kunden. Im Ansatz des Supply Chain Managements (Lieferkettenmanagement), kurz auch als SCM bezeichnet, versucht man, sowohl Lieferanten als auch Kunden in die gesamte Logistikplanung zu integrieren. SCM umfasst dabei vor allem folgende Aufgaben: Bedarfs- und Bestandsplanung der Materialien entlang der Lieferkette

  11. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  12. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  13. Rechargeable power supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Uijl, S.; Bouman, C.; Smit, W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable power supply suitable to be used in a battery-operated device comprising at least one supercapacitor and at least a first and a second DC-DC converter connected in series, wherein the supercapacitor is connectable to an entry of the first DC-DC converter and

  14. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  15. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  16. REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  17. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  18. Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S., E-mail: yolanda@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Lidén, Carola, E-mail: carola.liden@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Odnevall Wallinder, Inger, E-mail: ingero@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Released reducing/complexing leather-specific species can reduce released Cr(VI). • No co-released species enable the formation of Cr(VI) in solution. • The major Cr species released from leather in phosphate buffer was Cr(III) (>82%). • No Cr(VI) was released into artificial sweat. - Abstract: About 1–3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pH < 6.5) and phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5–8.0), measured by means of spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Co-released leather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB)

  19. Biosorption of Cr(VI) and As(V) at high concentrations by organic and inorganic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Rivas Pérez, Ivana; Paradelo Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias Estévez, Manuel; José Fernández Sanjurjo, María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez Delgado, Avelino

    2016-04-01

    The potential reutilization of several wastes as biosorbents for As(V) and Cr(VI) has been assessed in batch-type experiments. The materials studied were one inorganic: mussel shell, and three organic: pine bark, oak ash and hemp waste. Batch experiments were performed in order to determine the removal capacity of the wastes under conditions of high As(V) and Cr(VI) loads. For this, 3 g of each waste material were added with 30 mL NaNO3 0.01 M dissolutions containing 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mmol As(V) L-1 or Cr(VI) L-1, prepared from analytical grade Na2HAsO4 or K2Cr2O7. The resulting suspensions were shaken for 24 h, centrifuged and filtered. Once each batch experiment corresponding to the sorption trials ended, each individual sample was added with 30 mL of NaNO3 0.01 M to desorb As(V) or Cr(VI), shaken for 24 h, centrifuged and filtered as in the sorption trials. Oak ash showed high sorption (>76%) and low desorption (hemp waste (98%) with very low desorption (hemp waste and mussel shell, that presented very low Cr(VI) sorption (<10%). Sorption data for both elements were better described by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir model. The variable results obtained for the removal of the two anionic contaminants for a given sorbent suggest that different mechanisms govern removal from the solution in each case. In summary, oak ash would be an efficient sorbent material for As(V), but not for Cr(VI), while pine bark would be the best sorbent for Cr(VI) removal.

  20. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  1. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile; Evaluacion del impacto radiologico de la soldadura por arco con consumibles de rutilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-07-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  2. Analysis of Success Factors to Implement Sustainable Supply Chain Management Using Interpretive Structural Modeling Technique: A Real Case Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability draws increased supply chain management (SCM) attention. This article analyzes critical success to the assessment, evaluation, and attainment of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM...

  3. Oxidação de microcistinas-LR em águas pelo íon ferrato(VI Aqueous oxidation of microcystin-LR by ferrate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio João de Luca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxinas de cianobactérias têm se tornado um grave problema na produção segura de água para consumo humano e animal. Técnicas convencionais de tratamento falham em atingir padrões de potabilidade. O ferrato(VI de potássio, um composto oxidante e coagulante, mostra potencialidade no tratamento de águas contaminadas. Neste trabalho, são apresentados resultados da oxidação pelo ferrato(VI de uma toxina gerada por cianobactérias, a microcistina-LR. Ensaios de cinética de oxidação e de teste de jarros mostram um valor médio de 0,012 min-1 para a constante de taxa de reação de pseudoprimeira ordem, para concentrações de MC-LR de 100 a 200 µg.L-1 na água bruta. Dosagens de 1,6 a 5,0 mg.L-1 de ferrato(VI sugerem o atendimento ao padrão de potabilidade para microcistinas, mostrando que o oxidante poderá ser empregado como coadjuvante no tratamento de água.Algae toxins are becoming a severe problem in the water treatment industry, especially for human and animal consumption. Traditional treatment processes have failed in complying with water supply standards. Potassium ferrate(VI is a powerful oxidant, disinfectant and, also, a coagulant. In this paper, the results of microcystin-LR oxidation by ferrate(VI ion are presented. Kinetic and jar tests showed a average value of 0,012 min-1 for the pseudo first order reaction rate constant, for 100 and 200 µg.L-1 concentration of MC-LR. Ferrate(VI dosages between 1.6 and 5.0 mg.L-1 suggest that water supply standards for MC-LR can be reached, which means that the oxidant may be employed as coadjuvant in water treatment.

  4. Adenovirus protein-protein interactions: molecular parameters governing the binding of protein VI to hexon and the activation of the adenovirus 23K protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D A; Russell, W C

    1995-08-01

    A variety of recombinant proteins derived from protein pVI of human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) were analysed for their ability to bind Ad2 hexon in vitro. As pVI is also required for activation of the adenovirus-coded protease, the same pVI derivatives were assessed for their ability to activate recombinant adenovirus-coded 23K protease. Two regions, between amino acid residues 48-74 and 233-239 of pVI, were required for the interaction with hexon. These regions are highly conserved amongst mastadenovirus pVI proteins. Both these regions are capable on their own of binding hexon weakly but must be provided in cis for strong hexon binding. In addition, we found evidence to indicate than conformation as well as sequence was important for good hexon binding in our assays. Authentic processing of the appropriate recombinant pVI derivatives, by the recombinant protease, was obtained without the addition of other cofactors. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of pVI in triggering the adenovirus maturation pathway.

  5. Assessment of duration of the drive operation in the mode of kinetic energy recovery under power supply voltage sags in electrical grids of mechanical engineering enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, O. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Voltage sags in electric grids of mechanical engineering enterprises may lead to disconnection of important power consumers with variable frequency drives from the power grid and further interruption of the production process. The paper considers a sensorless V/f control system of еру induction motor drive under normal conditions and under voltage sags on the basis of a computer model of the drive and derivation of a formula for assessment of possible duration of the drive operation in the mode of controlled recovery of kinetic energy accumulated in rotating mass of the drive. Results of simulations have been used to validate results of calculations of the rotor velocity deceleration made in a closed form obtained from the equation reflecting the balance of torques. It is shown that results of calculations practically coincide with results of simulations in the range up to 5% of the velocity initial value. The proposed formula may be useful for estimation of the duration of the drive operation in the mode of recovery of kinetic energy depending on parameters of the motor and driven mechanisms.

  6. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  7. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  8. Streamlining the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  9. Developing Chiefs of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Appendix E. Demographic Data for Total Population ......... . 152 r Appendix F: Correlation Matrix of Importance Versus Capability Utilizing the Ten Most...Section III, Part I and Questions 1 thru 24, Section III, Part 1I were use, to measure these responses. A correlation matrix was calculated plotting...concept of project teask ng, ols, end performance expectetions _. 56 NEGOTIl’, The extent to which# Chief of Supply rawly " conflict with eo6le outside

  10. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  11. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  12. Polyurethane-Keratin Membranes: Structural Changes by Isocyanate and pH, and the Repercussion on Cr(VI Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Manrique-Juárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin has the capacity to interact with metal ions. In order to take advantage of this potential, a novel membrane with polyurethane and keratin has been developed and studied for removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solution. Physicochemical and morphological properties of these hybrid membranes were studied, varying synthesis parameters such as the type of isocyanate and pH in keratin solution. The effects of using diphenyl-methane-diisocyanate or toluene-diisocyanate and modifying the pH in keratin solutions were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamical mechanical analysis. Results show that pH has a strong influence on morphology and on Cr(VI removal efficiency. When pH in keratin solution is low (2.5, the protein separates from water, and a more closed cell in the membrane is obtained affecting its mechanical properties. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI was also assessed at different pH values of chromium solutions. These results show that when pH of the Cr solution is acidic (at 1.5, the Cr(VI removal percentages increase significantly, reaching up to a 58%. Thus this paper demonstrates the successful combination of synthetic and natural polymers depending on the process parameters to be applied in the critical purpose of remediation of Cr(VI contamination.

  13. Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI]: a health survey and clinical examination of community inhabitants (Kanpur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We assessed the health effects of hexavalent chromium groundwater contamination (from tanneries and chrome sulfate manufacturing in Kanpur, India. METHODS: The health status of residents living in areas with high Cr (VI groundwater contamination (N = 186 were compared to residents with similar social and demographic features living in communities having no elevated Cr (VI levels (N = 230. Subjects were recruited at health camps in both the areas. Health status was evaluated with health questionnaires, spirometry and blood hematology measures. Cr (VI was measured in groundwater samples by diphenylcarbazide reagent method. RESULTS: Residents from communities with known Cr (VI contamination had more self-reports of digestive and dermatological disorders and hematological abnormalities. GI distress was reported in 39.2% vs. 17.2% males (AOR = 3.1 and 39.3% vs. 21% females (AOR = 2.44; skin abnormalities in 24.5% vs. 9.2% males (AOR = 3.48 and 25% vs. 4.9% females (AOR = 6.57. Residents from affected communities had greater RBCs (among 30.7% males and 46.1% females, lower MCVs (among 62.8% males and less platelets (among 68% males and 72% females than matched controls. There were no differences in leucocytes count and spirometry parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Living in communities with Cr (VI groundwater is associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints and abnormal hematological function. Limitations of this study include small sample size and the lack of long term follow-up.

  14. Chromium released from leather - I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test. © 2015 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Chromium released from leather – I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1–3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. Objectives The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Material and methods Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Results Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Conclusions Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test. PMID:25653094

  16. Factors influencing U(VI adsorption onto soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil at disposal sites are very important for geological disposal of very low level radioactive waste in terms of U(VI. In this study, soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China was evaluated for its capacity on uranium sorption. Specifically, the equilibrium time, initial concentration, soil particle, pH, temperature, and carbonate were evaluated. The results indicated that after 15-20 days of sorption, the Kd value fluctuated and stabilized at 355-360 mL/g. The adsorptive capacity of uranium was increased as the initial uranium concentration increased, while it decreased as the soil particle size increased. The pH value played an important role in the U(VI sorption onto soil, especially under alkaline conditions, and had a great effect on the sorption capacity of soil for uranium. Moreover, the presence of carbonate decreased the sorption of U(VI onto soil because of the role of the strong complexation of carbonate with U(VI in the groundwater. Overall, this study assessed the behavior of U(VI sorption onto natural soil, which would be an important factor in the geological barrier of the repository, has contribution on mastering the characteristic of the adsorption of uranium in the particular soil media for the process of very low level radioactive waste disposal.

  17. Migration of uranium(IV)/(VI) in the presence of humic acids in quartz sand: a laboratory column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibus, Jens; Sachs, Susanne; Pfingsten, Wilfried; Nebelung, Cordula; Bernhard, Gert

    2007-01-30

    The migration behavior of U(IV) and U(VI) in the presence of humic acid was studied in a quartz sand system. Laboratory column experiments were performed using humic acid, U(VI) in humic acid absence, U(IV) and U(VI) in humic acid presence, and for comparison a conservative tracer. In experiments using humic acid, both redox species of U migrate nearly as fast as the conservative tracer. Humic acid accelerates the U(VI) breakthrough compared to the humic acid-free system. There are strong indications for a similar effect on the U(IV) transport. At the same time, a part of U(IV) and U(VI) associated with the humic acid is immobilized in the quartz sand due to humic colloid filtration thus producing a delaying effect. Tailing at a low concentration level was observed upon tracer elution. The experimental breakthrough curves were described by reactive transport modeling using equations for equilibrium and kinetic reactions. The present study demonstrates that humic acids can play an important role in the migration of actinides. As natural organic matter is ubiquitous in aquifer systems, the humic colloid-borne transport of actinides is of high relevance in performance assessment.

  18. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  19. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  20. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    .e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....